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HV voltage generation, conversion , transformation and distribution in ship
Marine Electrical System
Maritime electric systems include power generation, distribution and control, and consumption of electric power on supply- service- and fishing vessels as well as offshore installations. Electric propulsion has increased especially for vessels with several large power consumers, for example cruise ships, floating production systems, supply- and service vessels. Maritime electric systems are autonomous power systems. The prime movers, including diesel engines, gas- and steam turbines, are integral parts of the systems. The power consumers are large compared with the total capacity of the system, as for example thruster and propulsion systems for DP operated vessels, drilling systems, HVAC systems on board ship
Marine Electrical System
The overall power train efficiency with DEP is around 87-90%. Use of permanent magnets in electric generators and motors as well as general advances in semiconductor technology may improve this figure to around 92-95% in the near future. Electrical transmission will consist of three basic energy conversions: From (rotating) mechanical energy into electrical energy: Egenerator From electrical energy into (rotating) mechanical energy: E-motor Some form of fixed or controlled electrical conversion in between: power converter
AC Generators E-Motors Electrical ==> Mechanical: E-motors .Driving motors .Synchronous Motor .DC Generators .Positioning motors Power converters Electrical ==> Electrical: power conversion or transformation .Static converters -Inverter .Systematic overview of existing types E-generator Mechanical ==> Electrical: E-Generators .Fixed transformers .Controlled converters .
Structure of a combined power plant for ships .
and therefore variable frequency. Electric power for auxiliary ship services required the use of separate constant frequency generator sets. However fixed voltage and frequency system are suitable to satisfy the requirements of the ship service loads. .Electric Propulsion System (AES) Electric propulsion of ships has been know for a long time to human Dynamic changes in human discovery has given several up and down in history Recent time have seen a a lot of Passenger ships being built with all electric system for various advantage that over the conventional prime movers Early large passenger vessels employed the turboelectric system which involves the use of variable speed. Where. turbogenerator sets for the supply of electric power to the propulsion motors directly coupled to the propeller shafts. System with generating sets to provide power to both the propulsion system and ship ancillary services. the generator/motor system was acting as a speed reducing transmission system.
Marine Electrical System .
c. diesel engines) and propeller when a gearbox or length of shaft could be all that is required. It may seem rather illogical to use electric generators. In the light of the above.c. switchgear and motors between the prime-movers (e. is explorable option for existing vessels. and d.c. drives at the largest ratings likely to be required in a marine propulsion system.Electric Propulsion System (AES) Other complication associated with earlier systems is difficulties in using multiple motor per shaft when required propulsion power was beyond the capacity of a single d. motor . Developments in high power static converter equipment have – presented a very convenient means of providing variable speed a. The electric propulsion of ships requires electric motors to drive the propellers and generator sets to supply the electric power. Currently there is interesting development for new ship need exploration on technologies to improve integrated full electric propulsion with advanced power management systems: Improved converter and power electronics technology Improved generators and motors .g. hybrid of gas turbine or Diesel with electric couple with dual fuelling that include natural gas. all electric ship using natural gas is also a good option.
Electric Propulsion System (AES) The AES give widespread electrification of auxiliaries and the opportunity to use upgradeable and flexible layouts. The fit into the goals of the Environmentally Sound Ship where : freedom of operation in MARPOL special and restricted areas. . It will include a low risk. minimum onboard storage of waste and reduced manpower whilst reducing cost of ownership and port reception costs. power-dense actuators. cost effective and comprehensive Platform Management System that has a standardized Human-Computer Interface supportable for its entire service life and the goal to be an Environmentally Sound Ship. port independence. fin stabilizers with compact. the also promise potential for replacing the current traditional systems used in steering gear. They also offer potentials for possible use of electric valve actuators that will simplify system architectures systematic integration of upper deck to machinery. unrestricted littoral operations.
Ship fuel use could be reduced by shifting to advanced turbine designs such as an intercooled recuperated (ICR) turbine. There is Potential alternative hydrocarbon fuels Like biodiesel and liquid hydrocarbon fuels made from coal Recent time has seen firms offering kite-assist systems to commercial ship operators. Talking about the question now the electric propulsion . especially with hybrid system offer the best answer to problem of energy . Shifting to integrated electric-drive propulsion can reduce a ship’s fuel use by 10% to 25%.Power generation A 2001 study concluded that fitting a Navy cruiser with more energyefficient electrical equipment could reduce the ship’s fuel use by 10% to 25%. Solar power might offer some potential for augmenting other forms of shipboard power.
.5 MW. In addition. Indeed. more power-dense) . The motors being manufactured now are as large as 19.. such as a podded propulsion . that can reduce ship fuel consumption further due to their improved hydrodynamic efficiency Podded drives offer greater propulsion efficiency and increased space within the hull by moving the propulsion motor outside the ships hull and placing it in a pod suspended underneath the hull. podded drives have been widely adopted by the cruise ship community for these reasons.Power generation Integrated electric-drive system derived from a commercially available system that has been installed on ships such as cruise ships requires a technology that is more torque-dense (i.e. Candidates for a more torque-dense technology include a permanent magnet motor (PMM) and a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor. and could provide the total propulsion power.. Podded drives are also capable of azimuth improving ship maneuverability.. electric drive makes possible the use of new propeller/stern configurations.
Azipod drive unit .
Comparison of propulsion plants efficiency .
Weight of propulsion systems .
and exhaust treatment such as selected catalytic reduction and oxidation catalysts. water injection. They also provide significant reduction in the amount of routine maintenance required when compared with diesel generators. and timing retard. Maintenance may include engine modifications such as dual fuel capability for in-port use. Weight sensitive ship designs favor gas turbines and projected light weight fuel cell power plants such as PEM. 4. The other significant factor is the low emissions. Heavy fuel use also requires careful selection of cylinder material and lube oil . Diesel engine Diesel engines offer fuel costs savings of 50% if heavy fuels can be used.Prime movers Gas Turbines Gas turbine have been selected as the future prime mover primarily because of their high power to weight ratio. and if emissions can be maintained at acceptable levels.
Finally. also called a combustion turbine. generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by expansion back to atmospheric pressure. mechanically. is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of compressed air. . the gases are passed through a nozzle. Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in the combustor. The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades. and converts it into useful mechanical work.Turbina A gas turbine. spinning the turbine. It has an upstream air compressor radial or axial flow mechanically coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. powering the compressor. and. A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam.
Gas Turbine .
Steam engine .
Since the fuel efficiency of a gas turbine is best near its maximum power level. a small gas turbine running at its full speed is more efficient compared to a twice as powerful turbine running at half speed.COGAG Combined gas turbine and gas turbine (COGAG) is propulsion system for ships using two gas turbines connected to a single propeller shaft. Using one or two gas turbines has the advantage of having two different power settings. A gearbox and clutches allow either of the turbines to drive the shaft or both of them combined. allowing more economic transit at cruise speeds. .
Diesel engine .
power distribution and other services which could be affected by damage to another part of the ship. using split generation and distribution. Electrical generator sets can be optimally spaced around the ship and electrically connected. at the extreme aft end of the ship. SFC. In the longer term. At least two supplies would be provided for all essential loads. Zone Concept : The concept of dividing future classes of ship into zones to maximize survivability also extends to the power system. or in external pods. cooling systems. specific weight and volume than mechanical drive systems. Advanced technology motors can be located very close to and on line with the propulsors. specific weight and volume are comparable with gas turbine and diesel prime movers for direct drive systems. combined with fuel cells. Current classes. Each zone would be autonomous and include ventilation systems.Prime movers Electric drive Electric drive transmissions have a higher specific fuel consumption. rely on the provision of normal and alternative supplies via Automatic Change-Over Switches . but has advantages in arrangement which may compensate for these disadvantages.
Typical system with zoning .
The voltage of the fuel cell output can be controlled by a converter and it is therefore able to connect to any point in the ship service or propulsion distribution system. It also has the additional advantages of zero noxious emissions. Diesel fuel will require reforming within the fuel cell stack. The fuel cell stack is modularity give redundancy advantage. which are more forgiving of impurities and can use a fuel available world-wide. weight and complexity to the fuel cell system. or using an external process. The reformer will clearly add both size. In the longer term technologies such as the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) are contenders. either methanol or gasoline.Fuel cell The fuel cell stack operates by utilizing electrochemical reactions between an oxidant (air) and a fuel (hydrogen). to produce a hydrogen rich gas which the fuel cell stack is capable of processing. and low thermal and acoustic signatures. In the short term the fuel cell system is required to use marine diesel fuel. with two electrodes separated by a membrane. .
Storage option The technologies being assessed for energy storage include are electro-chemical batteries (both conventional and advanced). In contrast to most types of battery system. The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell. physically separated by an ion-exchange membrane. one for each electrolyte. The cell has two compartments. The power is therefore determined by the size of the cell but the endurance is determined by the size of the two electrolyte tanks . Regenerative fuel cells store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the electrolytes). regenerative fuel cells (otherwise known as redox flow cells ) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Supercapacitors. the electrolytes flow into and out of the cells and are transformed electrochemically inside the cells.
Storage system .
Diesels require the most attention to emissions control followed at some distance by gas turbines. where ultra low emissions levels have been achieved for land-based systems. Fuel cells emit the lowest levels of pollutants of all the primemovers Heavier fuel cell systems and diesels represent larger machinery and structural weight. Fuel cells can be used as a prime mover in an Integrated Full Electric Propulsion (IFEP) system providing DC electrical power output. and are being developed as a replacement for diesel generators and gas turbine alternators. . however.Prime movers All primemovers are potentially compliant with emerging emission requirements. complexity for achieving compliance varies with prime mover and fuel type.
Sail and solar power ship .
rugged electrical machine to be utilized for the propulsion motor.Propulsion motor For efficient operation of propulsion motor there is a requirement for a compact. For the full benefits of electric propulsion to be realized the machine should also be efficient. power dense. In order to achieve suitable compact designs rare earth permanent magnet materials may be required. particularly at part load. The machine topologies available for PMM are deemed to be those based on radial. . axial and transverse flux designs.
or 4 stroke medium speed diesel electric propulsion or gas turbine with diesel electric drive appear to offer the greatest operational efficiencies for the new designs of large LNG carriers. coupled with an on-board liquefaction plant to handle the cargo boil off.” Direct drive. .Power for LNG ships These alternatives are more economical and offer greater overall efficiency with an added advantage of providing greater flexibility and redundancy Diesel plant also raises are inherited with problem of vibration on membrane LNG carrier it is necessary to understand the interaction between the structural resonance that is excited by the diesel engine and the separate resonance that is created within the membrane containment system interacting with LNG. slow speed diesel plants. The traditional application of gas fired boilers for steam turbine propulsion systems is no longer the only available option for LNG Carriers.
Variations of the dual fuel arrangements include: -diesel engine or gas turbine driven generators with one propulsion shafting system and a liquefaction plant. Industry is currently developing the fuel gas systems for these gas turbine options. .Power generation for LNG ships Although slow or medium speed diesel engines have been selected for some of the recent LNG carriers with dual fuel installation option that uses both gas boiloff and ordinary bunkers. To date. and medium speed dual fuel diesel with gas combustion units. -diesel engine or gas turbine driven generators with two azimuth thrusters and a liquefaction plant. slow speed diesel with re-liquefaction plant as well as a gas combustion unit. It would appear that gas turbine with simple and combined cycles using heat recovery units to drive steam turbo alternators are another alternative being explored. -diesel engine or gas turbine driven generators with two propulsion shafting systems and a liquefaction plant. are the preferred options for the new large LNG carriers recently ordered in Korea.
Power generation for LNG ships A dual fuel diesel-electric system uses forced boil-off from the cargo tanks as the primary fuel and marine diesel oil as back-up fuel. Shipbuilders and engine designers that are proponents of dual fuel systems point out that a gas-electric propulsion plant is more compact than the traditional steam turbine plant used for LNG carriers. excess steam is redirected to the condensers. The IMO Gas Carrier Code requires two means of utilizing boil-off gas on all LNG carriers. Similar arrangements are required for the diesel propulsion systems. Current industry proposals for the alternative means of boil-off gas utilization are a liquefaction plant or a gas combustion unit. Risk assessment methods are recommended for option selection . increasing cargo capacity within the same dimensioned hull. When this cannot be used. The arrangement can also be adapted to current LNG carrier designs. Conventional systems use the main boilers for generating steam for propulsion.
As for electrical Power increases on ships (particularly passenger ferries.3 kV or 6.6 kV but 11 kV is used on some offshore platforms and specialist oil/gas production ships e.6 kV instead of 440 V the distribution and switching of power above about 6 MW becomes more manageable. it is necessary to increase the system voltage at high power ratings. To reduce the size of both steady state and fault current levels. storage and offloading) vessels. .g on some FPSO (floating production. cruise liners. and specialist offshore vessels and platforms) the supply current rating becomes too high at 440 V.Power Distribution As the demand for electrical are 3. By generating electrical power at 6.
Large power consumers such as thrusters. propulsion motors.Component parts of an HV The component parts of an HV supply system are standard equipment with: HV diesel generator sets feeding an HV main switchboard. HV transformers and HV motors. FV cables. Experience shows that a 9 MW system at 6. An example of a high voltage power system is shown .6 kV would be about 20% more expensive for installation costs. reasonably priced and require a minimum of maintenance over the life of the ship. HV switchboard. The principal parts of a ships electrical system operated at HV would be the main generators. airconditioning (A/C) compressors and HV transformers are fed directly from the HV switchboard. An economical HV system must be simple to operate.
Ship HV Voltage system
In the example shown the HV generators form a central power station for all of the ship's electrical services. On a large passenger ship with electric propulsion, each generator may be rated at about 10 MW or more and producing 6.6 kV, 60 Hz threephase a.c. voltages. The principal consumers are the two synchronous a.c. propulsion electric motors (PEMs) which may each demand 12 MW or more in the full away condition. Each PEM has two stator windings supplied separately from the main HV switchboard via transformers and frequency converters. In an emergency a PEM may therefore be operated as a half-motor with a reduced power output. A few large induction motors are supplied at 6.6 kV from the main board with the circuit breaker acting as a directon-line (DOL) starting switch.
Ship high voltage systems
These motors are: o Two forward thrusters and one aft thruster, and o Three air conditioning compressors
Other main feeders supply the 440 V engine room sub-station (ER sub) switchboard via step-down transformers. An interconnector cable links the ER sub to the emergency switchboard. Other 440 V sub-stations (accommodation,galley etc.) around the ship are supplied from the ER sub. Some installations may feed the ships sub stations directly with HV and step-down to 440 V locally. The PEM drives in this example are synchronous motors which require a controlled low voltage excitation supply current to magnetise the rotor poles. This supply is obtained from the HV switchboard via a step-down transformer but an alternative arrangement would be to obtain the excitation supply from the 440 V ER sub switchboard.
Ship high voltage systems
High Voltages solid state AC-DCAC conversion .
Solid State Switching Principle • • • • • The power systems engineers is interested in high voltages primarily for power transmission. and secondly for testing of his equipment used in power transmission in laboratory High voltage can be obtained locally from power generating plant through the use of solid state In many testing laboratories. the primary source of power is at low voltage (400 V three phase or 230 V single phase. at 50 Hz). the impedances involved are extremely high (order of M ohm and the currents small (less than an ampere). High voltage testing does not usually require high power. Thus special methods may be used which are not applicable when generating high voltage in high power applications. From which high voltage can be obtained On board ship the same technology can be used to use high voltage Laboratory test are aimed to design the required high voltage Since insulation is usually being tested. .
The ac supply to the rectifier tubes maybe of power frequency or maybe of audo frequency from an oscillator.Solid State Switching Principle In the field of electrical eng. . high voltages are required for several applications As: -a power supply (eg. -High impulse voltages are required for testing purposes to simulate over voltages due to lightning and switching. hv dc) for the equipments such as electron microscope and x-ray machine. high direct voltages are needed in insulation test on cables and capacitors. Normally for the generation of dc voltages of up to 100kV. electronics valve rectifiers are used and the output currents are about 100mA. The latter is used when a ripple of very small magnitude is required without the use of costly filters to smoothen the ripple. The rectifier valves require special construction for cathode and filaments since a high electrostatic field of several kV/cm exists between the anode and cathode in the non-conduction period. Sometimes. & applied physics. -Required for testing power apparatus – insulation testing. Impulse generator charging units also require high dc voltages of about 100-200kV.
For higher voltages. single electron tubes are available for peak inverse voltages up to 250kV and semiconductor or solid state diodes up to 250kV.Half and Full Wave Rectifier a. When a number of units are used in series. o . Nowadays. Rectifier circuits for producing high dc voltages from ac sources maybe Half-Wave Full-Wave o The rectifier can be an electron tube or a solid state devices. several units are to be used in series. b. transient voltage distribution along each unit becomes non-uniform and special care should be taken to make the distribution uniform.
Vin RL V out Half Wave Rectifier V p V A VG 0 T Mean Load Voltage or Average Value of half wave output .
7 : Full-wave rectifier circuit V p VA V G to t1 t2 Mean Load Voltage or Average Voltage Full-wave output .D1 + to t1 t2 RL D2 Full wave Rectifier Circuit figure 1.
When higher voltages are required voltage multiplier circuits are used. The common circuits are the voltage double circuit Used for higher voltages. . Generate very high dc voltage from single supply transformer by extending the simple voltage doubler circuit.Voltage Multiplier Circuits Both full-wave as well as half-wave circuits can produce a maximum direct voltage corresponding to the peak value of the alternating voltage.
voltages High a. High d. voltages of high frequency High transient or impulse voltages of very short duration .c.c.lightning overvoltages Transient voltages of longer duration – switching surges . voltages of power frequency High a.c.Types of high voltages.
In this case. Further for the same direct voltage output the peak inverse voltage of the diodes will be halved. the transformer will be of small rating that for the same direct voltage rating with only simple rectification. These are then connected in series aiding to obtain double the direct voltage output. Figure shows a voltage doubler circuit. The voltage doubler circuit makes use of the positive and the negative half cycles to charge two different capacitors. Voltage doubler circuit .
For higher voltage requirement. and impulse voltage. a cascade arrangement of several transformers is used. Test transformer are generally used. . for high voltages to reduce the cost (insulation cost increases rapidly with voltage) and make transportation easier.c.c. series connection or cascading of the several identical units of transformer is applied. Single transformer test units are made for high alternating voltages up to about 200 kV. tests as well as for the circuit of high d. However.High Alternating Voltages Required in laboratories and a.
Cascade arrangement of transformers .
1600 kV. 9.6 MVA Cascaded Power Transformer .
One end of the high voltage winding is also earthed through the tank. . The high voltage end and a tapping near this end is taken out at the top of the transformer through a bushing. The low voltage winding is connected to the primary of the first transformer. and forms the primary of the second transformer.Cascade arrangement of transformers A typical cascade arrangement of transformers used to obtain up to 300 kV from three units each rated at 100 kV insulation. and this is connected to the transformer tank which is earthed. The secondary of this transformer too has one end connected to the tank and at the other end the next cascaded transformer is fed. One end of this winding is connected to the tank of the second transformer to maintain the tank at high voltage.
In the cascade arrangement shown. In practice. and hence the transformer can be relatively small. If a 300 kV transformer had to be used instead. . This is to ensure that when the secondary of the transformer is short circuited (as will commonly happen in flash-over tests of insulation).Cascade arrangement of transformers This cascade arrangement can be continued further if a still higher voltage is required. each transformer needs only to be insulated for 100 kV. the current would not increase to too high a value and to reduce the cost. an additional series resistance (commonly a water resistance) is also used in such cases to limit the current and prevent possible damage to the transformer. the size would be massive. High voltage transformers for testing purposes are designed purposely to have a poor regulation.
the size would be massive. . In practice. the current would not increase to too high a value and to reduce the cost. This is to ensure that when the secondary of the transformer is short circuited (as will commonly happen in flash-over tests of insulation). The actual arrangement could be different for practical reasons. In the cascade arrangement shown.Cascade arrangement of transformers What is shown in the cascade transformer arrangement is the basic principle involved. If a 300 kV transformer had to be used instead. The actual arrangement could be different for practical reasons. each transformer needs only to be insulated for 100 kV. High voltage transformers for testing purposes are designed purposely to have a poor regulation. an additional series resistance (commonly a water resistance) is also used in such cases to limit the current and prevent possible damage to the transformer. and hence the transformer can be relatively small. What is shown in the cascade transformer arrangement is the basic principle involved.
to d.High D.c.C. – vacuum rectifiers. voltage.c. semiconductor diodes . voltages is mainly required in research work in the areas of pure and applied physics.c. Use rectifier circuit (diode) to convert a. Voltages Generation of high d. Needed in insulation test.
and also for fundamental investigations of the breakdown mechanisms.Impulse High Voltage Impulse voltages (IVs) are required in hv tests to simulate the stresses due to external and internal overvoltages. Usually generated by discharging hv capacitors through switching gaps onto a network of resistors and capacitors. a single. Rectangular and wedge-shaped IVs are normally used for basic experiments while for testing purposes. unipolar voltage is termed an impulse voltage. In hv technology. and its mathematical equation is defined as follows. V = Vo [exp(-αt) – exp(-βt)] Where α and β are constants of microsecond values. double exponential IVs are used. Standard test of impulse voltages can be represented as double exponential wave. .
--d. c. This is generally at M0 V and 60 Hz but for high power demands it is likelv to be 6. .c. Hence. in –a single-phase a.Controlled Rectification The generated three power supply on a phase a. c. The diode turns-off automatically when its current falls to zero. The set bus-bar a.c. electrical ship has a fixed voltage and frequency. voltage must be converted by controlled rectification (a. Speed control for a propulsion motor requires variable voltage for a d. circuit a single diode will conduct only on every other half-cycle and this is called half-wave rectification.c.) ind/or controlled inversion (d. * a. drive.c.c. drive and variable frequency * voltage for an a.6 kV and 60 Hz.c. A basic rectifier uses semiconductor diodes which can only conduct current in the direction of anode (A) to cathode (K) and this is automatic when A is more positive than K. )' to match the propulsion motor type.c.
.Single-phase controlled rectification.
output from the rectifier. An equivalent three phase bridge requires six diodes for full-wave operation.c.c. load current even though the d. Full wave controlled rectification from a three-phase a. voltage is severely chopped by the thyristor switching action.Controlled Rectification In this circuit an inductor coil (choke) smooth the d. four diodes in a bridge formation will also produce a full-wave d. For controlled rectification it is necessary to use a set of three-terminal devices such as thyristors (for high currents) or transistors (for low medium currents). A diode. supply is achieved in a bridge Circuit with six thyristors a shown Other single-phase circuits using a biased arrangement with two diodes and a centre-tapped transformer will create full-wave rectification Similarly. An alternative to the choke coil is to use a capacitor across the rectifier output which smooths the d. cannot control the size of the d. . voltage.c.c. having only two terminals. voltage output.c.c.
.Three-phase controlled rectifier bridge circuit.
c.c. The thyristor will only conduct when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode and a brief trigger voltage pulse is applied between gate and cathode (gate must be more positive than cathode). Full wave controlled rectification from a three-phase a. supply is achieved in a bridge Circuit with six thyristors a shown .Three-phase controlled rectifier bridge circuit.c. Gate voltage pulses are provided by separate electronic circuit and the pulse timing decides the switch-on point for the main (load) current. control circuit using a thyristor switch is shown in the next slide.c.c.c. load current even though the d. Compared with a diode. voltage.c. A basic a. In this circuit an inductor coil (choke) smooth the d. The load current is therefore rectified to d. voltage is severely chopped by the thyristor switching action. a thyristor has an extra (control) terminal called the gate (G). (by diode action) and controlled by delayed switching.-d. An alternative to the choke coil is to use a capacitor across the rectifier output which smooths the d.
the line currents are directed into (and out of) the windings to produce a rotating stator flux wave which interacts with the rotor to produce torque. The rate of switching determines the output frequency.c. Controlled inversion process . .) voltage by using a set of thyristor (or transistor) switches. voltage is sequentially switched onto the three output lines. voltage can be inverted (switched) repeatedly from positive to negative to form an alternating (u. the d.c.c. A controlled threephase thyristor bridge inverter is shown The inverter bridge circuit arrangement is exactly the same as that for the rectifier. The processes of controlled rectification and inversion are used in converters that are designed to match the drive motor. For a. motor control. Here.A d.Three-phase controlled rectifier bridge circuit.c. voltage output is taken to be about 600 V as it has a six-pulse ripple effect due to the three-phase input waveform. The equivalent maximum d.c.
c. synchronous motor .Three-phase inverter circuit and a.
(PWM for induction motors) .c.-a.c. a.-a.>a.c. motor drive. converter This is a three phase a. (cycloconverter for synchronous motors) These are examined below: a.d..c.c.d.-d.c.-d. Some systems may have a fixed field current which means that the field supply only requires an uncontrolled diode bridge .c.c.>a.c. (controlled rectifier for d.c. (synchroconverter or synchronous motors) . motors) .-a. controlled rectification circuit for a d.Converter Types The principal types of motor control converters are: .c.c.c. Two converters of different power ratings are generally used for the separate control of the armature current and the field current which produces the magnetic flux .c. -> d.c..
Unlike thyristors. The input rectifier stage is not controlled so is simpler and cheaper but the converter will not be ablg to allow power from the motor load to be regenerated back into the mains supply during a braking operation.Converter Types Shaft rotation can be achieved by reversing either the field current or the armature current direction. .g.c.d. ocean survey and submarines. diving and supply.. a transistor can be turned on and off by a control signal and at a high switching rate (e. offshore drilling.c.-a. at 20 kHz in a PWM converter).c. Ship applications for such a drive would include cable-laying. a. PWM converter This type of converter is used for induction motor drives and uses transistors as the switching devices.
c.Controlled rectification converter and d. motor .
induction motor .c.PWM converter and a.
5-120Hz. Due to the smoothing effect of the motor inductance.c.Converter Types From a 440 Y a.c. the motor currents appear to be nearly sinusoidal in shape.c. but constant level. By varying the pulse widths and polarity of the d. voltage it is possible to generate an averaged sinusoidal ac. the rectified d. . output over a wide range of frequencies typically 0. a reversible rotating magnetic field is produced with its speed set by the output frequency of the PWM converter.c. The d. voltage is chopped into variablewidth. voltage pulses in the computer controlled inverter section using IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors). supply. By sequentially directing the currents into the three stator windings. (link) voltage will be smoothed by the capacitor to approximately 600 V. This process is called pulse width modulation or PWM.
being digitally controlled. can be easily networked to other computer devices e. Speed regulation against load changes is very good and can be made very precise by the addition of feedback from a shaft speed encoder. acceleration time and resistive braking are a few of the many operational parameters that can be programmed into the VSD.g. The VSD can be closelv tuned to the connected motor drive to achieve optimum control and protection limits for the overall drive. .Converter Types Accurate control of shaft torque.usually via a hand-held unit. VSDs. programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for overall control of a complex process.
c. .c. DC link synchroconverter and a dc motor drive. voltages at either end of the converter.c.+a. An operational similarity exists between a svnchrodrive and a d. link. synchronous motor drives (called a synchrodrive) and I is applied very successfully to marine electric propulsion.c. motor drive. Between the rectification and inversion stages is a currentsmoothing reactor coil forming the d.c. synchroconverter This type of convert is used for large a.c.c.*d. A synchroconverter has controlled rectifier and inverter stages which both rely on natural turn-off (line commutation) for the thyristors by the three phase a.Converter Types a.
Inverter current switching sequence .
motor. supply and the inverter/synchronous motor combination as a d.c.c. with the switching inverter acting as a static commutator. The six inverter thyristors provide six current pulses per cycle (known as a six-pulse converter) .c. The combination of controlled rectifier and d. link is considered to be a current source for the inverter whose task is then to sequentially direct blocks of the current into the motor windings The size of the d. current is set by the controlled switching of the rectifier thyristors.c. Motor supply frequency (and hence its speed) is set by the rate of inverter switching.Converter Types This view considers the rectifier stage as a controlled d.
Converter Types A simplified understanding of synchroconverter control is that the current source (controlled rectification stage) provides the required motor torque and the inverter stage controls the required speed. To provide the motor e. The d. the synchronous motor must have rotation and magnetic flux in its rotor poles. rotor field excitation is obtained from a separate controlled thvristor rectification circuit. the synchronous motor is operated with a power factor of about 0.c.9 leading (by field excitation control) to assist the line commutation of the inverter thyristors.m.f. During normal running. which is necessary for natural commutation of the inverter thyristors. .
This is useful to allow the regeneration motor power back into the mains power supply which provides an electric braking torque during a crash stop of the ship. voltage source. .Converter Types As the supply (network) and machine bridges are identical and are both connected to a three-phase a. there roles can be switched into reverse.c.
Cycloconverter circuit and output voltage waveform. .
to d. output voltage waveform. input. can be controlled so that the average output voltage can be increased and decreased from zero to maximum within a half-cycle period of he sinusoidal a.c. up to 20 Hz) which is due to the way in which this type of converter produces the a.c.c. cycloconverter While a synchroconverter is able to provide an output frequency range typically up to twice that of the mains input (e.g. a cycloconverter is restricted to a much lower range. ..c.g. This is limited to less than one thtird of the supply frequency (e.a. up to 120 Hz).c.Converter Types a.c. Ship ropulsion shaft speeds are typically in the range of 0-145 rev/min which can easily be achieved by the low frequency output range of a cycloconverter to a multi-pole synchronous motor. Power regeneration from the motor back into the main power supply is available. A conventional three phase converter from a.
The converters may be directly supplied from the HV line but it is more usual to interpose step-down transformers. The switching pattern for the thyristors varies over the frequency range which requires a complex computer program for converter control. This reduces the motor voltage and its required insulation level while also providing additional line impedance to limit the size of prospective fault current and harmonic voltage distortion at the main supply bus-bar.c.Converter Types By connecting two similar converters back-to-back in each line an a. The corresponding current waveform shape (not shown) will be more sinusoidal due to the smoothing effect of motor and line inductance. There is no connection between the three motor windings because the line converters have to be isolated from each other to operate correctly to obtain line commutation (natural) switching of the thvristors. . The output voltage has ripple content which gets as the output frequency it is this feature that limits useful frequency. output frequency is obtained.
Twin Shaft EL Propulsion .
FPSO Electrical system Layout .
Shuttle Tanker Electrical System Layout .
Shuttle Tanker Electrical Line Diagram .
Drill Ship Electrical System Layout .
. Knowledge has to be developed about how such large motor drives will influence the autonomous power systems onboard. Today an increased use of diesel electrical propulsion of ships can be seen.The future Propulsion of ships by help of standard diesel engines usually gives a non-optimal utilization of the energy. Even development of new integrated electrical systems for replacement of hydraulic systems (top-side as well as subsea) are becoming areas of need. New power electronics and electrical machines will be developed for propulsion and thrusters. as well as other application on board.
distribution systems and group starter boards Propulsion and thruster motors complete with power electronic variable speed drives Power conversion equipment Shaft braking Power factor correction and harmonic filters (as necessary) Power management Machinery control and surveillance Dynamic positioning and joystick control Machinery control room and bridge consoles Setting to work and commissioning Operator training .Typical system of all electrical ship Generator sets complete with prime movers and engine controls HV/LV Switchboards.
.Future electrical ship Future HV ships systems at sea may require voltages up to 13.8 kV to minimize fault levels It is therefore essential that all Marine Engineering personnel are trained in safe working practices for these voltages. The Electrical officers of the near future must be fully trained to carry out maintenance and defect rectification on Medium Voltage (MV) systems. This will mean a considerable increase in the electrical content of all training. Training will also need to be given to non-technical personnel to ensure everybody is aware of the dangers of these higher voltages.
Available systems .
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