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Title of Lesson: Looking for a Liter

Student Name: Nicole Giovagnoli Length of Lesson: 50min Grade / Topic: 7th Grade Math Source of the Lesson: "Looking for a Liter." (2005). Problem Solving: Just for the Fun of It! Book Two. Fresno, CA: AIMS Education Foundation. 100-06. Print. Russell Ash. (1996). Incredible Comparisons. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc.

Appropriateness for Middle School Students: Students will work together in groups, and talk to complete the exploration. The lesson employs the use of tangible visuals for a hands-on approach to learning. Students will be actively involved during the lesson. Limit direct teaching to 5-10 minute increments The lesson actively engages students in discussing their learning/discovery.

Overview: I am teaching a 7th grade average-level math class consisting of 22 students. I am privileged to have one bilingual student in my class, Esteban, who speaks both English and Spanish, and I have two ELL students, Jorge and Maria, both of whose first language is Spanish. Juan is my beginner ELL from Honduras whos only been in the United States for 8 months and has acquired only a little English. Patricia on the other hand is an intermediate ELL student from Colombia who has been in the United States for one and a half years and speaks English well enough to have almost fully acquired her BICS. Jorge has been classified as level 2 on the WIDA scale. He performs well in regards to connecting math processes systematically as long as he can get past the English language obstacles and understand the math portion of the lesson. Jorge needs extra help in teaching new math concepts and vocabulary. This requires the teacher to devote more one-on-one assessment to Jorge than the English-speaking students in the class need to make certain that he has a full understanding of the concepts before putting those skills to use; but he has shown that with unhurried, purposeful pointing out and explaining he picks up on concepts and understands quickly. Maria is fairly proficient in mathematics problems, but still shows signs of struggling when new terms are introduced being at level 4 on the WIDA scale.

This particular class is familiar with volume and area formulas already covered briefly earlier in the unit. Thus, the exploration portion of the lesson should move fairly quickly seeing as the process of solving for volume and area should be review. Furthermore, the students are eager to learn and a lot of them are honors students in other content areas aside from math, so picking up concepts and relationships is important and they succeed in it with a little bit of guidance and scaffolding. My ELLs have come from a good schooling background in their homecountries and were straight A students. Both are hard workers and very bright individuals who show a desire to learn.

Concepts
Students will be building new mathematical knowledge through problem solving by calculating the surface area and volumes of rectangular solids. They will observe, organize, and record data measurements in tables and charts; and will communicate mathematical ideas to the rest of the class. From the data collected, students should be able to see and understand relationships between volume, surface area, and the degree of efficiency of those observed objects as they reveal. Students should then be able to relate their discoveries to real world situations, having a deeper understanding regarding volume and surface area of objects and what it tells you. In elaborating further, students will learn how to apply volume formulas to geometric shapes other than just the rectangular prisms. Students should see the relationship between the new volume formulas presented for cylinders and cones, and be able to relate those formulas with the volume formula for rectangular solids.

Content Objectives
Students will be able to: Calculate volume of different sized and shaped rectilinear solids using measurements taken from tangible and depicted illustrations. Students must give answers in proper units. Units for

volume must be in units3


Calculate the surface areas of different sized and shaped rectilinear solids using measurements taken from tangible and depicted illustrations. Students must give answers in proper units.

Units for area must be in units2.


Compare the surface area, volume, and efficiency of the respective containers, and will be able to apply the relationships they find to real life situations.

For Jorge, teaching the first and second objectives will be the same as for the English-speaking students in the class, but I have to make sure that he knows the variables he is measuring before he can successfully progress through all components of the lesson. To assess this, I will ask Jorge to point to the length, width, and height of the rectangular cartons until he can consistently show mastery of the concepts. Teaching concept objectives one and two for Maria should be alright because of her WIDA level.

The last objective will be a good way to assess Jorges understanding of the equations used in calculating both volume and area of rectilinear solids, furthermore it will demonstrate if he is successfully able to see relationships between variables and their outcomes. If Jorge demonstrates lacking understanding during the execution of this objective, I will go back and review the different measureable variables and what the formulas are for area and volume. This last objective is where I will begin assessment of Marias understanding. If Maria is solving correctly, she is successfully demonstrating an understanding of the variables. If she is doing poorly, I will go back to the first two objectives and make sure she can correctly identify which sides correspond to which variables and how they fit into the appropriate formulas.

Language Objectives: The Language Functions in this lesson include using the words volume and surface area correctly to describe and calculate values relating to rectangular prisms. Students must also recognize correct units associated with volume and area. Content Obligatory language begins with the proper definitions and demonstrations of the words volume and surface area but extends to a long list of necessary vocabulary. The complete list is given below. Volume Area Square (units) Cube (units and shape) Efficiency Length Width Base Rectangle height Dimension centimeter/miles Prism

Content Compatible language is great for this lesson. The understanding of words like contain, hold, construct, cover, amount and material are important in order to decide what the problem is asking for in terms of surface area or volume. Easier words such as cardboard will be taught using real-life scenarios in word problems. Because Maria is an intermediate ELL student, she will be required to achieve all the necessary vocabulary, and may need the extra assistance given in small group work exercises to reach this goal.

Florida State Standards:


Grade 7, MA.7.G.4.1, Big Idea 4: Geometry and Measurement - Determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric figures, and apply these relationships to solve problems.

Materials List and Student Handouts


7 Rulers 44 Student pages (22 of each worksheet) 22 Calculators 7 rectangular cartons (various sizes) that hold 1 liter 1 Cylindrical prism 1 Conical prism

Advance Preparations
7 groups of 3 (one group will have 4 students): 1 ruler and 1 carton per group. Each student gets 2 student pages and a calculator. **Jorge will be in a group with Esteban, and Maria will be in a separate group. The rational surrounding this decision is to give Jorge the opportunity to have extra help with language discrepancies when working in small group cooperative learning activities. Power Point slides for Smart Board (for the final data chart for students to fill in, for the scenario presented in the elaboration, and any additional directions and/or visuals supplementing the lesson)

Safety
no significant safety concerns

ENGAGEMENT What the Teacher Will Do Display a power point with the illustration provided in the trade book Incredible Comparisons. Ask the students: Did you know that the Pacific Ocean contains more water than all the worlds seas put together? Thats a LOT of water! Probing Questions Ask the students:

Time: __5 minutes_______ Student Responses and Potential Misconceptions

If the Pacific Ocean holds 167,000,000 cubic miles of water, and all that water was poured into a square tank, how long must each side of the tank be to fit ALL that water?

Pass out Worksheet 1 (K-W-L Graphic Organizer) to all the students and ask them to work in their small groups to complete it. This exercise will provide students the opportunity to make cognitive predictions and hypothesis about the problem. Come back together as a class to discuss conjectures. **point to the tank on the power point as you talk about it so as to make that connection between the verbal word tank and the image to further Jorges understanding of the question. Also point and underline with a marker on the power point slide the two important pieces of information (the words square tank and the number of miles) that we will be using. Use this time to question students prior knowledge of what

What do we know about the tank that we are investigating? What do we call 167,000,000 cubic miles of water? So what is volume?

[it is square, and it holds 167,000,000 cubic miles of water.] [volume]

[Volume is how much space is contained inside of an object.]

What is the name for this square container?

[A rectangular prism.]

How do we find the volume of a rectangular prism?

[Volume = length * width * height]

volume is and what a prism is. Today we will be learning about the relationship between surface area and volume. Write formula for volume of a rectangular prism (V=length * width * height) on the board with the lesson objective. **repeat the formula out-loud and slowly for your student, especially your ELLs, pointing to the sides of a box that each term corresponds tothis will help Jorge making those connections before beginning the lesson Keep this problem in mind as we continue with our lesson, you will be able to find the dimensions of this colossal tank by the end of today!

EXPLORATION What the Teacher Will Do Distribute the two worksheets, and give specific directions: Worksheet 1 directions: Working with your groups of 3 classmates, decide who in the group will be the measurer, who will be the calculator, and who will be the recorder. The measurer will use the ruler to measure the length, width, and height of each carton. The recorder will then write this data in the chart provided. The calculator will then multiply the length times the width times the height to get the volume, and record that value in the volume box. (do carton # 2 as an example for the class) **these directions will also be displayed on a power-point slide on the board with images to aid understanding and comprehensibility for ELLs So, now we have all these cartons on your desks. What type of shape would you call them? Lets review what a prism is. (write the word on the board) A prism is a geometric shape that has some sort of volume. (**Repeat the definition as you write it on the board, underlining key terms such as volume.) And what did we determine was the formula for the volume of a rectangular prism? **point to the formula on the board as the students repeat it aloud. Then, holding up a carton, motion again to the sides corresponding to length, width, and height as you verbally repeat after your students Probing/Eliciting Questions

Time: _15 minutes_____ Student Responses and Misconceptions

[A rectangular prisms]

[Length x width x height = volume]

When you finish recording all your

data in the table for worksheet 1, you will move onto the 2nd worksheet.

Before we begin, what is surface area? **write the word and definition on the board along with prism, repeat the written words slowly underlining key words such as total area

[Surface area is the total area of all of the shapes that cover the surface of an object.]

Directions for Page 2 of the Worksheet: The measurer will measure the length of each side of the carton in front of you. (Do carton # 2 as an example to model for the class: measure the length and width of the top side) The calculator will then multiply length times width to get the area (some number) of that specific face. The recorder will then record that value in the box for face 1 of the carton you are measuring. Repeat the same process for all of the cartons faces. Then the calculator will add up all these area values to get a total surface area for the carton. Record this data in your table. After every 5 minutes, announce to the class to rotate their carton to the next group, and repeat the directions for each respective carton. (There will be a total of three rotations. Because there are 7 cartons, students will get the remaining data in the Explanation) Come back as a group to discuss briefly before moving on to deeper understanding in the Explanation portion of the lesson.

Which carton has the largest surface area?

[Carton #2 (with largest length or width or height)]

Which carton has the smallest surface area?

[Carton # 1]

Pass out the matrix graphic organizer Worksheet 2 to help students compare and contrast the volume and area formulas so connections can be made. After students complete their matrix, ask the following probing question and display teachers-aid Graphic Organizer 1 on a power point slide.

**make sure to give body gestures that aid the comprehensibility of the questions being asked (i.e. when saying largest motion with your arms to demonstrate this property

Do you see any similarities between the formula for volume of a rectangular prism and the formula for area?

[the area of each face is found by multiplying base x height of the rectangle, and the volume of the whole rectangular prism is found by multiplying the base length and width together as well, but also multiplying this times the height of the prism] [A=length x width] [V=(length x width) x height]

Is the carton with the smallest surface area also the carton with the smallest volume?

[no, all have the same volume]

EXPLANATION What the Teacher Will Do The teacher will call the students attention to the front of the room to share dimensions, and discuss any discoveries or predictions they made. Calling up all the recorders, have the recorder of each of the seven groups come to the board to fill in the column of data regarding the carton of their respective group number (i.e. group one will fill in results for carton #1). Direct the rest of the class to be filling in the data being put on the board into the charts on their worksheets. After all the data is recorded in the table at the front of the room, and when students are seated, the teacher will proceed with the discussion. Does any group object to these results? Looking at your results, what do all the cartons have in common? **pour one liter of water from container to container to model this property of sharing the same volume What dimensions have the lowest surface area? The highest? **point to the values that correspond to the highest and lowest surface areas Probing/Eliciting Questions

Time: ____15 minutes___ Student Responses and Misconceptions

[Volume-they all hold one liter of liquid]

[10x10x10 carton] [1x2x500 carton]

Have students perform a Think Pair Share exercise quickly to brainstorm ideas. Give students a minute to think about the question you just posed to them, and what the word efficiency actually means, then give the groups of three a few minutes to bounce ideas around before coming together as a class to discuss. **the word efficient may be hard for both Jorge and Maria to grasp. Make sure that while circulating throughout the room you give both ELLs extra attention to make sure their small groups are helping them build understanding.

Which of all the cartons you observed would you say is most efficient? Can someone explain what efficient means to the rest of the class?

The skinniest one, because it takes up the least amount of space. What do you mean by efficient? [Doing something in the best possible way so as to waste the least amount of time/effort.]

So, when we Achieve maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense, we are being efficient. Knowing this, what would make one carton more efficient than another, keeping in mind all the cartons hold the same volume? What does surface area have to do with efficiency of the carton? Which carton is most efficient?

[The one that uses as little material as possible to hold a given volume]

[The smaller surface area, the fewer materials needed to construct the carton.] [The cube.] [A cube always has the smallest surface area when dealing with multiple containers that hold the

**hold up the cube carton to give Jorge a visual representation of a cube

Why does the 10x10x10 carton have the smallest surface area?

What does this knowledge about surface area tell you about the various cartons you see and use on a daily basis? Correct! We dont see cereal boxes shaped like cubes on grocery shelves do we? (hold up the cube carton again, shaking your head)

same volume.] [Often times cartons do not have the most efficient dimensions based on the volume they hold]

ELABORATION What the Teacher Will Do Revisit the original question asked during the engagement section of this lesson. Read slowly to the class and display on the board the word problem: If the Pacific Ocean holds 167,000,000 cubic miles of water, and all that water was poured into a square tank, how long must each side of the tank be to fit ALL that water? Give students 5 minutes to finish TPR, then have students share their ideas with the class. Let the students critique what aspects of each groups equations will work and wont work and why. This will make them think critically. **make sure to include Jorge and Maria both in the discussion. Give Jorge time to formulate a response or model it in writing on the boars since that may be easier. Help him along in his illustrations by offering him the correct English words that correspond to his actions, he should repeat these as he goes through his process. Then, use the second teacher-aid Graphic Organizer to model the thinking process to take while solving such a problem. Going back to that original question that we examined at the beginning of class today (read situation aloud) let us do another quick Think Pair Share exercise and I want your pairs to come up with a possible equation that will help us solve this. Probing/Eliciting Questions

Time: ___10minutes______ Student Responses and Misconceptions

EVALUATION What the Teacher Will Do The teacher will now pass out the evaluation papers and instruct the students to work individually without a calculator and to raise their hand if they have any questions. Probing/Eliciting Questions Now you will be working individually on this postassessment. Using what you learned in class today about volume and surface area, do your best to complete the evaluation.

Time: ____5 minutes_____ Student Responses and Misconceptions

When time is up, collect the assessments from the students.

Worksheet 1

Name_______________

If the Pacific Ocean holds 167,000,000 cubic miles of water, and all that water was poured into a square tank, how long must each side of the tank be to fit ALL that water?
What we have learned (that will help solve the problem)

What we know

What we want to know

Worksheet 2

Name_______________

Directions: place a check in the boxes that correspond to the variable that makes up the formula for either area or volume

Length AREA= VOLUME=

Width

Height

Teacher Graphic Organizer 1

VOLUME

LENGTH X

WIDTH

X HEIGHT

AREA

= LENGTH

WIDTH

VOLUME=

AREA

X HEIGHT

Teacher Graphic Organizer 2

Square Tank

What are the properties of a square?

All sides are equal!

What useful information am I given?

How can we put these two pieces of information together to rewrite the formula for volume for a square tank?

V=side3
Plug in and solve!!

Pacific Ocean holds 167,000,000 miles3 water VOLUME

What is the formula for volume?

V=L x W x H

Assessment

Name: _________________ Date: _________________

#1.

Calculate the volume of the box in cubic centimeters:

35cm

7cm 9cm #2. units!)

From the given measurements, calculate the surface area: (dont forget the

Comparing the following containers, which is the most efficient shape for holding 1,000 cubic centimeters of liquid?
#3.

A)

B)

C)

100 20 8 10 100 20 4 20 10 20

Why? __________________________________________________________________________