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CORROSION IN OIL FILED : INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS
CORROSION CAUSES WELL TREATMENT INFLUENCED WATER CARRY OVER UNDERDOSING DEMULSIFIER INJECTION PUMP with LOW CAPACITY UNDERDOSING CORROSION INHIBITOR WATER SETTLE OUT .
000psi – Increase partial pressure of dissolved gases Flowrate & flow regime – High-flow: erosion and corrosion-erosion. – Low-flow or stagnant conditions promote bacteria 5 • • .Typical E&P process conditions • Temperature – Typical E&P process temperatures range from -100ºC to >200ºC – Corrosion rates increase with temperature Pressure – Pressure: up to 10.
no corrosion’ 6 .Internal corrosion Hydrocarbon phase • Not normally corrosive at temperatures experienced in production systems • Corrosivity depends on extent and distribution of the aqueous and hydrocarbon phases. – ‘no water. H2S and O2 are the most aggressive species • Chlorides increase corrosion • Generally. Aqueous phase • Responsible for corrosion • Corrosion exacerbated by acid gases & organic acids • CO2.
Internal (process-side) damage mechanisms • • • • • • • • • • H 2S CO2 Solids & velocity effects Chlorides – pitting. stress corrosion cracking Oxygen (crevice / under deposit / differential aeration) Galvanic corrosion Preferential weld corrosion (PWC) Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) Chemicals 7 .
TYPICAL REACTIONS .
Dissolved gas . ppm There is no species more corrosive on a concentration basis than oxygen! 9 .effect on corrosion Corroded seawater injection Corrosion Rate of Carbon Steel 25 20 15 10 5 0 O2 0S H 2 0 CO 2 O2 CO2 H2S 0 0 100 50 1 1200 2 3003 100 150 2 3 4 4 400 200 5 5 500 250 6 600 7700 8 800 300 350 400 6 7 8 Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water Phase.
H2S CORROSION 10 .
H2S corrosion – metal loss – Formation of a thin protective FeS surface film often means general corrosion rates are low on steels – Main risk is localised pitting corrosion where film is damaged – Pitting will be galvanically driven 11 .
H2S helps form protective FeS film – Main risk is localised pitting corrosion which can be rapid • H2S also poisons combination of atomic hydrogen into molecular hydrogen Atomic H+ + e.Wet H2S corrosion • H2S is soluble in water – Produces a weak acid and lowers the pH H2S H+ + SH– At low concentrations. H hydrogen H + H H2 X dangerous to steels!! 12 .
Cracking in sour service H2 H H+ 2+ Fe 2S FeS Film Metal Matrix H Applied Stress Higher Strength Steels YS > 500 MPa No Applied Stress Low Strength Steels YS < 550 MPa H2 H H HH H H2 13 .
Sulphide stress cracking (SSC) Key parameters: • pH and pH2S – Domain diagrams for carbon steel • Material hardness – High strength steels and areas of high hardness susceptible. higher for CRAs (570°C).g. residual welding HAZ WELD HAZ Hardness readings 14 . • Temperature – Maximum susceptibility at low temperatures for carbon steels (15-25°C). • Stress – Cracking promoted by high stress levels e.
pH2S • Nickel-base alloys such as 625 and 825 have high resistance • Testing: NACE TM0177 15 . chlorides. pH.Protection against SSC • • Avoid wetness Minimise hardness – Guidance on limits in ISO 15156 • Optimise microstructure and minimise residual stresses Upgrade to CRAs • Martensitic and duplex stainless steels have limited resistance • H2S limits for duplex and super-duplex steels are complex – Function of temperature.
05psia Max hardness (parent metal.ISO 15156 SSC zones for carbon steel Service Domain 0.0034bar a 0. weld metal) No requirements 300HV 280HV 250HV root 275HV cap 0 1 2 3 16 . HAZ.
SSC limits for selected CRAs Alloy 13% Cr martensitic 22% Cr duplex 25% Cr super-duplex Alloy 825 Alloy 625 pH2S limit (bara) 0.10 0.25 No limit No limit 17 .008 0.
HIC / SWC / blistering • Laminar cracking in plane of inclusions or blistering (HIC). Hydroge n blisters Step-wise cracking Blistering of CS plate 18 . • Transverse cracking between laminar cracks on different planes (SWC).
S.g. P Uniform microstructure Use internal coatings – isolate steel from process fluid Testing: NACE TM0284 Banded Uniform 19 .Avoiding HIC / SWC • • • • • Avoid plate steels (rolled) – otherwise qualify by HIC test Control impurities e.
ISO 15156 (NACE MR0175) • ISO 15156 combination of – NACE MR0175 and NACE testing requirements TM0177 & TM0284 – European Federation of Corrosion Guidelines No.16 & 17 • Part 1: General principles for selecting crack-resistant materials • Part 2: Cracking resistant carbon & low-alloy steels & cast iron • Part 3: Cracking resistant corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) • Covers all cracking mechanisms • Goes beyond application of the 0.05 psia pH2S threshold for sour service • It is the equipment user’s responsibility to select suitable materials • HIC/SWC of flat rolled carbon steel products for environments containing even trace amounts of H2S to be evaluated • BP ETP: GP 06-20 Materials for Sour Service 20 .
Designing for H2S service • Materials requirements – Reference ISO 15156 and GP 06-20 – pH2S and pH – Temperature – Chlorides – Hardness limits Welding QA/QC (HIC) – Maintain hardness limits HIC testing for plate products • • 21 .
CO2 CORROSION 22 .
HCO3. Mechanism CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H2CO3 + e.CO2 .containing environments • CO2 always present in produced fluids – Corrosive to carbon steel when water present – Most CRAs have good resistance to CO2 corrosion.+ H 2H H2 Fe Fe2+ + 2eFe + H2O + CO2 FeCO3 + H2 23 .
Types of CO2 damage General & pitting corrosion Mesa corrosion Flow-assisted-corrosion (CO2) Localised weld corrosion 24 .
CO2 corrosion in a production flowline • 6” CS production flowline (Magnus. 90bar. 30°C. 1983) • 25mm thick. 2%CO2 • Heavily pitted pipe wall and welds (not necessarily uniform corrosion) • Didn’t fail – removed due to crevice corrosion of hub sealing faces 25 .
6 0. temperature. pH – CO2 prediction model For an ideal gas mixture.Factors in CO2 corrosion • Main factors pCO2.6 30 7 6 >50 130 75 149 26 . the partial pressure is the pressure exerted by one component if it alone occupied the volume. velocity. Total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of each gas component in the mixture Temperature. (ºC) pCO2 (bar) Carbon steel corrosion rate (mm/yr) 0.
Effect of sand on CO2 corrosion
• • Produced sand can affect inhibitor efficiency – Inhibitor adsorption loss Sand (and other solid) deposits give increased risk of localised corrosion; – Prevent access of corrosion inhibitor to the metal – Provide locations for bacteria proliferation – Galvanic effects (area under deposit at more negative potential than area immediately adjacent to deposit) – Formation of concentration cells/gradients
Mitigation of CO2 corrosion
• Internal CO2 corrosion of carbon steel needs to be managed – Usually mitigate by chemical inhibitors – Simple geometries only (mainly pipelines) Assume inhibitor availability (90-95%) – Inhibited corrosion rate of 0.1mm/year – Remaining time at full predicted corrosion rate – Apply a corrosion allowance for the design life – If calculated corrosion allowance >8mm use CRAs
CO2 corrosion inhibition
• • • • Filming type Retention time Continuous injection Adsorption onto clean surfaces
05 • H2S corrosion (CO2/H2S < 20) – Initial corrosion rate high – Protective FeS film quickly slows down corrosion to low level – The corrosion rate is much less than the Cassandra prediction CO2 dominates mixed CO2/H2S H2S dominates 30 .CO2 + H2S corrosion – metal loss CO2/H2S > 500 500 > CO2/H2S > 20 20 > CO2/H2S > 0.
H2S + CO2 materials selection guide )r ab (2 Duplex SS 13% Cr SS Nickel-based alloys Carbon/low alloy steels e r pl a i tr aP Partial pressure H2S (bar) .
EROSION & EROSIONCORROSION 32 .
− erosion characteristics − distribution of phases − carrier phase for solids • Flow regimes with particles in the gas show higher erosion rates than those with particles in the liquid phase.Flow regimes • Various multi-phase flow regimes possible. Bubble (bubbly) flow Liq uid Ga s Liq uid Stratified flow G as Plug flow Ga s Liq uid Wave (wavy) flow Ga Liq s uid Slug flow Gas Liq Annular uid flow Churn flow Mist (spray) flow 33 .
– Erosion and corrosion can be independent or synergistic.Erosion & erosioncorrosion • Erosion – Caused by high velocity impact & cutting action of liquid and/or solid particles – Erosion failures can be rapid Erosion-corrosion – Occurs in environments that are both erosive and corrosive. • Erosion of tungsten carbide choke trim 34 .
valves. bends. chokes.Typical vulnerable areas for erosion • Areas wherever flow is restricted or disturbed – T-pieces. weld beads • • Trinidad Areas exposed to excessive flow rates Sand washing – Washing infrequently allowing sand to accumulate – High pressure drop during washing of separators • Sea water systems – High flow areas in water injection / cooling systems Algeria (duplex) 35 .
Erosion in piping • Sand accumulation – Build up of sand in a test separator • Pressure drop – Large pressure drop across sand drain pipework during washing • Rapid failure – Occurred within 2 minutes of opening the drain Erosion at bend 36 .
Erosion in a vessel • Sand allowed to accumulate in separator – Wash nozzles embedded in sand • PCV not working properly – High pressure / flowrate – Nozzle not erosion-resistant – Erosion of wash nozzle – Spray changed to a jet causing erosion of shell • Local changes to operating procedures not communicated – Frequency of sand washing – Risk not captured or assessed in RBI Water spray Water jet 37 .
Erosion of sandwash nozzle Progressive nozzle damage 38 .
• wastage equals sum of individual wastage rates – synergistic. • wastage rate > sum of individual rates • localised protective film breakdown at bends.Erosion-corrosion • Occurs in environments that can be erosive and corrosive. • Erosion and corrosion can either be: – independent of each other. elbows areas of turbulence 39 .
5ms-1 • Water-swept pits (horse-shoe shaped) 40 .Impingement • Water speed or local turbulence damages or removes protective film • 90-10 Cu-Ni susceptible to internal erosion-corrosion (impingement) at velocities >3.
tungsten carbide 41 . No solids required Typical locations – Pump impellers (rapid change in pressure which damages films) – Stirrers.Cavitation • • Occurs at high fluid velocities Formation & collapse of vapour bubbles in liquid flow on metal surface. hydraulic propellers • • • Use erosion resistant materials – Stellite.
CORROSION IN SEAWATER 42 .
other materials susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion Select seawater resistant materials – Super-duplex grades. pH. duplex grades and 6Mo 43 • • • • . Seawater can cause SCC of 300-series. 6Mo. salinity.Raw seawater • Composition of raw seawater varies around the world – Temperature. CuNi. marine life Very corrosive to unprotected carbon steel. titanium Consider galvanic corrosion – Most seawater resistant grades of stainless steel and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are compatible with each other in seawater. dissolved oxygen.
Pitting resistance of stainless steels • • • • Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PREw) Formula for comparing relative pitting resistance Applicable to stainless steels & Ni-Cr-Fe alloys Typically PREw ≥40 required for exposure to raw sea water <30ºC Alternatively.5%W) + 16%N 44 . use titanium or GRE Alloy 13Cr 316ss Alloy 825 22Cr duplex 25Cr superduplex Alloy 625 PREw 13 23 28 33 40 46 • PREw = %Cr + 3.3x (%Mo + 0.
Internal & external pitting Internal pitting • • • Section of 3” 316L pipe fitting Failed due to internal corrosion (pinhole leak) Poor hydrotest practice .seawater left within spool 45 .
return ~18°C Failed due to localised internal pitting – 316 SS has low PREw • Material upgrade required • • • • 46 . raw seawater service. hypochlorite added Shellside: lube oil up to 50°C Tubeside: seawater inlet ~6°C.Failure of a seawater pump cooling coil…… Indication on coil External surface of coil Internal surface of coil 316 SS coil.
concentration cells • Crevice corrosion – O2 is consumed in the crevice and becomes the anode – pH decreases in the crevice increasing attack • Differential aeration cells – Air/water interfaces with attack below the water line e.g.Oxygen .H2S pitting Crevice corrosion under baffle 47 . sand or sludge – Produces differential concentration – SRBs thrive . splash zone – Pipelines in soils containing different amounts of oxygen • Under deposit corrosion – Deposits of scale.
Galvanic corrosion • Three conditions are required for galvanic corrosion. – A conducting electrolyte (typically seawater). Relative positions within the electrochemical series (for given electrolyte) provides driving potential and affects rate. – Two different metals in contact with the electrolyte. – An electrical connection between the two metals. Higher conductivity increases corrosion e. Relative area of anode and cathode can significantly affect corrosion rate. presence of salts • • • • 48 . Corrosion of base metal (anode) stimulated by contact with noble metal (cathode).g.
e. 5x OD) Leaks experienced on CuNi spools at welds Same problems with CuNi / 6Mo 49 .Galvanic corrosion – firewater piping • • • • Firewater – CuNi / super duplex stainless steel connections. 4”CuNi pipe with a 550mm isolation spool (i.
seal rings • • ETAP platform Techlok joints in a firewater piping system – Piping: super-duplex – Seal rings: 17-4PH 50 .Galvanic corrosion .
Dealloying of brass • Brass tubesheet in seawater service – Brass is Cu-Zn alloy – Cu is more noble than Zn – Zn dissolves preferentially leaving Cu behind • Result – Loss of strength – Difficult to seal • Remedy – Add arsenic to the brass 51 .
Mitigation of galvanic corrosion • Avoid dissimilar materials in seawater system designs – MoC for later changes Avoid small anode/large cathode Avoid graphite gaskets & seals Avoid connecting carbon steel to titanium alloys – Galvanic corrosion or hydrogen charging of titanium may occur • Electrical isolation between different alloy classes • Install distance spools.g. rubber • Apply a non-conducting internal coating on the more noble material. separation of at least 20x pipe diameters – Solid non-conducting spool e. Extend coating for 20 pipe diameters.g. GRP – Line the noble metal internally with an electrically nonconducting material e. 52 • • • .
g. GRP Distance spool: noble metal internally lined with an electrically non-conducting material such as rubber Apply a non-conducting internal coating on the more noble 53 material.Example : CuNi-Super duplex Distance spool: solid. non-conducting material e. .
Cathodic protection (CP) – what is it? • By connecting an external anode to the component to be protected and passing a dc current. – External anode may be a galvanic (sacrificial) anode. it becomes cathodic and does not corrode. the current is the result of the potential difference between the two metals – External anode may be an impressed current anode. • CP is mostly applied to coated. – Primary principle in GP 06-31 54 . acting as a barrier between the metal and the environment – CP protects steel at coating defects • Coating + CP is most practical and economic protection system. current is supplied from an external dc power source. immersed and buried structures – The coating is the primary protection.
electrons flow from the anode to the cathode due difference in the electrical potential ANODIC Magnesium Zinc Aluminium Iron (steel) Copper Stainless steels Titanium Graphite CATHODIC Corrosion of steel by copper plating Cathodic protection of steel by zinc 55 plating .Cathodic protection – how does it work? • CP works by making the component to be protected the cathode in an electrolytic cell • When two metals are connected in an electrolyte.
high efficiency (>90%). Alloyed with Al or Cd to improve efficiency. – Typically used in seawater applications. alloyed with e. (50-60%) new and wasted – Used in soils and other high-resistance environments (risk of over(therefore working!) protection/rapid consumption in seawater). – Typically used on coated pipelines in seawater Magnesium anodes: large driving potential. 56 • . limited efficiency Sacrificial anodes. Zn + In.g.g. Zinc anodes: ambient applications only.Galvanic (sacrificial) CP • • Aluminium anodes: require alloy additions to become active e. Al or Zn to reduce rapid activation.
Applications of internal CP • Anodes in shell & tube seawater cooler water boxes • • Oil storage tanks (in water bottom) Water tanks •Stainless steel piping systems in warm/hot chlorinated seawater. −To avoid high anode consumption rates. resistor controlled CP (RCP) systems should be considered. −Used on Greater Plutonio 57 .g. RCP + 25Cr super duplex piping instead of titanium or other higher-alloy CRA. −E.
g. strength. 825 58 • • • . oxygen and temperature 300-series austenitic stainless steels susceptible to at temps >50°C Highly-alloyed austenitic and duplex SS have improved resistance Nickel-base alloys with Ni ≥ 42% are highly resistant. e. residual stress. – Material grade. chlorides.Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) • Susceptibility varies considerably (no absolutes).
59 . chlorides).Chloride SCC (22Cr duplex vessel drain) • 22Cr duplex drain ex-production separator − heat-traced to 60°C (vessel temp up to 105°C) • Internal chloride SCC (cracking in parent metal. HAZ and weld metal) • Contributory factors: − Susceptible material − Local stress concentration (weld toe and lack of support) − Environment (elevated temperature.
MIC • SRB require anaerobic conditions – deaerated water – conditions within and under biofilms • SRB use sulphate in water in their metabolisms to generate H2S Water injection systems (deaerated) Fluid Velocity: • Areas of high fluid velocity or turbulence and O2 – O2 from poor deaeration or air ingress – susceptible areas include pump discharge piping.Oxygen: • Trace amounts corrosive to carbon steel. 60 .g. As a guide: – <20ppb O2 maintains general corrosion rates <0. bends tees and reducers.25mm/yr – Stricter limits often applied e. <10ppb if 13Cr completions Microbial-induced Corrosion.
biocide applied into or d/s of deaerator • Effective biociding based on. scrapings or bioprobes) • Corrosion monitoring Leaking deaerator Seawater injection tubing 61 . duration • Bacterial monitoring (sidestreams. frequency. • Chlorination u/s of deaerator. – Type. dosage.Mitigation & monitoring • Deaeration and supplementary O2 scavenging – Monitor O2 concentrations on-line (orbisphere) or colorimetric analysis – Maintain oxygen scavenger residual to mop-up oxygen spikes.
composition) – Weld joint metallurgy – Flow pattern and flow induced shear stress • PWC rate of attack can be high. (film formation.Preferential weld corrosion (PWC) • • The selective corrosion of weld zones (WM/HAZ) Relevant factors include. up to 12mm/yr observed 62 . – Electrochemical properties of the materials and any corrosion cell forming around the weld joint – Water phase liquid film thickness and conductivity – Temperature and tendency to form protective scale – Corrosion inhibitor effectiveness.
protected by large area of parent metal.Preferential weld corrosion (1%Ni) Water Injection: Wet hydrocarbon service: • 1% Ni-containing welds beneficial for avoiding PWC in WI systems. no benefit of selecting ‘cathodic’ weld metal • Reliant on intrinsic corrosion resistance of the weld metal • Require corrosion inhibitor for protection (test against WM and PM) • Attack of weld metal promoted by under-dosing of inhibitor (WM needs more inhibitor than PM) Welds exposed to hydrocarbon service 63 . • Weld cathodic to parent metal. • Lower conductivity.
extensive inspection and repair 64 .Lomond drains .PWC • • • • • • TEG contactor scrubber drain pipework (hydrocarbon) Carbon steel parent metal ~2%Ni deposited in weld metal Groove along 6 o’clock position Accelerated corrosion at the weld Large number of isolations.
MIC & DEADLEG CORROSION 65 .
• Corrosion rates of 5-10 mm/yr seen • CRAs also susceptible 66 .Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) • Anaerobic environments often support development of biofilms. • MIC of carbon steel usually localized pitting under biofilm. increasing corrosion rate. • Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) thrive in anaerobic conditions • SRB biofilms generate H2S • FeS corrosion product cathodic to bare steel.
Optimum temp <45ºC. 67 . – Growth restricted if <10 ppm • Carbon source SRB growth restricted if organic carbon (volatile fatty acids) not available (<20ppm) • Nitrogen Important but at levels which are difficult to detect • Flow – Highest corrosion rates in stagnant conditions.5 range • Temperature SRB can grow in temps of 5-100°C.Bacterial growth factors • pH MIC growth in pH 5-9. – Biofilms unstable at high flows. • Sulphates – Necessary for SRB activity.
Permanent or physical deadlegs (long term stagnation by design) Operational deadlegs (stagnant for operational reasons) Unprotected mothballed items (plus those temporarily out of service) • • • 68 .Deadlegs – types & locations • A deadleg is a section of pipework or vessel which contains hydrocarbon fluids and/or water under – stagnant conditions (permanent or intermittent) – or where there is no measurable flow.
Examples of deadlegs 69 .
oxygen ingress) Temperature Stagnant – permanent/intermittent Prior history of corrosion 70 . deposits.Deadlegs – assessment factors • • • • • • • • • • • • Consequence of failure Location of pipework Nutrients replenished by regularly opening /closing valves? Is draining of pipework possible? Is removal of deadleg possible? Presence of SRBs. nutrients. biocide? Material of construction Wall thickness Fluid type (aqueous phase. sulphates.
Example of deadleg corrosion Pin Hole leaks Releasing water • Crude oil recycle cooler bypass • Scale-inhibited seawater left in line after leak test (of u/s valve) • Severe corrosion rate at and around pinhole. a leak of water not crude. • Two week shutdown 71 . • Fortunately.
. Photo 1 250 mm 80 mm Area of internal corrosion 4.5 mm tapering out to average of 10.7mm VIEW LOOKING WEST Corroded area approx 80mm x72 110mm.2 mm tapering out to average wall thickness of 10.0 mm 30 mm 110 mm Area of internal corrosion reading from 3.Root causes North • Failure to identify the bypass line as an operational deadleg • No deadleg register • Failure to recognise introduction of new corrosion hazard • No mitigation measures.
Mitigation & inspection • Flush system of deposits and treat with biocide. 73 . • Lowest parts of vessel bridle together with any associated level gauges. bottom of vertical sections etc. nitrate • Out of service items – Biocide treat or mothball procedure • Use treated water – Hydrotest & washing • Profile radiography or UT scanning – low points.
OTHER CORROSION MECHANISMS 74 .
titanium or GRP piping required – Avoid titanium alloys in dry methanol service due SCC SCC of a titanium seal exposed to pure methanol instead of 5% water content 75 . e.g.g. concentrated solutions of inhibitors and biocides) require CRAs – vendor will specify – 316 SS is typical • Notable exceptions: – Hypochlorite: very corrosive. methanol Corrosive chemicals (e.Corrosion due to chemicals • • • Chemicals can be corrosive Carbon steel OK for non-corrosive chemical piping.
Corrosion due to chemicals • Carbon steel open drain pipework. not flushed 76 . • Seepage of scale inhibitor (passing valve) • Scale inhibitor pH <2. • Chemical entered drains.
Injection point issues • Inadequate mixing – corrosion • Intermittent use – switch off when not flowing • Areas affected – Impingement / turbulent areas – Bends and low points • Use quill/other mixer – Upgrade material – Thicker schedule • Valve arrangement – Make self-draining – Enable quill removal Injected Fluid Main Flow Impingement 77 .
boilers Oxidation – Oxidation significant >530°C – Oxidation rate varies with temp. fired heaters. alloy 800H Other high temperature mechanisms – sulphidation (H2S and SO2) – carburizing. metal dusting. but CrMo alloys needed for high temps • Flare tips: 310 SS. gas composition and alloy Cr content • Firetubes: usually CS.High temperature corrosion • • Environments less common in E&P – Flare tips. hot salt – thermal fatigue and creep • 78 .
– Use solid/clad stainless steel • 304 SS or 316 SS Intergranular cracking • Amine piping welds require PWHT to avoid SCC 79 .Amine stress corrosion cracking • • • Material: carbon/low-alloy steels Environment: aqueous amine systems Cracking due to residual stresses at/next to non-PWHT’d weldments – Cracking develops parallel to the weld Mitigation: – PWHT all CS welds including repair and internal/external attachment welds.
– Acid gases absorbed by rich glycol or – Organic acids from oxidation of glycol and thermal decomposition products Condensation of low pH water giving carbonic acid attack.Corrosion in glycol system • • Glycol usually regarded as benign Corrosion in glycol regeneration systems usually due to. off-skid piping mix of regular CS and LTCS 80 • • . Risk recognised in design – On-skid: CRA piping & clad vessels – However.
Corrosion fatigue • Combined action of cyclic tensile stress and a corrosive environment • Fatigue is caused by cyclic stressing below the yield stress – Cracks start at stress raisers – Can occur due to vibration e. smallbore nozzles & with heavy valve attachments • Presence of corrosive environment exacerbates the problem – Can lead to pitting. which acts as stress concentrators 81 .g.
1.Example of corrosion fatigue • 2” A106 GrB carbon steel piping • Wet gas service.2%CO2 and 160ppm H2S • Operating @ 120°C and 70bar • Elbow exposed to vibration (used in a gas compression train) • Crack located at 12 o'clock position • Crack initiated internally 82 .
EXTERNAL CORROSION – SURFACE FACILITIES 83 .
External corrosion • • • • • • External corrosion of unprotected steel surfaces External corrosion of coated surfaces Corrosion under insulation (CUI) Corrosion under fireproofing (CUF) Pitting & crevice Corrosion Environmental cracking 84 .
85 .Where does it occur? • • • • • • Bare steel surfaces At locations of coating breakdown Under deposits such as dirt. adhesive tape or nameplates Mating faces between pipe/pipe support saddles & clamps Isolated equipment not maintained or adequately mothballed Water sources include: – sea spray and green water (FPSO or semi-sub) – rain – deluge water – leaking process water – condensation – downwind of cooling towers.
86 . • Corrosion can be general attack.What does it look like? • Damage can be extensive or localised. • Seen as flaking. cracking. pitting or cracking. and blistering of coating with corrosion of the substrate.
• Corroding copper alloys covered in blue/green corrosion products.Appearance • Carbon/low alloy steels usually covered in compact scale/thick scab • Stainless steels have light stains on the surface possibly with stained water droplets and / or salts. 87 .
Piping. supports & clamps 88 .
Not just carbon steel • • • • • 25Cr super-duplex (PREN ≥40) Seawater service 12 months exposure in tropical climate External corrosion along welds Poor quality fabrication 89 .
Corrosion of bolts and fasteners • • Bolted joints – Onshore and offshore: exposed to frequent wetting Low alloy bolts – General or localised corrosion – Galvanic corrosion in stainless steel flanges CRA bolts susceptible to pitting and/or SCC Crevice corrosion under bolt heads and nuts Hydrogen embrittlement possible Fatigue • • • • 90 .
Corrosion of bolts and fasteners General corrosion Galvanic corrosion Crevice corrosion Stress corrosion cracking 91 .
316 SS / carbon steel • Use of graphite gaskets • Potential problems – Failure of flanged connection due to corroded fasteners – Joint leak • Corrective actions – Change gasket/fastener materials – Replace graphite gaskets with non-asbestos or rubber material 92 .Flanged connections • Corrosion – General surface corrosion – Galvanic corrosion • e.g.
Corroded fasteners (seawater service) Location of graphite gaskets 93 .
piping – Dissimilar metals 94 .Structures / valves • Valves – Valve handles – Chain-wheels – Valve body • Structures – Stairways and walkways – Gratings. handrails – Cable trays and unistruts • Threaded plugs – Valve bodies. ladders. xmas trees.
Coating damage and breakdown • Deterioration of coating with time – All paints let water through .continuously wet areas will fail • Poor original surface preparation / paint application • Mechanical damage – Small area of damage can lead to major corrosion 95 .
External cathodic protection • Types of structures with external CP – Buried pipelines / structures / piping / tanks – Floors of above-ground storage tanks – Submerged jetty structures • Factors affecting corrosion – Extent of wetness – Oxygen – depends on depth – Resistivity of soil & presence of salts – Equipment temperature 96 .
Impressed current CP • Adjustable dc source – Negative terminal connected to the steel structure – Positive terminal connected to the anodes • Typically used on larger structures where galvanic anodes cannot economically deliver enough current. 97 .
results in wetting and corrosion of the metal – Carbon steel corrodes in the presence of water due to the availability of oxygen. CUF – Same mechanism except water gets behind the fireproofing.Corrosion under insulation (CUI) and Corrosion under fireproofing (CUF) • CUI – Water seeps into insulation and becomes trapped. • 98 .
– Process – Personnel protection (PP) – Winterisation – Acoustic • Challenge the need – Remove unnecessary insulation – Replace PP with cages Mitred joint ‘Lobster-back’ joint Pre-formed bends 99 .Insulation • Typical insulation types.
burst rather than leaked 100 .02mm nominal WT Rockwool insulation Extensive corrosion – rupture Unusual.CUI incident • • • • • • • 4” gas compression recycle line Operating pressure. 35bar – 3 bar pressure surge Temperature: 50ºC 6.
heat-traced. Rockwool • Operating @ 5bar. CUI • • • Focus on internal corrosion Previous survey found defect in an adjacent line. – Features selected from onshore not site survey 101 .exposed • CS.4mm NWT • Failed during plant start-up • External corrosion scale. 5. 45°C. Failed line in survey but not failed area.CUI gas leak • 2” fuel gas piping outside edge of platform .
piping CUI • 4” CS hydrocarbon line • 55°C. inlet to PSV (153 bar) • Thermally-sprayed aluminium (TSA) • CUI found. • Found during needle-gunning (paint removal) • Max pit depth 10mm • Insulation permanently removed 102 . radiographed – ok to refurbish.
CUI on pressure vessel
• CS offshore vessel • Operating at 85°C and 11 bar • PFP coating (passive fire protection) • Extensive corrosion scabbing on both sides of vessel. • Scaling runs in two horizontal distinct lines along each side. • Scaling directly above lower seam of insulation – location of water retention.
External pitting & crevice corrosion
• Stainless steels in marine environments (chlorides, O2) – 316L stainless steel commonly used for instrument tubing – Particularly susceptible at supports and fittings. • Primary mitigation is materials selection (higher PREw) – Tungum, 6Mo, super-duplex • Alternative mitigation methods (coating, cleaning), not easy or practical.
Instrument tubing (316 SS and super-duplex)
316 SS tubing super-duplex tubing
316 SS (pitting/crevice corrosion) pitting)
Crevice corrosion under clamps/supports • Pitting and crevice corrosion of 316ss piping – Clamps – Plastic retaining blocks 106 .
External chloride stress corrosion cracking • • Mechanism same as internal chloride SCC however: Numerous variables influence susceptibility therefore guidance differs – Material. oxygen and temperature – No absolute guidance available. seek expert advice Chloride SCC is characterised by transgranular crack paths 107 . stress. chlorides.
can raise external temperature above threshold limits! – SCC failure of 316L 108 • • • .External stress corrosion cracking • • UK HSE: – Coat 22Cr duplex >80°C NORSOK M-001 SCC temp limits: – 22Cr duplex >100°C – 25Cr super-duplex >110°C Recent testing has shown failures at 80°C – now recommend 70°C as limit Reliant on external coatings to act as barrier (isolate from environment) Beware solar heating .
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