All Electric Propulsion System

HV voltage generation, conversion , transformation and distribution in ship

Marine Electrical System
Maritime electric systems include power generation, distribution and control, and consumption of electric power on supply- service- and fishing vessels as well as offshore installations.  Electric propulsion has increased especially for vessels with several large power consumers, for example cruise ships, floating production systems, supply- and service vessels.  Maritime electric systems are autonomous power systems. The prime movers, including diesel engines, gas- and steam turbines, are integral parts of the systems.  The power consumers are large compared with the total capacity of the system, as for example thruster and propulsion systems for DP operated vessels, drilling systems, HVAC systems on board ship

Marine Electrical System

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The overall power train efficiency with DEP is around 87-90%. Use of permanent magnets in electric generators and motors as well as general advances in semiconductor technology may improve this figure to around 92-95% in the near future. Electrical transmission will consist of three basic energy conversions: From (rotating) mechanical energy into electrical energy: Egenerator From electrical energy into (rotating) mechanical energy: E-motor Some form of fixed or controlled electrical conversion in between: power converter

Positioning motors Power converters Electrical ==> Electrical: power conversion or transformation  .Fixed transformers  .Static converters  -Inverter .Controlled converters  .Systematic overview of existing types E-generator    Mechanical ==> Electrical: E-Generators .DC Generators .Driving motors .AC Generators E-Motors     Electrical ==> Mechanical: E-motors .Synchronous Motor .

Structure of a combined power plant for ships .

turbogenerator sets for the supply of electric power to the propulsion motors directly coupled to the propeller shafts.Electric Propulsion System (AES)       Electric propulsion of ships has been know for a long time to human Dynamic changes in human discovery has given several up and down in history Recent time have seen a a lot of Passenger ships being built with all electric system for various advantage that over the conventional prime movers Early large passenger vessels employed the turboelectric system which involves the use of variable speed. and therefore variable frequency. the generator/motor system was acting as a speed reducing transmission system. Electric power for auxiliary ship services required the use of separate constant frequency generator sets. However fixed voltage and frequency system are suitable to satisfy the requirements of the ship service loads. System with generating sets to provide power to both the propulsion system and ship ancillary services. . Where.

Marine Electrical System .

drives at the largest ratings likely to be required in a marine propulsion system. The electric propulsion of ships requires electric motors to drive the propellers and generator sets to supply the electric power. all electric ship using natural gas is also a good option. diesel engines) and propeller when a gearbox or length of shaft could be all that is required.c. Currently there is interesting development for new ship need exploration on technologies to improve integrated full electric propulsion with advanced power management systems: Improved converter and power electronics technology Improved generators and motors . motor . In the light of the above. is explorable option for existing vessels.c.g. It may seem rather illogical to use electric generators. switchgear and motors between the prime-movers (e.Electric Propulsion System (AES)        Other complication associated with earlier systems is difficulties in using multiple motor per shaft when required propulsion power was beyond the capacity of a single d.c. hybrid of gas turbine or Diesel with electric couple with dual fuelling that include natural gas. Developments in high power static converter equipment have – presented a very convenient means of providing variable speed a. and d.

It will include a low risk. The fit into the goals of the Environmentally Sound Ship where : freedom of operation in MARPOL special and restricted areas. the also promise potential for replacing the current traditional systems used in steering gear. cost effective and comprehensive Platform Management System that has a standardized Human-Computer Interface supportable for its entire service life and the goal to be an Environmentally Sound Ship.Electric Propulsion System (AES)     The AES give widespread electrification of auxiliaries and the opportunity to use upgradeable and flexible layouts. minimum onboard storage of waste and reduced manpower whilst reducing cost of ownership and port reception costs. unrestricted littoral operations. power-dense actuators. . They also offer potentials for possible use of electric valve actuators that will simplify system architectures systematic integration of upper deck to machinery. fin stabilizers with compact. port independence.

Solar power might offer some potential for augmenting other forms of shipboard power. There is Potential alternative hydrocarbon fuels Like biodiesel and liquid hydrocarbon fuels made from coal Recent time has seen firms offering kite-assist systems to commercial ship operators. Talking about the question now the electric propulsion . Ship fuel use could be reduced by shifting to advanced turbine designs such as an intercooled recuperated (ICR) turbine. Shifting to integrated electric-drive propulsion can reduce a ship’s fuel use by 10% to 25%. especially with hybrid system offer the best answer to problem of energy .Power generation       A 2001 study concluded that fitting a Navy cruiser with more energyefficient electrical equipment could reduce the ship’s fuel use by 10% to 25%.

. and could provide the total propulsion power..Power generation       Integrated electric-drive system derived from a commercially available system that has been installed on ships such as cruise ships requires a technology that is more torque-dense (i. that can reduce ship fuel consumption further due to their improved hydrodynamic efficiency Podded drives offer greater propulsion efficiency and increased space within the hull by moving the propulsion motor outside the ships hull and placing it in a pod suspended underneath the hull..e. Podded drives are also capable of azimuth improving ship maneuverability. such as a podded propulsion . Candidates for a more torque-dense technology include a permanent magnet motor (PMM) and a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor. more power-dense) .. In addition. electric drive makes possible the use of new propeller/stern configurations. podded drives have been widely adopted by the cruise ship community for these reasons. The motors being manufactured now are as large as 19. Indeed.5 MW.

Azipod drive unit .

Comparison of propulsion plants efficiency .

Weight of propulsion systems .

 The other significant factor is the low emissions. Diesel engine  Diesel engines offer fuel costs savings of 50% if heavy fuels can be used.Prime movers Gas Turbines  Gas turbine have been selected as the future prime mover primarily because of their high power to weight ratio. and exhaust treatment such as selected catalytic reduction and oxidation catalysts. Weight sensitive ship designs favor gas turbines and projected light weight fuel cell power plants such as PEM.  They also provide significant reduction in the amount of routine maintenance required when compared with diesel generators.  Heavy fuel use also requires careful selection of cylinder material and lube oil .  Maintenance may include engine modifications such as dual fuel capability for in-port use.  4. water injection. and timing retard. and if emissions can be maintained at acceptable levels.

also called a combustion turbine. and converts it into useful mechanical work. generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by expansion back to atmospheric pressure. It has an upstream air compressor radial or axial flow mechanically coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. spinning the turbine. A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam.  .Turbina      A gas turbine. and. The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades. mechanically. Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in the combustor. powering the compressor. is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of compressed air. Finally. the gases are passed through a nozzle.

Gas Turbine .

Steam engine .

Using one or two gas turbines has the advantage of having two different power settings. . A gearbox and clutches allow either of the turbines to drive the shaft or both of them combined. Since the fuel efficiency of a gas turbine is best near its maximum power level.COGAG     Combined gas turbine and gas turbine (COGAG) is propulsion system for ships using two gas turbines connected to a single propeller shaft. a small gas turbine running at its full speed is more efficient compared to a twice as powerful turbine running at half speed. allowing more economic transit at cruise speeds.

Diesel engine .

specific weight and volume are comparable with gas turbine and diesel prime movers for direct drive systems. Current classes. Zone Concept :  The concept of dividing future classes of ship into zones to maximize survivability also extends to the power system.  At least two supplies would be provided for all essential loads. combined with fuel cells. rely on the provision of normal and alternative supplies via Automatic Change-Over Switches . SFC. using split generation and distribution.  Electrical generator sets can be optimally spaced around the ship and electrically connected.  Each zone would be autonomous and include ventilation systems. cooling systems. specific weight and volume than mechanical drive systems. In the longer term. at the extreme aft end of the ship. power distribution and other services which could be affected by damage to another part of the ship.Prime movers Electric drive  Electric drive transmissions have a higher specific fuel consumption. but has advantages in arrangement which may compensate for these disadvantages. or in external pods.  Advanced technology motors can be located very close to and on line with the propulsors.

Typical system with zoning .

and low thermal and acoustic signatures. with two electrodes separated by a membrane. In the short term the fuel cell system is required to use marine diesel fuel. to produce a hydrogen rich gas which the fuel cell stack is capable of processing. which are more forgiving of impurities and can use a fuel available world-wide. The voltage of the fuel cell output can be controlled by a converter and it is therefore able to connect to any point in the ship service or propulsion distribution system. The reformer will clearly add both size. Diesel fuel will require reforming within the fuel cell stack. It also has the additional advantages of zero noxious emissions. or using an external process. The fuel cell stack is modularity give redundancy advantage.Fuel cell      The fuel cell stack operates by utilizing electrochemical reactions between an oxidant (air) and a fuel (hydrogen). weight and complexity to the fuel cell system. In the longer term technologies such as the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) are contenders. either methanol or gasoline. .

Regenerative fuel cells store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the electrolytes).Storage option     The technologies being assessed for energy storage include are electro-chemical batteries (both conventional and advanced). In contrast to most types of battery system. the electrolytes flow into and out of the cells and are transformed electrochemically inside the cells. regenerative fuel cells (otherwise known as redox flow cells ) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Supercapacitors. physically separated by an ion-exchange membrane. one for each electrolyte. The power is therefore determined by the size of the cell but the endurance is determined by the size of the two electrolyte tanks . The cell has two compartments. The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell.

Storage system .

and are being developed as a replacement for diesel generators and gas turbine alternators. where ultra low emissions levels have been achieved for land-based systems. Fuel cells emit the lowest levels of pollutants of all the primemovers Heavier fuel cell systems and diesels represent larger machinery and structural weight. however. .Prime movers      All primemovers are potentially compliant with emerging emission requirements. complexity for achieving compliance varies with prime mover and fuel type. Fuel cells can be used as a prime mover in an Integrated Full Electric Propulsion (IFEP) system providing DC electrical power output. Diesels require the most attention to emissions control followed at some distance by gas turbines.

Sail and solar power ship .

Skysail .

Propulsion motor     For efficient operation of propulsion motor there is a requirement for a compact. The machine topologies available for PMM are deemed to be those based on radial. rugged electrical machine to be utilized for the propulsion motor. . power dense. In order to achieve suitable compact designs rare earth permanent magnet materials may be required. particularly at part load. axial and transverse flux designs. For the full benefits of electric propulsion to be realized the machine should also be efficient.

PMM .

The traditional application of gas fired boilers for steam turbine propulsion systems is no longer the only available option for LNG Carriers.” Direct drive.Power for LNG ships      These alternatives are more economical and offer greater overall efficiency with an added advantage of providing greater flexibility and redundancy Diesel plant also raises are inherited with problem of vibration on membrane LNG carrier it is necessary to understand the interaction between the structural resonance that is excited by the diesel engine and the separate resonance that is created within the membrane containment system interacting with LNG. or 4 stroke medium speed diesel electric propulsion or gas turbine with diesel electric drive appear to offer the greatest operational efficiencies for the new designs of large LNG carriers. coupled with an on-board liquefaction plant to handle the cargo boil off. slow speed diesel plants. .

 Variations of the dual fuel arrangements include: -diesel engine or gas turbine driven generators with one propulsion shafting system and a liquefaction plant.  To date.Power generation for LNG ships Although slow or medium speed diesel engines have been selected for some of the recent LNG carriers with dual fuel installation option that uses both gas boiloff and ordinary bunkers.  It would appear that gas turbine with simple and combined cycles using heat recovery units to drive steam turbo alternators are another alternative being explored. are the preferred options for the new large LNG carriers recently ordered in Korea.  . Industry is currently developing the fuel gas systems for these gas turbine options. -diesel engine or gas turbine driven generators with two azimuth thrusters and a liquefaction plant. and medium speed dual fuel diesel with gas combustion units. -diesel engine or gas turbine driven generators with two propulsion shafting systems and a liquefaction plant. slow speed diesel with re-liquefaction plant as well as a gas combustion unit.

The IMO Gas Carrier Code requires two means of utilizing boil-off gas on all LNG carriers. Shipbuilders and engine designers that are proponents of dual fuel systems point out that a gas-electric propulsion plant is more compact than the traditional steam turbine plant used for LNG carriers. Current industry proposals for the alternative means of boil-off gas utilization are a liquefaction plant or a gas combustion unit. Similar arrangements are required for the diesel propulsion systems.Power generation for LNG ships     A dual fuel diesel-electric system uses forced boil-off from the cargo tanks as the primary fuel and marine diesel oil as back-up fuel. increasing cargo capacity within the same dimensioned hull. When this cannot be used. Risk assessment methods are recommended for option selection . The arrangement can also be adapted to current LNG carrier designs. excess steam is redirected to the condensers. Conventional systems use the main boilers for generating steam for propulsion.

To reduce the size of both steady state and fault current levels. As for electrical Power increases on ships (particularly passenger ferries.3 kV or 6.6 kV instead of 440 V the distribution and switching of power above about 6 MW becomes more manageable.Power Distribution     As the demand for electrical are 3. storage and offloading) vessels. cruise liners.g on some FPSO (floating production. . By generating electrical power at 6.6 kV but 11 kV is used on some offshore platforms and specialist oil/gas production ships e. it is necessary to increase the system voltage at high power ratings. and specialist offshore vessels and platforms) the supply current rating becomes too high at 440 V.

FV cables. HV switchboard.6 kV would be about 20% more expensive for installation costs. airconditioning (A/C) compressors and HV transformers are fed directly from the HV switchboard. propulsion motors.  An example of a high voltage power system is shown  . reasonably priced and require a minimum of maintenance over the life of the ship.  Large power consumers such as thrusters.  Experience shows that a 9 MW system at 6. HV transformers and HV motors.  The principal parts of a ships electrical system operated at HV would be the main generators.  An economical HV system must be simple to operate.Component parts of an HV The component parts of an HV supply system are standard equipment with: HV diesel generator sets feeding an HV main switchboard.

Ship HV Voltage system

HV Systems
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In the example shown the HV generators form a central power station for all of the ship's electrical services. On a large passenger ship with electric propulsion, each generator may be rated at about 10 MW or more and producing 6.6 kV, 60 Hz threephase a.c. voltages. The principal consumers are the two synchronous a.c. propulsion electric motors (PEMs) which may each demand 12 MW or more in the full away condition. Each PEM has two stator windings supplied separately from the main HV switchboard via transformers and frequency converters. In an emergency a PEM may therefore be operated as a half-motor with a reduced power output. A few large induction motors are supplied at 6.6 kV from the main board with the circuit breaker acting as a directon-line (DOL) starting switch.

Ship high voltage systems
These motors are: o Two forward thrusters and one aft thruster, and o Three air conditioning compressors
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Other main feeders supply the 440 V engine room sub-station (ER sub) switchboard via step-down transformers. An interconnector cable links the ER sub to the emergency switchboard. Other 440 V sub-stations (accommodation,galley etc.) around the ship are supplied from the ER sub. Some installations may feed the ships sub stations directly with HV and step-down to 440 V locally. The PEM drives in this example are synchronous motors which require a controlled low voltage excitation supply current to magnetise the rotor poles. This supply is obtained from the HV switchboard via a step-down transformer but an alternative arrangement would be to obtain the excitation supply from the 440 V ER sub switchboard.

Ship high voltage systems

High Voltages solid state AC-DCAC conversion .

From which high voltage can be obtained On board ship the same technology can be used to use high voltage Laboratory test are aimed to design the required high voltage Since insulation is usually being tested.Solid State Switching Principle • • • • •    The power systems engineers is interested in high voltages primarily for power transmission. and secondly for testing of his equipment used in power transmission in laboratory High voltage can be obtained locally from power generating plant through the use of solid state In many testing laboratories. at 50 Hz). . the primary source of power is at low voltage (400 V three phase or 230 V single phase. the impedances involved are extremely high (order of M ohm and the currents small (less than an ampere). Thus special methods may be used which are not applicable when generating high voltage in high power applications. High voltage testing does not usually require high power.

 Sometimes. high direct voltages are needed in insulation test on cables and capacitors. high voltages are required for several applications As: -a power supply (eg.  Normally for the generation of dc voltages of up to 100kV. The latter is used when a ripple of very small magnitude is required without the use of costly filters to smoothen the ripple.  The ac supply to the rectifier tubes maybe of power frequency or maybe of audo frequency from an oscillator. -High impulse voltages are required for testing purposes to simulate over voltages due to lightning and switching. -Required for testing power apparatus – insulation testing. hv dc) for the equipments such as electron microscope and x-ray machine. & applied physics. electronics valve rectifiers are used and the output currents are about 100mA. The rectifier valves require special construction for cathode and filaments since a high electrostatic field of several kV/cm exists between the anode and cathode in the non-conduction period.Solid State Switching Principle In the field of electrical eng. Impulse generator charging units also require high dc voltages of about 100-200kV.  .

When a number of units are used in series. o . Rectifier circuits for producing high dc voltages from ac sources maybe Half-Wave Full-Wave o The rectifier can be an electron tube or a solid state devices.Half and Full Wave Rectifier  a. transient voltage distribution along each unit becomes non-uniform and special care should be taken to make the distribution uniform. several units are to be used in series. single electron tubes are available for peak inverse voltages up to 250kV and semiconductor or solid state diodes up to 250kV. For higher voltages. Nowadays. b.

Vin RL V out Half Wave Rectifier V p V A VG 0 T Mean Load Voltage or Average Value of half wave output .

7 : Full-wave rectifier circuit V p VA V G to t1 t2 Mean Load Voltage or Average Voltage Full-wave output .D1 + to t1 t2 RL D2 Full wave Rectifier Circuit figure 1.

Generate very high dc voltage from single supply transformer by extending the simple voltage doubler circuit. The common circuits are the voltage double circuit Used for higher voltages.Voltage Multiplier Circuits     Both full-wave as well as half-wave circuits can produce a maximum direct voltage corresponding to the peak value of the alternating voltage. . When higher voltages are required voltage multiplier circuits are used.

Types of high voltages.        High d.c.c.lightning overvoltages Transient voltages of longer duration – switching surges . voltages of high frequency High transient or impulse voltages of very short duration .c. voltages High a. voltages of power frequency High a.

Figure shows a voltage doubler circuit.  Voltage doubler circuit . the transformer will be of small rating that for the same direct voltage rating with only simple rectification. Further for the same direct voltage output the peak inverse voltage of the diodes will be halved. These are then connected in series aiding to obtain double the direct voltage output. In this case. The voltage doubler circuit makes use of the positive and the negative half cycles to charge two different capacitors.

c. Test transformer are generally used. for high voltages to reduce the cost (insulation cost increases rapidly with voltage) and make transportation easier. a cascade arrangement of several transformers is used. and impulse voltage. For higher voltage requirement. .c.High Alternating Voltages       Required in laboratories and a. Single transformer test units are made for high alternating voltages up to about 200 kV. series connection or cascading of the several identical units of transformer is applied. However. tests as well as for the circuit of high d.

Cascade arrangement of transformers .

6 MVA Cascaded Power Transformer . 9.1600 kV.

and forms the primary of the second transformer. One end of the high voltage winding is also earthed through the tank. The secondary of this transformer too has one end connected to the tank and at the other end the next cascaded transformer is fed. The high voltage end and a tapping near this end is taken out at the top of the transformer through a bushing. . One end of this winding is connected to the tank of the second transformer to maintain the tank at high voltage. and this is connected to the transformer tank which is earthed. The low voltage winding is connected to the primary of the first transformer.Cascade arrangement of transformers      A typical cascade arrangement of transformers used to obtain up to 300 kV from three units each rated at 100 kV insulation.

High voltage transformers for testing purposes are designed purposely to have a poor regulation. In practice. each transformer needs only to be insulated for 100 kV. This is to ensure that when the secondary of the transformer is short circuited (as will commonly happen in flash-over tests of insulation). the size would be massive. and hence the transformer can be relatively small. the current would not increase to too high a value and to reduce the cost. . an additional series resistance (commonly a water resistance) is also used in such cases to limit the current and prevent possible damage to the transformer. In the cascade arrangement shown. If a 300 kV transformer had to be used instead.Cascade arrangement of transformers    This cascade arrangement can be continued further if a still higher voltage is required.

High voltage transformers for testing purposes are designed purposely to have a poor regulation. If a 300 kV transformer had to be used instead. What is shown in the cascade transformer arrangement is the basic principle involved.Cascade arrangement of transformers     What is shown in the cascade transformer arrangement is the basic principle involved. In practice. an additional series resistance (commonly a water resistance) is also used in such cases to limit the current and prevent possible damage to the transformer. each transformer needs only to be insulated for 100 kV. . and hence the transformer can be relatively small. The actual arrangement could be different for practical reasons. In the cascade arrangement shown. The actual arrangement could be different for practical reasons. the current would not increase to too high a value and to reduce the cost. the size would be massive. This is to ensure that when the secondary of the transformer is short circuited (as will commonly happen in flash-over tests of insulation).

to d.  voltage.c. voltages is mainly required in research work in the areas of pure and applied physics.High D.C.c. – vacuum rectifiers.  Use rectifier circuit (diode) to convert a.c.  Needed in insulation test. Voltages Generation of high d. semiconductor diodes  .

 In hv technology. unipolar voltage is termed an impulse voltage. and its mathematical equation is defined as follows.Impulse High Voltage Impulse voltages (IVs) are required in hv tests to simulate the stresses due to external and internal overvoltages.  Rectangular and wedge-shaped IVs are normally used for basic experiments while for testing purposes. V = Vo [exp(-αt) – exp(-βt)] Where α and β are constants of microsecond values. double exponential IVs are used. a single.  Usually generated by discharging hv capacitors through switching gaps onto a network of resistors and capacitors.  .  Standard test of impulse voltages can be represented as double exponential wave. and also for fundamental investigations of the breakdown mechanisms.

Controlled Rectification      The generated three power supply on a phase a.c. circuit a single diode will conduct only on every other half-cycle and this is called half-wave rectification. c.c. . * a.c. Hence. The set bus-bar a.c.c. drive and variable frequency * voltage for an a. voltage must be converted by controlled rectification (a.) ind/or controlled inversion (d. electrical ship has a fixed voltage and frequency.c.--d. c.c. in –a single-phase a. This is generally at M0 V and 60 Hz but for high power demands it is likelv to be 6. drive. The diode turns-off automatically when its current falls to zero. )' to match the propulsion motor type. A basic rectifier uses semiconductor diodes which can only conduct current in the direction of anode (A) to cathode (K) and this is automatic when A is more positive than K. Speed control for a propulsion motor requires variable voltage for a d.6 kV and 60 Hz.

.Single-phase controlled rectification.

c. four diodes in a bridge formation will also produce a full-wave d. An alternative to the choke coil is to use a capacitor across the rectifier output which smooths the d. .c. For controlled rectification it is necessary to use a set of three-terminal devices such as thyristors (for high currents) or transistors (for low medium currents).c. voltage is severely chopped by the thyristor switching action. supply is achieved in a bridge Circuit with six thyristors a shown Other single-phase circuits using a biased arrangement with two diodes and a centre-tapped transformer will create full-wave rectification Similarly.c. voltage. cannot control the size of the d.Controlled Rectification      In this circuit an inductor coil (choke) smooth the d. output from the rectifier. Full wave controlled rectification from a three-phase a. voltage output. load current even though the d.c.c. A diode. An equivalent three phase bridge requires six diodes for full-wave operation. having only two terminals.

.Three-phase controlled rectifier bridge circuit.

The thyristor will only conduct when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode and a brief trigger voltage pulse is applied between gate and cathode (gate must be more positive than cathode).c.c. The load current is therefore rectified to d. voltage. load current even though the d. supply is achieved in a bridge Circuit with six thyristors a shown . a thyristor has an extra (control) terminal called the gate (G). (by diode action) and controlled by delayed switching. voltage is severely chopped by the thyristor switching action. Gate voltage pulses are provided by separate electronic circuit and the pulse timing decides the switch-on point for the main (load) current.c. control circuit using a thyristor switch is shown in the next slide.c.c.      A basic a. Compared with a diode.Three-phase controlled rectifier bridge circuit. In this circuit an inductor coil (choke) smooth the d.-d.c.c. Full wave controlled rectification from a three-phase a. An alternative to the choke coil is to use a capacitor across the rectifier output which smooths the d.

Controlled inversion process . For a. voltage is sequentially switched onto the three output lines. Here. The processes of controlled rectification and inversion are used in converters that are designed to match the drive motor. A controlled threephase thyristor bridge inverter is shown The inverter bridge circuit arrangement is exactly the same as that for the rectifier.Three-phase controlled rectifier bridge circuit. the d. voltage output is taken to be about 600 V as it has a six-pulse ripple effect due to the three-phase input waveform. the line currents are directed into (and out of) the windings to produce a rotating stator flux wave which interacts with the rotor to produce torque.c.c.c.c. voltage can be inverted (switched) repeatedly from positive to negative to form an alternating (u. motor control.A d. .) voltage by using a set of thyristor (or transistor) switches. The rate of switching determines the output frequency.c.      The equivalent maximum d.

synchronous motor .Three-phase inverter circuit and a.c.

c.-a. a. -> d. motor drive.c.d.c.c.c. motors) .>a.>a.  Some systems may have a fixed field current which means that the field supply only requires an uncontrolled diode bridge .c.-d..c.c.-a.d.-d.  Two converters of different power ratings are generally used for the separate control of the armature current and the field current which produces the magnetic flux .c.c.c.c.c. converter  This is a three phase a. (controlled rectifier for d.Converter Types The principal types of motor control converters are: . (synchroconverter or synchronous motors) . (cycloconverter for synchronous motors) These are examined below: a..c.-a. controlled rectification circuit for a d. (PWM for induction motors) .c.

c.  Unlike thyristors.g. diving and supply.d. at 20 kHz in a PWM converter).-a. Ship applications for such a drive would include cable-laying. a transistor can be turned on and off by a control signal and at a high switching rate (e..c. ocean survey and submarines. a.Converter Types   Shaft rotation can be achieved by reversing either the field current or the armature current direction. PWM converter  This type of converter is used for induction motor drives and uses transistors as the switching devices.c. .  The input rectifier stage is not controlled so is simpler and cheaper but the converter will not be ablg to allow power from the motor load to be regenerated back into the mains supply during a braking operation. offshore drilling.

Controlled rectification converter and d.c. motor .

c.PWM converter and a. induction motor .

c. but constant level. voltage it is possible to generate an averaged sinusoidal ac. Due to the smoothing effect of the motor inductance. voltage pulses in the computer controlled inverter section using IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors).Converter Types      From a 440 Y a. By sequentially directing the currents into the three stator windings. the rectified d. (link) voltage will be smoothed by the capacitor to approximately 600 V. the motor currents appear to be nearly sinusoidal in shape.c. supply. voltage is chopped into variablewidth. a reversible rotating magnetic field is produced with its speed set by the output frequency of the PWM converter. output over a wide range of frequencies typically 0.c. By varying the pulse widths and polarity of the d.c. . The d.5-120Hz. This process is called pulse width modulation or PWM.

VSDs.usually via a hand-held unit. can be easily networked to other computer devices e. being digitally controlled. Speed regulation against load changes is very good and can be made very precise by the addition of feedback from a shaft speed encoder. acceleration time and resistive braking are a few of the many operational parameters that can be programmed into the VSD. programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for overall control of a complex process. The VSD can be closelv tuned to the connected motor drive to achieve optimum control and protection limits for the overall drive.Converter Types  Accurate control of shaft torque.g.     .

link.c.*d. motor drive.  A synchroconverter has controlled rectifier and inverter stages which both rely on natural turn-off (line commutation) for the thyristors by the three phase a. voltages at either end of the converter.c.c. synchroconverter  This type of convert is used for large a.c.c.+a. .  An operational similarity exists between a svnchrodrive and a d.Converter Types a.  Between the rectification and inversion stages is a currentsmoothing reactor coil forming the d. DC link synchroconverter and a dc motor drive.c. synchronous motor drives (called a synchrodrive) and I is applied very successfully to marine electric propulsion.c.

Synchroconverter circuit. .

Inverter current switching sequence .

with the switching inverter acting as a static commutator. The six inverter thyristors provide six current pulses per cycle (known as a six-pulse converter) . The combination of controlled rectifier and d.c. supply and the inverter/synchronous motor combination as a d.Converter Types      This view considers the rectifier stage as a controlled d.c. link is considered to be a current source for the inverter whose task is then to sequentially direct blocks of the current into the motor windings The size of the d.c. current is set by the controlled switching of the rectifier thyristors. Motor supply frequency (and hence its speed) is set by the rate of inverter switching. motor.c.

f. . To provide the motor e.m.c. the synchronous motor must have rotation and magnetic flux in its rotor poles. which is necessary for natural commutation of the inverter thyristors.Converter Types     A simplified understanding of synchroconverter control is that the current source (controlled rectification stage) provides the required motor torque and the inverter stage controls the required speed.9 leading (by field excitation control) to assist the line commutation of the inverter thyristors. the synchronous motor is operated with a power factor of about 0. During normal running. The d. rotor field excitation is obtained from a separate controlled thvristor rectification circuit.

Converter Types  As the supply (network) and machine bridges are identical and are both connected to a three-phase a.  This is useful to allow the regeneration motor power back into the mains power supply which provides an electric braking torque during a crash stop of the ship.c. . voltage source. there roles can be switched into reverse.

.Cycloconverter circuit and output voltage waveform.

c. a cycloconverter is restricted to a much lower range. output voltage waveform.c. can be controlled so that the average output voltage can be increased and decreased from zero to maximum within a half-cycle period of he sinusoidal a.c.  This is limited to less than one thtird of the supply frequency (e.g..  Power regeneration from the motor back into the main power supply is available. . A conventional three phase converter from a.c. cycloconverter  While a synchroconverter is able to provide an output frequency range typically up to twice that of the mains input (e.c. up to 20 Hz) which is due to the way in which this type of converter produces the a.Converter Types a. input. to d.  Ship ropulsion shaft speeds are typically in the range of 0-145 rev/min which can easily be achieved by the low frequency output range of a cycloconverter to a multi-pole synchronous motor.c.a. up to 120 Hz).g.

The corresponding current waveform shape (not shown) will be more sinusoidal due to the smoothing effect of motor and line inductance. The converters may be directly supplied from the HV line but it is more usual to interpose step-down transformers. output frequency is obtained.c. The output voltage has ripple content which gets as the output frequency it is this feature that limits useful frequency.Converter Types       By connecting two similar converters back-to-back in each line an a. This reduces the motor voltage and its required insulation level while also providing additional line impedance to limit the size of prospective fault current and harmonic voltage distortion at the main supply bus-bar. . There is no connection between the three motor windings because the line converters have to be isolated from each other to operate correctly to obtain line commutation (natural) switching of the thvristors. The switching pattern for the thyristors varies over the frequency range which requires a complex computer program for converter control.

Twin Shaft EL Propulsion .

FPSO Electrical system Layout .

Shuttle Tanker Electrical System Layout .

Shuttle Tanker Electrical Line Diagram .

Drill Ship Electrical System Layout .

The future     Propulsion of ships by help of standard diesel engines usually gives a non-optimal utilization of the energy. Knowledge has to be developed about how such large motor drives will influence the autonomous power systems onboard. as well as other application on board. New power electronics and electrical machines will be developed for propulsion and thrusters. Today an increased use of diesel electrical propulsion of ships can be seen. . Even development of new integrated electrical systems for replacement of hydraulic systems (top-side as well as subsea) are becoming areas of need.

Typical system of all electrical ship              Generator sets complete with prime movers and engine controls HV/LV Switchboards. distribution systems and group starter boards Propulsion and thruster motors complete with power electronic variable speed drives Power conversion equipment Shaft braking Power factor correction and harmonic filters (as necessary) Power management Machinery control and surveillance Dynamic positioning and joystick control Machinery control room and bridge consoles Setting to work and commissioning Operator training .

Training will also need to be given to non-technical personnel to ensure everybody is aware of the dangers of these higher voltages. The Electrical officers of the near future must be fully trained to carry out maintenance and defect rectification on Medium Voltage (MV) systems.Future electrical ship      Future HV ships systems at sea may require voltages up to 13. This will mean a considerable increase in the electrical content of all training. .8 kV to minimize fault levels It is therefore essential that all Marine Engineering personnel are trained in safe working practices for these voltages.

Available systems .