TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

TOPIC 1

OVERVIEW

1.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 1 will look at literature in the Malaysian primary ESL classroom, the rationale on the use of songs and poetry with young learners in the primary classroom. 1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 1, you will be able to: • • distinguish the difference between poetry and songs identify the roles and purposes of using songs and poetry in the primary ESL classroom 1.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Overview

Literature in the Malaysian Primary ESL classroom

Purposes of using songs and poetry in the Malaysian primary school

Intra and inter personal development

Linguistic development

Aesthetic development

Cultural Considerations

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TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

CONTENT SESSION ONE (6 HOURS) 1.2.1 OVERVIEW Lets try and do some exercises. Can you try and answer these questions.

1. What is literature? 2. Why do we read it?

So how about it? Can you answer the questions. Take a look at the responses given below. Is it the same as the answers given by you. 1. Literature is a term that is used to describe the collection of written or spoken materials through different periods and cultures. 2. We read it because we want to know about knowledge of the world, of other cultures, for entertainment purposes and to get an insight of the human beings and the society because works of literature convey emotions and experiences of human beings. (Oak, 2009)

1.2.1.1

Literature in the Malaysian primary ESL classroom. Let’s read

Primary school children were already exposed to literary texts even before the official launch of the “Children’s Contemporary Literature” component for Years 4 till 6. They were already familiar with nursery rhymes, stories and so on. The then

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TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

Curriculum Development Centre Director Ali Ab Ghani said that the Primary Literature Project was introduced in the school curriculum to strengthen pupils’ proficiency in English (The Star, May 25, 2008). The objectives for introducing the “Children’s Contemporary Literature’ are as follows:       to instil and inculcate the reading habit among pupils. to enrich pupils’ vocabulary and language content. to enhance pupils’ thinking skills. to promote cultural understanding in the Malaysian context to improve English language proficiency of pupils. To provide lively, enjoyable and high-interest readings. (Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, 2006) Apart from stories, the students were also introduced to songs and poetry. Put your thinking cap on WHY??? Song and Poetry

WHEN?? So how did you do? Did you manage to answer all? Let’s check. Read the reasons listed below. Why do we use songs and poetry with young learners in the primary ESL classroom?

Music is highly memorable and motivating. 3

net/ddeubel/using-songs-in-the-efl-classroom ) When do we use songs and poetry with young learners in the primary ESL classroom? For eg. practice.slideshare.rhythm and intonation of the target language.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Songs. To introduce. They are a nice way to introduce. To encourage physical involvement. and review vocabulary. They are useful to practice writing. intonation and stress. they can be used : • • • • • as a warm up as a transition to introduce new language structures to practice or revise language to integrate with storytelling 4 . To contribute to the development of a positive attitude towards the language learning. To develop all skills in an integrated way. To present new language in a new rich and imaginative context. reinforce and recycle structures and vocabulary. To help improve all aspects of pronunciation:stress.rhymes and chants are ideal tools to be used in the language classroom. They enrich the knowledge of cultural features. To help to develop a positive relation between teachers and students They promote the practice of pronunciation. They are a way of developing of language skills (http://www. To contribute to the learning of the cultural component of the language.

2 Purposes of using songs and poetry in the Malaysian primary school Check your answers.2. Almost everyone enjoys songs and poetry. present new vocabulary or recycle known language in their classrooms. They also use songs and poetry to add variety or a change of pace.2. But how do songs or poetry actually benefit or give purpose to our students? Let’s think about this again. to illustrate themes and topics.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 1.intra and inter personal development for linguistic development 5 .1. Can you list down the purposes of using songs and poetry in the Malaysian primary school? 1. Language teachers use songs and poetry to open or close their lessons.2 Songs and poetry in the Malaysian primary school curriculum Let’s read Songs and poetry are part of our daily life. Are they the same as the answers that you’ve given? Purposes: • • for personal development .

How do songs and poetry help: • • • • to develop the students intra and inter personal ? to develop potential? students linguistic/language learning to develop students aesthetic values? to develop students’ cultural considerations? Take a look at the explanation below. discuss with your lecturer. Students’ intra personal development can be enhanced by using songs and poetry that would inspire the students to develop and believe in their abilities. Poetry 1.2. It couldn’t Be Done – Edgar A Guest.2. In other words.1 Intra and inter personal development Intrapersonal development Intrapersonal development is the growth within yourself that is having an understanding of yourself. Some examples of inspirational poetry and songs are listed below. If you need further clarification. 1. 2.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • for aesthetic development Cultural considerations Before we go any further. all these takes place within ourself. Can you try and answer these questions. Walk a Mile in my shoes – Joe South .Rudyard Kipling 6 Songs 1. Lets try and answer some more questions. of knowing who you are and what you can do. It will help to clarify some things for you. Hero -Mariah Carey 2. If .

the song entitled ‘ The family song” or “The friendship song” or the poetry. It is also the development of students ability to understand other people. Suggest some activities that could be conducted to develop students interpersonal skills. they learn how to communicate. Find 2 songs and poetry that could help to enhance students interpersonal skills development.Demi Lovato Go to this website for more wonderful inspirational poetry. The Climb – Miley Cyrus 3. When the students are working in a group . Here the teacher can get the students to act out or role play as they sing the song.html Find 3 songs and poetry that could help to enhance students intrapersonal development Interpersonal development Interpersonal development is whereby students must learn to work with others by building a positive social relationship and learning how to work as a team. http://www. respect as well as to help each other.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 3.teensselfhelp.Charles Osgood 4. On Being a Champion . entitled ‘Ations . For example. Discuss the activities with your lecturers. They also learn how to socialise and negotiate with their friends.Matthew Stepanek 4.by Shel Silverstein’. Interpersonal development can be inculcate in the students with the use of songs and poetry. 7 . This is Me .com/GreatPoems. Pretty Good .

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

1.2.2.2

Language Learning Potentials

Songs and poetry:  helps children improve their listening and sound discrimination skills  will aid not only in learning to read but also becoming better students and better people in the future  as an activity to enrich your students' English vocabulary, to improve their grammar and accents. This is because songs and poetry have lots of vocabulary therefore the students can enhance their vocabulary by learning new words in a fun way. They also learn how to pronounce words with the appropriate stress and intonation.  as a classroom activity use for learning structures. This is because the structures are sometimes repetitive. This is good as the students will be practising the particular structure again and again. This is useful as they provide reinforcement of the linguistic functions.  promote listening and speaking exercises practices through different tasks.  provides a fun and interesting way to learn the language structure and grammar.  provides a nice way to introduce, practice, and review vocabulary.  are useful to practice writing and reading skills.

1. Can you think of 2 other reasons on how songs and poetry can help to develop students language learning potentials. 2. Think also of an activity that you can do with your students to promote language learning. 8 Discuss with your lecturer.

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

1.2.2.3

Developing students aesthetic values Some example of activities that can help students towards developing their aesthetic skills : pottery, crafts, embroidery, painting, origami, soft-toys & puppet making so on

Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) - means the study of the emotions and the mind in relation to their sense of beauty in literature and other fine arts, but separately from moral, social, political, practical, or economic considerations. This area of study is concerned with the appreciation and criticism of what is considered beautiful or ugly. It is sometimes referred to as “art for art’s sake.”

1. Can you think of 2 activities on how songs and poetry can help to develop students’ aesthetic values. Discuss with your lecturer.

1.2.2.4

Developing students’ cultural considerations 1.Why do you think there is a need to develop students’ cultural considerations? 2. How do songs and poetry help to develop students’ cultural considerations? Discuss with your lecturer. 9

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

TOPIC 2

SONGS AND POETRY FOR YOUNG LEARNERS

2.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 2 will look at the different genres/types of songs and poetry and their values in the primary ESL classroom. 2.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 2, you will be able to: • identify the different genres/types of songs and poetry and their characteristics. 2.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Songs and Poetry for Young Learners

Genres/Types of Poetry

Genres/Types of Songs

Hailku

Limericks

Nursery Rhyme Dramatic

Folk songs

Lullabies

Epic

Narrative

Ballads Pop R&B

Blues Jazz

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com/articles/types-of-songs.com/article/Multicultural-education http://www. “Being familiar with songs and rhymes in a foreign language. http://www.com/en/ebook/106150/songs-and-rhymes-in-teaching-english-at-primaryschools) “If the pupils hear the same melodies or similar rhymes they are astonished at the parallels between their own culture and the foreign one – so. They are able to learn or get to know parts of a foreign culture. the anxieties of its people. For eg: the relationship to the past and the ancestors as well as the faith. So they see them as enrichment for their own life” (http://www.grin.poeticterminology.buzzle.com/articles/poetry_forms. the foreign cultures aren′t alarming and frightening but interesting and worth being discovered” (http://www. songs and poems play an important role. Name 3 more types of poetry and songs. In every society.poemofquotes.htmlEducation/180030028. They show many aspects and important elements of culture in each society.grin.net/ 3. http://www. pupils feel closer to the foreign culture and its language. http://musicgenreslist.grin. the fun.php 2.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Something to think about.html 11 4.html Go to this website : 1. Have you done that ? nnnnnEducation/180030028. the hopes and the view of the future Through songs and poetry children’s curiosity about everything new will be satisfied. http://www.com/en/e-book/106150/songs-and-rhymes-inteaching-english-at-primary-schools Go to this website for extra reading http://www.com/ Did you manage to name them correctly? .com/en/e-book/106150/songs-and-rhymes-in-teachingenglish-at-primary-schools Look at the above framework.freepatentsonline.

(5) Foam against the sandy shore. The first line has five syllabus. like all art. (7) Then slide back to sea (5) . In other words poetry is an art form in which language is used for ‘its aesthetic qualities’ as well as for its imaginary and semantic content (http://www. Look at the example below: 12 Ocean waves roll in.2. What exactly is poetry? The term poetry comes from an ancient Greek word.k12.teachers.us/elee/documents/PoetryPack et_001. and the third line has five.wi. Why do you think teachers like to use songs and poetry in their teaching? Can you give some reasons for using songs and poetry in your teaching? Have a short discussion with your colleagues in school. usually about nature. “Poetry is a creative use of words which. Are the reasons they give the same as yours? 2.1 – Genres of Poetry General Introduction to Poetry Poetry. the second line has seven syllabus.org/whatis.poetry. Poetry generally has some structure that separates it from prose” (http://www.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Let’s think for a while. is intended to stir an emotion in the audience.pdf} Recap Haiku Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry. which means I create.htm).sheboygan.

Three bags full. One for my dame. Limerick always has a humorous tone. Look at the example below: A Clumsy Young Fellow Named Tim There once was a fellow named Tim (a) whose dad never taught him to swim. and sunk like a rock. Have you any wool? Yes sir. baa.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Limericks Limerick is a five line poem with a rhyme scheme of a-a-b-b-a. Children can quickly learn to sing along with a nursery rhyme. (a) He fell off a dock (b) Nursery Rhyme A nursery rhyme is a short rhyming story. One for my master. and nursery rhymes are often used to help young children build their vocabulary. And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane. yes sir. Have you any wool? Yes sir. Typically. And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane. baa. yes sir. often set to music and usually designed for young children. One for my master. Baa. One for my dame. a nursery rhyme has simple vocabulary and a catchy rhyme. Look at the example below: Baa. Three bags full. black sheep. (b) And that was the end of him. black sheep. (a) 13 .

com/Tamburlaine-the-Great-Part1.2 and 3. In other words.hwlongfellow./Narrative_ Poetry_ poem recording his speech is called a dramatic Lesson. a middle.php?pid=62 Narrative Narrative Poems are poems that tell stories.pdf monologue. It is a poem that tells a series of events using poetic devices such as rhythm. which concludes and summarizes the story. 14 http://www. a www. rhyme. serious poems that tells the story of a heroic figure or the actions of gods and goddess.pflugervilleisd. Some of the most famous epic poems are the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer and the epic poem of The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807 .1882). lliad : http://www. which tells the action of the event. and attention to sound. a narrative poem tells a story. and an end.studyguide.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Epic Epic Poems are long.htm) Go to this website to have a look at a dramatic poem – Tamburlaine The Great by Christopher Marlowe for parts 1. Go to this website to have a look at the epic poem. a o plot poem recording his thoughts or speech to himself is called a soliloquy.com/homer/ Odyssey: http://www. rather... He may be thinking (or talking) to himself.(http://www. Or a character may be speaking to Go to this website to have a look at a narrative poem: one or more other characters in a given situation. which introduces the background to the story.org/poems_poem.html . There is a beginning.poemhunter. Here are some elements of narrative poetry that are important: A narrative poem in which one or more characters speak.com/homer/odyssey/1/ The song of Hiawatha : http://www. The dramatic poem consists of the thoughts or o character spoken statements (or both) of one or more characters other than the poet himself in a particular life situation. compact language. but it does it with poetic flair! Many of the same elements that are found in a short story are also found in a narrative poem. the poem o conflict consists of the character's own thoughts or spoken statements.onlineliterature.org/lit_terms.net/curriculum/. It o setting is dramatic rather than narrative since the character is not "written about" by the poet.fullbooks.

it has structure. Why not try and create one or two poems on your own. Adding to this. 2. Try creating one limerick and one haiku. Remember the number of syllabus and the rhyme scheme.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Dramatic Now that you know the different genres/types of poetry. They cry about their sorrows and shout about their 15 .2. Show your work to your lecturer. usually repeats of verses and choruses. or a beat. According to the Meriam Webster dictionary –a song is a short musical composition of words and music Folk song Folk music reflects the lives of common people. Through this music people give voice to their feelings.2 – Genres of Songs General Introduction to Song What is a song? Most people will say it’s a combination of melody and lyric. The more enlightened will add harmony and rhythm.

com/articlesabout-folk-music/ Some examples of famous blues songs/music : Memphis Blues by W. Slaves did not have happy lives. This kind of music is very emotional. Through folk music people preserve their history.B. life for black people in the south was still extremely difficult. They express their beliefs and remember their ancestors. they would sometimes sing to each other in the fields.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY happiness. Down in the valley. Later. Their working conditions were not very good. Therefore. The Thrill is Gone by B. Blues It was created by African Americans who used to be slaves in the early part of the 1900's. these songs became the first Blues music. and while they worked. “I've got the blues” or “I'm blue” when you were sad because of the lyrics of these songs. the words to these songs were often very sad. http://eslfolk. The ants go marching. Not the history of textbooks.C. Ballad 16 . They tell about the things they have seen and heard and felt in their lives. and even after slavery became illegal. http://eslfolk. Crazy Blues by Mamie Smith. Handy.King and Pride and Joy by Stevie Ray Vaughan. Rasa Sayang Eh Other example of folk songs : Clap your hands.com/articles-about-folk-music/ Some example of Malaysian folk songs: Jambatan Tamparuli. It became possible to say. but the history of common people. Black people in America used to live and work on large farms called plantations.

Lullabies can be found in every culture and since the ancient period.pdf Some example of lullabies: Hush Little Baby. Lullaby A lullaby is a soothing song. they are gentle. Jazz 17 . particularly the pop or rock power ballad. As a result they are often simple and repetitive. are melodically simple and often repeat melodic patterns. Go to Sleep you little baby and Twinkle twinkle Little Star. Fifteen by Taylor Swift.org. Lullabies share common musical characteristics i. Speak Sofly love by Andy Williams. often use rocking rhythms. http://www.com/genre/jazz Some example of ballads: How can I live without you by Micheal Bolton. http://www. usually sung to young children before they go to sleep.uk/education/resources/global_music_lesson_plans/5_7/fil es/lesson4_lullabies_around_the_world.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY In the later 19th century it took on the meaning of a slow form of popular love song and the term is now often used as synonymous with any love song. I Swear by All-4-One.oxfam.musicstack. with the intention of speeding that process.e.

more recently. Thinkin Bout You by Frank Ocean and Young Girls by Bruno Mars. as well as gospel and soul music Some example of R&B songs: Diamond by Rihanna. at a time when "urbane. native to America. Soul Bossa Nova. a highly sophisticated harmonic idiom. jazz based music with a heavy. insistent beat" was becoming more popular. POP 18 . The term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues. The Free Dictionary Some examples of Jazz: Somewhere over the rainbow. Girl on Fire by Alicia Keys. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans. often abbreviated to R&B and RnB.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Jazz is defined as a style of music. rocking. is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. and Strange Fruit by Billie Holiday R&B Rhythm and blues. characterized by a strong but flexible rhythmic understructure with solo and ensemble improvisations on basic tunes and chord patterns and. I got rhythm.

and they frequently include a versechorus-verse-bridge-chorus structure or some close variant. Some example of pop songs: One More Night by Maroon 5. Most pop songs range in length from approximately 2 minutes to 5 minutes. References 19 . It can be identified as the most popular mainstream music of the time. The most consistent component of pop music has been the concept of the pop song. Pop music has been and continues to be a melting pot of styles. This is because pop music is always changing.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY There is no particular style of music that can be clearly identified as pop. Don’t Wake Me up by Chris Brown. Longer compositions are rare in pop music. We are never Ever Getting Back Together by Taylor Swift.

Songs and Rhymes in Teaching English at Primary Schools.org/whatis. USA: Allyn & Bacon. 2012 from http://www.teachers.grin.pdf 9. Retrieved 12 September 2012 from http://eslfolk. Retrieved 1 Nov. http://www. Exposed to Literature. How to write a poem.wi. Retrieved 11 Sept 2012 from http://www. Retrieved 11 Sept 2012 from http://www.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 1. 2012 from http://www. Introduction to poetry. Retrieved 1 Nov 2012.k12.poetry. M. Retrieved 12 September 2012 from http://www.buffalostate.us/elee/documents/PoetryPacket_001.htm TOPIC 3 PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING SONGS AND POETRY TO YOUNG LEARNERS 20 .sheboygan.pdf 4.buzzle.com/literary-terms/ 3.enotes. K. Aesthetics Retrieved 13 Sep. (2008). Oak. (2006) Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum. Teacher Created Materials. 2012 from.com/en/e-book/106150/songs-and-rhymes-inteaching-english-at-primary-schools 13. Retrieved 12 September 2012 from http://faculty. The Star. Retrieved 1 Nov.htm 10. (6thed). 2. (2009).poetry. The importance of literature. (2002). Simrit Kaur. What is poetry. Kursus PelaksanaanProgram Bacaan Sastera Kontemporari Kanakkanak Bahasa Inggeris Tahun 6. http://www.com/articles/importance . Fogiel. Cox.org/whatis. M. Inc: USA 6.com/articles-about-folk-music/ 11. Null. 12.edu/smithrd/UAE%20Communication/Unit4. May 25). C. (2008.slideshare.html 7.net/ddeubel/using-songsinthe-efl-classroom 8. (2000).of -literature. Teaching Language Arts: A Student-centered Classroom. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 5.C..

3.6) 2. It also aims to create an understanding of the pedagogial principles linked to the KSSR syllabus. family and friends.6. 3.3. 6. World of Knowledge and World of Stories) embeded in the teaching of songs and poetry are discussed. 3. To examine the link between poetry and songs with Malaysian primary school syllabus (KSSR/KBSR) 3. Finally the three broad themes (World of self. Select and evaluate songs and poetry for use in the primary ESL classroom based on pedagogical principles (3.0 SYNOPSIS This topic aims to look at the pedagogical principles underlying the teaching of songs and poetry to young learners. 6.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPIC CONTENT SESSION TWO (6 hours) 3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.1 Introduction 21 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 3.2.

i. truths or beliefs used as a base for reasoning or action.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY From previous chapters you would have learnt the various types of songs and poetry available for young learners in the primary classrooms. 22 . Activity 1 Identify the meaning of these words from the dictionary. This chapter also highlights the three broad themes identified in the curriculum. family and friends. pedagogy: ________________________________________________ principles: ________________________________________________ You should be aware that ’pedagogy’ refers to the art of teaching. World of self. namely. World of stories and World of knowledge. this knowledge alone is not enough for you to decide which poems or songs are suitable for your students. This includes instructions and activities related to knowledge and skills. You will be able to see the link as you read and answer the questions found in this chapter. ii. By understanding each of these element you will be able to make connections on how to teach songs and poetry and the ways of selecting and adapting resouces to suit the needs of young learners. These two aspects are deemed crucial in the understanding of the overall curriculum and its’ link to the teaching of songs and poetry in the primary schools. namely underlying pedagogical principles of the primary school curriculum and the principles related to teaching songs and poetry for young learners. One important aspect that needs consideration is the ’pedagogical principles’ underpinning the the teaching of songs and poetry for young learners. On the other hand. principles are ideas. However. This chapter will guide you to learn more about these pedagogical principles.

Edelenbos et al. giving teachers a manageable number of points of orientation. From there. (2006) claim pedagogical principles synthesize a rich set of practical. power. pure. The KSSR is a new curriculum implemented in the Year 2011 for Year 1 students in the primary schools. 2004.122). meaningful and purposeful teaching is learner-centered integration of salient new technologies character-building assessment for learning 23 Castillow (2004) believes that pedagogical principles has these characteristics. There are several pedagogical principles highlighted in the teaching of English. pristine. in a defined scope. They also highlight the fact that it should be aligned with the personality of a learner and cognition. They are referred to as ‘maxims for action. 3. instructional experiences and can be used to deal with new practical problems.2 Pedagogical Principles of the Curriculum There are several pedagogical principles that govern the learning process in the teaching of Language Arts in the primary schools.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Pedagogical principles are ’good practices’ of professionals in educational contexts. which. and packed with pedagogical . They are. be it in pedagogical practice or in educational science as one type of societal practice (Handbook on Educational Science. claim permanent validity for every concrete situation. p.2. Look through the English primary school syllabus and identify each one of them. • • • • • • back to basics learning as fun. one derives and expands didactical concepts.

Thinking question Why listening and speaking skills are highly emphasized under the first pedagogical principle? Activity 2 a.2. penmanship and basic listening and speaking skills.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Now let us look at each principle closely. 3.2. Among the areas highlighted are phonics. Why do you think penmanship is one of the important factors emphasized for young learners? Answer: _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b.1 Back to Basics This principle emphasizes the basic requirements needed for young learners at the beginning of the schooling years. It refers to a strong foundation of competencies in basic literacy skills. What do you understand with the term ’phonics’? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 24 .

meaningful and purposeful The activities catered under KSSR emphasizes full commitment from the students in engaging themselves in fun learning activities. and jump. familiar chants. tired in showing off their bodies.2.2. When children are given opportunities to enjoy experiences involving their bodies and their senses they feel good about themselves and others. Through body movement children express their understanding of ideas and language. poetry. One way of making songs and poetry fun is by coming up with interesting activities such as 25 . For example. Activity 3 Can you identify two activities that can be fun and meaningful in a language classroom? Answer: _____________________________________________________ Chenfeld (1995) claims young children never get their earliest words are body words. their first accomplishments are skills of body coordination where a teacher can combine two or three movements. jump and clap. games and challenges. teachers can introduce songs. They love repetition. music and art in teaching the language which will enable students to have fun in carrying out these activities. clap and turn.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 3. such as clap and turn.2 Learning as fun. Teachers have to find suitable activities that are purposeful and meaningful for students in order for them to explore various possibilities in knowledge and skill improvement. Along with healthy body they develop healthy self concepts. Some of According to the author.

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY action songs where students will be able to do body movement while singing. YouTube and online big books among others. They learn through their own individual actions and exploration.2.2.2. This will allow them to adopt critical thinking skills in seeking for solution. teachers must identify students’ needs before designing suitable activities for them. Furthermore. Wikis. 3.2. Examples of Web technologies are blogs.4 Integration of salient new technologies In the new millenium. 3.2. Thinking quesiton What do you understand with the term purposeful and meaningful activities? 3. chanting or reciting. Learner-centered teaching allows teachers to optimize the opportunities for the learners to learn. Technology also allows teachers to be creative in customizing their own materials besides making learning more meaningful for the students. Therefore.5 Character building infused 26 . ICT has dominated the education industry.2. This will enable active engagement in the learning process.3 Teaching is learner-centered The activities planned should allow learners to explore and experiment ideas. This is achieved by allowing learners to experiment and investigate by themselves. Allowing pupils to learn through ICT will enhance language learning in the classroom besides instillling creativity and innovation. Piaget (1970) claims children are active learners and thinkers. Various methods and approaches of using ICT are applied in assisting teachers to impart knowledge and skills to young learners. Therefore they can construct knowledge from actively interacting with the physical environment in developmental stages.

3.2. So far. 3. Now let us look at the principles that are crucial in teaching songs and poetry for young learners. On the other hand.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Teachers should be able to infuse character building among young learners through the use of literary texts. Songs and poetry can help students develop their personality traits besides being articulate. 3. it also allow teachers to plan suitable activities and materials based on the students existing knowledge. Teachers should be able to highlight the values embedded in particular songs and poetry because this will help students understand about themselves and their place in the world. confident and resourceful through performances in the classroom. it will also develop ans shape their attitudes about themselves and of others. the summative assessment is carried out at the end of the term or of a particular unit. Assessment is crucial to enable teachers to know what their students have gained or learnt.6 Assessment for learning Two forms of assessment are carried out in the primary classroom.2. Pedagogical Principles in Teaching Songs and Poetry for Young Learners Teaching Songs and poetry for young learners involves several pedagogical principles. Activity 4 Can you name a few pedagogical principles that are crucial in teaching Songs and Poetry for Young learners? 27 . formative and summative. Formative is an ongoing assessment carried out by the teacher throughout the term to assess students’ performance. Furthermore. Besides. you have read the five pedagogical principles that underline the KSSR sylllabus in the primary school.

’Perhaps these girls need to be reprimanded for being naughty’ was what Puan Zahedah wrote in her reflection. She even designed her own teaching materials so that her students could have fun with those colourful materials. Activity 5 Based on the scenario above. Puan Zahedah was upset with the outcome of her lesson today. Puan Zahedah’s students consist of 10 yearold girls. They were rather passive and played ignorant to what she was saying throughout the lesson. Even bringing in the real football into the classroom and showing a video of the football match did not have any effect on the students. identify two reasons for the Year Three students’ behaviour towards Puan Zahedah’s lesson. She needs to consider the students’ interest before deciding on the 28 . She chosed the right poem for her Year Three class.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Read and understand the scenario below. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ There are a few things that you need to consider before planning a lesson using songs and poetry in the classroom.

Despite being in Year 4. By simply playing a song for students to listen to may not be adequate. This will enable students to remember words easily. However. they The would have a difficult time trying to understand the lyrics of the song. For example. the students are not keen in learning anything. One example is the use of video which is available online. hence they were not interested in the lesson. Activity 7 Read the following dialogue between a teacher and the Headmaster 29 teacher could have selected songs with simple sentence structure which are . Although the song may be appropriate in terms of values instilled in the lyrics. the selection of content needs to be considered by Puan Zahedah. repetitive in nature. Activity 6 Now read the following reflection of an English teacher from a rural school. They could hardly use the language and are unable to memorize the lyrics of the song. The teacher definately had a hard time with her students since she used a rather difficult song for them.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY topic of the lesson. I think this is not a suitable song for them. making students watch part of a football match is definately not suitable to be adopted in the classroom as well. the teacher should have taken into consideration her students proficiency level. Since these students are of low proficiency. football may not be the students’ favourite sports. Therefore. Second. I tried introducing songs in the classroom. The teacher needs to find suitable resources for her students to listen as well as to view.

I think we need to look at this issue quite seriously. Moreover. The students are rather passive. I have tried almost everything. I even brought a small rat to show them an example. right? What was your students’ reaction? Headmaster: Puan Lay See: Headmaster: Puan Lay See: They were not interested as usual. predators..TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Headmaster: Puan Lay See: Headmaster: Puan Lay See: I understand that your students make noise everytime you enter the classroom. you need to. Actually. tunnel and so on. They would have learnt new vocabulary such as rodent. I have been teaching poetry for the past three weeks.. First. For example. Half the class screamed out loud and one even wanted to kill the poor rat. I know they have never heard of the word before. But it is our job to teach them new things. 1. yesterday I taught them a very interesting poem on ’Gopher’. I have a difficult time teaching this particular class. Identify the reasons why Puan Lay See failed in teaching the poem to her students? _____________________________________________________ 30 . Don’t you think this poem is rather too difficult for your Year 2 students? Headmaster: I thought they would enjoy reading it. It’s informational you know. Have you tried various strategies in teaching these students? Yes.

The selected songs and poems need to be motivating. stimulate curiosity. she needs to create opportunities for her students to extend and develop their skills according to their personal interests and abilities. As the Headmaster. what advice would you provide for Puan Lay See to improve her teaching? ____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Puan Lay See needs to consider a few factors before selecting suitable texts for her students. First. students will have the desire to move further to identify unfamiliar animals. By introducing familiar animals. Second.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2. encourage participation and create a desire to continue learning. It would be quite difficult for a 8 year old student to understand difficult words such as ‘rodent’. able to develop imagination. the selection of topic needs to cater to the students’ age. Activity 8 Read the poem below. Since rodent is an unfamiliar name for the Year Two students. Take a Snowball 31 . Puan Lay See needs to consider including different genres. topics and themes that will engage her students in learning. draw on personal experience. Third. introducing similar types of poem to the students may lead to boredom. the teacher could have introduced a poem of a familiar animal.

com/en/e-book/106150/songs-and-rhymes-inteaching-english-at-primary-schools As a teacher. Mister Snowman. Being familiar with songs and rhymes in a foreign language will allow pupils to feel closer to the foreign culture and its language. If the pupils hear the same melodies or similar rhymes they 32 . would you select this poem to be taught in the English classroom? Give your reasons. By learning this authentic material pupils get to know parts of a foreign culture. and leading to the use of language as a vehicle to do things. how are you? Source: http://www. no nose at all. Now.grin. Two stones will do and a carrot. your snowman is big and tall but has no eyes. roll it. Songs and poems are important elements of each culture. children will be able to know parts of a foreign culture besides satisfying their natural curiosity about something new. put it on the ground. too. Songs and poetry will enable this to happen since it is a common treads that tie people together. make it big and round. Look. Although. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Young children need to learn in a language-immersed environments where they will be able to learn and appreciate other people’s values and culture. push it.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Take a snowball. for example ’snowman’ as depicted in the poem above. The poem above is suitable for young learners since it allows for active discovery and construction of meaning. the topic may be something new for the learners. It satisfies children’s natural curiosity about everything new.

learners will be able to model the right behavior to be adopted when they are dealing with their siblings or friends. Despite the abundance of poems and songs available in print and online. It’s an important contribution to the development of tolerance and open-mindedness Read the conversation below between an English teacher and her student. I am happy. A good teacher will be able to provide opportunities for children to make connections between their understanding of lesson themes and their own personal experiences. you must be very careful in selecting the right text for your students. Activity 9 Now based on your understanding. Teacher: Are you happy being with your sisters? Student: Yes. Not like the boy who is sad. Why? My eldest sister takes good care of me. She always brings me sweets when she comes back from school. I love them very much.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY are astonished at the parallels between their own culture and the foreign one. This will allow for understanding and promoting ownership of learning. Indirectly. Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: Can someone tell me about the poem? Why was the boy sad? The boy was sad because his sister did not let him into her room. Do you like your sisters? Yes. Teacher: What do you think the boy’s brother and sister should do? Student: They must share their toys with their brother. The most important element that you need to look into is the value that is instilled in the poem or song. So the foreign cultures aren’t alarming and frightening but interesting and worth being discovered. For example. I have two sisters. 33 . Do you have a sister? Yes. list down the pedagogical principles that you need to focus on in the selection of songs and poetry for young learners. the teacher in the excerpt above has successfully related the value of the poem to the student’s personal experience. My second sister will share her toys with me.

Little caterpillar s crawled around. Read the poem below.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Answer: ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Tutorial task 1. Identify if this poem is suitable to be taught to a group of young learners. Enjoyable Full of practice Supported Meaningful Purposeful Social 34 . Provide reasons for your choice of answer. Once it was snowing. They curled up and turned into buterflies. Study the diagram below and fill in the box with suitable words/pharses. B. The seeds grew to flowers. Butterflies flew around. The sun got hotter. Then the sun came out and warmed the ground. Seeds under the ground started to grow. Source: Chenfeld. It was spring. It started to rain. Everything was asleep. M. (1995: 36) 2. Everything was cold.

the teaching of English in the primary schools is also based on three broad themes.4 Linking Poetry and Songs for Dimensions in the Malaysian Primary ESL Curriculum Besides pedagogical principles.etprofessional. 2012. from http://www. English Teaching Professional. (1998. April). C. The challenge of teaching children.pdf SESSION 2 (3 hours) 3.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Read. 35 .com/articles/challenge. Retrieved September 1. 7: 810.

i. possessions values behaviour attitude Stories belongings relationships Self. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ You will notice that the three broad themes are highlighted in all primary school English language syllabi. Family. Friends brother sister friends neighbours objects Shapes Transportation food Knowledge colours health Two of the objectives highlighted in the English Syllabus are for the students to : • appreciate and demonstrate understanding of English language literary or creative works for enjoyment. iii. They play an important role in the teaching of English. The three themes are shown in Figure 1. ii. 36 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Activity 10 With reference to the English language syllabus identify the three broad themes.

They are not like insects. Activity 11 With reference to the Year Two English syllabus. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. family and friends The young of the human species are not like sea turtles left to hatch themselves then run for their lives to the water. identify three learning standards related to the teaching of songs and poetry in the classroom.1 World of self. i. _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ In order to achieve these learning standards. it is important for you to be able to activate students’ imagination and interests through fun and meaningful learning. Therefore. the selected materials must be related to the relevant themes. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ iii.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • read and comprehend a range of English texts for information and enjoyment. curled in cocoons 37 .4. 3. Now let us look at each theme closely.

clothings. Therefore. wanting to taste each food they see. children will first learn things related to them. a teacher plays an important role in coaching them to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge in order for them to become life long learners. Young learners are very much dependent on elders for guidance to survive in this world. Activity 12 Look at the list of topics below. A child learns to be familiar with oneself followed by family members and later the friends they meet. eager to touch things they come across due to curiosity and getting to know people around them. likes and dislikes. First. Label each topic according to the themes by placing a tick ( √ ) in the right box. possessions. family and friends mainly focuses on the child/learner. this theme highlights three specific areas. • • • self family friends Children becomes very conscious of themselves as they are growing up. The theme on World of self. M. They are eager to know about themselves such as body parts. B. they become curious about themselves. As a result. Therefore. relationships. one will understand the importance of educating young learners from the day they were born. Based on the statement above. 38 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY until they must wing it on their own. namely. FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Source: Chenfeld. human babies ae totally dependent on the care of the others. (1995: 109): Creative experiences for young children. For example. The most helpless of all infants.

B. their relationship to greater family structures is important and appreciated. Sometimes we have such good friends and neighbours that we think of them as members of our own family. They can also talk about happenings in their everyday life. stepparents. Friends and family members are people who care about us. M. uncles. Caring and sharing Looking good On the Farm Good deeds Save the sea creatures Reuse. Since family members consist of parents. Family members are a source of creative and important learning experiences. Especially in these difficult times for so many children who feel alienated and abandoned. recycle Myths World of Self World of Family World of Friends Children must know that in addition to the family they live with and their extended families. aunts. they belong to the great Human Family. grandparents. Children can talk about oneself and family and their personal details. cousins and siblings among others. FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers Next. Source: Chenfeld. their family of friends at school. students are conscious of their own family members. Family is basic to all people consisting of many members.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Topic Hooray! We are back Do the right thing Where am I? Read me a story I am special Delicious food Growing plants When I grow up. 39 . (1995: 125): Creative experiences for young children. they have much to contribute to children’s lives.

my bike. I don’t care I will not share. my ball of twine. They need to be taught the value of friendship and being able to share their things with others. “My game. It also highlights the consequence of not sharing that is not having any friends to play with. The poem focuses on a boy who refuses to share his toys with his friends. This poem highlights the need to share among family and friends. The Greedy Boy “Rain or shine I want what’s mine. 40 . Timothy Rasinski Would you use this poem to teach your primary school students? Give your reasons.” so said the greedy boy.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Activity 13 Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow. Being possessive is one common characteristic among young children which normally ends up with fights among brothers. sisters and friends. my basket full of toys. and so with despair. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ‘The Greedy Boy’ is a good poem to be introduced to primary school students for these reasons. no one would dare to make this boy their friend.” he said to the bitter end.

It is best achieved by using songs and poems because the outcome of individuals mental processes can be given external representations through symbolic systems such as language and music. festivals and celebrations among others. For example.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 3.4. learning of alphabets. be happy When is your birthday? Order 41 . One way of making young learners gain knowedge is through songs and poetry. objects around them. acquired by learning. Activity 14 Rearrange the topics listed below in the order you would teach them for a Year 1 class.2 World of knowledge The Oxford dictionary defines knowledge as ’the state or condition of understanding [some matter]. Topic All about me Chad My Milkman I see colours In the garden Let’s be friends Let’s go shopping Listen to me Look at me Meet my family Sound around us Stay clean. numbers. Since they are attracted to music. songs and poetry can be used as tools to teach these learners the required knowledge.

The big red sign Tells us so. Besides this. You will notice that they are sequenced in the following manner: • • • • Talking about self and friends Ways of taking care of oneself Getting to know family members and friends Learning about things around them World of knowledge deals with the things young learners see or feel around them. in Year One. And green means go.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY These topics are taken from the Year 1 English syllabus. Red Means Stop Stop. These information are necessary for young learners to learn and follow through the theme World of Knowledge. For example. stop! Please. Read means stop. One example of a poem dealing with the theme is provided below. They are also required to voice the sounds of words. Tim Rasinski 42 . do not go. I know that. And so does Joe. they are required to identify and distinguish the shapes of the letters in the alphabet. Learners are also required ot listen and follow simple instructions in the classroom. they also need to know how to keep themselves clean and healthy.

Identify and discuss why this poem falls under the theme World of Knowledge. He nibbles. Activity 15 Here’s a Rabbit Oh. What would the students learn from the above poem? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 3. Young children loves to listen to stories and 43 . Besides. hop about On legs so very strong. here’s a fluffy rabbit With two ears so very long See him hop. hops away.3 World of stories The theme World of Stories focuses on stories that capture young learners’ interests in learning. hop.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY The above poem is suitable to be taught in the primary classroom. nibbles carrots For his dinner every day And as soon as he has had enough He hops. Learners will be able to be aware of road safety and learn from young the importance of following these rules. The topic is relevant since it provides information on traffic rules and regulations. they will also learn colours which is another important aspect to be taught.4. hops.

Our mittens we have lost. Then you're good kittens. Our mittens we have found. mother. Put on their mittens. Three Little Kittens Three little kittens. dear. 44 . You naughty kittens. Then you shall have no pie. And you shall have some pie. Oh. See here. One example is shown below. And they began to cry. We sadly fear. meow. What! Lost your mittens. purr-rr. You naughty kittens. We sadly fear. Meow. And they began to cry. see here. And soon ate up the pie. Purr-rr. Oh.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY these stories can be in the form of poems and songs. Our mittens we have soiled. found your mittens. They found their mittens. The three little kittens. Oh. dear. What. mother. Then you shall have some pie. They lost their mittens. What! Soiled your mittens. Then you shall have no pie. Three little kittens. mother. dear.

We smell a rat close by.ivyjoy. meow. They washed their mittens. Do you not hear. And hung them out to dry.html#woman Activity 16 ’Three Little Kittens’ is poem suitable to be introduced for the primary school children. mother. And they began to sigh. Our mittens we have washed? What! Washed your mittens? Then you're good kittens! But I smell a rat close by.com/fables/mothergoose. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 45 . Meow. The three little kittens. Source: http://www. Meow. meow. Discuss how this poem can be used to help students in in learning the language.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY And they began to sigh. dear. Oh.

dear sir.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Read the poem ’A Mouse’s Tail’ written by Lewis Caroll which is taken from the movie ’Alice in Wonderland’." said Alice.— Come. 'Let us both go to law: I will prosecute you. The Mouse's Tale by Lewis Carroll "Mine is a long and a sad tale!" said the Mouse. "but why do you call it sad?" And she kept on puzzling about it while the Mouse was speaking. turning to Alice. would be 46 . We must have a trial: For really this morning I've nothing to do. so that her idea of the tale was something like this:— "Fury said to a mouse. "It is a long tail. identify if this poem is suitable for your students in school. certainly. 'Such a trial. and sighing. I'll take no denial. That he met in the house. With no jury or judge. As you read. looking down with wonder at the Mouse's tail.' Said the mouse to the cur.

‘jury’. said the Mouse. 'I'll try the whole cause. and looking anxiously about her. and condemn you to death. always ready to make herself useful.net/mouse. "you had got to the fifth bend. ‘prosecute’ and ‘judge’ can be taught to them since they should be able to understand these terms. Third. "A knot!" said Alice." said Alice very humbly. "Oh. let me help to undo it!" "I shall do nothing of the sort. the teacher can turn the text into a ‘mental’ movie that allows students to visualize the content of the poem.' Said cunning old Fury. I'll be jury.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY wasting our breath.html This poem is suitable for upper primary students for these reasons.' " "You are not attending!" said the Mouse to Alice. getting up and walking away. student can infer what happened before and after the poem which will further enhance their understanding of the text. severely. the choice of diction used should be Words such as ‘trial’. "What are you thinking of?" "I beg your pardon. 47 . First.' 'I'll be judge. "You insult me by talking such nonsense!" Source: http://bootless. suitable for students in the upper primary school. Second. This is possible since the text is taken from the famous movie ‘Alice in Wonderland’. I think?" "I had not!" cried the Mouse sharply and very angrily.

Retrieved from http://etd. C. Louisiana State University. Mary’s Lamb Mary had a little lamb. To see a lamb at school.pdf Tutorial Task Read the poem below. But still he lingered near. The lamb was sure to go. S.edu/docs/available/etd-1111102204823/unrestricted/Salcedo_dis. (unpublished doctoral dissertation). It followed her to school one day Which was against the rule. Salcedo. Till Mary did appear. Discuss why this poem is suitable to be used in the primary classroom. (2002). Its fleece was white as snow. And waited patiently about. Justify your choice by making reference to the pedagogical principles. His head upon her arm.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Further Reading Please refer to the following website for additional information. And so the teacher turned him out. The effect of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. As if he said. ‘I’m not afraid You’ll shield me from all harm.’ ‘What makes the lamb love Mary so?’ 48 . I made the children laugh and play.lsu. And then he ran to her and laid. And everywhere that Mary went.

com/fables/mothergoose. you know. 92001). ‘And you each gentle animal. USA: Shell Education Publishing. B. April).com/articles/challenge. Grossman: New York. (1970).’ The teacher did reply. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://www.html#woman 49 . Johnstone. Read. FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers Edelenbos. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://ec.mothergoosecaboose. Poems for word study.europa. Songs and rhymes in teaching English at primary schools .pdf Mother goose and selected nursery rhymes.com/newstuff/nrb/NURSERYRHYMEBO OK. C. Sarah Josepha Hale (1788-1879) source: http://www. The challenge of teaching children. And make it follow at your call.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY The little children cry. (1998. English Teaching Professional. The Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child .grin. The main pedagogical principles underlying the teaching of languages to very young learners Languages for the children of Europe. If you are always kind. and Karen McGuigan Brothers (2006). In confidence may bind. T.etprofessional. 7: 8-10. A.. P.pdf References Chenfeld. M. ‘O Mary loves the lamb. (2006). R.ivyjoy. V.com/en/e-book/106150/songs-and-rhymesin-teaching-english-at-primary-schools Piaget. (1995: 109): Creative experiences for young children. J..eu/education/policies/lang/doc/young_en.pdf Geyer. Rasinski. Kubanek.

4.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY TOPIC 4A PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION AND ADAPTATION OF SONGS 4. It will also highlight on the adaptation of songs for the language classroom. This session will focus on the principles of selection of songs for young learners by looking at the purposes for using songs in the ESL classroom.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 4. you will be able to: • • identify the principles of selection and adaptation of songs for use in the primary ESL classroom justify the choice of song selection using the criteria of text selection 50 . the principles of song selection and the techniques of using songs in the classroom.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 4A highlights on the principles of selection and adaptation of songs.

teachers are advised to use songs as part of their classroom teaching repertoire.2.476). 1988. grammar and cultural aspects and are fun for your students.1 Types of songs 51 ." (Gatbonton and Segalowitz. 4. As songs present an authentic use of language. listening and language practice in and out of the classroom.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS SONGS Selection Adaptation Purposes Technique Criteria of s Text CONTENT Selection 4.2.1 SELECTION OF SONGS FOR YOUNG LEARNERS The following section will focus on the types of songs. purposes of using songs in the classrooms. p.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • adapt and justify songs collected using the principles of text simplification 4.2 TOPIC FOUR A (3 HOURS) Teachers should "place students in an environment in which it is appropriate to use target utterances in a genuinely communicative fashion. 4. provide vocabulary. songs are also easily obtainable. Songs provide valuable speaking.1. It will also look at learner levels and cultural considerations. the criteria of text selection and suggestions of techniques or activities that could be used in using songs in the language classroom. This is because apart from presenting language in an authentic way.

2. . 5. P. Why are the songs you have listed above suitable for classroom use? List at least 5 criteria.. Types Special occasion songs Description Songs which are sung on certain occasions or at certain times of the year.. & Wheeler. Jones. Songs where one structure or a lot of lexis is repeated over and over again Songs which tells a story. Songs and games 3. B. A Training Course for TEFL. (Source: Hubbard. There are different types and genres of songs you can choose from to teach in the language classroom. Songs. Thornton. Specially written songs for teaching.. H. what type of songs would be suitable for classroom use? List at least 3 types. 1991) 52 . R.   In your opinion. which are sung to accompany certain games Songs which require actions or some sort of mime to be performed while singing them. usually children’s songs. Action songs 4.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Let’s think about this. Here are some examples of the different types of songs that can be used with your students: No 1. Songs that narrate stories.

2 Purposes for Using Songs in the Language Classroom Let’s think about this. and familiar vocabulary. Perhaps the greatest benefit to using songs in the classroom is that they can be fun! In line with the National Philosophy of Education Malaysia.1 4. the main purposes for using songs in 53 .2. Murphy (1992) suggests that carefully selected songs are particularly appropriate for language learning.   Why do teachers use songs in the classroom? List at least 5 reasons. a high verb count. affective language with riskless communication qualities.. because their discourse includes simple. There is strong practical evidence supporting the use of music in the English language classroom.3.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Provide some examples for the each type of songs listed in the table in 6.. In fact musical and language processing occur in the same area of the brain (Medina. What are the advantages of using songs in the teaching and learning of English classroom? List at least 5 advantages. familiar native texts.1. Songs can be used for a number of purposes and there are many reasons why songs can be considered a valuable pedagogical tool. there is also a growing body of research confirming that songs are a useful tool in language acquisition. 1993). Certain songs may be easily remembered due to the quality of the melody and the text. Pop songs and advertisement jingles have melodies that are catchy and easily learned thus making them very suitable to be used in the language classroom with young learners.

54 . and individual sounds) and intonation when speaking. moving around and using gestures. Songs can be selected to suit the needs and interests of the students. Songs exposes students to a wide range of accents. Songs promote learner independence. Songs are usually very easily obtainable. This will therefore help young learners to improve their speaking skills • Songs can also be useful tools in the learning of vocabulary. • • • Unlike structure drills. but without boredom. natural language.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY the ESL classroom is because of its potential to develop students in the following areas: • Personal development • Aesthetic development • Cultural development • Language learning development • Moral values Some key reasons songs can work exceedingly well in ESL language classroom include the following: • • • • • Songs exposes students to authentic. sentence structures. Grammar and cultural aspects can be introduced through songs. Songs can help young learners improve their listening skills and pronunciation. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced to students through songs. and sentence patterns.. It provides pronunciation practice (stress and rhythm. songs give students intensive practice in selected patterns.

Why do you think that the factors you have identified are crucial? Justify. (Source: http://www.   What factors should be considered when selecting songs for the language classroom? List at least 5 factors. Students learn quicker than with other methods.com/articles/songs) 4. • Songs help to promote cooperation (singing is a group activity that helps bring students together and breaks down barriers of reserve which prevents them learning the language effectively) • Using songs reinforces other things the teacher is working on in the classroom such as discipline..3 Criteria for Songs Selection Let’s think about this. • • • • Students have fun and are therefore motivated for the rest of the lesson and future lessons. The way you teach and the practice activities you do depend to a large extent on the sort of songs you have chosen..1. There are factors that you need to consider 55 . Students lose some of their inhibitions about speaking out.eslbase. teaching students to work together.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • It increases students’ motivation to learn the language (weaker students will feel a real sense of achievement when they are able to learn a new song). rewarding good behaviour and fostering teamwork amongst students.2. Songs make the learning experience more memorable.

if it contains slang or offensive words. Learner Levels Learner levels is the most important criteria that must be considered in the selection of a teaching learning material. you have to consider the following factors: • • • • Cultural biasness Sensitivity to the impact of culturally-induced behaviour Familiarity to learners’ background knowledge The use words or expressions which are perceived as inappropriate. we have to assess the level of its structural and lexical difficulty. offensive or vulgar in the context of the students If you find that the lyrics of the songs are not suitable. In selecting songs. in this case songs.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY when using songs and how they can be used effectively in your language classroom. intermediate and advanced levels. Learner levels is also an important consideration in designing teaching learning activities. When we try to find a readable text. ii. for example. provided the task is not too challenging. 56 . structure). the students can still deal with more difficult texts. a teacher needs to choose the ones that suit their students’ level in terms of text difficulty and language complexity (vocabulary. i. you may need to adapt the lyrics to suit your students. Still. Nuttal (1982) argues a text should be at the right level with the student’s proficiency. Cultural Considerations Songs reflect culture and by using these songs can give your students the opportunity to acquire a better understanding of the culture of the target language. Much of this have been elaborated earlier in the section Readibility of Text. Students can be categorized into three levels of proficiency which are elementary. In choosing songs.

Readability of text Suitability of content Exploitability These song selection criteria are discussed in the following sections. easily remembered and age-appropriate The following are criteria for selection and adaptation of songs that need to be considered : A. Readability of Text Let’s think about this.e. vocabulary) and structural difficulty found in a text. (Nuttal. It is the combination of lexical (i.. A. B.. slang or vulgarities the tune should be catchy. Hence. C. select songs that are appropriate to your students’ 57 .1982). Therefore. • • • • • Other Considerations Little (1983) offered some song selection criteria for language teachers: the song should be popular the song should be meaningful to the student the song should be slow enough to test comprehension as well as clear enunciation on the part of the singer the level of language used in the song should be simple with no difficult idioms.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY iii. • What do you think the term “readibility of text” mean? What does it refer to? Readability is a measure of the comprehensibility of written text. the songs chosen should be at the right level of difficulty for your students.

complexity of vocabulary and sentence structure. you need to make sure of the following: • • • what type and genre of songs appeal to your students? is the content of the song (issue raised) appropriate for your students (social cultural background..usingenglish.com/articles/using-songs-with-young-learners. 1982). Suitability of Content Let’s think about this.   What does “suitability of content” mean? Which kind of content might be suitable and might not be suitable? Students’ interest is among the most important requirement you should take into consideration in text selection (Nuttal. levels and vocabulary which is not at all difficult. Songs can be selected to suit the needs and interests of your own students. The following are some questions you might want to ponder on when selecting: • • • • What is my students’ language level? How much new vocabulary (lexical) is acceptable? Are there structural difficulties in the song? Can your students understand the meaning of the songs and can it be made clear in a quick and easy way? (Source:: http://www..TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY level of proficiency in terms of sentence length. word length within sentences. maturity level)? does the song present an authentic use of language? 58 .html) B. When selecting songs for their content suitability. There are many English songs available for selection with suitable themes.

in the context of song selection. a good song is one which you can exploit in your teaching. language complexity)? is there repetition of particular words and phrases? is the language in the song similar to the language they will be able to use in other parts of the class and/ or outside the class? 59 . speed..TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • does the song contain slang or offensive words and overly crude. This means. you can compile an extensive library of usable songs for students in your language classrooms. Exploitability Let’s think about this. you need to make sure of the following factors: • • • is the song suitable for your students in terms genre. 1982).usingenglish. content (issues..  What do you understand by the word “exploitability”? Exploitability means that the text should facilitate the development of reading skills in order to help the students become competent and independent readers (Nuttal. However. you make use of it to develop your students’ competence in achieving their learning outcomes.html) With careful screening. C.com/articles/using-songs-with-young-learners. When you exploit a song. the term exploitation could also be translated as the facilitation of learning. When selecting songs for their exploitability. foul or otherwise objectionable language which is inappropriate especially for young learners? (Source: http://www.

2. perform actions. Generally.usingenglish. This provides a good platform for students to have fun and therefore motivates them for the rest of the lesson and future lessons. at the lower primary level. Choose songs that which are easy to understand. On the other hand.4 Techniques in Using Songs with Young Learners There are a variety of different ways or techniques to use songs in the classroom.. 4. Let’s think about this.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • • does the song consist of the vocabulary / grammatical item / sentence structure you wish to teach? are the songs’ tune and lyric memorable? does the song allow for plenty of actions and movements? (Adapted from http://www. techniques employed focussing on prosodic features (suprasegmental features) of the language are often emphasized.  Can you think of two activities each. Avoid translation as much as possible but instead.com/articles/using-songs-with-young-learners. to be carried out with the song “Old McDonald” and “Ten Little Indians”? The following are several techniques you can employ when using songs in the language classroom: • • Dictation Focus questions 60 . to explain and to express.html) Choose a catchy song that students can easily sing and memorize until next time you sing it in class. techniques employed at the higher primary level focussed on the practice of grammar items.1. Some teachers prefer to use background music and others use music lyrics as the basis of a lesson..

(cycling motion with legs) 61 . irregular verbs.at/ludescher/Grammar/teaching_grammar_through_songs _a.htm http://www2.htm Here is a sample activity that you could use with your students: Elephant Song (teacher and students’ actions are indicated in brackets) What is that noise (cup hand to ear) Up in the attic (point over your head) It is an elephant (make a trunk with your arm) Cycling round and round.com/teaching-tips/music-classroom. phrasal verbs) Source: http://www.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Class discussion Add a final verse True-false statements Gap fills or close texts Teach reading comprehension Teach listening for details and gist Put lines into the correct sequence Teach pronunciation and intonation Teach and build vocabulary and idioms Circle the antonyms/synonyms of the given words Introduce a new theme or topic (colours/feelings etc) Change the mood (liven things up or calm things down) Review material (background music improves memory) Breaking the ice in a class where students do not know each other or are having difficulty communicating Teach songs and rhymes about difficult grammar and spelling rules that need to be memorized ("i before e".vobs.englishclub.

.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY It is an elephant (make a trunk with your arm) All chic and elegant (fashion model pose) With one tail here (make trunk with your arm) And one behind.teachingvillage. and give it a try! Play games that deal with the vocabulary in the song. vii. Teach the lyrics of the song by using materials like flash cards or book. each time. consider adapting the song. vi. i.weebly. v. Tips on Carrying Out Activities Using Songs Here are some tips on how to use poems with young learners in the English classroom. (point to where your tail would be if you had one!) Repeat the song a number of times.  Sometimes we find ourselves in a position whereby we need to adapt 62 . but continue to do the action for that line.com/) A. By the end of the song all you're doing is actions.org/2010/03/24/teaching-young-learners-withsongs-by-matt-richelson/) 4. ii. if possible use meaningful gestures. no singing. you stop singing one line of the song. Teach the song slowly at first. Play the song. Pick the right song. (source: http://songsandpoetryforesl..2 ADAPTATION OF SONGS The following section will focus on factors to consider when adapting songs for use in the language classroom.2. If it is a new song introduce it slowly. If you like the song but find that some of the words are too difficult. Let’s think about this. iv. (Source: http://www. iii.

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY some of the songs we would like use. Some of the most basic children's songs can sometimes be too difficult. you may have to do any one or all of the following to meet to the needs of your students or your teaching point: • • • • • adapt the song by making the melody appropriately paced: make the tempo or beat slower if the song’s beat is too fast. simplify the words or sentence structure of the lyrics of the songs chosen. find an appropriate point to end the song if it is too long. 63 . Instances where an adaptation may be needed are: • • • • • • when the song’s beat is too fast when the song is too long when the vocabulary and sentence structure used are too complex or too difficult when the lyrics does not allow any gesture and dance the lyrics may not be suitable and contain slang or offensive words and grammatical mistakes when the lyrics only marginally teach the language points you want to focus on. List at least 5 reasons why we might need to adapt some of the songs. reduce most carefully some of the lyrics of the songs chosen. you may need to adapt the songs to suit your students. adapt the song by replacing the wordings / lyrics which are difficult with simpler words. Hence. The following are factors of consideration in adapting songs: • Lexical items • Sentence structure • Content As such.

beep. beep. This feature could be an item of vocabulary. up and down. swim. you can made them simple for your students by creating songs that are appropriately paced. swim. 64 . swim. wiggle. click. swish. or a simple conversational expression. blink. swim. wiggle. click. pinch. wiggle. all through the town! The horn on the bus goes beep. lyrically simple. you have the advantage of being able to select a particular language feature and incorporate it into the song. beep beep. click. syntax. The fish in the sea goes swim. wiggle. swish. swim. beep. click. wiggle. swim. wiggle. pinch. and FUN! In the box below is a modified lyrics from the song the song The Wheels on the Bus The adaptations are in bold. pinch. click. The wheels on the bus go round and round. beep. blink. This allows you to incorporate more songs into a curriculum and save time searching for and learning new songs. up and down. In adapting the songs you have selected. round and round. swim. click. pinch. full of space for movement. pinch. The wheels on the bus go round and round. swim. all day long! The crab in the sea goes click. swish.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • adapt the song by replacing some of the words with words which will allow gestures. click. click. pinch. pinch. The wipers on the bus go swish. beep. The crab in the sea goes click. easily taught through gesture. By adapting the song in this way. all day long. The horn on the bus goes beep. adapt the song by including the language points you want to focus on. beep. all through the town! The wipers on the bus go swish. swish. The people on the bus go up and down. The lobster in the sea goes pinch. The octopus in the sea goes wiggle. swish. click. round and round. swish. all day long! The octopus in the sea goes wiggle. all through the town! The people on the bus go up and down. swish. beep. pinch. wiggle. SONG: THE WHEELS ON THE BUS Original Lyrics Alternative Lyrics The fish in the sea goes swim. swish. swish. swim. phonology. wiggle. pinch. beep. pinch. wiggle. swish. all through the town! The signals on the bus go blink. wiggle. click. all day long! The lobster in the sea goes pinch. swim.

waa. zoom. shh. shh. Identify the melody of the songs below by carrying out a search for the song on Youtube .com/watch?v=Jdqk6SMfIvA Can you come up with other alternatives to the song lyrics above? More practice. I love you. too. zoom. waa. blink. shh. shh. blink.. zoom. The parents on the bus go shh. waa.. zoom. all through the town! The babies on the bus go waa. zoom. zoom. The motor on the bus goes zoom. zoom. (year.php http://www. waa. shh. All through the town. waa.youtube. zoom. I love you. The signals on the bus go blink. blink. waa. shh. waa. zoom. shh. blink.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY blink. blink. • Practice 1 1. I love you The daddy on the bus says. 2.com/songs/wheels-on-the-bus-go-round-and-round. Source: http://bussongs. waa. zoom. all through the town! The motor on the bus goes zoom. I love you. Identify the level and the background of the students you can use the songs with in a language classroom. blink. proficiency level) 65 . shh. shh. The babies on the bus go waa. waa. all through the town! The mommy on the bus says. rural/urban. waa. all through the town! The parents on the bus go shh. blink. shh.

. It’s a small world after all. La . It’s a small world after all. BINGO There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o BINGO. Sew . and a world of fears. Though the mountains divide. Ray . And a smile means friendship to everyone.a name I call myself Far .a deer. And the oceans are wide.the selection criteria .oh. Miss Lucy called the doctor. * Repeat (2 x) Do-Re-Mi-Fa-So-La-Ti-Do. His name was Tiny Tim. Think of a few activities to carry out based on the poem. BINGO. It’s a world of hopes. There is just one moon and one golden sun. a female deer. oh. Tea . a world of tears.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 3. small world. So-Do. He ate up all the soap. Itsy-Bitsy Spider The itsy-bitsy spider Climbed up the water spout Down came the rain And washed the spider out Out came the sun And dried up all the rain And the itsy-bitsy spider Climbed up the spout again Do Re Mi Doe . He drank up all the water. 4. 5. There’s so much that we share. BINGO You’ve Got a Friend By Carole King When you're down and troubled And you need some loving care 66 .a long. That will bring us back to doe. But it wouldn't go down his throat.a drink with jam and bread. She put him in the bathtub To see if he could swim. Miss Lucy called the lady With the alligator purse. It’s a small world after all (3 x).oh.a drop of golden sun. It’s a small.a needle pulling thread. maturity) .cultural considerations Adapt the song using the principles of text simplification and justify your adaptation. long way to run.the teaching learning purposes . That it’s time we’re aware. Justify your answers using the principles of text selection below: . Miss Lucy called the nurse.your learners’ level (proficiency. It’s a world of laughter. Me .a note to follow so. It’s a Small World Miss Lucy Had a Baby Miss Lucy had a baby. He tried to eat the bathtub.

***GO. Lock her up. lock her up. Falling down. 67 . My fair lady. Take the key and lock her up. lock her up. Take the key and lock her up. *****. **NGO and Bingo was his name-o There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o ***GO. *INGO. summer or fall All you have to do is call And I'll be there You've got a friend If the sky above you Grows dark and full of clouds And that old north wind begins to blow Keep your head together And call my name out loud Soon you'll hear me knocking at your door You just call out my name And you know wherever I am I'll come running to see you Winter. ***** and Bingo was his name-o There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o BINGO. ***GO and Bingo was his name-o There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o ****O. London Bridge is falling down. BINGO.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY And nothing. ****O and Bingo was his name-o There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o *****. spring. **NGO. spring. summer or fall All you have to do is call And I'll be there You've got a friend and Bingo was his name-o (Clap when you see a * ) There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o *INGO. Lock her up. My fair lady. nothing is going right Close your eyes and think of me And soon I will be there To brighten up even your darkest night You just call out my name And you know wherever I am I'll come running to see you again Winter. summer or fall All you have to do is call And I'll be there Ain't it good to know that you've got a friend When people can be so cold They'll hurt you. ****O. BINGO and Bingo was his name-o Practice 2 Writing Parallel Lyrics London Bridge London Bridge is falling down. and desert you And take your soul if you let them Oh. but don't you let them You just call out my name And you know wherever I am I'll come running to see you again Winter. *INGO and Bingo was his name-o There was a famer had a dog and Bingo was his name-o **NGO. spring. falling down.

Say “We are!” 5. If you’re happy and you know it. _________________ • Practice 3 Discuss and share your views 1. A classroom of Year 6 high proficiency students in a SBT in Kuala Lumpur. Clap your hands (2 x) If you’re happy and you know it. Stamp your feet 2. Iron bars will bend and break 3. 1. Nod your head 3. Browse through the internet and select one from each genre of songs below for the following groups of students: Students’ background A classroom of Year 4 low proficiency students in the rural area. _________________________ _________________________ Other examples of the first verse: 1. Build it up with iron bars 2. Build it up with silver and gold Can you come up with other examples for the verse? • • b) If You’re Happy If you’re happy and you know it.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY a) The following phrases are also sung similar to the wordings of the verse in bold. Clap your hands. Song genre • pop • ballad • • pop ballad 68 . Turn around 4. Then you’ll really want to show it. _________________ 6.

22. J.Cultural considerations 3. (6thed). Creative automatization: Principles for promoting fluency within a communicative framework. C. 14 (4). Teaching Language Arts: A Student-centered Classroom. (1988).(2008). Little. 473-492. USA: Allyn & Bacon. 40-44. Justify your choice of selection based on the following principles of text selection: . Justify your adaptation (refer to 6.1 69 . References Cox.3). Pop and rock music in the ESL classroom. N.Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.3. Gatbonton. Hubbard.Purposes . TESOL Quarterly. (1983).Learners’ Level . TESL Talk.Criteria . et al(1991) A Training Course for TEFL.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 2. & Segalowitz. You may have to adapt the songs classroom use.Techniques . E. 4. Suggest suitable activities based on the songs you have selected and describe in simple teaching steps how you would carry out the activities.

Boston. C.htm http://www.com/songs/wheels-on-the-bus-go-round-and-round.php http://www. C.com/articles/songs http://digitaldreamdoor.eslbase.teachingvillage. The Discourse Op Pop Songs. ‘National Network for Early Language Learning’. The Effect of Music on Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Oxford: Blakewell Publishing. C.weebly.com/ http://songsandpoetryforesl. (2002).M.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Malaysian Primary Syllabus KSSR Syllabus Curriculum Specifications Medina. Teaching Literature. Nuttall. Websites http://bussongs. Vol 6-3. 1993. and Brown.englishclub.com/teaching-tips/music-classroom. Oxford: Heinemann International.html http://www. TESOL Quarterly 26”(4). Suzanne L. 770774.(2002) Essentials of Children’s Literature.org/2010/03/24/teaching-young-learners-with-songsby-matt-richelson/ 70 . T (1992). Murphy.L. E. USA: Allyn and Bacon.(1982) Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Tomlinson. Showalter.kidsmusictown.com/pages/best_balladsddd.com http://www.

usingenglish. 71 .com/articles/using-songs-with-young-learners.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 4B highlights on the principles of selection and adaptation of poems.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY http://www2. the principles of poem selection and the techniques of using poems in the classroom.at/ludescher/Grammar/teaching_grammar_through_songs_a. This session will focus on the principles of selection of poems for young learners by looking at the purposes for using poems in the ESL classroom. It will also highlight on the adaptation of poems for the language classroom.ht m http://www.vobs.html TOPIC 4B PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION AND ADAPTATION OF POEMS 4.

1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 4B. This exposure will enrichen their knowledge and experience of the target language as it exposes students to authentic language use. students are also exposed to a form of language that can provide new insights through imaginative and beautiful expressive language.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS POEMS Selection Adaptation Purposes CONTENT Criteria of Text Selection Techniques CONTENT TOPIC FOUR B (3 HOURS) Students should be exposed to different types of poetry in the language classroom. you will be able to: • • • identify the principles of selection and adaptation of poems for use in the primary ESL classroom justify choice of poem selection using the criteria of text selection adapt and justify poems collected using the principles of text simplification 4.3 SELECTION OF POEMS FOR YOUNG LEARNERS 72 . Through poetry.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 4. 4.

3. you should consider your students’ potential development of the following areas: • • • • • Personal Development Aesthetic Development Cultural Development Language Learning Development Moral Values Development There are many reasons for teaching and using poetry in ESL language classroom.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY The following section will focus on purposes of using poems in the classrooms.   Why do teachers use poems in the classroom? List at least 5 reasons. Poems can help young learners improve their listening skills and pronunciation.1 Purposes for Using Poetry in the Language Classroom Let’s think about this.. Some of the key reasons include the following: 73 . sentence structures. and sentence patterns. Poems can also be useful tools in the learning of vocabulary. therefore potentially helping them to improve their speaking skills. What are the advantages of using poems in the teaching and learning of English classroom? List at least 5 advantages. 4. In selecting poems. the criteria of text selection and techniques or activities that could be used in using poems in the language classroom for young learners. Poems can be used for a number of purposes and there are many reasons why poems are used in the classroom.. including learner levels and cultural considerations.

. 74 . L.(1989).TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • • • • • • • • • • poem provides enjoyment – some poems are amusing and entertaining the reading and recitation of poems helps to develop confidence in using English reciting poetry encourages the use of correct stress and intonation in English speech poems help to develop interest in words and word usage in new ways to achieve certain effects poems helps to introduce new vocabulary and word order poems present the use of ordinary words in new ways helps to sharpen pupils’ senses and appreciation of language the rhythm and repetition in poems helps pupils to remember and memorise them easily poems help to expand students’ knowledge about the world poems help students to identify with people and situations poems express moods familiar to pupils poems give insights into pupils and their feelings (Adapted from Wario.H. London and Basingstoke: MacMillan) 4.2 Criteria for Poetry Selection Let’s think about this.3.Ways of Teaching Primary English..

2 Cultural Considerations Poems reflect culture and by using these poems can give your students the opportunity to acquire a better understanding of the culture of the target language. In choosing poems. often causing the student to perceive ordinary things in new ways. Learner levels is also an important consideration in designing teaching learning activities. Much of this have been elaborated earlier in the section Readibility of Text. however. Hence.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY   Which poetry genre(s) would attract young learners? What topic would interest young learners? List at least 5 topics. must be unique. The expression of the ideas and feelings. they might need to be adapted. 4. 4. The poem needs to appropriate to the experiences of a child and does not preach to them. If you decide that the 75 .3. offensive or vulgar in the context of the students The poems must present the world through a child’s perspective and focuses on lives and activities as well as on activities to which the child can relate. you have to consider the following factors: • • • • Cultural Biasness Sensitivity to the impact of culturally-induced behaviour Familiarity to learners’ background knowledge The use words or expressions which are perceived as inappropriate. In selecting poems.2. The most basic children's poetry can sometimes too difficult for students in the rural areas. in this case poems.2. a teacher needs to select poems that suit their students’ level in terms of text difficulty and language complexity (vocabulary.1 Learner Levels Learner levels is the most important criteria that must be considered in the selection of a teaching learning material.3. structure).

consider the illustrations and the appearance of the book. In selecting poems for your students. humorous narrative. Beautiful illustrations do not ensure a good collection of poems within the covers.3.3 Students’ Interest Young children prefer narrative poems over lyric poems as compared to free verse and haiku. poems about animals. They also like humorous poems.4 Other Considerations There are different types and genres of poems you can choose from for use in the language classroom. Children prefer poems with regular. and content based on familiar experiences enthusiasm declines as children get older favour contemporary over traditional poems use of minimal complex imagery and subtle emotion Some other criteria that must also be considered when selecting the poems are: 76 . and poems about enjoyable familiar experiences.3. the following factors could also be useful for consideration: • • • • rhyme.2. Limericks are children’s favoured form. They also prefer poems that have pronounced sound patterns of all kinds.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY poetry is well selected. distinctive beats (rhythm).2. but especially enjoy poems that rhyme. the elements of imagery and figurative language are not well received by young learners because it is not easy to understand poems figurative language. (Source: Tunnell & Jacobs. 1999) 4. Generally. 4.

or encourage them to explore.html) Nuttal (1982:25) outlines a list of criteria as guidelines for selecting a text for classroom use. • • • poems for young children should tell simple stories and introduce stirring scenes of action. and findings. enhance their egos. and to put themselves into the poems. • poems should be good enough to stand up under repeated readings.stmartin. the poems selected should not have been written down to children's supposed level.edu/fac_staff/belinda/poetry. 77 . (SOURCE : http://homepages. poems for young children should emphasize the sounds of language and encourage play with words. images. sharply cut visual images and words used in fresh novel manners allow children to expand their imaginations and see or hear the world in a new way. tickle their funny bones. say something to them. to feel. • the subject matter should delight children. These are: • • • the readability of text the suitability of content the exploitability of the authentic text The above selection criteria are discussed in the following sections. the most effective poems allow children to interpret.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • • poems that are lively. strike happy recollections. with exciting meters and rhythms. They encourage children to extend comparisons. are most likely to appeal to young children.

Peaches Apples. Pears.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY A. we should not forget that the students can deal with more difficult texts. 78 3. At night and noon . Sing your way home Drive the shadows away.e. Readability is a measure of the comprehensibility of written text. Tell me when your Birthday comes 2. There are some measures on readability that you can use to find out the difficulty level of the text for examples the SMOG index. In other words. Still. When we try to find a readable text. provided the task is not too difficult (Nuttal. MOST DIFFICULT December Leaves The fallen leaves are cornflakes That fills the lawn’s wide dish. illustrations and colours. we have to assess the level of its structural and lexical difficulty. word length within sentences and complexity of sentence structure. Readability of Text Readability means that the text should be at the right level. select the ones that are appropriate at your students’ level of proficiency in terms of sentence length. SIMPLE Apples. layout. poems chosen should be at the right level of difficulty for your students. vocabulary) and structural difficulty found in a text. it is the combination of lexical (i. MORE DIFFICULT Sing Your Way Home Sing your way home At the close of the day. peaches. 1982). presentation factors unrelated to the language of the text also affect readability for example choice of text size. Therefore. The Table below shows three poems of three levels of difficulty and an analysis based on the criteria of text selection: 1. In terms of readability of text. Sometimes. the FRY readability estimate and Cloze Test (Nuttal. plums.1982).

Students need to have the maturity of thought in order to understand more sophisticated themes. in a circle game. the younger they are. • • • • Verse 2 longer lines more complex ideas imagery is easy to grasp rhythm helps learners learn it • • • • Verse 3 “December Leaves” is about the same length as “Sing Your Way Home” metaphors are more complex imagery demands more of the reader a poem by literary definition (Source: Pinnell.S. I. (2004). & Fountas. If you must choose a poem from distant cultures. Word Study. It will brighten your road. Choose poems which are short because children. have very short attention span. The sky’s silver sifter It will lighten your load.G.Sing a song of Poetry: A Teaching Resources for Phonics. and Fluency. That stirs them with as For wherever you roam wish. Avoid choosing poems which are too long and involved.USA : Heinemann).TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY The wind’s a spoon Smile every mile.C. 79 . The poems also need to have a clear message depending on the maturity level of rhe students. On crisp brown flakes The sugar known as snow Verse 1 • • • • • simple and short theme is easy few syllables repetition learners can say it over and over again. Descriptive poems should be reserved for advanced students in the upper primary classes. Avoid choosing poems with words outside the experience of your students. then you must adapt it to the needs of your students. A-sifting white and slow If you sing your way That gently shakes home.

You can help students to appreciate and understand poems better by providing illustrations via drawing diagrams or having collections of pictures which help them to visualize the content of the poems more meaningfully. The poem should be of interest to your students and perhaps amuse and entertain them (Wario. to use a bucket. and I would say it seems to me it's only fair he puts away my underwear. This can be developed through a regular and varied exposure to poetry. to dust my clock and picture frames.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY B. Poems should be carefully chosen. I'm not as happy with our trade. and makes my bed. They must have some appeal and be interesting to read. I think he's got it made. Suitability of Content Suitability of content means that the text should be interesting and informative. brush and broom. but I clean out his litterbox. In fact. and pick up all my toys and games. The students’ preferences should not be neglected and a survey of their tastes might help the teacher quite a lot (Nuttal. thus creating and sustaining students’ interest in this area. 80 . He puts my pants and shirts away. Students’ interest is considered the first requirement you should take into consideration in poem selection. Below is an example of a poem that your students might find interesting: I Taught My Cat To Clean My Room I taught my cat to clean my room. 1982). 1989). He may pick up my shoes and socks.

In selecting poems. I’d like to be a mother and cook good things to eat. 1982). I’d like to be shopkeeper with a lot of things to sell. Is it relevant to your students? What would you like to be? I’d like to be a farmer growing maize and wheat. 1989). I’d like to be a children’s nurse and make sick children well. you make use of it to develop your students’ competence in achieving their learning outcomes. When you exploit poem. I’d like to be a teacher and show to you how to read and write.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY The poem you choose must be relevant to the context in which students are familiar with and meet their needs and hopes. Look at this poem. 81 . I’d like to be a soldier and learn to march and shoot I’d like to be a tailor and sew a dress or suit. or be within their reach (Wario. Exploitability of the Authentic Material Exploitability means that the text should facilitate the development of reading skills in order to help the students become competent and independent readers (Nuttal. It should be related to your students’ experience. C. It should not overstretch students’ imagination. I’d like to be a policeman catching thieves at night. A good selection of text is the one you can exploit in your teaching. you are asked to use your own judgement on making the best choice of poems for your students.

Tell us what you’ve seen. I’d like to buy a donkey To carry heavy loads.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY The poem chosen should have a strong rhythm and also contain some repetition (Wario. Bicycles and trains. I’d like to buy a blanket And put it on my bed. Cars and aeroplanes. 1989). people walking. 1989). Tell us what you’ve seen. I’d like to buy a new scarf And tie it around my head. people talking! People doing everything! We’ve just been to Nairobi. But I’ve only got five pence piece So I’ll buy a loaf of bread! I’d like to buy a pretty dress And give it to my mother. gardens and flowers. I’d like to buy a radio And give it to my brother. Can you notice these two features in the poem that follows? We’ve just been to Nairobi We’ve just been to Nairobi. Tell us what you’ve seen. What story does it tell? Is it suitable for acting? What would you like to buy? I like to buy a bicycle And ride along the roads. clock towers. Trees. Look at this poem. We’ve just been to Nairobi. People standing. But I’ve only got ten pence piece So I’ll buy a pen instead! 82 . The poem chosen should tell a story and possibly be suitable for acting (Wario. People standing. High buildings.

Poetry Play 83 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 4. Rhyming Cloze • iv. Poem Performances • students can perform the poems after they learn them. Put highlighter tape on the rhyming words. have students make pictures to go with it and display them with the poem. Listening to Rhymes • have students clap or snap their fingers when they come to a rhyming word.3 Techniques in Using Poems in the Classroom The following are some techniques you can employ in the language classroom using poetry: i. They can use a masking card or highlighter tape to mark these words. After many readings of a poem on a large chart. asking students to join in only on the rhyming words. They can also say it softer (or louder)or mouth the word without making a sound. Duplicate individual copies of a simple poem and ask each student to illustrate it. sometimes adding sound effects with rhythm instruments such as sticks and drums or by clapping and snapping their fingers vii. read poems. v. Word Endings • write the poem in large print on a chart or on strips for a pocket chart. marching around the room while chanting a poem will help students feel the rhythm. vi. Marching to Rhymes • ii. iii.3. help students notice words that rhyme and specific vocabulary. Poem Pictures • after reading a poem aloud at different times of the day.

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

lead students in saying their favourite poems while they line up, as they walk through an area in which their talking will not disturb other classes.

viii.

Finger poems and Action Poems • make finger plays from poems. Do poems with motions in involving the entire body.

ix.

Poem Posters • use art materials(coloured and/or textured paper, pens, crayons, paints) to illustrate poems on charts for the whole group to enjoy, or individually in personal poetry books.

x.

Poem Puzzles • have the students cut a poem into strips, mix them up, order them, and glue them on paper in the correct order. Then have them use art materials to illustrate the text. You can create a simple template to photocopy for many different poems.

xi.

Poetry and Prose • take a poem and create a ‘prose’ version of it. Place the two versions of the story beside each other so that the children can see and talk about differences in language, form, punctuation, mood etc.

xii.

Word Match • place one line of apoem in the pocket chart and have students rebuild the line by matching individual words under the line. (Source: Pinnell,G.S. & Fountas, I.C. 2004).

4.3.3.1 Tips on Carrying Out Activities Using Poetry: Below are some tips on how to successfully carry out the above poems activities in 8.3.3: i. Reading Poetry Aloud to Children

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The most important rule to keep in mind is that poetry should be read for its meaning. Stress the meaning elements of the poem just as you do when reading prose. Often, the words in poetry are phrased in such a way that you must continue past the end of the line before pausing. In other words, the breaks must be determined by the meaning units of the poem, not by the lines.

The first rule is that as a reader, you should not overemphasize the beat of the poem. Doing so results in an annoying singsong effect. The natural rhythm of the poem will be felt in a more interesting way if you avoid an unnatural, meaningless reading and let the poetic language provide the rhythm.

Poetry should be enunciated clearly. Each sound and each syllable of a poem are important and must be heard to be appreciated. This often means that you will need to slow down your normal reading pace to give full value to each sound.

Poetry needs to be performed and dramatized. Take some chances and try out different effects (using different voices, singing, shouting, whispering, pausing dramatically, and so on) as you read poems aloud. Your voice is a powerful tool. You may change it from louder to softer to only a whisper; you may start at a deep, low pitch and rise to a medium and eventually high pitch; you may speak very quickly in a clipped fashion and then slow down and drawl out the words.

Poems may need to be read aloud a number of times because their many meanings may be perceived only after the literal sense is known. Also, favourite poems can be enjoyed again and again, as you and your students savor one more reading. Another way to provide students with opportunities to listen to poems is by recording audiotapes of poems for the listening center and making them available along with the poem in print, on a chart or in a book for the student to listen to and read.

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Commercially made tapes with popular poets reading their works, accompanied by music, are available and are quite popular with children. • After reading a poem aloud, some form of response is usually enjoyed. Sometimes the response students have to a poem is simply the desire to hear it again. Other times, students need just a few moments to reflect silently on the poem. Some poems warrant discussion, and students can take the opportunity to tell how the poem made them feel or what it made think about. ii. Choral Poetry

Choral Poetry is another technique you can employ in your language classroom. The following are some tips on the arrangement on how you can add variety to this activity: • In unison choral speaking, the students learn the poem and recite it together as a group. Two-part or three-part choral poetry is usually based on arranging students into voice types (for example, high, medium, and low) to achieve different effects and by selecting lines of the poem for each group to recite or read. • Solo voices can be added to either of these presentations and are sometimes used for asking a question or making an exclamation. • Some poems lend themselves to cumulative build-up presentations. A cumulative build-up is affected by having, for example, only two voices say the first line, and then two more join in on the second, and then two more, gradually building to a crescendo until the entire class says the last line or stanza. • Poems can be presented by simultaneous recitation, which forms a presentation similar to a musical round. In this case, group one begins the poem and recites it all the way through. When group one begins the third line, for example, then group two starts the first line, and the two groups

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Pairs of students may each take a different poem from the collection for presentation. • Read aloud many poems of one poetic form: then analyze the form with the students to reveal the characteristics of its structure. work with them during the writing process on developing motivations. T. & Brown. one reading the left half of the page and one reading the right half. Let them begin by sharing ideas. of course. In turn. At times. M. Learning to Write Poetry After teaching your students about a kind of poetry. • Design bulletin boards with poetry displays of students’ own poems as well as copies of poems by favourite poets. C.taking a newspaper article and putting it to verse. the readers read certain line simultaneously. students may attempt the reverse. • Poetry selected and arranged for dramatic choral readings on a particular theme infuses an interesting variation into choral poetry. L. (Source: Tomlinson.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY recite simultaneously until the end. (2002)) 87 . • Let students rework a narrative poem into a different genre. • Have students compile personal and class anthologies of their own poems or their favourite poems. be added. iii. cinquanis. and limericks can all be used as models with students once they have an appreciation for poetry and for the specific poetic form. individually or in groups. Quatrains. The poems can be read aloud by two readers at once. Other groups can. • Encourage students to model the works of professional poets by attempting imitation of a whole poem or of specific techniques. to illustrate a favourite poem. such as a newspaper article or a letter. Posters are then displayed around the school for a few weeks. concrete poems. haiku. • Suggest to students that they design posters.

 Sometimes we find ourselves in a position whereby we need to adapt some of the songs we would like use.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 4. But her umbrella didn't open. Found all her friends enjoying them.4 ADAPTATION OF SONGS The following section will focus on factors to consider when adapting songs for use in the language classroom. Dressed in new shoes. Entered a house full of chocolates. List at least 5 reasons why we might need to adapt some of the songs. Couldn't run. to meet to the needs of your students. You may have to adapt. Crisp and colourful Adorable and crunchy Nice and tasty Delicious and tempting Yummy and best 88 . • Practice 1 5. simplify or reduce most carefully some of the poems chosen.. Identify the poems below according to their genres: Alphabet / Limerick / Cinquain / Acrostic / Imagery / Haiku A young girl was walking in the rain. The following are factors of consideration in adapting songs:    Lexical Items Sentence Structure Content More practice. couldn't hurry.... Let’s think about this.

iii. Tall penguins by Kenneth Miller I'm the fairy of my garden My white wings and golden crown make me charming. ii. I'm the fairy of my garden. _________________________ 6. I can weave magic with my magic wand.your learners’ level .cultural considerations 89 . jumping." v. _______________________ 'Penguins' Penguins Black.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY i. decide on the class you are going to use for your language classroom. _________________________ vi. Justify your choice in terms of: . fishing All the penguins jump down into the water. Think of a few activities to carry out based on the poem. Using one of the poems in the previous task. _______________________ "There was an old man from Peru Who dreamed he was eating his shoe He awoke in the night With a terrible fright To discover it was totally true. _______________________ ii.the teaching learning purposes . ________________________ 'Night and Day' The stars are shining they will shimmer and they'll glow until the sun shines by Mattie M.the selection criteria . white Swimming. i. iv.

" I asked him. A man whose leg was broken and who leaned upon a crutchI asked him very kindly if it hurt him very much. "They rushed me to the hospital right quickly. That's why you see me walking now on nothing but a crutch. "is it? Did a tiger bite it off? Or did you get your foot wet when you had a nasty cough? Did someone jump down on your leg when it was very new? Or did you simply cut it off because you wanted to?" "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. But I didn't see the leg at all. 2. A big black car came whizzing by and knocked me off my feet.the selection criteria 90 . Justify your choice of selection of both the poems and the activities based on the following: ." "I'm glad. ever seen in there before." "Of course you looked both ways. there wasn't any there. "Then where.your learners’ level . and I thank you very much!" "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • Practice 2 "The Broken-Legg'd Man" I saw the other day when I went shopping in the store A man I hadn't ever." said I." "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. So I asked him very kindly if he had it hid somewhere. "And when I woke in nice white sheets I saw my leg was gone. "What was it then?" I asked him. "you told me. Suggest THREE suitable activities and describe in simple teaching steps how you would carry out the activities using the poem. I ran around behind him for I thought that I would see The broken leg all bandaged up and bent back at the knee. "Not at all!" said the broken-legg'd man. "he went on. by John Mackey Shaw 1. and this is what he said: "I crossed a busy crossing when the traffic light was red. "before you crossed the street." I said.

A classroom of Year 5 high proficiency students in a SBT in Kuala Lumpur. Browse through the internet and select one poem for each of the following groups of students: Students’ background A classroom of Year 3 low proficiency students in the rural area.cultural considerations 91 . Justify your choice of selection of both the poems and the activities based on the following: .the selection criteria .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY - the teaching learning purposes cultural considerations • Practice 3 Discuss and share your views 1. Suggest THREE suitable activities and describe in simple teaching steps how you would carry out the activities using the poem. 2.your learners’ level .the teaching learning purposes . 3.

htm 92 . Briefly 2 nd Edition: Prentice Hall Websites: http://www.com/poetryclass/limerickcontesthelp.htm http://volweb. & Fountas. M.teachingideas.html http://www. Malaysian Primary Syllabus KSSR Syllabus Curriculum Specifications Nuttal. G.(1989).html http://www. C. L. Oxford: Blakewell Publishing.S. 1982.edu/fac_staff/belinda/poetry. & Jacobs.uk/english/limerick. O. Teaching Language Arts: A Student-centered Classroom. C. E.com/articles/types-of-poems-for-kids. J. (2002).C.gigglepoetry. M. Teaching Literature.co. USA: Allyn & Bacon. I. Children’s Literature. (2004).Ways of Teaching Primary English. T. Wario.H..stmartin. Teaching Reading skills in a foreign language . Word Study. Essentials of Children’s Literature Brown (2002) : Boston: Allyn and Bacon Tunnell.Sing a song of Poetry: A teaching Resources for Phonics.html http://homepages. and Fluency. Showalter. (6thed).buzzle.(2008).USA: Heinemann. London and Basingstoke: MacMillan Publishers Tomlinson. Oxford: Heinemann Pinnell. & Brown. S. (1999).utk.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY References Cox. L.edu/Schools/bedford/harrisms/limerick. C.

5.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY TOPIC 5 ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS TO ENCOURAGE AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SONGS AND POETRY 5.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 5.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS 93 .0 SYNOPSIS Topic 5 This topic intends to help course participants to select materials and design activities to encourage aesthetic development through songs and poetry . you will be able to: • To select and create activities and materials for the primary ESL classroom to suit learning outcomes • To adapt activities and materials for different levels • To select materials and conduct activities to encourage reader response 5.

To do this. Using songs and poetry to achieve the learning outcomes prescribed in the KBSR and KSSR syllabus for Malaysian primary schools requires the teachers to select appropriate materials and create relevant activities.1.2 Activities and materials to encourage aesthetic development (3 Hours) 5.1 Selecting and Creating Activities and Materials to Suit Learning Outcomes Young learners will enjoy singing a song or reciting a poem which they could easily associate the content closely to their existing world knowledge. how to adapt the material to add this value? How does a teacher help instil and develop aesthetics among students? How to create activities in the lesson plan that connect and enhance this? Imagine if you plan to use a poem that enables your Year 2 students to achieve the following learning outcomes: 1.3 Able to listen to. Aesthetic values and fun element in language learning experience can be achieved if teachers plan their teaching points stage by stage to suit specific learning outcomes.1 Able to recognise and articulate initial.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY CONTENT 5.2 Able to blend phonemes into recognizable words and read aloud What you could do is to design an activity that requires the students to read and enjoy doing the designed tasks and at the same time appreciate the poem that they read. medial and the final sounds in single syllable words within given context 2. Let’s have a look at the example below. what . teachers need to highlight the aesthetic elements in songs or poems and take into considerations criteria such as: • • • • • • Are the materials suitable and appropriate in every possible way? Do they possess any aesthetic values? If yes.2.1. culture and tradition. say aloud and recite rhymes or sing songs 2.1. type and level of aesthetics? If no. 94 .

These sounds might evoke their inner feelings that camping is not a creepy moment or a terrifying event but they get to listen to different sounds in the surrounding at night. By Natasha Niemi http://www. Crunch! Crunch! The campers crunching on potato chips. Rustle! Rustle! As we prepare our sleeping bags to go to sleep. Chirp! Chirp! The crickets say. Sizzle! Sizzle! The water sizzles above the fire. the basic idea of exposing onomatopoeia is to give children insights into themselves and imitate sounds familiar to them.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Example 1: Using a poem Activity Class Level Theme Focused Skill Integrated Skills : Role Play : Year 2 : Beginning and Intermediate : World of Story : Listening : Speaking. The teacher distributes the following poem to each group and asks them 95 . tent poles cracking together. Some students may be familiar with the sounds of fire crackles. Camping Crack! Crack! The fire crackles under the stars.com/onomatopoeia-poems. Click! Clack! Click! Clack! The tent poles clicking and clacking together. Reading In the following example. “good-night”. A simple start is students are put into groups. smoothing sleeping bag and cricket chirp.mywordwizard. water sizzles. crunching potato chips.html To promote appreciation of literariness of a poem does not mean the poem chosen has to be an established one.

selection of relevant materials and appropriate activities designed by the teacher to suit learning outcomes not only enhances students’ aesthetic development but it is also a way to improve language knowledge. click. In fact.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY to read the poem for 10 minutes focusing on the literary element which is onomatopoeia. for example during camping. Learning sounds performed by specific verbs in a context. In short. So long as a teacher identifies certain aesthetic features of a poem which match with areas specified in the curriculum specification. This activity subsequently leads the students to accomplish the third learning objective. Role play gets the students to blend phonemes into recognizable words and read aloud the poem thus internalise the input on onomatopoeia exposed to them in the earlier stage. 96 . the teacher could ask students to come up with their own other familiar sounds in the form of one syllable word too. and clack as the students recite the poem. crunch. the teacher could emphasize the initial and the final sound of /k/ in single syllable words such as crack. Concurrently. then the poem could be used as the basis for a lesson which eventually increases students’ awareness of these features. Reading the poem at this stage gives the opportunity for the students to realise the first two learning objectives. each group is required to role-play the poem using precise voice projection and appropriate style. enables the students to relate their existing knowledge of sounds. After this activity is completed.

Lyrics and Music by Jimmy Davis and Charles Mitchell 97 . You are My Sunshine You are my sunshine My only sunshine You make me happy When skies are grey You'll never know dear How much I love you Please don't take my sunshine away. The other night. dear As I lay sleeping I dreamed I held you in my arms.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Tutorial Task Excercise 1 Read the following song and suggest one activity to enable young learners develop their aesthetic knowledge based on one learning outcome from the KBSR or KSSR curriculum specification. When I awoke. dear I was mistaken And I hung my head and cried.

It is crucial for the teacher to adapt existing poems or songs and design activities suitable for mixed abilities class for aesthetic development. Therefore.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Excercise 2 Based on the learning standards from KSSR Year 2: i. adapting materials should not be neglected by any teacher 98 . I'm a Little Teapot I'm a little teapot. Design one activity to teach this song ii. Using existing materials can save time.2.2 Adapting Activities and Materials for Different Levels Students’ language proficiency is one of the principles that a teacher has to take into account when it comes to selecting materials to teach songs and poetry for young learners. Poem by Betty Harris 5. There is also a danger that they will instantly realise they have been labelled as weak or low proficiency students. here is my spout When I get all steamed up. effort and expense in acquiring language materials or materials for teaching or learning. However. labelling affects their motivation to appreciate songs or poems given to them. hear me shout Just tip me over and pour me out! I'm a clever teapot. In the case of developing aesthetic values among beginners. adaptation of materials has to be done meticulously so that beginners do not feel awkward to read different texts compared to intermediate or advanced students. Get the students to change the lyrics below to create a new song from the old tune of ‘I’m a Little Teapot’. short and stout Here is my handle. yes it's true Here's an example of what I can do I can change my handle to my spout Just tip me over and pour me out.

Here are examples of adapting a poem for a class with mixed abilities. the teacher can ask the students to sing the rhyme and share their experience with their peers. Just think about it Your low proficiency students may not realise that hill-Jill. How would you adopt this rhyme to encourage its aesthetic value among this group of students? As a starting point for the class. 99 . ‘fell down’. down-crown and water-after are actually rhyme.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY in ensuring that none of the students in the class feels neglected. ‘tumbling’ and ‘crown’ to the low proficiency students. Then. Integrating speaking and listening skills or even three language skills concurrently adds elements for dicussion in which students could associate their newly acquired classroom experience to the world of knowledge. the teacher could pre-teach difficult vocabulary such as the words ‘went up’. the teacher may use the following poem to challenge their existing knowledge. As for the intermediate students.

the teacher may ask the whole class to copy down the first stanza and change the nouns in the rhyme to produce a new or nonsense version. Here is an example: Original Rhyme Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after New Version Jenab and Jojo went up the Kilimanjaro to fetch a kilo of laughter Jenab fell down and broke her crystal gown and Jojo came tumbling after 100 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Jack and Jill Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after Up Jack got and home did trot As fast as he could caper Went to bed and bound his head With vinegar and brown paper The teacher now divides the students into small groups and includes the low proficiency students in the groups. Alternatively. they now need to identify the sequence of what actually happens to Jack by drawing the list of event on a drawing block. With the help of intermediate students . Rewriting a new version encourages students of any proficiency level to engage with the poem and respond to it personally without worrying about getting the ‘right and sensical’ meaning.

To summarise the criteria. Teachers are encouraged to adapt and modify available materials to let the students see how poems and songs are structured and webbed together using literary and linguistic features. (1993) : Checklist for choosing literary texts TYPE OF COURSE Level of students Students’ reasons for learning English Kind of English required Length/intensity of course TYPE OF STUDENTS Age Intellectual maturity Emotional understanding Interests/Hobbies Cultural background Linguistic proficiency Literary background OTHER TEXT-RELATED FACTORS Availability of texts Length of text Exploitability Fit with syllabus Selection of task or suitable activity to cater the needs of different levels plays a major role in ensuring that young learners enjoy and appreciate the aesthetic values of songs and poems. 101 . you may use the checklist below by Lazar.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY There are some key considerations for selecting literary texts before you could adapt available materials for different type of students. G.

This is the way we wash our face. On a cold and frosty morning. wash our face. This Is The Way This is the way we wash our face. Wash our face.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Tutorial Task Exercise 1 Look at the following song. You plan to use “Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush” tune to exploit specific language features. clean our hands. 102 . Clean our hands. With what level of students do you think it could be used? Decide one literary feature in this song that can be exploited and design a suitable activity for your students. This is the way we clean our hands.

Prepare one pre-activity. Carter (2007) argues that “there is no single ‘correct’ way of analyzing and interpreting the text. To get learners voice out their responses. looking for some fun One flew away and then there was one. nor any single correct approach ”. sitting on a shoe One flew away and then there were two. climbing on the door One flew away and then there were four. while-activity and post-activity based on the poem below. Four little ladybirds. Construction of meaning can be done by letting young learners respond to the text. Thus. It views that readers are actively engaged in the construction of meaning while reading a text.com/rhymes/five_little_ladybirds. This perspective is known as reader-response. how young learners make meaning from their own experiences with a text will make them eventually appreciate the aesthetic values of songs and poetry. Knowing how young learners respond is essential in using songs and poetry to encourage aesthetic development. http://www.2. Primary school students in Malaysia normally 103 . hiding behind the sun One flew away and then there was none. One little ladybirds. Two little ladybirds.html 5.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Excercise 2 Adapt the poem ‘Five Little Ladybirds’ to teach a group of beginners. a teacher can ask them to write down what they thought about the text and discuss this idea in the class.3 Activities and Materials to Encourage Reader Response Songs and poetry guide readers to construct meaning based on their common daily experiences. One flew away and then there were three. sitting on a tree. Five Little Ladybirds Five little ladybirds. Three little ladybirds.kidsfront.

He puts my pants and shirts away. explaining and performing. Sing with actions b. Write a dialogue based on the poem d. to use a bucket. to dust my clock and picture frames. they will not be able to provide necessary response no matter how much the teacher tries to explain the meaning of the songs or poems given to them. brush and broom. iii. and pick up all my toys and games. and makes my bed. Therefore. 2008) argues that children should take the aesthetic stance to enjoy and appreciate literary texts be it poetry. and I would say a. Draw and colour the pictures c. Has anything like this ever happened to you? Tell about it. Write your response for the following prompts (personalised questions): i. Read the poem below and do the following suggested activities. giving reasons and acting out the text given become the springboard for the young learners to move from understanding information in a text to appreciating and enjoying the content stated in the English language. songs and even stories so that the importance of meaning and expressing feeling will not be reduced. Here is an activity to use with students when exploiting a poem to encourage reader response. I taught my cat to clean my room I taught my cat to clean my room. as cited in Cox. the role to allow students to construct the meanings and express their feelings precisely relies on the teachers. If students fail to comprehend the content of a text. How would you feel if your pet could help you to clean your bedroom? ii. Rosenblatt (1994.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY respond to literary texts whenever they are engaged in activities that involve questioning. making association. This is because answering questions. What else do you wish to happen in the poem? 104 .

classroom. 105 . music can amuse and entertain students as it “. Through various kind of activities • • • • • • • • • • • • • Singing – solo. in small groups and as a whole group. Music can change the learning atmosphere in a According to Harmer (2007). small groups. miming Picturizations – drawing. acting.. There are numerous songs and contemporary children’s poems to teach colours. Tell anything you want about the poem.” Music and poetry can be interwoven in a lesson provided that the teacher selects suitable activities and marries it with language activities to enhance a child’s inner development. Create a scrapbook. manners. colouring Cartoon creations .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY iv. Create a crossword puzzle based on the story. chorus Singing and Movement/ Dancing – simple solo movements and gestures – group movements / marching /variety Role-play – drama.favourite scene or an entire story Handworks – using play-dough. What would you do or say if you were the persona in the poem? v. painting. Aesthetic Development can be enhanced: A. animals. sounds and almost any concept that we can incorporate in the aesthetic development. recycle things Games – simple in-door / out-door games Music – adding / adapting/ changing tunes Improvisation Reader’s Theater Make a puzzle depicting a scene or a character.can make a satisfactory connection between the world of leisure and the world of learning in the classroom. in pairs. The selected materials should be sufficient to cover activities that can be used to evoke reader response when they work individually.. duets.

Write a letter to a character. Reader Response Journal Create a book jacket.emotions Physical behaviour & Mannerism Feelings / moods Idolizing – wanting to be the hero / superhero Role-models – teachers / others Interpersonal & Intrapersonal skills Character formation & development When songs and poems are properly introduced to young learners. Literature Circles Compare and contrast characters from two texts Create an alternate ending. The choice of texts and 106 . Words-linking /poem puzzles.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY B. jigsaw Word-choices – adjectives eg. C. it will inevitably establish strong connections between enjoying literary style and responding to the text based on one’s world knowledge. voice projection. clever Summarize song lyrics or a poem Write a review. Through various language activities • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cursive writing exercises Character identifying Word / picture match Reading – tone. style Story-telling Retell a story. By Understanding a Child’s Inner Development • • • • • • • Expressions . Create a poem about the text. good.

Source: http://www.html Note: When students recite this poem and the teacher utilises the language content of the poem. Nothing can stand in its way. A volcano. try to do the exercises below. giving you a warning before the explosions start. Now that you have been given the list of activities to to encourage reader response and develop aesthetic values. some are even underwater. Suggest one suitable activity to encourage the young learners to read and discuss the unique characteristics of this poem as well as its impact to the them. Still thousands in the world but they don’t all work. 107 . black smoke pours out of the top. Lots of thick.mywordwizard. Tutorial Task Excercise 1 Look at the outer look of this shape poem. A huge rock. shooting lava up into the air! Everyone runs for cover.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY activities is crucial to make the difference between passive reading and active involvement with a literary text.com/shape-poems-for-kids. it may evoke the emotion or feelings hidden in this poem. Sometimes they don’t blow up for hundreds of years.

Take a break and move on to topic 6 when you are ready! 108 . Exercise 3 Select/adapt a song and a poem for any level.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Excercise 2 Select a nursery rhyme / song Create a hand-made puppet using recycle items to represent a character found in the rhyme. Present to the class a brief reflection on your own emotional changes doing the puppet. Search for more information on this topic. Surf the net. Create activities based on the song and poem focusing on aesthetic development and reader response.

teslcanadajournal. Harmer.com/2011/08/jack-and-jill. (2008). Cox. (6th ed). 3-13. 17.org.html http://www.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/docs/09-47-3b.busyteacherscafe.blogspot.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY References Carter. (2007). A student-centred Classroom.ca/index.teachingenglish. Websites: http://firstgradecce. C. (2007). (4th ed). The Practice of English Language Teaching .com/literacy/readers_response. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. USA: Allyn & Bacon.uk/sites/teacheng/files/mixedability. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd. J. 1986-2006: A review.html http://www. R. Literature and Language Teaching.pdf http://www.state. Teaching Language Arts.php/tesl/article/viewFile/1091/910 http://exchanges.pdf 109 .

speaking.1 • Learning outcomes To select. 6. • To adapt activities and materials for different levels. reading and writing through songs and poetry.listening.0 contribute to Synopsis : This topic introduces to course participants how songs and poetry language development.2 Framework of Topic: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SONGS 110 AND POETRY . adapt and create activities and materials for use in the primary ESL classroom for language development .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY TOPIC 6 LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SONGS AND POETRY 6. 6. • To create activities for the development of vocabulary and grammar through songs and poetry.

they provide a comfortable class environment for learning. vocabulary and grammar 6.2. songs are able to change the monotonous mood in the classand with the soothing effect of music. T. According to Lo and Li (1998).1 Introduction Children love singing.2. In fact.2 Benefits of using songs and poetry Songs and poetry can be used for a number of purposes and there are many reasons why songs and poetry can be considered valuable pedagogical tools (Murphy. 6. They have acquired their mother tongue or first language by listening and reacting to nursery rhymes spoken and acted by their parents. Teach sound system. Language teachers should therefore use songs and poetry as part of their teaching repertoire for language learning. 1992). adapting and creating activities and • materials to suit learning outcomes • Adapting activities and materials for different levels.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Selecting. children grow up with songs and rhymes. The benefits can be summarised under two main categories: Linguistic: • To enlarge the vocabulary background of children • To develop pupils' listening and speaking skills • To introduce and familiarize children with the target language culture 111 .

d’ are able to attact the toddlers. adapting and creating activities and materials to suit learning outcomes 112 . b. as they grow older they begin to lose interest in very simple forms of rhymes and would prefer more complex ones. two.year olds (at times even younger than that) can recognise and respond to certain rhymes or simple nursery songs through their repeated listening.even shy ones • To help teachers get closer to their children • To stimulate children's interest in the new language • To create a lively atmosphere in the language classroom Very young learners. the faster they are able to pick up the rhyme. three’ or ‘a.2.c.3 Selecting. 6.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • To improve children's pronunciation • To teach various language functions • To recall grammatical points • To develop auditory discrimination Affective: • To add fun to learning • To motivate children to participate -. However. That is why rhymes like ‘one. as early as two. Very simple gestures like clapping their hands or pointing their fingers to the nose also encourage their sense of timing. We can witness these toddlers humming the tune or even uttering bits and pieces of these rhymes. They also prefer other forms of input to increase their knowledge and sustain their interest to learn. The simpler the songs/ rhymes and the beats are. The repetition of these rhymes of course helps them to remember better.

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Criteria for selection and creation of activities and materials have been discussed in depth in the previous topics. Try this : First sing the song. role-play and other enrichment activities If the teacher would like the students to learn a certain sound-system or pronunciation. Guli guli guli guli guli rum sum sum. Give emphasis to the sound-system. It is important that the teacher knows what the learning outcomes are to enable him/ her to plan suitable activities and materials for the class. a rafi Guli guli guli guli guli rum sum sum. An important aspect would be that these activities and materials are designed to suit the learning outcomes. Criteria for selection of songs and poetry: • • • • • • Vocabulary within the level of the sudents’ ability Should present some musical challenge Rhythm should be straightforward and repetitive Topics should be within the experiences of the students Should contain language compatible with that used in the classroom Should allow for dramatisation. A rafi. it does not matter as the intention of the teacher is only to teach pronunciation and sound-system. the teacher may probably pick a simple song like the one below. Although the song may not convey any proper meaning. Sing again. 113 . A Rum Sum Sum A Rum Sum Sum A rum sum sum. Then change the tune to some of your favourite tune. A rum sum sum.

give students plenty of pre-reading activities so that they are adequately prepared. stomping and mouth noises. communicative speaking activities can be carried out. discuss the characters and theme or debate the moral issues. Make it into a rhythmic pattern using claps. and pebble 114 . Give brief feedback on language used and note any language problems to be dealt with at a later date. Familiar songs and poems can strengthen a child’s ability to hear the sounds of a language — a skill that will serve him well when he learns to connect sounds with letters (phonics) in school. the whole poem/song. and then get students to think about their personal knowledge or experience related to this topic. You can also help instruments by building objects out of things like boxes." you've been preparing the student for learning to read. the students could talk about their personal response to the poem/song. These activities teach children how to make sounds that are enjoyable and how to listen to them. played "Itsy-Bitsy Spider" or sung "If You're Happy and You Know It. Prepare worksheets for pre-reading speaking activities which might involve a quiz. a questionnaire. sentence stems to be completed and discussed. or events occurring after the end of the poem. Later. The students might predict endings to verses. first with a partner and then in small groups.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY If the students are of the ages 11-12. Before doing any productive work. strings. Create a noise routine that can be choreographed into a children invent their own musical favorite song. As a way into a poem. Learning how to make music and keeping rhythm are important listening skills. play some background music to create the atmosphere. Communicative speaking activities require careful planning. show some pictures to introduce the topic. knocking. perhaps coming together as a class at the end to share ideas. If you've ever recited a nursery rhyme. They then talk about the poem.

Create songs on the spur of the moment about whatever you are doing. Research has found that children who are familiar with nursery rhymes often have an easier time learning to read. You put your right hand out. . when they enter school This is probably because rhyming helps them discover many common word patterns such as those in quick/stick or down/crown. the more easily children will recognize them when they begin to encounter them in print. . which may make it easier for him to connect to the movement /motion with the words you say. Nursery rhymes are especially powerful. Combine rhyming with rhythmic clapping or movements. Songs with rhyming lyrics are also terrific devices for teaching your child about the patterns of sounds. This kind of play involves your child's whole body in absorbing the sounds of speech. . Select rhymes that are especially helpful for an active child who needs to involve his entire body in the activity.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY shakers. And you shake it all about. Try "This is the way we wash our hands . Have the child play with all of the made-up instruments to explore the different sounds. Students can follow directions when you sing songs like "The Hokey Pokey". because they are so memorable. You do the hokey pokey and you turn yourself around 115 That is what it's all about. " Remember that you don't need to have a good singing voice. You put your right hand in. Children will love it because it's fun. The Hokey Pokey You put your right hand in. And the more familiar these patterns become in oral language.

1 Oral – aural skills Listening to songs and rhymes are a part of oral – aural skills.3 Adapting activities and materials for different levels.3. 6. students can be trained to repeat letters and words to ensure correct pronunciation. In the rhyme above. You can help children learn English as a second language by adapting your lessons to their needs and enthusiasm. The "Jack and Jill" nursery rhyme is a fun way for young children to learn phonetic awareness.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 6. words such as hickory. down." the teacher can show children how to write and pronounce "J”. Use language suited to their age level and topics that interest them. dickory and dock require correct pronunciation as well as enunciation to enable the rhyme to produce the correct sound. Focusing on the predominance of the letter "J. Incorporate listening and speaking with games. Teach reading and writing by using a variety of techniques and activities. action and music. Students can also be trained to listen for specific purposes. the rhyme ‘ Hickory Dickory Dock’ can be used to teach the ‘o’ sounds such as dock. For example. Teachers can also ask children to think of other words that begin with the "J" Jack and Jill sound Went up the hill To fetch a pail of water Jack fell down And broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after 116 . Songs and rhymes that teach certain grammar skills should be taken into consideration during selection. For example. clock and mouse.

Nursery rhymes. The teacher can recite "Jack and Jill" while children clap their knees to the beat. Guided singing that makes use of lyrics and music can help the students to learn about melody and rhythm. rhythm. Have children think of other words that fit the rhyme scheme. including "Jack and Jill" offer children an entertaining way to explore rhyme schemes and rhythmic awareness. it will increase their memory and they will remember the words that they have said out loud. Students can be divided into groups and asked to sing the song or rhyme. The children can then discuss the rhyming pairs within the nursery rhyme.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Activities such as sing alongs can help students to learn timing. Choral/ Chorus / small groups singing will teach students about turn taking as well as tone and pitch. Musical elements such as steady beat. each group can sing one line of the rhyme. As students sing along. Learning rhythm and rhyme is an important pre-reading skill. For example. Have children sit in a circle with their hands at their knees. The students will learn to sing their line as per turn and be silent when it is the turn of the other group. Students will learn to sing on cue and learn to pause at appropriate junctures. in the rhyme ‘Hickory Dickory Dock’. The students can also learn to use different tones and pitch when singing the song in a group. 117 .

Search for more information on this subject matter. and one-to-one correspondence.2 Literacy skills There are various ways of using songs in the classroom. sequencing. 118 . students will be able to connect with numbers which will in turn help in their mathematic lessons. Apart from them. The nursery rhyme ‘Baa baa Black Sheep’ teaches the students new vocabulary and this can be done through the usage of a crossword puzzle. three bags full One for my master and one for the dame And one for the little boy Who cries down the lane! Surf the net. Early childhood learning is a time for whimsical exploration. and tempo possess mathematical principles such as." allows children the opportunity to explore language and themes in a way they will enjoy and remember. patterning. counting. it mainly depends on the creativity of the teacher. Dramatization can also help in language development. crossword puzzle and jumbled up words. Using nursery rhymes. 6. Baa Baa Black sheep Have you any wool? Yes sir. and the song itself have determinant roles on the procedure. Yes sir. Students can act out the song in order to better understand it.3. the interests and the age of the learners. As such. The level of the students. the grammar point to be studied. Students will learn new vocabulary through activities such as word maze.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY melody. such as "Jack and Jill.

based on the rhyme ‘Baa Baa Black sheep’. Words like ‘black’ can be scrambled to ‘lbcka’ and the students can be asked to unscramble them. have you any _____________? can be asked. For example. questions such as Baa baa Black sheep. 119 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Grammar can be taught through filling in the blanks or word scrabble activities.

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

Students from the ages of 10-11 can be asked to write a story based on the nursery rhymes that they have learnt. The story can be written in cursive writing which enhances their writing skills. In doing so, their confidence level will boost and they will also learn to present their new knowledge aestheticly. Below are some of the activities that may help in language development. You may want to try out some of these activities in class. Types of Activities – reading/ writing  Word search / maze / jumble  Matching words / Joining words  Fill in the blanks  Words scramble / Boggle  Make sentences / Cursive writing  Story writing / Rewriting  Vocabulary developments Grammar can be taught through filling in the blanks or word scrabble activities. For example, based on the rhyme ‘Baa Baa Black sheep’, questions such as Baa baa Black sheep, have you any _____________? can be asked. Words like ‘black’ can be scrambled to ‘lbcka’ and the students can be asked to unscramble them. Students from the ages of 10-11 can be asked to write a story based on the nursery rhymes that they have learnt. The story can be written in cursive writing which enhances their writing skills. In doing so, their confidence level will boost and they will also learn to present their new knowledge aestheticly. Below are some of the activities that may help in language development. You may want to try out some of these activities in class. Types of Activities – reading/ writing  Word search / maze / jumble  Matching words / Joining words  Fill in the blanks  Words scramble / Boggle 120

TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

 Make sentences / Cursive writing  Story writing / Rewriting  Vocabulary developments  Jokes / Puzzle solving Types of Activities - Oral & Aural  Listen to songs, rhymes  Listening for specific reasons eg. for words, letters, pronunciation  Sing along ( individual)  Choral / Chorus / small groups singing  Guided singing eg. with lyrics / music  Changing or adapting lyrics  Changing tones, pitch etc.  Dramatization / Role play 6.4 Conclusion Songs and poetry are a valuable teaching and learning tool. Songs and poetry can help learners improve their listening skills and pronunciation; they can also be useful for teaching vocabulary and sentence structures. Songs and poetry combine the holistic, lingual and contextual approach with fun, activity and motivation (Dale, 1992). All teachers should see this big advantage and use songs and poetry as a part of their lessons for young learners. We need to reflect and act on what Shakespeare says in his famous play, Twelfth Night, ‘If music be the food of love, play on.” (Hardisty, 1993). If Shakespeare lived in the 21 st century, he would have fully agreed that music is not only the food for love but also a meal for language learning.

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TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY

A sample Activity -

Label the Time Hickory Dickory Dock Hickory Dickory Dock The mouse ran up the clock, The clock struck * twelve The mouse ran down Hickory Dickory dock. (* one, two, …ect)

To teach oral-aural skills :  To teach Sound system - ( ‘o’ sounds ) Eg. Hickory, Dickory, dock, down, clock & mouse  Pronunciation & Enunciation 122

How can you use the rhymes above (Monday) and the one below (This old123 man) for language development among young learners? . Wednesday soup. come and eat it up!  Today is Saturday.between Wednesday soup. Write a short dialogue the clock Thursday roast beef.‘same sounds’ or and ending same alphabets Clock Mouse  Today is Tuesday. Sunday ice-cream. today is Wednesday. come and eat it up!  Today is Sunday. today is Friday. today is Saturday. Monday string beans. eg. All you hungry children. Tuesday spaghetti. ran down) & repetition  Today is Monday. Activity 3 . Saturday chicken. Wednesday soup. block house Tuesday spaghetti. Friday fresh fish. come and eat it up!  Today is Wednesday. come and eat it up!  Today is Friday. Saturday chicken. come eat with it up! Words List . Monday string beans. You are the mouse. two…….twelve) ( also connected to maths) Monday  Grammar ( ran up. come and eat it up!  Write an imaginative composition. All you hungry children. Tuesday spaghetti. Why are you going up and down the clock?  Today is Thursday. today is Tuesday. today is Monday. today is Sunday.older students Monday string beans. Wednesday soup. come and eat it up! Ran man Task : Group Discussion. Monday string beans. All you hungry children. Thursday roast beef. Monday string beans. All you hungry children. Tuesday spaghetti. today is Thursday. All you hungry children. Tuesday spaghetti. Friday fresh fish. All you hungry children. Friday fresh fish.and the mouse. Wednesday soup. All you hungry children.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY  Timing & Rhythm & Aesthetics  Tone / pitch / Voice modulation  Proper articulation of words / Vocabulary  Numbers ( one. Thursday roast beef. Tuesday spaghetti. Thursday roast beef. Monday string beans. Monday string beans.

give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. he played four He played knick-knack on my door With a knick-knack paddywhack. he played three He played knick-knack on my knee With a knick-knack paddywhack. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. he played five He played knick-knack on my hive With a knick-knack paddywhack. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. give 124 a dog a bone This old man came rolling home . he played one He played knick-knack on my thumb With a knick-knack paddywhack. he played six He played knick-knack on my sticks With a knick-knack paddywhack. he played two He played knick-knack on my shoe With a knick-knack paddywhack.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY This old man This old man.

he played seven He played knick-knack up to heaven With a knick-knack paddywhack. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home ********************************************************************************************* TUTORIAL TASKS Task 1  Select/adapt a song and a poem for any level  Create activities based on the song and poem focusing on any language development – sound system/vocabulary/ grammar/ language skills  Dramatize the song /poem. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. give a dog a bone This old man came rolling home This old man. he played nine He played knick-knack on my spine With a knick-knack paddywhack. Task 2  Select/adapt a song and a poem for any level  Write out two activities that can be used for language development among young learners 125 .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY This old man. he played ten He played knick-knack once again With a knick-knack paddywhack. he played eight He played knick-knack on my gate With a knick-knack paddywhack.

Songs enhance learner involvement. T. (2002). (1998). Teaching literature. Lo. Children’s Literature: An invitation to the world.(36): 8-11.C. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Blakewell Publishing. (2003). Showalter. C. (2008). R. Diana. 2(3): 53-55. Music and song.live music in the classroom. Songs in action. Murphy. Modern English Teacher. New York: Prentice Hall.G. (6 th ed). (1992). Music lives. USA: Allyn & Bacon. Dale. (1993). D. E. English Teaching Forum. & Fai Li. T. H. Teaching language Arts: A Student-centered Classroom. (1992).TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY A sample Activity References : Label the Time Cox. New York: Pearson Publication. Hardisty. Mitchell. 126 .

1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 7.scribd. integration of skills using songs and poetry. 7.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS 127 . It is aimed to help you through the process of lesson planning and to know what constitutes a ‘successful’ lesson.com/nurseryrhymes.songsforteaching. you will be able to: • identify the key factors in lesson planning • link the stages in lesson development • plan and implement ESL lessons using songs and poetry • evaluate the lesson plan (for its strengths and weaknesses) 7. and lesson evaluation.org/articles.au/poemforms.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 7 highlights the key factors in lesson planning.html http://www. Good planning leads to good teaching and successful learning is the product of a well-planned lesson.ijea.htm http://www.com/doc/80755012/Learning-from-Young-Children-Research-inEarly-Childhood-Music TOPIC 7 LESSON PLANNING USING SONGS AND POETRY 7.hitcho.com. cohesion in the development of stages.pdf http://www.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Malaysian Primary Syllabus KSSR Curriculum Specifications http://highland.

You have to be selective in your choices of songs and poetry to suit the language needs of the students while fulfilling the requirements of the syllabus. and timing. The effective teacher requires a sound understanding of pedagogical principles as well as the skills needed in planning and managing the lesson. activities using songs and poems. you have to think about the lesson objectives. 2008) Every teacher who takes pride in his teaching will put in time and effort to plan his lessons well. sequencing. materials. regardless of his experience or status as a teacher. In this section.” (Graham Butt. 128 . a selected text or song that matches the needs of your students and some other materials as resources before you plan your lesson. the curriculum syllabus. Learning does not occur by chance. You will need to refer to your scheme of work. content.2 Introduction ”The key to good teaching. purposeful class management and the achievement of sustained educational progress lies in effective planning.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY CONTENT SESSION SEVEN (15 Hours) 7.

Before you plan your lesson. there are several considerations to take before the process of disseminating information and knowledge to your students can take place. as well as the subject content of your area of expertise. methods and resources that will be used to deliver the subject curriculum” (Butt. For this purpose. but knowing how to cater to the language needs of various groups of students of diverse abilities and levels of proficiency is the key to planning effective lessons. and 129 . Just knowing what to plan is not enough for any effective teacher. lesson planning is based on “a scheme of work which is essentially an overall plan for a term or half a term of the academic year for teachers to follow outlining the content. you should know the profiles of your students and their abilities. and then sequencing a number of activities in which the teacher and students interact in the teaching-learning process. you need to know your pedagogical principles. Lesson planning is a skill that involves developing objectives based on a curriculum. A good lesson plan usually consists of an assessment at the end to find out whether the aims or objectives of the lesson have been achieved.2. Lessons should be structured for maximum learning. A number of individual lesson plans are devised from this scheme of work to cover the specific sections of the national curriculum or specifications of the syllabus.1 Key Factors in Lesson Planning Planning a lesson requires time and effort. This feedback is constructive for the teacher to plan the next lesson so that there is continuity in the learning process. If you want to be an effective teacher. What you should know is how to plan an ideal lesson for your particular class. or specified goals. approaches. strategies.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY 7. The pre-planning stage requires you to think about: • learners’ profiles (who your students are) • syllabus requirements (what they need to learn from the syllabus) • lesson outcomes (what lesson objectives you want to achieve) • subject matter (what grammar focus or language input you want to give) • integration of skills (which skill/s your students need to develop) • selection of materials/ teaching aids (what type and which song or poem you want to select) • the types of teaching and learning activities/techniques/approaches to use • the strategies employed to induce collaborative and interactive participation First of all. 2008).

If any one of these three components is missing.Development and Practice (While-) – 130 . achievable. the objective cannot communicate accurately. realistic. techniques and skills you want to use in the lesson plan. “A well-constructed behavioural objective describes an intended learning outcome and contains three parts.. 2. You can decide whether you want to use the conventional model of Set InductionPresentation-Practice-Production (PPP) model. each of which alone means nothing. Secondly.” (Kizlik. you need to write clear behavioural objectives or learning outcomes of the lesson. a verb that defines the behaviour itself. the format of the lesson plan is not fixed to a particular pattern. the three parts of a behavioural objective are: 1. (Remember the acronym: SMART). The use of behavioural objectives serves as a criteria for a teacher to gauge whether he has been successful in achieving his teaching goal and also whether the students have been able to achieve the expectations of the learning outcomes. Remember to pitch the input to the learners’ levels of abilities and different learning styles. you should select your activities. 2004) Thirdly. techniques and materials appropriately to match your learning objectives. Condition (a statement that describes the conditions under which the behaviour is to be performed) Behavioural Verb (an action verb that connotes an observable student behaviour) Criteria (a statement that specifies how well the student must perform the behaviour) (Kizlik.Introduction. strategies. strategies. It is important that you ensure cohesion and continuity of contents and development of the specific or integrated skills in the progression of stages when you plan your lesson. These should be specific.. B. measurable. and the degree (criteria) to which a student must perform the behaviour. Lastly. or the skills-based model (Set Induction (Pre-) .TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY decide on the level of difficulty of contents from the syllabus. and timed-based. 3. Be ready to adjust or amend for improvement based on the feedback from students or colleagues. 2004) In other words. select the appropriate type of songs or poetry to cater to their levels of proficiency and decide what approaches. but when combined into a sentence or two. communicates the conditions under which the behaviour is performed. B.

• • • • • • • Summary: Factors that you need to remember to include in the planning process: profile of the target students (age.2. needs.2 Developing Lesson Stages The most important thing to remember is that you must ensure the cohesion (continuity or connection of ideas) in the progression of stages as you implement your teaching plan. levels of proficiency) selections of syllabus items/ topics to be covered purpose of the lesson (aims. The stages of a lesson plan comprise the following: • Set Induction / Pre.(skill selected) Establish expectations /set the learning experience • Presentation / While Introduction of topic / subject matter • Practice / While131 . it is imperative that you remember to include key details in your plan while you decide on the most suitable format to use. Share with your partner. understanding and skills) integration of language skills methods of the lesson (strategies. Activity 1: Practise with a partner: 1.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Consolidation/ Enrichment/Remedial (Post-) model). capabilities. The rationale for this is to enable your students to identify when a stage ends and when another begins. Be comfortable to use either format according to your purpose and needs. objectives and learning outcomes from syllabus) subject matter (knowledge. You need to think carefully what to put into the stages of a lesson plan and how to get from one stage to another as smoothly as you can. However. You will need to plan how one activity leads into another and how the stages or parts of a lesson are linked. This is to allow your students to grasp your teaching point step by step as you guide them through the stages until you achieve the desired or expected learning behavioural objective or outcome. techniques and activities to ensure learning) evaluation and assessment of the lesson (of student learning and teacher teaching) 7. Write a behavioural objective each to teach the concept of numbers 1-10 to a Year Three class using a song.

1) Teacher shows a slide on Powerpoint with the picture of an animal and asks if the students know what the young of the animal is called. 2) Students respond to the slides shown. 1) Teacher instructs the students to write their own versions to the tune of the song “Mary had a little lamb” using their choice of the young animals just learnt.” Powerpoint pictures of tame animals and their young. goat-kid 3.) 132 . cow-calf 4. cat – kitten 7. sheep-lamb 2.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Focus on the learning experience hands-on” tasks • Production / PostReinforce the learning experience with extended tasks/ apply what they have learnt An example of how lesson stages are developed could be like this: Theme : Topic : Class : Proficiency leve : Duration : Focused skill : Integrated skills : Grammar focus : Learning objective: World of Knowledge Animals Year 3 Intermediate 60 minutes Writing Listening. Video clip: “Mary had a little lamb. dog – puppy 6. furry cat. Speaking and Reading Nouns.The young of animals To compose poems using at least one of the nouns taught within the stipulated time limit of 20 minutes. Practice (20 mins.:(adapted version) “Cik Sitii had a furry cat. duck-duckling Presentation: (10 mins. hen-chick 5. 2) Students sing along as the lyrics appear on the screen. Resources/Notes: Video clip from the You Tube (Nursery Rhyme: “Mary had a little lamb”) Stages/ Time: Set Induction (5 mins.) Contents: Nursery Rhyme: “Mary had a little lamb” Questions: 1) What is the song about? 2) What is the animal in the video called? Vocabulary: 1.) Nursery Rhyme :’”Mary had a little lamb” Eg. *Activating the students’ prior knowledge and schema. furry cat. Activities: 1) Teacher shows a video clip to the class and asks them some questions.

7. Suggest some improvements that you would like to make to this plan. and an end. What do you think of the selections of contents and activities? 4.) * Enrichment /Remedial activities can be given as homework.”) or anything that can arouse their interest and prepare them for the next stage and activity. Closure (5 mins.2. Integration of moral value – Caring for the young 2) Students compose their versions of the song and share with their partners. 2) They sing the nursery rhyme in closure to the lesson. This can be just a question (“ Where did you go for your holidays?) or a statement {“ Yesterday. Comment on the progression of skills. 1) Teacher selects or invites students at random to sing their versions aloud in front of the class. a lesson should have a beginning. Video camera/ I-Pad to capture presentations of the select few. Discuss in groups of four: 1. List the strengths and the weaknesses of this lesson plan.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Cik Siti had a furry cat. In each lesson. 3. 5. activities and content.) Presentations: Individuals sing their versions of the nursery rhyme (Random pick) Review: The young of animals learnt.” Production (20 mins. The end can be a quick recap. a comprehension check or a brief summary while the middle will depend on what you intend to teach and your approach to teaching. Is the learning objective achieved? 2. a review. Its fur was furry light brown. a middle. something happened to me.3 Planning and Implementing the Lesson According to Lewis and Hill (1985). you will need to plan time to: 133 . 1) Students recall the names of the young of animals shown earlier. The beginning can consist of a warm-up activity to catch the attention of the students or to arouse their curiosity.

speaking. and students lacking confidence. reading. This means you have to involve them actively to keep them focused and interested. You need to have a good variety of learning experiences for the students’ learning process. (Baker and Westrup. not favouring the best. Do not use negative words or a discouraging tone of voice. giving positive praise. Remember to plan activities which will allow the students to practise the language as much as possible. planning learning in easily achievable steps. especially to students who are working hard and trying to improve. not just the quick and confident ones. carefully managing learning activities so that all students are involved.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY • • • • • ask about and review previous learning present new language practise new language produce new language improve language skills We also need to plan each lesson to include a balance between: • teacher talking-time and student participation • learning and practising both new and previously learned language • listening. encouraging student contribution and letting them speak or write without fear. encouraging all students and giving lots of praise. making sure that any pair or group work benefits most of your class. recognising and openly acknowledging individual and class progress. 2000) • • • • • • • • • • 134 . ideas and experiences. or the loudest. and writing activites • knowing about language and learning how to use it (Baker and Westrup. Some tips to motivate your students during the implementation of your lesson include: using students’ own opinions. both in and out of the classroom giving attention to all the students. making best use of learning opportunities. 2000) It is important to have variety and balance for effective learning.

” He reiterates that all aspects of the lesson planned and taught should be evaluated and improvements to be made in future lessons.select your song or poem to suit your subject matter . . Lesson evaluation is central to a teacher’s professional development.think about the learning objectives . According to Butt (2008). The key to effective lesson evaluation (on whatever aspect that is being evaluated) is professional judgement made according to agreed standards. Basically.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Individual practice: 1) Devise a lesson plan using a song or poem to teach a class of intermediate Year Four students.think of how you want to assess your lesson 7.check the cohesion and development of your lesson stages .think about what you want to teach .check the continuity and relevance of your activities and see if they match your learning objectives of the lesson . It tells how much the students have understood the concepts taught or how much they understand the instructional activities to achieve the expected outcomes of the lesson.4 Evaluating the Lesson Plan Evaluation is an important factor in getting feedback to improve lessons for the teacher.decide which skill/s you want to develop . students would be able to carry out the activities as planned in the learning outcomes or objectives of the lesson. To rate a successful lesson.2. “a lesson evaluation is not merely a descriptive account of class management or of events that happened in the lesson: rather it is a means of analysing/problem solving the ways forward for future teaching and learning. the process of lesson evaluation can be illustrated below: 135 .

In relation to evaluating lesson plans using songs and poetry.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY review plan do Figure 1: Process of lesson evaluation The overall aim of a lesson evaluation is to measure what learning experiences worked for you and what did not. A ‘successful’ lesson is usually measured by the ability of students to carry out the instructional activities and learning experiences and achieve the learning objectives desired. you must employ the appropriate assessment strategies to evaluate student performance which are as varied as the tasks to which students are assigned. This feedback is essential because it gives you important information on how much the students have learnt and what you need to focus for future lessons. Some of the common strategies used in assessing student performance are: • • • • • • • • questions reflections presentations oral interviews simulations of activities worksheets /handouts observations (during/after) oral and written descriptions 136 .

Management 4. What is important is that you should consider how you will monitor the performance and progress of your students during the lesson itself. OHP. Follow-up 137 . Lesson Planning. Methods • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 5. Aims and objectives • • • • • 2. Control and discipline 6. Resources • • • • • • Were the aims/objectives wholly or partially achieved? Did you manage to cover the content of the lesson? Could the students understand and use the contents/skills/knowledge you introduced? What do you think they actually learnt? What did any assessment show? Question and Answer technique Visuals & OHP ICT Individual. ICT Were the resources used effectively? What should be planned next? Revise/ review/ or teach something new? Marking of books and feedback Specific targets for next lesson (Source: Butt G. Simulations Practicals Was the start and finish of the lesson orderly? Was the change of activities orderly? Were students organised into effective learning groups? Were instructions clear? Was a good learning atmosphere created? Was the preparation of resources sufficient? Were interruptions dealt with effectively? Type and use of reward/praise (smile/ look/encouragement) Tone and approach adopted towards class and individuals Use of boards. Group work Games. London: Continuum) 3. worksheets. (2008). textbooks. The following checklist of questions may be useful to you: 1.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY You will have to select the appropriate assessment tool to evaluate the effectiveness of your lesson. This is essential in helping you as well as your students identify the strengths and weaknesses in your planning as they learn and to help them improve in those areas in future lessons. Role plays. Pair work.

Select and prepare support materials for your lessons. Whatever form a lesson plan takes. The English language teacher's handbook: How to teach large classes with few resources. it is good practice for teachers to plan their lessons before they teach. References Baker. J. plan a 60-minute lesson using either a song or a poem to teach a class of mixed-ability students. record progress. 4. Practice makes perfect! Simulated Teaching (Groupwork) In groups of three.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Figure 1. Carry out a simulated lesson in your groups and get your peers to give you the feedback first before getting the final or overall feedback from your lecturer. Use the checklist to evaluate your lesson plans. Plan wisely and realistically for the benefit of all. Note the problems and constraints encountered and think of solutions or ways to overcome each challenge. 2. London. Check for language errors and cohesion of contents. UK: Continuum.1: A framework for lesson evaluations It is recommended that you use the above checklist when you plan and that you make it a habit to reflect after each lesson to gauge the degree of its effectiveness. 3. (2000). solve instructional problems. 5. Do the following: 1. Discuss drafts of your lesson plans in your groups and revise areas that need improvement. In conclusion to this chapter. H. & Westrup. and be accountable to peers or supervisors. it is an important tool that can help teachers make decisions. 138 . deal with classroom management issues.

PPK–KPM. (2004). (2008). Chennai: Continuum Publishing Services. 139 . Five Common Mistakes in Writing Lesson Plans (and how to avoid them ). Lesson Planning: 2nd edition.h tm Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Bahasa Inggeris SK Tahun 3.educationoasis. At http://www. B. Kizlik.TSL3102 SONGS AND POETRY Butt. (1998).com/resources/Articles/five_common_mistakes. Graham. Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah.

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