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Army Public College of Management & Sciences
Syed Salmn Abbas BBA-19 Pakistan Studies
Project on Geography of Pakistan
Instructor Sir Wajid Nawaz
Total Area: Land: Water: Population:
803,940 sq km 778,720 sq km 25,220 sq km 172,800,000 (In July 2008)
Boundaries with the Neighbors are
Afghanistan: China: Iran: India: Costal Area: 2,430 km 523 km 909 km 2,912 km 1,046 km (Costal Line) (Also Called Durand line)
Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Capital of Province: Major Cities: Muree Jhelum Wazirabad Lahore Faisalabad Sargodha 205,344 km² 81,845,433 Punjabi, Urdu Lahore Multan Bahawalpur Gujrat Sialkot Gujranwala Chiniot
Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Capital of Province: Major cities: Barkhan, Chaman, Dera Allah Yar, Dera Murad Jamali, Gwadar Hub, Kalat, Loralai, Nushki, Quetta, Sibi, Turbat, Dera Bughti 347,190 km² 10,247,362 Balochi Quetta
Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Capital of Province: Major Cities: Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkhur, Dadu, Badin, Ghotki, Jacobabad, Larkana, Mirpurkhas, Kashmore, Thatta, Rohri, Ratodero, Shikarpur 140,914 km² 49,978,000 Sindhi, Urdu Saraiki Karachi
NWFP: (North-West Frontier Province)
Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Capital of Province: Major Cities: Peshawar, Mardan, Abbotbad, Kohat, Bannu, Batgram, Shangla, Nowshehra, Swat, Swabi, Haripur, Jamrud, Mansehra, Malakand, Hangu, Chitral, Daggar, Dera Ismaiel Khan, 74,521 km² 20,215,000 Pashto, Urdu Peshawar
Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Constructed & Developed: Picnic points: Overview: 906.50 km2 901,137 Urdu, English 1960s Margalla Hills, Peer Sohawa, Damn-e-koh, Divided into Eight (8) Zones as Alphabetically (Diplomatic enclave, the commercial district, The educational sector, the industrial area) etc
Azad Kashmir: (Pakistan)
The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (’free Kashmir’), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Capital : 13,297 km² 40,00000 Almost Urdu, Hindko, Mirpuri, Pahari, Gojri, Pashto Muzaffarabad
Total Area: Population: Language Which Mostly Spoken: Capital: Major Cities: 222,236 km² 10,143,700 Urdu, Kashmiri, and Dogri Jammu (winter) - & Srinagar (summer) Bhimber, Kotli, Mirpur, Muzafarabad, Bagh, Poonch, serinagr, Jammu, budgham, Baramula
Pakistan is home to more than sixty peaks above 7,000 m (22,960 feet). Most of the high peaks in Pakistan are in Karakoram range, the highest of which is K2 (8,611 m), the second highest peak on earth Following are the mountain ranges that are fully or partially included in Pakistan: Karakoram range, highest peak is K2 (8,611 m or 28,244 feet). Himalaya range, highest peak in Pakistan is Nanga Parbat (8,126 m or 26,653 feet). Hindu Kush range, highest peak is Tirich Mir (7,690 meters or 25,230 feet). Pamir Mountains, junction of the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges. Hindu Raj Hindu Raj is a mountain range in northern Pakistan, between the Hindu Kush and the Karakoram ranges. Sulaiman Mountains range, highest peak is Takht-e-Sulaiman (3,487 m or 11,437 feet). Safed Koh range, highest peak is Mount Sikaram (4,761 m or 15,620 feet) Salt Range, a hill system in the Punjab Province, abundant in salt Makran range, semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The narrow coastal plain rises very rapidly into several mountain ranges. Of the 1,000 km coastline, about 750 km is in Pakistan Kirthar Range, Kirthar Range is located in the Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. It extends from north, southward for about 190 miles (300 km).. from the Mula River in eastcentral Balochistan to Cape Muari ( Cape Monze) west of Karachi on the Arabian Sea.
Rivers in Pakistan
In any part of the world. Water is more important than anything. Fortunately GOD gives this facility to Pakistan also. Rivers are very important to fulfilling the needs of water by guiding the way throughout the country. We will study in detail about the Rivers Dams & Barrages in Pakistan.
List of Rivers in Pakistan:
The longest and the largest river in Pakistan is the Indus River, which is also called the 'Lifeline of Pakistan as Indus and its tributaries are probably the largest water source in Pakistan. Around two-thirds of water supplied for irrigation and in homes comes from the Indus and its associated rivers
Following rivers are directly fall in the Indus River. Astore River Gilgit River Gomal River Hanley River Kabul River Kurrum River Panjnad River Soan River Sohan River Shuru River Swaan River Tangir River Zanskar River Shigar River
Following is a list of rivers that do not directly drain into the Indus: Rupal River Ghizer River Hunza River Kundal River Zohb river Kunar River Chenab River Jehlum River Poonch River Ravi River Sutlej river Tochi River
Major Rivers Indus River:
It is one of the world's longest rivers, with a length of 2,896 km. Its annual average flow of 207 billion cubic meters. It rises in southwestern Tibet and flows northwest through valleys of the Himalayas. After crossing into the Kashmir region
Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. The valley of the Jhelum River, which includes the Vale of Kashmir, in the central portion; the mountains around Jammu in the south; and the great mountains of the Karakoram Range in the north The Mangla Dam in Pakistan, the twelfth largest dam in the world, was built in 1967 on Jhelum River
1,242 km long Chenab River originates from the Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh State, India. Through the area of Jammu and Kashmir controlled by India. It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu and then by the Ravi River. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif to form the Panjnad. Generally the healthiest river of Pakistan after Indus
The River Ravi originates from the Himalayas near Chamba in Himachal Pradesh State, northern India. The Ravi River is a river in India and Pakistan. It is one of the five rivers which give Punjab its name. Approximately it is 901 km long from his origin
Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through Indian Punjab in northern India. Where it is joined by the Chenab River. Its source is in Tibet near Mount Kailash. It’s total length is bout 1,551 km.
Dams & Barrages
The world's largest earth-filled dam on one of the world's most important rivers - the Indus - is 103 km from Rawalpindi. The dam was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. Over 15,000 Pakistani and 800 foreign workers and engineers worked during its construction. It is the biggest hydel power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity. Its reservoir is 97 km long with a depth of 137 meters while total area of the lake is 260 sq km.
World's third largest earth-filled dam is only 115 km south-east of Rawalpindi. One has to turn left from Dina Town and the dam on river Jhelum is about 14 km to the east. The dam is 3,353 meters long and 116 meters high above the river bed. It is designed to store 5.88 Mega Aker Feet water and also used for power generation. In the centre of the dam there is a Gakkhar Fort from where one can have a panoramic view of the lake.
The gignatic multi-purpose Warsak Dam is situated 30 km north-west of Peshawar in the heart of tribal territory. It has a total generating capacity of 240,000 kw and will ultimately serve to water 110,000 acres of land
Dohngi Dam lies 2 kilometers northwest of Gujar Khan in Rawalpindi, Punjab. Pakistan. The Dam is a local tourist attraction for residents of Gujar Khan. In the hot summer season, many local youngsters use the dam to bathe or swim. In the summer of 1996, one such group of local youths visited the dam for such a purpose
Ghazi Barotha Dam:
This Dam is a power generation project in Pakistan. It diverts the water of Indus River into a 52 km concrete-lined channel, which is fed to a 1,450MW powerhouse in Barotha.A barrage is built downstream of Tarbela Dam. The barrage diverts water into a 52km concrete-lined channel and delivers it to the 1,450MW powerhouse at Barotha, which is further downstream, near the confluence of the Indus and Haro rivers. In this reach, the Indus River drops by 76 meters over a distance of 63km. After passing through the powerhouse, diverted water is returned to the Indus.
Gomal Dam is located on Gomal river in South Waziristan, NWFP, Pakistan.
Gomal Zam Dam Project:
Gomal Zam Dam Project is located in the Damaan area of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan( NWFP ). The Gomal River, on which a 437 feet (133 m) high Gomal Zam Dam will be built, is one of the significant tributaries of Indus River ated approximately 70 km from District Tank
Guddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Sukkhur in Pakistan. President Sikander mirza laid foundation-stone of the Guddu Barrage on February 2, 1957. The barrage was completed in 1962.ingration ceremony by field marshal AYUB KHAN.
is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River on the arid plains north of Karachi. It is located on the provincial border between Balochistan and Sindh, Pakistan. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in Lasbela District of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. The dam is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water
is the largest reservoir of drinking water to people living in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. The water stored in this dam is fed by the melting snow & natural springs of Murree hills.many of the agricultural and industrial areas surrounding the cities. Simly Dam is located around 30 kilometer (19 miles) north of Islamabad. About 10 to 15 minutes drive from Convention Center Islamabad towards Murree road is branching off to the right which is marked Simly Dam Road. Usually, it takes around 30 minutes to reach Simly Dam from this road. The road is not very smooth and has Jumps but the surroundings are beautiful (till April 2008).
Khanpur is a dam located on the Haro River near the town of Khanpur (NWFP), about 25 miles (40 km) from Islamabad, Pakistan. It forms Khanpur Lake, a reservoir which supplies drinking water to Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigation water to many of the agricultural and industrial areas surrounding the cities.
The Shakidor dam:
The Dam is located near Pasni, in the Balochistan province of southwest Pakistan, 1,900 km (1,180 miles) from Islamabad. The dam is 148 meters (485 feet) long. It was built in 2003, at a cost of 45 million rupees ($758,853), to provide irrigation for nearby farms
Sukkhur is a barrage across the Indus river near the city of Sukkhur,It was built during the British Raj from 1923 to 1932 as the Lloyd Barrage to help alleviate famines caused by lack of rain. The barrage enables water to flow through what was originally a 6166 mile long network of canals, feeding the largest irrigation system in the world, with more than 5 million acres (20,000 km²) of irrigated land.The retaining wall has sixty-six spans, each 60 feet wide; each span has a gate which weighs 50 tons.
Ansoo Lake is on very height (elevation 16,490 feet or 5,027 metres) located in the Kaghan Valley in Mansehra District of North-West Frontier Province. It is near Malika Parbat in the Himalayan range. The name of the lake comes from its tear like shape (the Urdu word Ansoo means tear drop).
The lake is nearly half a kilometer long and overlooks the Bandala Valley Mirpur. This lake has 975 meters Evaluation.
Banjosa is a small man-made lake and a tourist attraction near the city of Rawalakot in District Bagh in Azad Kashmir. It has a total estimate area of 1981 meters
Borith Lake is a saline water lake, located to the northwest of Hussaini, a village near Gulmit, Gojal, in the upper Hunza. It’s total Evaluation is 2,600 m (8,500 feet)
Chitta Katha Lake:
Chitta Katha Lake is located in Shonter Valley of Azad Kashmir. Approximately it’s total area is 3962 meters (13,000 feet).
The lake lies in the extreme north of Kaghan Valley at a height of 3,800 meters. The term dudi in Urde means white and sar means lake.
Hanna Lake is located 10km from Quetta, near Urak Valley in Balochistan. With a total area of 1898 meters (6227 feet).
The salt water lake is located near Salt Range in Chakwal District, 125 km from Rawalpindi. Very Famus for picnic & it’s beauty.
Karambar Lake is the 31st highest lakes in the world. The approximate length of the lake is 3.9 km, width is 2km and, average depth is 52m. It is located in Ishkoman Valley, Northern Areas.With the total area of 4272 meters (14,012 feet).
The lake is also called Kalri Lake and is one of the largest freshwater lakes in Pakistan. , There is a shrine in the middle of the lake marking Noor's grave. It’s total area is 21 meters, (69 feet).
Lower Kachura Lake:
The lake is also known as Shangrila Lake and is located at a drive of about 20 minutes from Skardu town. Shangrila was named after a book titled "Lost Horizon" by James Hilton. Shangrila is a Chinese word meaning "Heaven on earth". Approximately it’s total area is 2,500 m & (8,200 feet).
The lake is the main source of the Kunhar River and has a baby lake beside it. The word "sar" means "top or peak" in Pashto. It’s total area is about 3,410 m (11,200 ft).it is exactly located in Naran Velley NWFP
The lake is located 40 km from Kalam Valley in the valley of Ushu. Very famus for visitors.. it has a total area of 56 meters.
Rama Lake is located nine kilometers away from the valley of Astore in Northern Areas. It’s total area is 2,600 meters (8530 feet).
Lake Manchar is the largest freshwater lake in Pakistan and one of the largest in Asia. Located in Sindh. It is located west of the Indus River in Sindh. The area of the lake fluctuates with the seasons from as little as 350 km² to 520 km². The lake collects water from numerous small streams in the Kirthar Mountains and empties into the Indus River.
Namal Lake is located in Namal Valley, in Mianwali. The lake is spread over an area of 5.5 sq. km and was build in 1913 after the construction of Namal Dam.
The lake is also called Siri Lake and is located near Shogran, surrounded by the Makra Peak, Malika Parbat, and the mountains of Kashmir. It covers the approximate area of 3,000 meters (10,000 feet). Located in Kaghan valley NWFP.
Rawal Lake is a man-made lake in Islamabad Capital Territory. The lake is spread over an area of 8.8 sq. km and is one of the major source of water for the residents of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Rawal Lake is located within an isolated section of the Margalla Hills National Park.
One of the most beautiful lake on earth. The lake is located in the northern end of Kaghan Valley. The lake has total surface area of over 2.5 square kilometer. The lake is famous for its fairytale of Saiful Maluk
Satpara Lake is located in Skardu Valley and is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Pakistan. It supplies water for the town of Skardu. It covers about 2,636 meters (8,650 ft) area.
Simli Lake is located 30 km from Islamabad. The lake is formed from the melting snow and natural springs of Murree Hills. Simli Lake is the largest drinking water source for the residents of Islamabad.
Sheosar Lake is situated in the Deosai Plateau, which is one of the highest plateaus of the world. Sheosar means blind lake It is located in northern area. Total area of this lake is 4,142 meters (13,589 feet). Upper Kachura Lake: The lake is surrounded with wild apricot gardens and has a depth of around 70 meters. Due to rough terrain of the surrounding area, this lake is not well explored. Total area of this lake is 500 meters (8200 feet).
The Badawi Pass connects Dir with Kohistan District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.
Bichhar pass 14,870 ft.) is a high mountain pass at the boundary of the Ghizer and Gilgit districts in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. To the north of the pass is Bichhari village in the Naltar valley in Gilgit district. To the south of the pass is the village Sherqila on the Gilgit river in the Ghizer district.
(meaning "Pass of the Butterflies"), also known as the Saltoro Pass, is a mountain pass situated on Saltoro Ridge, which sits immediately west of the vast Siachen Glacier. Currently held by India , the pass lies near the line of control dividing Indian- and Pakistani-administered territory.
This is a mountain pass through the Toba Kakar Range of mountains in western Pakistan, 120 kilometres from the Afghanistan border.Strategically located, traders, invaders, and nomadic tribes have also used it as a gateway to and from the South Asia.
3798 m./12,460 ft.) is a high mountain pass that crosses the Hindu Kush and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan.
The Burzil Pass situated at a height of 3200 metres above sea level is an ancient pass and caravan route between Srinagar in Kashmir and Gilgit. This route was active up to Pakistan's independence. The travelers used horses and ponies to cross the pass. The pass lies close to the Indo-Pak line of control that has since closed the Burzil.
Chaprot Pass is a mountain pass to the northeast of Mehrbani Peak (5639m) in the northwest of Chaprot.
This pass is about 17,503 ft of height., also marked as 17,360 ft.) is a high mountain pass that connects Karambar river valley (upper Gilgit valley) in Ishkoman tehsil of Ghizer district with Chapursan river valley (upper Hunza valley) in Gojal tehsil of Gilgit district in the Northern Areas in Pakistan. It is also spelled as Chilinji.
On the Height of 15,430 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Yarkhun river valley in Chitral to the Ghizar valley (Gupis tehsil of Ghizer district) in Gilgit in Pakistan. It is also known under name Darkut.
Darmodar Aghost pass:
Darmodar Aghost pass (el. 14,340 ft.) is a high mountain pass in Pakistan.
also spelled and pronounced Durah Pass, connects Badakshan in Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. The Dorah Pass is more than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) high. It crosses the Hindu Kush. It became important during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan because the Soviets were unable to stop the flow of arms and men back and forth across the pass. Almost the entire Munjispeaking population of Afghanistan fled across the border to Chitral during the War in Afghanistan. Pamir is a high plateau sometimes called "The roof of the world" that joins Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, China and India. Marco Polo is believed to have crossed the Pamir Mountains on his way to China.
Gondogoro Pass is a high mountain pass on the Gondogoro Glacier near Vigne Glacier
Gumal Pass or Gomal is a mountain pass on the border of Afghanistan and the southeastern portion of South Waziristan in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. It takes its name from the Gomal River. It is midway between Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass
Hayal Pass. 4700 meters is a high mountain pass to the north of Shani Peak in Naltar Valley. (el. 5,128 m./16,824 ft.) is a high-altitude,. the Biafo Glacier (63 km. long) and Hispar Glacier (49 km long) meet to form the world's longest glacial traverse outside of the polar regions, 100 kilometers in length. lies in the west of Naltar Pass.
el. 16,330 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Chapursan river valley (upper Hunza valley) in Gojal tehsil of Gilgit district in the Northern Areas of Pakistan with Wakhan Corridor in Afghanistan.
Ishkoman Aghost pass:
15,050 ft is a high mountain pass in Pakistan. It is also spelled as Ishkurman Aghost and Ishkuman Aghost pass.It is situated in hindu kash mountains.
17,130 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Karambar river valley (upper Gilgit valley) in Ishkoman tehsil of Ghizer district in the Northern Areas of Pakistan with Wakhan Corridor in Afghanistan.
1336 m./4384 ft. is a mountain pass in the Hindu Kush in Pakistan.From the top of the pass, one can view Buner Valley. It was at this pass that the Emperor Akbar lost most of his 8000-man army in an abortive attempt to invade Swat in 1586.
14,250 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Yarkhun river valley in upper Chitral to the Karambar river valley in Ishkoman tehsil of Ghizer district in Hunza Valley in Pakistan. It is also misspelled as Karomber or Kromber pass.
7,513 ft. connects Qila Abdullah with Chaman in the province of Baluchistan, Pakistan. khojak pass is between Quetta and Chaman. 22 kilometer before Chaman. Khojak tunnel 5.2 kilometer long (3.2 miles).
Khora Bhurt pass:
15,190 ft also marked as 15,290 ft.) is a high mountain pass that connects Karambar river valley (upper Gilgit valley) in Ishkoman tehsil of Ghizer district in the Northern Areas of Pakistan with Wakhan Corridor in Afghanistan.
4,693 m/15,397 ft. is a high mountain pass in the Karakorum Mountains on the northern border of Pakistan and the China.
The Khyber Pass:
The Khyber Pass, (also spelled Khaiber or Khaybar; altitude: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. The summit of the Khyber Pass is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal and it cuts through the northeastern part of the Safed Koh mountains which themselves are a far southeastern extension of the Hindu Kush range.
4827 m./15,837 ft.), 30 km to the west of Mintaka Pass is a high mountain pass in the Karakorum Mountains between Pakistan and Xinjiang in China. The two passes were, in ancient times, the two main access points into the Upper Hunza Valley (also called Gojal Valley) from the north.
Kohat Pass is a mountain pass in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, connecting Kohat with Peshawar, crossing the Khigana Mountains.
Lowari Passor Lowari Top on the height of 10,230 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Chitral with Dir in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Lowari Top is a relatively low pass, by far the lowest pass to enter Chitral, the rest all being 12,000 to 15,000 feet.
Lupghar Pir pass:
16,420 ft. is a high mountain pass 6 miles to the west of village Lupghar in the upper Hunza valley in Gojal tehsil of Gilgit district in the Northern Areas in Pakistan.
The Malakand Pass is a mountain pass in Malakand District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The pass road begins at Dargai. The road across the pass is in good condition, but is always crowded with a continuous stream of trucks.
Also known as Minteke Pass 4709 m./15,450 ft.) is a mountain pass in the Karakorum Mountains, between Pakistan and Xinjiang in China. The Mintaka Pass and the nearby Kilik Pass (4,827 m or 15,837 ft (4,827 m) high 30 km to the west, were, in ancient times, the two main
access points into the Upper Hunza Valley from the north. The Hunza Valley is a mountainous valley near Gilgit in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Coordinates
is a pass across the Baltoro Muztagh range in the Karakorams and includes K2, the world's second highest mountain. The crest of the Baltoro Muztagh marks the present border between Pakistani and Chinese territory. There are actually two passes, the eastern or 'Old' Mustagh Pass (alt. about 5,422 m.) and the so-called 'New' Mustagh Pass, about 16 km (10 miles) to the west (altitude variously given as 5,700 and 5,800 m.) The pass is on the watershed between the rivers which flow towards the Tarim Basin and those flowing to the Indian Ocean
is a mountain pass to the north of Shani Peak in Naltar Valley in Pakistan. The pass lies west of Chaprot Pass and east of Hayal Pass.
Peiwar Kotal Pass:
This is one of mountain passes that connects Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Shahchoi Passis on 14,700 ft. & a mountain pass in Pakistan. It is also called Shahchoi
At 12,200 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Chitral to the Gilgit in Pakistan. The top is flat, a plateau and can be crossed between late April and early November. The grade is very gradual, and the area is crossed by small streams of trout. Grazing in summer is plentiful.
Shangla Pass connects Upper Swat with Lower Swat, in NWFP, Pakistan.
The Sindh Valley, is a valley within a mountain range situated to the north of Srinagar, Kashmir.The valley begin from Gandarbal and ends near Baltal at the base of the Zojila Pass. Sindh Valley is the chief trade route between Kashmir and Central Asia.
At. 16,420 ft. is a high mountain pass that connects Gazin in Yarkhun river valley in Chitral to Nialthi in the Yasin Valley valley in Ghizer district in Pakistan. Village Nialthi lies on the south bank of Thui river that runs off from the glacier lying to the east of the pass
At 16,420 ft. of a high mountain pass that connects Yarkhun river valley in Chitral to the Gupis valley (Gupis tehsil of Ghizer district) in Gilgit in Pakistan. The pass is about 3 miles southwest from Bahushtar Zom peak (5704 m) and about 5 miles east-southeast from Malo Zom peak (5652 m).
Pakistan is endowed with significant mineral resources and emerging as a very promising area for exploration of mineral deposits. Based on available information, country’s more than 6, 00, 000 sq.kms of outcrop area demonstrates varied geological potential for metallic / non-metallic mineral deposits. Exploration by government agencies as well as by multinational mining companies and various regional geological surveys, conducted in the recent past have confirmed the great potential of Pakistan in the metallic minerals like copper, gold, silver, platinum, chromites, iron, lead and zinc. As regards industrial minerals there is a vast potential of multi- coloured granite, marble and other dimensional stones of high quality for export purposes. Currently about 52 minerals are under exploitation although on small scale. The major production is of coal, rock salt, and other industrial and construction minerals. The value addition in the mineral sector is mainly concentrated in five principal minerals, namely, limestone, coal, gypsum, sulphur, crude oil, and natural gas.
Summary of Mineral Data in Pakistan
ANNUAL PRODUCTION S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NON-METALS - Building & DEPOSIT TYPE METALS MINERAL Antimony Chromite Iron ore Manganese Agglomerate Aragonite/Marble RESERVE SIZE (Average) Small Small to Medium -doSmall Large -do-do-do35 27,458 24,322 655 366 497,317 217 16,011
Dimension Stones Basalt Building stone
ANNUAL PRODUCTION S.NO 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 (in metric tonnes) - Clays DEPOSIT TYPE MINERAL Conglomerate Ebry stone Granite Gravel Onyx marble Ordinary stone Sand / Bajri Sandstone Serpentine Slate stone Ball clay Bentonite China clay Clays * Fire clay Fuller’s earth - Chemical, Fertilizer Asbestos & Industrial Minerals Barite Bauxite Brine Calcite Celestite Chalk Dolomite Feldspar RESERVE SIZE (Average) -doMedium Large -do-do-do-do-do-do-doSmall -do Small to Medium Large Medium -doSmall Large Small Medium Small to Medium Small -doLarge Small 276 209 5,676 19,684 28,780 1,887 92,670 2,255 4,204 108,182 1,371 19,983 61,403 2,934,218 124,003 18,446 60 26,002 22,360 55,903 15 838 7,945 276,668 32,012
S.NO 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56
MINERAL Flint stone Fluorite Gypsum Lake salt Laterite Limestone Magnesite Millstone Nepheline Syenite
RESERVE SIZE -do-doLarge Small -doLarge -doSmall -do-
ANNUAL PRODUCTION (Average) 73 579 384,513 16,035 21,532 8,697,573 4,535 1,257 70 12,780 29 1,074 1,577 485 1,457 1,212,366 157,300 46,486 527 260 3,446 3,105,715 923,758 (million CFT) 23,195,048 (US barrels) N. A.
Ochres / Red oxides ** Medium Orpiment Phosphate Pumice Quartz Quartzite Rock salt Silica sand Soapstone Sulphur Talc stone (Talc) Trona FUELS Coal Natural Gas (trillion cubic feet) Crude Oil (million barrels) Uranium Small -do-do-doSmall to medium Large -doMedium to large Small -do-doLarge 41.978893 (26.98237) 765.237 (300.203) N. A.
* ** CFT Note: 1. 2.
Argillaceous clay, clay and shale Ochres, red ochre’s and red oxide Cubic Feet
Some minor minerals mined only sporadically are excluded. Commodity names are those as reported by the Provincial DMMD’s.
3. Pakistan’s large deposits of copper and small to medium deposits of gold and zinc & lead in Balochistan are expected to be in production within next 3 years. 4. Figures given against oil and gas show original reserves while those in parentheses indicate balance recoverable reserves. N. A. = Data not available.
Coal: Iron: Petroleum:
Dandoot , Pindh, Makrwal, Mach, Khost, Sharng, Dagari, Lakhra, chamm Peshawar, D I Khan, Chitral, Langaryal, chachaali, Kalabagh, Malakand, Sibbi, Khor, Dhodyal, Joyameer, Balkasr, Tit, Kot sarang, Myal, Dhodk, Adhi, Sui, Dhodk, Peerkoh, Dhalya, Meyal, Kherpur, Mezrani, kandkot, Hindi, Sarang Uch, Zan
Chromites: Copper: Marble:
Muslimbagh, Chaghi, Kharan, Malakand, Mehmnd, Naran, Kohat, Hazara, Chitral, Lasbela, Sindhk, malagwari, Mardan, Sawat, Noshehra, Hazara, chaghi, Gilgit, Meerpur, Muzfrabad, Kashmir
Khewra, Warcha, kalabagh, Bahadrkhel, Maripur, Lasbela, Makran
Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and its economy is mainly agrarian. It is the biggest sector of the economy and earns about 35-40% of the national income from it. Pakistan like many developing countries of the world is faced with the problem of low agricultural productivity. Many countries including Pakistan are faced with the challenge of producing more food and fibre, while there is little room for expansion in the cultivated area and yield per unit area of various crops are very low. There are two Major types of crops available in Pakistan. Cash & food Crop. These are some major crops mentioned here area wise in detail.
Mango: Ghotki, Nausharo, Nawabshah, Hyderabad, Tando Allah Yar. Lychee: Hyderabad, Matiari, Mirpurkhas, Tando Allah Yar, Nawabshah, Nausharo and Ghotki. Date palm: Khairpur and Sukkur. Guava: Larkana and Karachi. Chiku: Karachi, Thatta and Badin. Cherimoya and other Annonas: Karachi, Thatta and Badin. Citrus: Grapefruit, lemon, lime: Whole Sindh. Citrus (Pummelo): Karachi, Thatta, Badin and Hyderabad. Longan: Karachi, Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Matiari, Tando Allah Yar and Mirpurkhas. Jammon: Whole Sindh. Papaya: Karachi, Thatta and Badin.
Pomegranate: Barkhan, Duki districts. Dates: Turbat and Gawadar. Grapes: Quetta and Pishin. Apples: Quetta, Pishin, Mastung, Kalat and Khuzdar. Almond: Quetta and Pishin
Cherry, apple, apricot, peach, plums pears, almond and walnut.
Lychee, guava, citrus, mango, citrus, (except lemon, lime and grapefruit) Mechanisation of crop requires special row crop tractors, which are not manufactured in Pakistan and therefore there is no progress in producing crops economically or intensively or increasing the yield by mechanised methods. Imagine that cotton could be grown by using 7.5 tractor hours per acre except harvesting it would be inter-cultivation and save cost of herbicides. This was my training in USA and also M.Sc. thesis. I had mechanised cotton crop on my farm for some years, when mango trees were very small. The same equipment could be used for vegetables, castor, groundnut and etc. Wheat: Punjab is the bigger Wheat producer in the world. Only Punjab province is fulfilling the needs of the wheat of Pakistan. Sugar can: Pakistan has a larger producer of sugar can. Pakistan is fulfilling the needs of sugar from their own. West Punjab is very famous for sugar cane production Orange: very delicious fruit to eat. & produced in Sargodha Pakistan in a large number. Banana: Also a fruit which is meeting the needs of Pakistani public Cotton: Available in many parts of Punjab. NWFP. Balochistan & Sindh. Pakistan is producing a quality cotton for themselves & also for exports
Here are some of the basic professions which are exist is Pakistan’s provinces.
Cholistan Desert : also locally known as Rohi) sprawls thirty kilometers from Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan and covers an area of 16,000 km². It adjoins the Thar desert extending over to Sindh and into India. The Desert also has an Annual Jeep Rally, known as Annual Cholistan Jeep Rally.
The Indus Valley Desert:
The Indus Valley Desert is a desert ecoregion of northern Pakistan. The Indus Valley desert covers an area of 19,500 square kilometers (7,500 square miles) in northwestern Punjab Province, lying between the Chenab and Indus rivers. The Indus Valley Desert is drier and less hospitable than the Northwestern thorn scrub forests that surround it
Kharan Desert is a desert located in Kharan District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan’s second nuclear test were performed in the Kharan desert in 1998 May 30 of a miniaturized device yielding 60 percent of the Ras Koh Hills tests.
The Thar Desert is situated in Punjab, Pakistan. It is vast area mainly between the Jhelum and Sindh rivers near the Pothohar Plateau. Its total length from north to south is 190 miles, and its maximum breadth is 70 miles while minimum breadth is 20 miles. This region is divided into the districts of Bhakkar, Khushab, Mianwali, Jhang, Layyah, and Muzaffargarh. The Thar Desert, The Thar Desert also known as the Great Indian Desert, with an area of more than 200,000 sq. km (77,000 sq. mi.) it is world's 18th largest desert. It lies mostly in the Indian state of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sind province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan's Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar Desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.
Karachi city is spread over 3,530 km² (2,193 sq mi) in area. It is locally known as the "City of Lights" for its liveliness, and the "City of the Quaid" having been the birth and burial place of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, who also made the city his home after Pakistan's independence.
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. It is often called the Garden of Mughals because of its rich Mughal heritage. Lahore also is often called the cultural heart of Pakistan, as it is the center of Pakistani arts, films and intelligentsia. It is located near the Ravi River, close to the Pakistan-India border.
Faisalabad is a city located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. It was formerly known as Lyallpur. Faisalabad is the third largest city in Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has risen from 9,171 in 1901 to 179,000 in 1951 and to 2,009,000 in 1998 The larger Faisalabad district had a population of about 5.4 million in 1998
Rawalpindi is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. The area was home to the pre-historic Soanian culture indigenous to this region.. Rawalpindi is also the military headquarters of the Pakistan Armed Forces The city is home to many industries and factories. Islamabad International Airport, formerly known as "Chaklala" airport, now known as "Benazir Bhutto International Airport" is actually in Rawalpindi; it serves the city along with the capital. Rawalpindi is located in the Punjab province, 275 km (171 miles) to the north-west of Lahore. It is the administrative seat of the Rawalpindi District. City is about 108 square kilometres (42 sq mi).
Multan is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province. Multan District has a population of over 3.8 million and the city itself is the sixth largest within the boundaries of Pakistan. It is situated on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about 966 km from Karachi. Multan is known as the City of Sufis due to the large number of shrines and Sufi saints from the city
Gujranwala is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a population of 1,132,509. Gujranwala is located at North East and is 226 meters (744 feet) above sea-level With a population of over 1.1 million Gujranwala is the seventh largest city in Pakistan, and is one of Pakistan's most industrialized cities. It borders with Ghakhar Mandi and some small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language, however English and Urdu are also common, particularly in schools and offices, as is the case in almost all of Pakistan. Gujranwala is also famous for industries & factories
Peshāwar is the capital of the North-West Frontier Province and the administrative centre for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan "Peshawar" literally means "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto or Pukhto. The area of the city has been ruled by numerous empires including the Afghan, Persian, Shahi, Greek, Maurya, Scythian, Arab, Turk, Mongol, Mughal, Sikh and the British.
Quetta is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. It is an important marketing and communications centre for Pakistan with neighbouring Iran and Afghanistan. Situated at an elevation from 1676 to 1900 meters above sea level, Quetta is also known as the fruit basket of Pakistan
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan, and is the tenth largest city in Pakistan. The Rawalpindi/Islamabad metropolitan area is the third largest in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million Residents, 1.5 million in Islamabad and three million in Rawalpindi
Sargodha is a city in the Sargodha District of Punjab province, Pakistan. It is located in northeast Pakistan. It is 8th largest city of Pakistan. It is an agricultural trade centre with various industries. Sargodha is one of three "planned cities" in Pakistan (the other two are Faisalabad and Islamabad). The biggest airbase of Pakistan,PAF Base Sargodha hosts the Headquarters of the Central Air Command
Sialkot the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. Formerly, Sialkot has been the winter-capital of the State of Kashmir. The city is about 125 km (78 mi) north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometres from Jammu in India. Sialkot is an industrial city of Pakistan and very famous in other countries for his quality sports equipments.
Larkana is the fourth largest city located in the Northwest of Sindh Province, Pakistan, located in Larkana District. In August 2000 Larkana celebrated its hundred years of existence. It is located on the south bank of the Ghar canal, 40 miles south of Shikarpur town, and 36 north-east of Mehar
Sheikhupura or Shekhupura formerly Kot Dayal Das is an industrial city in the province of Punjab slightly northwest to Lahore in Pakistan It is known for its historical places, and is commonly known locally as Qila Shaikhupura, because of the fort in the city, constructed by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Mardan the Land of Hospitality is a city and headquarters of Mardan District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, The second major city of NWFP. It is located at 34°12'0N 72°1'60E with an altitude of 283 meters (931 feet) lying the south-west of the district
Gujrat is a city in Pakistan and is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province. A person living in Gujrat is called Gujrati. The major sources of livelihood of Gujrat populace are agriculture and small industries
Pakistan Study ( B.A & intermediate )
http://www.vista-tourism.com/geography/geography.htm http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcpakistan.htm http://www.pakreality.com/land/punjab/geography/ http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/land/lakes/Lakes-of-Pakistan.html http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/land/GEO_4.html http://sitara.com/pakistan/art.html http://www.cybercity-online.net/pakistan/html/lake___dams_in_pakistan.html http://www.gsp.gov.pk/resources/metallic.html http://www.pakistaneconomist.com/pagesearch/Search-Engine2003/S.E155.asp
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