polymer matrix composites.ppt | Composite Material | Thermoplastic

UNIT II

POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES:

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Types – Processing – Thermo sensing matrix composites – Hand layup and sprayup techniques filament winding, pultruion, resin transfer moulding, auctoclave moulding – thermoplastic matrix composites – Injection moulding, film stacking – diaphragm forming – thermoplastic tape laying. Glass fibre/polymer interface. Mechanical properties – Fracture.

Applications.

Classification based on Matrices
Composite materials

Matrices

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)

Metal Matrix Composites MMC)

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)

Thermoset

Thermoplastic

Rubber

What is a polymer? Poly many mer repeat unit

A polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units typically connected by covalent chemical bonds

Examples of polymers:
repeat unit repeat unit repeat unit

H H H H H H C C C C C C H H H H H H
Polyethylene (PE)

H H H H H H C C C C C C H Cl H Cl H Cl
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

H C H

H H C C CH3 H

H H C C CH3 H

H C CH3

Polypropylene (PP)

Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) is the material consisting of a polymer (resin) matrix combined with a fibrous reinforcing dispersed phase. . Polymer Matrix Composites are very popular due to their low cost and simple fabrication methods.

– protects the reinforcement from environmental degradation. colour. flake or particles) to the other. .Matrix • Reinforcements – Principal load bearing member. durability and other functional properties.Reinforcement Continuous phase . • Matrix – provides a medium for binding and holding the reinforcements together into a solid.Polymer(Matrix) Composite (Matrix + Reinforcement) Discontinuous phase . – serves to transfer load from one insert (fibre. texture. – Provides finish.

These are polymers (thermoplastics or lightly cross-linked thermosets) that have an elastic deformation > 200%. .Polymers that are heavily cross-linked to produce a strong three dimensional network structure.Any polymer in which molecules are in the form of chains.  Elastomers .  Thermoplastic polymers .  Thermosetting polymers .Classification of Polymers  Linear polymer .Linear or branched polymers in which chains of molecules are not interconnected to one another.

Ladder .Molecular chain configurations: a. Branched c. Crossed linked d. Linear b.

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• Glass (in particular E-glass) is the most common fiber material in today's FRPs. and Kevlar 49. . Epoxy and polyester are commonly mixed with fiber reinforcement. made by stacking and bonding thin layers of fiber and polymer until the desired thickness is obtained. SiC. its use to reinforce plastics dates from around 1920. carbon.Thermosetting resins are the most widely used polymers in PMCs. The most widely used form is a laminar structure. continuous or woven as a fabric • Principal fiber materials in FRPs are glass. Fibers in PMCs • Various forms: discontinuous (chopped). Al2O3 and steel. • Less common fibers include boron.

Methods of Polymerisation: • Condensation polymerisation • Addition polymerisation Degree of polymerization = No of monomer units in a chain  103 to 105 .Polymerisation: This is the process of joining monomers into gaint chain like molecules.

ultraviolet light. • They develop a well-bonded three-dimensional structure upon curing.Thermosets • Thermoset materials are usually liquid or malleable prior to curing. they will decompose rather than melt.. and are also better suited to high-temperature applications up to the decomposition temperature of the material. to become a relatively insoluble and infusible substance. • Has the property of undergoing a chemical reaction by the action of heat. • Thermoset materials are generally stronger than thermoplastic materials due to this 3-D network of bonds. and designed to be molded into their final form. Once hardened or cross-linked. etc. catalyst. .

• Thermosets are made by mixing two components (a resin and a
hardener) which react and harden, either at room temperature or on heating.

• The resulting polymer is usually heavily cross-linked, so thermosets are also called as network polymers.

• The cross-links form during the polymerisation of the liquid resin and hardener, so the structure is almost always amorphous.

• On reheating the crosslinks prevent true melting or viscous flow so the polymer cannot be hot-worked. Further heating just causes it to decompose.

Thermosets

• Extensive cross-linking formed by covalent bonds. • Bonds prevent chains moving relative to each other.

Types of Thermosetting plastics

Example: DGEBA (Diglcidyl Ether of Bisphenol A )‫‏‬ Charecteristics of Epoxy: • Better Moisture Resistence • Low shrinkage • Good adhersion with Reinforcement .Epoxy: Epoxy is a polymer that contain an epoxide group in its chemical structure.

Polyester: A condensation reaction between a glycol and an unsaturated dibasic acid results in polyster. Charecteristics of Polyester: • Cheap • Resistance to variety of chemicals • Adequate moisture resistance . This contains a double bond C=C between its carbon atoms. Example: poly ethylene terephthalate (PET).

applications .Thermosetting plastics .

• They are held in place by weak secondary bond (intermolecular force).Thermoplastics • In thermoplastic polymer. . individual molecules are linear in structure with no chemical linking between them. such as van der Walls bonds and hydrogen.

they are termed as"amorphous" plastics and are useful at temperatures below the Tg. .• Some thermoplastics normally do not crystallize. amorphous thermoplastics are less chemically resistant. • Generally.

• Change shape .Thermoplastics (80%) • No cross links between chains. . • Weak attractive forces between chains broken by warming. • Weak forces reform in new shape when cold.can be remoulded.

• Thermoplastics have better toughness and impact resistance than thermosets. • Parts can be remolded. • Shorter fabrication time. and any scrap can be recycled. .Reasons for the use of thermoplastic matrix composites • Refrigeration is not necessary with a thermoplastic matrix. • Can be recycled. • Parts can be made and joined by heating.

• Variation of Tensile modulus with temperature for Amorphous and Semi crytaline thermoplastic. the materials is also highly viscoelastic. • When load is applied it exhibit Elastic deformation. • Further increasing the temp both amorphous and semicrystallline thermoplastic achieve highly viscous state and attain the melting temp Tm. polymeric materials changes a hard solid to soft. Over a temperature range around Tg.UNIQUE CHARACTERISTIC OF THERMOPLASTIC • Near to glass transition temperature Tg.Near this temperature. tough ( leather like) solid. . • With increasing temperature polymer changes into rubberlike solid undergoing deformation on external load.

.• Thermoplastic polymer have higher strain-to-failure.

Types of Thermoplastics .

COMPARISON OF THE THREE POLYMER CATEGORIES .

Thermoplastics Vs Thermosets .

• Protects the fibres from environment. • Carry inter-laminar shear. • Improves impact and fracture resistance of a component. • Helps to avoid propagation of crack growth through the fibres by providing alternate failure path along the interface between the fibres and the matrix. • Distributes the loads evenly between fibres so that all fibres are subjected to the same amount of strain. . • Enhances transverse properties of a laminate.Functions of Matrix • Holds the fibres together.

Desired Properties of a Matrix • Reduced moisture absorption. • Low coefficient of thermal expansion. • Must be elastic to transfer load to fibres. • Low shrinkage. • Good flow characteristics so that it penetrates the fibre bundles completely and eliminates voids during the compacting/curing process. .

• Low temperature capability (depending on application). • Strength at elevated temperature (depending on application). modulus and elongation (elongationshould be greater than fibre). . • Should be easily processable into the final composite shape. • Excellent chemical resistance (depending on application). • Dimensional stability (maintains its shape).• Reasonable strength.

. chars. The effect of temperature on the modulus of elasticity for an amorphous thermoplastic. or decomposes.The temperature above which a polymer burns.Effect of Temperature on Thermoplastics   Degradation temperature . Glass temperature The temperature range below which the amorphous polymer assumes a rigid glassy structure.

Stress-strain behavior of different polymer matrices Thermoplastic polymers 80 70 60 Stress (Mpa) Polysulfon Thermosetting polymers 90 80 70 Stress (Mpa) Polyester Phenolic Epoxy 50 40 Polyamid 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Strian(% ) Polyethylene 400 500 0 1 2 3 Strian(% ) 4 5 Notice to the range of ultimate strains of different polymers .

Comparision of various polymers as matrix materials .

.Limitations of PMC – – – – Low maximum working temperature. Processing temperature are generally higher than those with thermosets. High coefficient of thermal expansion.dimensional instability Sensitivity to radiation and moisture.

Pultrusion. Resin transfer moulding.Polymer Processing Forming Processes for Thermosetting matrix composites:      Hand layup and sprayup techniques. Thermoplastic tape laying. Filament winding. Diaphragm forming. . Film stacking. Forming Processes for Thermoplastic matrix composites:     Injection moulding. Autoclave moulding.

Hand Layup • Hand layup process:  Gel coat is applied to open mold. Layup is made by building layer upon layer to obtain the desired thickness. .  Base resin mixed with catalysts is applied by pouring and brushing.  Fiberglass reinforcement is placed in the mold.

Hand Layup • The most popular type of Open Molding is Hand Layup process. • • • • • • • . rovings or chopped strands are applied. which involves the following operations: The mold is coated by a release anti-adhesive agent. The part is cured (usually at room temperature). The resin mixture may be applied by either brush or roll. The part is removed from the mold surface. preventing sticking the molded part to the mold surface. The Hand Layup is a manual. A layer of fine fiber reinforcing tissue is applied. The prime surface layer of the part is formed by applying gel coating. The disadvantages of the Hand Layup method are: low concentration of reinforcing phase (up to 30%) and low densification of the composites (entrapped air bubbles). slow. labor consuming method. Layers of the liquid matrix resin and reinforcing fibers in form of woven fabric.

Potential Problems:     Labour intensive. Styrene emission. Custom shape.Hand Layup Advantages:     Widely used. Low tooling cost. Quality control is entirely dependent on the skill of labourers. Low-volume process. Larger and complex items can be produced. .

Hand layup products: .

Hand layup products: .

The fibers are chopped into fibers of 1-2” (25-50 mm) length and then sprayed by an air jet simultaneously with a resin spray at a predetermined ratio between the reinforcing and matrix phase. . however the mechanical properties of the material are moderate since the method is unable to use continuous reinforcing fibers.SPRAYUP In Sprayup process liquid resin matrix and chopped reinforcing fibers are sprayed by two separate sprays onto the mold surface. The Sprayup method permits rapid formation of uniform composite coating.

Labor costs are lower.SPRAYUP A spray gun supplying resin in two converging streams into which roving is chopped. Automation with robots results in high rate of production. .

e. Applications are lightly loaded structural panels.g. truck fairings. chopped fibers and resins are sprayed simultaneously into or onto the mold. small boats. bathtubs. caravan bodies. etc .Sprayup process: In Sprayup process.

• Catalysts and Accelerators are used. * Catalyst . * Accelerator .A compound added to speed up the action of a catalyst in a resin mix.substance added to the gel coat or resin to initiate the curing process. • Curing at room temperature or at a moderately high temperature in an oven. .Hand and Spray Layup • In both the cases the deposited layers are densified with rollers.

• Sandwich constructions are possible. • The startup lead time and the cost are minimal. • Design Flexibility.Advantages of Hand Layup and Sprayup • Tooling cost is low. • Molded-in inserts and structural changes are possible. • Large and Complex items can be produced. • Semiskilled workers are easily trained. • Minimum equipment investment is necessary. .

. • Production uniformity is difficult. • Low volume process. • Longer curing times.Disadvantages of Hand Layup and Sprayup • Labor Intensive. • Waste factor is high.

Prepreg is delivered in tape form to the manufacturer who then molds and fully cures the product without having to add any resin. ۰ ۰ .Preimpregnated with a polymer resin that is only partially cured.PREPREG ۰ Prepreg is the composite industry’s‫‏‬term‫‏‬for‫‏‬continuous‫‏‬ fiber reinforcement . This is the composite form most widely used for structural applications.

۰ Tows are then sandwiched and pressed between sheets of release and carrier paper using heated rollers (calendering).PREPREG PROCESS ۰ Manufacturing begins by collimating a series of spool-wound continuous fiber tows. ۰ The release paper sheet has been coated with a thin film of heated resin solution to provide for its thorough impregnation of the fibers. ۰The final prepreg product is a thin tape consisting of continuous and aligned fibers embedded in a partially cured resin. .

Typical tape thicknesses range between 0. Resin content lies between about 35 and 45 vol% .PREPREG ۰ ۰ ۰ ۰ Prepared for packaging by winding onto a cardboard core.08 and 0.25 mm Tape widths range between 25 and 1525 mm.

Life time is about 6 months if properly handled. ۰ ۰ ۰ ۰ Both thermoplastic and thermosetting resins are utilized: carbon.PREPREG ۰ The prepreg is stored at 0C (32 F) or lower because matrix undergoes curing reactions at room temperature. glass. and aramid fibers are the common reinforcements. The layup can be by hand or automated. . Also the time in use at room temperature must be minimized. Easily obtained with epoxies. Normally a number of plies are laid up to provide the desired thickness. Actual fabrication begins with the lay-up.

process is called Wet Filament Winding.Filament Winding Filament Winding method involves a continuous filament of reinforcing material wound onto a rotating mandrel in layers at different layers. 50 . Besides conventional curing of molded parts at room temperature. the process is called Dry Filament Winding. If the resin is sprayed onto the mandrel with wound filament. Autoclave curing may be used. If a liquid thermosetting resin is applied on the filament prior to winding the.

– These windings can be helical or hooped. – There are also processes that use dry fibres with resin application later.Filament Winding • Filament Winding Process – For Round or Cylindrical parts – A tape of resin impregnated fibers is wrapped over a rotating mandrel to form a part. 51 . or prepregs are used.5 kg. – Parts‫‏‬vary‫‏‬in‫‏‬size‫‏‬from‫‏‬1"‫‏‬to‫‏‬20’ – Winding direction • Hoop/helical layers • Layers of different material – High strengths are possible due to winding designs in various direction – Winding speeds are typically 100 m/min and typical winding tensions are 0.1 to 0.

. parts with high pressure ratings can be made Disadvantages – Viscosity and pot life of resin must be carefully chosen – NC programming can be difficult – Some shapes can't be made with filament winding – Factors such as filament tension must be controlled Copyright Joseph Greene 2001 52 • • . epoxy. Advantages – Good for wide variety of part sizes – Parts can be made with strength in several different directions – Very low scrap rate – Non-cyclindrical parts can be formed after winding – Flexible mandrels can be left in as tank liners – Reinforcement panels. low melt temperature alloys ) is used. and fittings can be inserted during winding – Due to high hoop stress.g. carbon fiber and aramids (toughness and lightweight) . phenolic. S-glass. and they can be easily removed. – Inflatable mandrels can also be used to produce parts that are designed for high pressure applications. or a collapsible mandrel (e. or parts that need a liner.Filament Winding • Demolding – To remove the mandrel. the ends of the parts are cut off when appropriate. silicone) and some thermoplastics (PEEK) – Fibers are E-glass. – Curing in done in an Autoclave for thermoset resins (polyester.

Filament Winding .

• drive shafts • Entec‫“‏‬the‫‏‬world’s‫‏‬largest‫‏‬five-axis‫‏‬filament‫‏‬winding‫‏‬machine”‫‏‬for‫‏‬wind‫‏‬ turbine blades – length 45.2 m. launch tubes – Light Anti-armour Weapon (LAW) • Hunting Engineering made a nesting pair in 4 minutes with ~20 mandrels circulated through the machine and a continuous curing oven.7 m.Filament winding . diameter 8. storage tanks and pipes • rocket motors. . weight > 36 tonnes.applications • pressure vessels.

Carbon fiber reinforced rocket motor cases used for Space Shuttle and other rockets are made this way. tanks. .FILAMENT WINDING CHARACTERISTICS ۰The cost is about half that of tape laying ۰Productivity is high (50 kg/h). and pressure vessels. ۰Applications include: fabrication of composite pipes.

Filament winding .

helical – complete fibre coverage without the band having to lie adjacent to that previously laid. axial (0º) – beware: difficult to maintain fibre tension • • • .girth or circumferential winding – angle is normally just below 90° degrees – each complete rotation of the mandrel shifts the fibre band to lie alongside the previous band.Filament winding .winding patterns • hoop (90º) . polar – domed ends or spherical components – fibres constrained by bosses on each pole of the component.

Filament winding patterns hoop : helical: polar: .

• Kevlar component .

Filament wound pressure bottles for gas storage .

through a heated die. . thus forming the desired cross-sectional shape with no part length limitation. impregnated with resin.Pultrusion Description: Pultrusion is a process where composite parts are manufactured by pulling layers of fibres/fabrics.

• A scheme of the process is presented on the picture: .Pultrusion • Pultrusion is an automated. highly productive process of fabrication of Polymer Matrix Composites in form of continuous long products of constant cross-section.

Liquid resin contains thermosetting polymer. fillers. catalyst and other additives. • Guide plates collect the fibers into a bundle and direct it to the resin bath. Pulling action is controlled by the pulling system.Pultrusion • Pultrusion process involves the following operations: • Reinforcing fibers are pulled from the creels. • The wet fibers exit the bath and enter preformer where the excessive resin is squeezed out from fibers and the material is shaped. • The preformed fibers pass through the heated die where the final cross-section dimensions are determined and the resin curing occurs. • Fibers enter the resin bath where they are wetted and impregnated with liquid resin. . Fiber (roving) creels may be followed by rolled mat or fabric creels. pigment. • The cured product is cut on the desired length by the cut-off saw.

. • The process parameters are easily controllable. • Homogeneous distribution and high concentration of the reinforcing fibers in the material is achieved (up to 80% of roving reinforcement. • Good surface quality of the products.Pultrusion • Pultrusion process is characterized by the following features: • High productivity. • Low manual labor component. up to 50% of mixed mat + roving reinforcement). • Pultrusion is used for fabrication of Fiber glass and Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites and Kevlar (aramid) fiber reinforced polymers. • Precise cross-section dimensions of the products.

Pultrusion • Manufacturing – Fibers are brought together over rollers. dipped in resin and drawn through a heated die. . A continuous cross section composite part emerges on the other side.

production of constant cross-section profiles .

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Pultrusion • Design · Hollow parts can be made using a mandrel that extends out the exit side of the die. Multiple dies are used when curing is to be done by the heated dies. 69 . Fixed dies can generate large forces to wet fiber. · Two main types of dies are used. · Variable cross section parts are possible using dies with sliding parts. Floating dies require an external power source to create the hydraulic forces in the resin. fixed and floating.

· Very low scrap. Up to 95% utilization of materials (75% for layup). · Rollers are used to ensure proper resin impregnation of the fiber. · Material forms can also be used at the inlet to the die when materials such

as mats, weaves, or stitched material is used.
· For curing, tunnel ovens can be used. After the part is formed and gelled in the die, it emerges, enters a tunnel oven where curing is completed.

· Another method is, the process runs intermittently with sections emerging
from the die, and the pull is stopped, split dies are brought up to the sections to cure it, they then retract, and the pull continues. (Typical lengths for curing are 6" to 24")

Materials – Most fibers are used (carbon, glass, aramids) and Resins must be fast curing because of process speeds. (polyester and epoxy) Processing – speeds are 0.6 to 1 m/min; thickness are 1 to 76 mm; diameters are 3 mm to 150mm – double clamps, or belts/chains can be used to pull the part through. The best designs allow for continuous operation for production. – diamond or carbide saws are used to cut sections of the final part. The saw is designed to track the part as it moves. – these parts have good axial properties. Advantages – good material usage compared to layup – high throughput and higher resin contents are possible Disadvantages – part cross section should be uniform. – Fiber and resin might accumulate at the die opening, leading to increased friction causing jamming, and breakage. – when excess resin is used, part strength will decrease – void can result if the die does not conform well to the fibers being pulled – quick curing systems decrease strength
Copyright Joseph Greene 2001 71

Pultrusion
Advantages: Potential Problems:

 Minimal kinking of
fibres/fabrics  Rapid processing  Low material scrap rate  Good quality control

 Improper fibre wet-out
 Fibre breakage  Inadequate cure  Die jamming  Complex die design

precise temperature control activates the curing of the thermoset resin. • • • • . hollow profiles require a cantilevered mandrel to enter the die from the fibre-feed end. The solid laminate will be cut to the desired length Inside the metal die. continuous constant cross-section profile normally thermoset (thermoplastic possible) – impregnate with resin – pull through a heated die • resin shrinkage reduces friction in the die • polyester easier to process than epoxy tension control as in filament winding post-die. profile air-cooled before gripped – hand-over-hand hydraulic clamps – conveyor belt/caterpillar track systems.Pultrusion -characteristics • • • • seek uniform thickness in order to achieve uniform cooling and hence minimise residual stress. moving cut-off machine ("flying cutter").

channels. • Production rate is 10 to 200 cm/min. • No bends or tapers allowed (continuous molding cycle) .25 m with more than 60% fiber volume fraction can be made routinely. • Profiles as wide as 1.• Shapes such as rods. angle and flat stocks can be easily produced.

hand rails – roll-up doors 450 km of cable trays in the Channel Tunnel .ski poles – kites electrical insulators and enclosures light poles .Pultrusion -applications • • • • • panels – beams – gratings – ladders tool handles .

...Pultrusion Applications • Advanced Composite Construction System – components: plank ........... and connectors – used in Aberfeldy and Bonds Mill Lock bridges – http:// ..

.Resin Transfer Molding • In the RTM process. • The heated mold is closed and the liquid resin is injected • The part is cured in mold.e. dry (i. • The mold is opened and part is removed from mold. non-impregnated ) reinforcement is preshaped and oriented into skeleton of the actual part known as the preform which is inserted into a matched die mold.

A dry preform is placed in a matched metal die. . A vaccum pulls the Low – viscosity resin through a flow medium that helps impregnate the preform.Resin Transfer Moulding Close mold low pressure process. Resin may also be forced by means of a pump.

Resin Transfer Moulding .

• Transfer Molding cycle time is shorter than Compression Molding cycle but longer than Injection Molding cycle. but not as complicated as Injection Molding. filling the mold through a sprue. taking a shape of the mold cavity. .RTM • Transfer Molding (Resin Transfer Molding) is a Closed Mold process in which a pre-weighed amount of a polymer is preheated in a separate chamber (transfer pot) and then forced into a preheated mold filled with a reinforcing fibers. • The method is capable to produce very large parts (car body shell). • The method uses a split mold and a third plate equipped with a plunger mounted in a hydraulic press. impregnating the fibers and performing curing due to heat and pressure applied to the material. • The picture below illustrates the Transfer Molding Process. • The method combines features of both Compression Molding hydraulic pressing. the same molding materials (thermosets) and Injection Molding – ram (plunger). more complicated than Compression Molding.

The plunger. pellets.RTM Transfer Molding process involves the following steps: • • The mold cavity is filled with preformed reinforcing fibers. The mold is opened and the part is removed from it by means of the ejector pin. The charge may be in form of powders. moves downwards. the mold and the molded part are cooled down before opening. equipped with a heating system. The scrap left on the pot bottom (cull). • • • • • • • • . in the sprue and in the channels is removed. If thermoplastic is molded. If thermosetting resin is molded. Scrap of thermosetting polymers is not recyclable. puttylike masses or pre-formed blanks. The mold. provides curing (cross-linking) of the polymer (if thermoset is processed). the mold may be open in hot state – cured thermosets maintain their shape and dimensions even in hot state. mounted on the top plate. pressing on the polymer charge and forcing it to fill the mold cavity through the sprue and impregnate the fibers. The charge is heated in the pot where the polymer softens. A pre-weighed amount of a polymer mixed with additives and fillers (charge) is placed into the transfer pot.

• High level of automation. • Layup is simpler than in manual operations. • Styrene emission can be reduced to a minimum. • Cost effective High volume process for large-scale processing. .Advantages of RTM • Large complex shapes and curvatures can be made easily. • Fiber volume fractions as high as 60% can be achieved. • Takes less time to produce.

• Fiber reinforcement may "wash" or move during resin transfer. .Disadvantages of RTM • Mold design is complex and requires mold-filling analysis.

Resin Transfer Moulding Advantages: Potential Problems:  Low skill labour required  Low tooling cost  Low volatile emission  Required design tailorability  Control of resin flow  Kinking of fibres  Criticality in mould design .

RTM Products: .

. heat and inert gas pressure. molded by one of the open molding methods.Autoclave moulding • Autoclave Curing is a method in which a part. The method is relatively expensive and is used for manufacturing high quality aerospace products. • Autoclave Curing enables fabrication of consistent homogeneous materials. • Then heat and inert gas pressure are applied in the autoclave causing curing and densification of the material. from which air is exhausted by a vacuum pump. is cured by a subsequent application of vacuum. • The molded part is first placed into a plastic bag. This operation removes air inclusions and volatile products from the molded part.

.Autoclave moulding • An autoclave is a closed vessel (round or cylindrical) in which processes occur under simultaneous application of high temperature and pressure.

– Properties are improved. – Thermoplastics are melted. – Thermoset composites are crosslinked. • Process – The part is placed in the pressure vessel. • Composites cure under heat and pressure provides a superior part because the voids are reduced due to the pressure. – Very large parts can be made with high fiber loadings. and heated. and remove more voids in the matrix.Autoclave • An oven that allows for high pressures to be used. • Disadvantages Copyright Joseph Greene 2001 88 – Autoclaves are expensive . – Many different parts can be cured at the same time. – Vacuum bagging can be used in an autoclave. • Advantages – The pressure helps bond composite layers. pressure is applied simultaneously.

a)

b)

a) Autoclave process to make a laminated composite b) Prepregs of different orientations stacked to form a laminated composite Higher fiber volume fractions (60 – 65%) can be obtained

Autoclave process- Charcteristics
• Very high quality product

• Generally prepregs are used
• Chopped fibres with resin can also be used • Hybrid composites can be produced • High fibre volume fractions can be obtained • simultaneous application of high temperature and pressure helps in, * Consolidating the laminate. * Removing the entrapped air. * Curing the polymeric matrix.

Autoclave Moluding

• The mold is equipped with a cooling system providing controlled cooling and solidification of the material. filling its cavity through a feeding system with sprue gate and runners. . • It acts as a ram in the filling step when the molten polymer-fibers mixture is injected into the mold and then it retracts backward in the molding step. • Screw of injection molding machine is called reciprocating screw since it not only rotates but also moves forward and backward according to the steps of the molding cycle. The material is then conveyed forward by a feeding screw and forced into a split mold.Injection moulding • Injection Molding is a Closed Mold process in which molten polymer (commonly thermoplastic) mixed with very short reinforcing fibers (10-40%) is forced under high pressure into a mold cavity through an opening (sprue). • Heating elements. soften and melt the polymer. • Polymer-fiber mixture in form of pellets is fed into an Injection Molding machine through a hopper. placed over the barrel.

• Injection Molding is highly productive method providing high accuracy and control of shape of the manufactured parts. . In this case curing (cross-linking) occurs during heating and melting of the material in the heated barrel. • Injection Molding is used mainly for thermoplastic matrices. The method is profitable in mass production of large number of identical parts. • One of the disadvantages of the method is limited length of fibers decreasing their reinforcing effect.Injection moulding • The polymer is held in the mold until solidification and then the mold opens and the part is removed from the mold by ejector pins. • A principal scheme of an Injection Molding Machine is shown in the picture below. but thermosetting matrices are also may be extruded.

Injection moulding • .

Each mold can contain multiple cavities.Injection moulding machine The injection molding machine comprises of: • The plasticating and injection unit: The major tasks of the plasticating unit are to melt the polymer. . • The clamping unit: It’s role is to open and close the mold. to accumulate the melt in the screw chamber. and hold the mold tightly to avoid flash during the filling and holding. shapes the part. It distributes polymer melt into and throughout the cavities. • The mold cavity: The mold is the central point in an injection molding machine. cools the melt and ejects the finished product. Clamping can be mechanical or hydraulic. to inject the melt into the cavity and to maintain the holding pressure during cooling.

The Injection Mold The mold consists • Sprue and runner system • Gate • Mold cavity • Cooling system (for thermoplastics)‫‏‬ • Ejector system Features of injection molding Direct path from molding compound to finished product Process can be fully automated High productivity & quality .

Injection molding machine .

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Injection Molding Machine .

PMMA etc .INJECTION MOLDING Thermoplastics : Polystyrene. PC. ABC.PE. PP.

to bottle cups. the screw retracts and turns. It is ideally suited to manufacture mass produced parts of complex shapes requiring precise dimensions. TV and computer housings are injection molded. Hold on time: Once the cavity is filled.Injection Molding Cycle Injection molding involves two basic steps: – Melt generation by a rotating screw – Forward movement of the screw to fill the mold with melt and to maintain the injected melt under high pressure Injection molding is a “cyclic” process: • • • •  Injection: The polymer is injected into the mold cavity. ranging from boat hulls and lawn chairs. Cooling: The molding cools and solidifies. feeding the next shot in towards the front Injection molding is the most important process used to manufacture plastic products.  . a holding pressure is maintained to compensate for material shrinkage. It is used for numerous products. Car parts. Screw-back: At the same time.

Thermosets : Unsaturated polyester resin. Phenol formaldehyde etc .

.Reaction injection moulding • Reaction moulding reactive (RIM) injection Two are ingredients pumped at high speeds and pressures into a mixing head and injected into a mold cavity where curing occur and due solidification to chemical reaction.

• Advantages: similar to RIM (e. fenders. truck cab applications for bumpers..Reinforced reaction injection molding Reinforced reaction injection moulding (RRIM) .g. no heat energy required. in the mixture . and other body parts .similar to RIM but includes reinforcing fibers. • Products: auto body. typically glass fibers. with the added benefit of fiber reinforcement. lower cost mold).

a pressure of 6-12 MPa. . impregnated with insufficient thermoplastic matrix. and dwell times of up to 30 mins are appropriate for thermoplastics such as polysulfones and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). a temperature between 275 and 350º C.Film stacking • Stack of laminate consists of fibers. and polymer films of complementary weight to give the desired fiber volume fraction in the end product. These are then consolidated by simultaneous application of heat and pressure. • Generally.

• The air between the diaphragms is evacuated and thermoplastic laminate is heated above the melting point of the matrix.DIAPHRAGM FORMING • This process involves the sandwiching of freely floating thermoplastic prepreg layers between two diaphragms . .

. thus they readily conform to the mold shape. which deforms the diaphragm and makes them take the shape of the mold. • The laminate layers are freely floating and very flexible above the melting point of the matrix.DIAPHRAGM FORMING • Pressure is applied to one side.

the diaphragms are stripped off. At high pressures. and the composite is obtained. a significant transverse squeezing flow can result.DIAPHRAGM FORMING • After the completion of the forming process. The diaphragms are the key to the forming process. the mold is cooled. and their stiffness is a very critical parameter. and this can produce undesirable thickness variations in the final composite. stiff diaphragm are needed. . • For very complex shapes requiring high molding pressures.

• Compliant diaphragm do the job for simple components. .DIAPHRAGM FORMING ADVANTAGES: • Components with double curvatures can be formed.

Thermoplastic tape laying (Automated Layup) • In this method layers of prepreg (reinforcing phase impregnated by liquid resin) tape are applied on the mold surface by a tape application robot. • Extensively used for products such as airframe components. • limited to flat or low curvature surfaces. truck . bodies of boats.tanks. • used for thermoset or thermoplastic matrix. • Cost is about half of hand lay-up. . swimming pools and ducts.

Automated tape-laying machines operate by dispensing a prepreg tape onto an open mold following a programmed path . for positioning and following a defined continuous path. Typical machine consists of overhead gantry to which the dispensing head is attached The gantry permits x-y-z travel of the head.Automated tape-laying machine (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron). .

In this case adhesion (”wetting”)‫‏‬is‫‏‬provided‫‏‬by‫‏‬either‫‏‬covalent‫‏‬bonding‫‏‬or‫‏‬van‫‏‬der‫‏‬ Waals force. applied to the material to the dispersed phase via the interface. • There are three forms of interface between the two phases: • Direct bonding with no intermediate layer. • Intermediate layer (inter-phase) is in form of solid solution of the matrix and dispersed phases constituents. Adhesion is necessary for achieving high level of mechanical properties of the composite. . • Intermediate layer is in form of a third bonding phase (adhesive).Interfacial bonding • Good bonding (adhesion) between matrix phase and dispersed phase provides transfer of load.

The Interface • There is always an interface between constituent phases in a composite material. . • For the composite to operate effectively. the phases must bond where they join at the interface.

failure occur at interface 2) Cohesive failure – failure occur close to the interface (either at the fiber or matrix)‫‏‬ . brittle behavior 2 types of failure at interface 1) Adhesive failure .e. • The reinforcement must be strongly bonded to the matrix if high stiffness and strength are desired in the composite materials • A weak interface results in low stiffness and strength but high resistance to fracture. i. • A strong interface produces high stiffness and strength but often low resistance to fracture.Reinforcement-Matrix Interface • The load acting on the matrix has to be transferred to the reinforcement via. Interface.

more than one bonding mechanism may exist at the same time. • The bondings may change during various production stages or during services.Interfacial bonding • Once the matrix has wet the reinforcement. • For a given system. . bonding will occur.

• When the matrix shrinks radially on cooling over the reinforcement leads to a griping action of the matrix on the fiber. .Types of interfacial bonding at interface • Mechanical bonding • Physical bonding • Chemical bonding Mechanical Bonding • It is a simple mechanical keying or interlocking effect between the fiber-matrix phases.

. • The bond energy lies in the range of 8-16 kJ/mol. dipolar interactions and hydrogen bonds.Physical Bonding • These kind of bonding involves weak secondary waals forces. or vander • These type of bonding mechanism is of low significance because of its low magnitude.

.Chemical bonding • Dissolution Bonding: This bonding is of short range and occurs at an electronic scale. This type of bonding is hindered by the presence of impurities on the fiber surface and also gas or air bubbles at the interface. atoms or ions which diffuse to the interface. • Reaction Bonding: This bonding is due to the transport of the molecules.

a third ingredient must be added to achieve bonding of primary and secondary phases • Called an interphase.Interphase • In some cases. this third ingredient can be thought of as an adhesive .

Another Interphase Interphase consisting of a solution of primary and secondary phases .

consists of 25 percent composite material. • Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are used for manufacturing: secondary load-bearing aerospace structures. A 555-passenger plane recently built by Airbus. fishing boats that are resistant to corrosive seawater and lightweight turbine blades that generate wind power efficiently. skis.APPLICATIONS OF PMCs • Polymer composites are used to make very light bicycles that are faster and easier to handle than standard ones. kayaks. sport goods (golf clubs. New commercial aircraft also contain more composites than their predecessors. radio controlled vehicles. for example. boat bodies. bullet-proof vests and other armor parts. canoes. automotive parts. tennis racquets). while Boeing is designing a new jumbo aircraft that is planned to be more than half polymer composites. fishing rods. brake and clutch linings. .

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