VYSTYMO BENDRIJA „NUGALĖK PRIKLAUSOMYBĘ”

ENGLISH FOR WAITERS

Dėst. Vilma Šiatkutė

Vilniaus kooperacijos kolegija 2006

CONTENTS
1. Introduction 1.1.The ABC 1.2.Reading rules 2. At work: place and time 2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions 2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals 3. Kitchenware. Crockery and cutlery 3.1. Kitchenware 3.2. Crockery and cutlery 4. Food 4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food 4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes 5. Drinks 5.1. Vocabulary. Names of drinks 5.2. Indicating likes and dislikes 5.3. Do you like and would you like 6. Breakfast. Second breakfast. Elevenses. Brunch 6.1. Meals of the day 6.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast 6.3. Past Simple Tense 7. Lunch and Tiffin 7.1. Lunch 7.2. Tiffin 7.3. Future Simple Tense 8. Tea. Dinner. Supper 8.1. Tea 8.2. Dinner 8.3. Supper 9. Healthy food. Dietary and vegetarian food 9.1. Healthy food 9.2. Dietary food. 10. National food and cuisine 10.1. National food and cuisine 10.2. Present Continuous Tense 10.3. Past Continuous Tense 11. Methods of cooking/ preparing food 11.1. Methods of cooking and preparing food 11.2. Present perfect Tense 12. Serving the client 13. Orders on the phone 14. Revision References 3 3 3 5 5 7 10 10 11 14 14 15 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 23 26 26 27 28 30 30 30 37 38 38 41 43 43 48 50 51 51 52 55 60 63 64

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. The ABC There are 26 letters in the English Alphabet. Remember that this type of pronunciation is valid for sole letters in the ABC only. Letters will be pronounced in a different way when standing in syllables. Pronounce the ABC letters.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg

Hh

Ii Jj

Kk Ll Mm

[ei] [bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:] [ef] [d3i:] [eit∫ ] [ai] [d3ei] [kei] [el] [em]

Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr

Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww [en] [əu] [pi:] [kju:] [a:(r)] [es] [ti:] [ju:] [vi:] [d٨blju:] Xx Yy Zz

[eks] [wai] [zed]

1.2. Reading rules Pronunciation of vowels mostly depends on the kind of the syllable they appear in – an open syllable ends with a vowel while a closed one – with a consonant (e.g. “name” – open; “stop” – closed). Vowels standing in an open syllable are usually pronounced in the same way as in the ABC and they are shortened in closed syllables. Vowel Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Yy ei i: ai au ju: wai Open syllable Closed syllable ٨, ə, e:, o: e (not pronounced if the word ends with “e”) i o u, ٨ i

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salad. Pronounce the following words correctly: Make. oo [u:] – blue. consonant + consonant etc. turn. oi [oi] – boy. join ur. fat. five. Pronounce the given words and transcribe them. kiss tt [t] – getting ch [t∫] – catch. fall. make different sound structures: ar [a:(r)] – bar. luck ur/ ear [з:] – blur. here oy. vowel + consonant . ten. cake. sea our [o:] – pour. consonant + vowel. our [uə] – pure. air [eə] – where. food ow. bit. pot. four ou [u] – could ue. Blanch Braise Chill Chop Deep-fry Dice Dry-fry Grill Stew Sweat Boil Minced Poach Roast Sear Simmer Stock Steam Stir-fry Marinade 4 . both th [ ] – that PRACTICE 2. my. match th [θ] – think. air ear. er [ie] – dear. put. lady. far ck [k] – bucket. Combinations vowel + vowel . tour y at the beginning [j] – yes ng [η] – sing. cut.PRACTICE 1. ou [əu] – now. bright ss [s] – miss. dot. burn ea [i:] – tea. bring gh is usually silent [ ] – light. no. out er. nut.

it my brother her friend the cake ____ _____ 5 . seldom). They like. prepositions. is not love make bring write taste smell Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time Positive ___ do not (don’t) does not (doesn’t) me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the café on the table in the morning in the evening in the afternoon during the day at night in summer in winter at 8 o’clock Negative When Why Where How What (kas. like. usually.. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense. she. like. it is... have. go. can He.. can Plural are. it My brother Her friend The cake Auxiliary Verb Verb love make bring write taste smell am are. like. but He works. We are not thinking only about now.2. have. it My brother Her friend The cake I You We They He. has. go. goes. she. do. have.. go. do. likes. have. but my sister likes.. can You are. she. Remember that we say: he/she/it -s. do. Singular I am. is love make bring write taste smell am not are. go. rarely. she. type Question word Auxiliary Verb/ to be Subject I You We They He. I work. do. there is/ are. We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly (sometimes.. Sent. does. often. like. can are. can We You They We use the Present Simple to talk about things in general. or that something is true in general. like.. AT WORK: PLACE AND TIME 2. can are. have.1.ką?) Whom (ką?) Who (ką?) do does Question am are is I you we they he. do. go.

PRACTICE 1. I have ten fingers (NOT I have some fingers). + There is a cup on the table. on. ………/ There are ………. PRACTICE 2. ? Are there any cups on the table? NOTE! * When we use some. in front of. _____ you _________ fish? When we describe places where we find things we use There is. like (2). . My mum __________ cakes every Saturday. washing machine. a chair. under. Use such words as cupboards(s).. Describe what is there in your kitchen. next to. a table. Insert given words into the gaps: bake. Do not forget prepositions near. 2. . ? Is there a cup on the table? There are …………………………… + There are some cups on the table.There is not any cup on the table. Are there any photographs? There aren’t any people.There are not any cups on the table. a dishwasher. Is it different from the one in the picture? 6 . * We use any in questions and negatives. 1. sink. 4. behind. glasses. a cooker. My friend ______ ______ fish. a fridge (a refrigerator). cook. Tell your friends and ask questions what they can see in the kitchen. cups. in. we are not interested in the exact number. I have some friends in Great Britain. I often __________ soup because I like it. a radio. plates. like in the example below: There is ……………………. 3.

ordinal and cardinal numerals. All events are usually connected with certain dates.g. Fill-in the gaps using a. We do not usually work on Sundays and the café is never open on the first Christmas day. months as well as ordinal and cardinal numbers. any. but there aren’t _____ photographs. E. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday ON holidays the weekend AT Christmas Easter night January midnight February March April May June July August September October November December IN winter the morning 1957 spring the evening 2008 summer the afternoon autumn PRACTICE 4. nice and clean with a lot of cupboards. There’s ___ radio next to the cooker. and ___ cooker. On every special occasion we should be able to provide our clients with necessary information about our working hours as well as other events taking place at our restaurant or café. There are _____ flowers. holidays. There are _______ lovely pictures on the walls. but there aren’t _____ plants. 2. There’s __ washing machine. It’s ___ modern kitchen. some. The café opens at 9 o’clock each morning and closes at 7 o’clock in the evening. On the table there are ______ apples and oranges. Indicating Time: prepositions. but there isn’t __ dishwasher. seasons and daytimes. So to be ready to give our clients all the necessary information we should revise the names of weekdays. We will also have a look and remember how to indicate what time it is. Translate: per Kalėdas vakare per šventes žiemą 1980-aisiais rytą sekmadienį gegužę vidurnaktį vasarą 7 . __ fridge. And there are _______ cups and plates next to the sink.2. Remember the usage of prepositions. Look at the tables below.PRACTICE 3.

PRACTICE 5. Using the table say the following numerals in their cardinal (kiekiniai) and ordinal (kelintiniai) forms: 8, 698, 14, 40, 15, 59, 129, 3325, 45,89,78,77,17, 1998, 2004, 158:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two

the first the second the third the fourth the fifth the sixth the ….. + th

the twelfth

the …..+ th

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 130 285

the twentieth the twenty-first the twenty-second

300 415 678 1000

twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty thirty-one forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred one hundred and thirty two hundred and eighty five three hundred four hundred and fifteen six hundred and seventy eight one thousand

the twenty-third the twenty-fourth the twenty-fifth the twenty-sixth the twenty-seventh the twenty-eighth the twenty-ninth the thirtieth the thirty-first

the …..+ th

PRACTICE 6. Say the phone numbers. a 43816 b 933672 c (041)2287153 d (0923)4828661 e (0225)69026 What is your phone number?

PRACTICE 7. Tell the time using the questions and answers in the table below: What’s the time? What time is it? Could you please tell me the time? Do you have the time?

It is (it’s) ……

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1.______________ 2.____________ 3._____________ 4.______________

5._____________ 6._____________ 7.It’s a quarter past four. 8.It’s a quarter to nine.

PRACTICE 8. A.M. and P.M. Write the time using a.m. and p.m. The first one has already been done for you.

1. eight minutes to ten in the evening 9:52 p.m. 3. seventeen after seven in the morning _____________________________ 5. twenty-four minutes after seven in the morning _____________________________ 7. eight-fifty in the morning _____________________________ 9. twenty minutes after ten at night _____________________________ 11. nine minutes to noon _____________________________ 13. twenty-five minutes after midnight _____________________________ 15. one minutes after one in the afternoon _____________________________ 17. seventeen minutes after noon _____________________________ 19. ten-twenty-five in the morning _____________________________

2. forty-five minutes after midnight _____________________________ 4. fifteen after two in the afternoon _____________________________ 6. forty-seven minutes after noon _____________________________ 8. five minutes after three in the afternoon _____________________________ 10. nine-fifteen in the evening _____________________________ 12. seven minutes to midnight _____________________________ 14. sixteen after two in the afternoon _____________________________ 16. nine minutes to nine at night _____________________________ 18. eight minutes after six in the morning _____________________________ 20. eleven after six in the morning _____________________________ 9

PRACTICE 9. Read the following dialogue in pairs: A. Good morning! Can I help you? B. Good morning! I would like to ask what do you serve here. I cannot see any kind of tea on the menu! A. It’s a coffee bar Madam. Would you like a cup of coffee? B. Let me see. Well. Can I have a cup of espresso coffee? A. Just a minute. Here you are! Anything else? B. No, thank you. Are you open every day? A. Yes. We work from 10 a.m. till 8 p.m. every day except weekends. At weekends we start at 11 a.m. and finish work at 10 p.m. B. I see. And do you work on holidays? At Christmas for example? My friend is going to visit me at Christmas and I would like to bring him to this place. I like it here very much! It’s cozy. A. Thank you! I am glad you like this place! Yes, we work on holidays but we are open and close at the same time as at weekends. That is from 11 a.m. to 10 p.m. B. Well, great! I will invite my friend here! A. Fine! Do you like your coffee, Madam? B. It’s strong and tasty. I like it. Thank you! How much is it? A. It’s 4,50 Lt. B. Here you are! A. Thank you. Have a nice day! B. You too. Bye! A. Good-bye! We hope to see you next time! PRACTICE 10. Now look at the important vocabulary and its usage and make your own dialogues.

3. KITCHENWARE. CROCKERY AND CUTLERY
3.1. Kitchenware

Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker

Blenders & Smoothie Maker

Juicer

Jar opener

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3. very rarely. about kitchenware he/ she can name/see in his/ her kitchen/ at his/ her workplace. about kitchenware that is commonly found in every kitchen. Ask your friend questions: 1. 2. about kitchen equipment he/ she has at home. about items he/ she uses every day. 4. 5. Crockery and cutlery Plates Platter Bowls Salt and pepper shaker 11 . 3.2. 6.Can Opener Toaster Toaster Oven Sandwich Maker Popcorn Poppers/Maker Countertop Range & Burner Water Purification Ice Cream Maker Corkscrews Tongs Mixer Spatula PRACTICE 1. the most commonly. whether the above-mentioned kitchen items are familiar to him/ her. whether there are any new ones. never.

Salt-cellar. pot basin shaker dish caster glasses cellar mug spoon 12 . tea spoon Fork and knife PRACTICE 2. Compose word.groups from the words given in column A and B: A. Salt and pepper Margarita Tea Table Beer Sugar Salt Pepper Butter B. pepper-caster Sugar basin Butter dish Teapot Cup Mug Beer mug Glass Margarita glasses Pitcher Table spoon.

W _ _ _ _ e 3. kriauklė 16. priešais 11. Insert missing letters and write the names of kitchen equipment. open/ is/ café/every/ the/ day 9. šaldytuvas 4. Is/ there/ in/ your/ kitchen/a/ dishwasher 10. there/ on/ the/ cooker/ and/ a pot/ a frying/ pan/ is PRACTICE 5. 1. are/ not/ cups/ there/ any /next/ to/ the/ plates 12. are/ plates/ some /the/ sink/ near/ there 11. I/yes/ am 7. you/ could /the/ time/ tell/ me 7. S _ _ _ _ _ _ h M _ _ _ r PRACTICE 4. oranges/ are/ not/ on /there/ the/ plate/ any 5. now/ time/ the/ is /what 8. you/ cook/ are/ a 6. 11. C _ _ _ _ e & H _ t 5. the/ table/ some/ are/ apples/ there/ on 3. usually/ soup/ for/ dinner/ I / cook 2. a / dishwasher/ there/is / kitchen/ in/ the/ restaurant 9. puodeliai 17. šalia 18. indaplovė 5. What is the English for: 1. are/ mugs/ a lot of/ cups/ and/ in/ the/ there/ cupboard. virtuvės spintelės 2. Put the words into the right order to make sentences. W _ _ _ r P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n 4. what/ does/ time/the/ open/ café 6. Remember them.PRACTICE 3. is/ in/ the/ kitchen / a /cooker/ there 4. it/ at / does/ work/ weekends 10. C _ n O____r M___r C_______e M___r 2. stiklinės 7. arti 8. stalas 15. už 13 . 1. virtuvės baldų komplektas 3. I /not/ no/ am 8. skalbimo mašina 13. stalčiai 12. kėdė 6. viryklė 14.

po 20. fish-fish. kažkiek. s. sheep-sheep. kiek nors (neig. ir klaus. FOOD 4. They are such as: childchildren.boiled egg scrambled egg (s) bacon and eggs to shell an egg white /yolk [jouk] of an egg goose (plgeese) omlet (te) pheasant turkey (s) Fruit apple apricot banana lemon orange melon peach pear pineapple plum cherry pomegranate tangerine grapefruit watermelon Fish cod plaice herring sardine trout salmon carp eel pike stuffed fish tinned fish Seafood prawn/shrimp crab lobster crayfish oyster caviar(e) Dairy products butter cheese cheese sandwich cheeseburger cream sour cream curds/cottage cheese yoghurt milk skimmed milk whole milk sour milk Confectionery chocolate bar of chocolate ice-cream jam honey marmalade sweet biscuit cake doughnut pie cornflakes tart Cereals corn wheat rice buckwheat cereal grain Berries cranberry currant black / red / white currant. s. Complete sentences using is/ are and making plural forms of the words in brackets: NOTE! In the English language there are nouns having irregular plural forms. person-people etc. Names of food Meat beef veal lamb mutton pork bacon (fat/lean) liver kidney tongue ham hamburger sausage (s) beefsteak. chop cutlet Vegetables aubergine tomato cabbage cauliflower spinach cucumber carrot garlic onion lettuce radish potatoes pulses beans peas Poultry chicken chicken broth duck egg egg in its shell hard / soft .) 19. Vocabulary. ant 10.) PRACTICE 6. keletas. kažkiek (teig. mouse-mice. 4.9. foot-feet. gooseberry grapes raisin raspberry strawberry bilberry wild strawberry Nuts almond peanut walnut hazelnut Herbs and spices parsley thyme dill mint cinnamon ginger nutmeg pepper mustard vinegar horse radish basil 14 . tooth-teeth.1.

I (really) like apples but I don’t like bananas. fats. artificial additives. I don’t like bananas very much. 15 . carbohydrates. proteins. salty. tasteless. mild. delicious. greasy: too much oil / fat. I don’t like tomatoes at all! I hate onions. but I prefer pears to grapefruit. starch. We can use such questions to find out the taste of a product or food: How does it (your salad) taste like? Do you like the taste of it (this cake)? Would you like to taste it (this pie)? To describe the taste we can use: Sweet.4. What is your favourite food? Do you like grapefruit? Yes. Food always has nutrients: minerals. hot / spicy. undercooked / underdone. bitter. I do. I don’t like tomatoes. overcooked / overdone. fibre. not overdone. done to a turn. tasty.2. vitamins. Don’t you like bananas? Do you really hate onions? What food do you like? Why do you like watermelons? We like different kinds of food because of some nutrients or taste. bland. just perfect. sour. Indicating likes and dislikes You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes: My favourite food is fish.

Tell your likes and dislikes. Compare: PRACTICE 1.NOTE! A Noun can be countable or uncountable. Complete the table below: Type of food Meat and poultry Fish and seafood Dairy products Confectionary Fruit and vegetables Berries and nuts My favourite … is I like … I don’t like … I hate … 16 .

bacon. herring. sausage. rye. 1 ripe 8 stale 2 sweet 9 fattening 3 raw 10 sour 4 fresh 11 mild 5 slimming 12 cooked 6 spicy 7 tender 13 unripe 14 tough 17 . plaice. lamb.PRACTICE 2. basil. cream. gooseberry. dill. rabbit. onions. mutton. flour. parsley. peas. Group the words below under the following headings: Cereals Dairy products Fish Fruit Herbs Meat Vegetables Aubergine. salmon. Get information why your friend likes these things. thyme.ask about his/ her likes and dislikes. a) Find the pairs of antonyms. blackberry. trout. rice. beans. barley. pear. Make a dialogue with your friend. chicken. veal PRACTICE 4. Complete the table below: Type of food Meat and poultry Fish and seafood Dairy products Confectionary Fruit and vegetables Berries and nuts My friend’s favourite … is … because … He/ she likes … because … He/ she doesn’t like … because … He/ she hates … because … PRACTICE 3. yoghurt. maize. grape. mustard. mint.

. salty. spices... season. this meat was absolutely perfectly cooked ! 3.. I can not eat this cake .. Make changes if necessary. there-course meal. This dish has obviously been cooked too long. 10.... it is so.. 6. undercooked/ underdone. 3.. with milk ) to make coffee to grind coffee tea hot chocolate cocoa 18 .. greasy.. I can't cut this bread. Vocabulary. Names of drinks Drinks Still juice still mineral water milk-shake Fizzy sparkling mineral water soda water Coca-Cola (coke) lemonade Beverages (alcohol) Beer cider wine cocktail champagne whisky vodka tequila Hot drinks coffee (black..1. Have you added herbs. please.. salt and pepper? The stew seems tasteless. overcooked/ overdone. my chips have too much oil on them! 5.b) Complete the sentences using some of the adjectives given above..... done to a turn.. I'm not very hungry so I don't think I could manage a meal consisting ofthree courses. you have to cook it for fifteen minutes more. I think this cake has a very good taste. Could you pass me the sugar. sour. it's so. 6.. 1.. I'll put some in this lemon juice. These apples are green and not very. 7.. There's a lot of salt in this salad! I don't like it! 7. 9.and I'm on a diet. 4. My dish seems to have no flavour at all! 2. DRINKS 5.. I suppose.it's too.. Replace the underlined words in the sentences with the words tasty. This fruit is unripe! I can't eat it! 4. 2. This fish is almost.. it's too. This steak is so . Oh.... 5.. PRACTICE 5. This chicken has been cooked not long enough... tasteless.. The curry burns my mouth... I can't even chew it! 5. 8. You know. 1.

beer 5. coke. coffee.3. Move around the classroom and ask about your friends’ favourite drinks. soda water. but I prefer apple juice to beer. lemonade. I (really) like coffee but I don’t like tea. Don’t you like milk? Do you really hate vodka? What cocktails do you like? Why do you like champagne? PRACTICE 1. beer. Complete the table below: Favourite drink? Why? Student’s 1 Student’s 2 Student’s 3 Student’s 4 5. I do. I don’t like tea very much. cocoa. mineral water. I don’t like beer at all! I hate milk. Would you like anything to eat? 19 . What is your favourite drink? Do you like beer? Yes. My friend would like a cup of tea and a sandwich. wine. champagne tea. We use would like in offers and requests: I would like a drink. Indicating likes and dislikes You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes: My favourite drink is orange juice. hot chocolate juice. I don’t like vodka.2. Do you like and would you like: Would is the same in all persons. whisky.We usually say: A cup of A glass of A mug of tea.

please. A B A B A A B A B A I'm thirsty. I’d like a steak. thank you. 4) A Are you ready to order your meal. Would you like anything to drink? No. supper. please. please! I'm hungry. please. thanks./ Yes. BREAKFAST 6./ Yes. please. lunch. please! PRACTICE 3.1. dish: food prepared for the table course: a division or part of a meal What's the main course ? There are five meat and three fish dishes. I like a steak. I'd like a packet of cigarettes. to have a snack meal: the food taken at one time She eats three meals a day. Is there anything to eat? Would you like a biscuit? No. Would you like some tea? No. Choose the correct sentence. snack / bite. Cheese? Ham? Cheese and ham.Yes. Look at the pictures and make similar conversations in pairs. please. dinner./ Well. I’d like some fish. I am hungry. PRACTICE 2. Some Coke. I like swimming very much. Meals of the day breakfast. sir? B Yes. 2) A Can I help you? B Yes. I like a packet of cigarettes. Would you like some apple juice? Oh. 3) A What sports do you do? B Well. thanks. yes. dessert starter/hors d'oeuvre refreshments substantial meal 20 . I'd like swimming very much. I'd like a sandwich. 1) A Do you like a drink?/ Would you like a drink? B Yes. I am not thirsty. 6.

salami).NOTE! We say: breakfast lunch dinner supper a meal a snack a bite a drink a smoke to have 6.2.to be dunked. often café au lait. cereals have become popular. jam. savoury pastries are consumed with yogurt. with a greater variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern. cream. and coffee. rye breads with butter. especially in central and eastern Europe. A bigger and fancier spread might also include cold cuts (cold. It consists mainly of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) with a variety of sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant. such as Russia. soft-boiled eggs. similar to its southern neighbor Germany. cheese. A typical breakfast in Denmark. However. A traditional Dutch breakfast consists of a combination of poached eggs. Croissants are also traditional. and a lot of coffee. It is a light snack meant to tide one over until lunch. In Northern Greece a pastry is eaten with Greek coffee. In some Balkan countries such as Serbia. An institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions and served in hotels world-wide is known as a European "Continental breakfast". Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal. a soft-boiled egg. ham or sausage. bacon. more southern countries bordering the Mediterranean. traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer. and coffee or tea. cured meats or sausage. thin-sliced ham. honey. The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls or toast with butter. and regional variation is significant. often with a sweet jam. a buttery creamy white cheese. consists of bread rolls or toast with butter and Danish slicing cheese. In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of bowls (rather than cups or mugs) of coffee. sausage. breakfasts tend to be substantial. 21 . and cold sliced meat such as smoked horse or smoked beef. fruit jam. or hot chocolate with slices of baguette spread with jam . It is often served with juice. kefir may be consumed. or chocolate filling. In Eastern European countries with cold climates.and central-European countries. while breakfasts are traditionally larger. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast As a general trend. muesli and sweet rolls of all types. breakfast cake. eggs. Yoghurt or.

a Full English breakfast might include additional courses such as cereal. or bread and butter sausages fried. with croissants or pastries. kedgeree. The term "Full English" is used to differentiate between the larger multiple course breakfast. toast and jam or marmalade. It is very common for Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a bread roll).). and the simpler "continental breakfast" of tea. but they are offered to tourists as traditional fare in hotels. or traditional fry-up. Whether the fry-up is accompanied by orange juice and usually an abundant supply of tea or coffee. or only bacon. A full “English breakfast”. is a traditional breakfast meal in England. Coffee at breakfast is a Continental tradition introduced through hotel fare. coffee and fruit juice. the meal it consists of bacon and eggs. etc. Common beverages at breakfast worldwide include fruit juices (orange juice. grapefruit juice. A distinctive breakfast of Europe is the Spanish early-morning fare of a doughnut covered in sugar. and coffee. grilled or tinned tomatoes mushrooms black pudding baked beans kidneys possibly sauté potatoes. and very thick. Some of the additional ingredients that might be offered as part of a Full English breakfast include: • • • • • • • • • toast. At its heart. Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages at breakfast. it is regarded as a ritual comfort and a wholly satisfying start to a day of work or leisure. or devilled kidneys. Fruit juice and dry cereal were added to the English breakfast after 1950. 22 . tea. the fry-up is commonly eaten in a leisurely fashion on Saturday or Sunday mornings. chips. The ingredients of a fry-up vary according to region and taste. hash browns or bubble and squeak condiments such as ketchup and brown sauce Fry-ups are no longer an everyday occurrence in most English households. guest houses and cafés. but to earn the title of a "Full English" a number of other ingredients are expected. kippers. sweet hot chocolate drink. While weekday breakfasts in England often consist of a brief meal of cereal and/or toast. and toast. The bacon and eggs are traditionally fried. porridge. apple juice. In British hotels and bed and breakfast establishments.In Italy breakfast is simply Caffè e latte with bread or rolls. milk. and jam. but grilled bacon and poached or scrambled eggs may be offered as alternatives. fried bread. and occupy an important place in the English concept of the morning meal. eggs. butter.

It was cold. Very often the Past Simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): We invited them to our party but they decided not to come.g.We saw Rose in town a few days ago. in 1980. He had five famous Italian restaurants when he was forty. on holidays. E. But many verbs are irregular when the Past Simple verb does not end in -ed.He had five famous Italian restaurants. Past Simple Tense We use the Past Simple Tense to indicate past time events. He lived from 1922 to 1992. Meal Yoghurt Toast and jam Latte Bacon and eggs Poached eggs Croissant Savoury pastries Breakfast cereal Smoked beef Fruit juice Kidneys Fry-ups Continental breakfast English breakfast My breakfast 6. We know the time of the event.I went to the cinema three times last week. see . at Christmas etc. shut – shut . Lived/opened/had/was are all Past Simple. last month/ year/ summer…. yesterday. so I shut the window.saw . He opened his first restaurant at the age of seventeen.PRACTICE 1. 23 . Answer the following questions: 1) What specific features of Continental breakfast can you name? 2) What were the reasons for Continental breakfast beeing “lighter” than English breakfast? 3) What specific features of English breakfast can you name? 4) What were the reasons for English breakfast to become more substantial than Continental? 5) Is the full English breakfast served in English families daily? Why? 6) Would you prefer English breakfast to Continental one? Why? PRACTICE 2. go – went . Study this example: My grandfather’s neighbor was a famous cook. For example: have – had . Compare Continental and English breakfast meals filling-in the table below. Discuss your answers with your friend.3.

veikti gerti valgyti kristi maitinti jausti(s) rasti sušalti gauti duoti eiti malti turėti paskolinti pamesti pagaminti padėti kratyti. išleisti išpilti paimti pasakyti galvoti mesti In questions and negatives we use did/didn't + infinitive (enjoy/see/go etc.For a list of irregular verbs. NOTE! We do not use did in negatives and questions with was/were: • I was angry because they were late.): A.: Did you go out last night? B: Yes. plakti užuosti. were became began bit broke brought burnt bought caught chose came cost cut did drank ate fell fed felt found froze got gave went ground had lent lost made put shook smelt spoke spent spilt/ spilled took told thought threw Participle been become begun bitten broken brought burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut done drunk eaten fallen fed felt found frozen got given gone ground had lent lost made put shaken smelt spoken spent spilt/ spilled taken told thought thrown Translation būti tapti prasidėti kąsti sudaužyti. I went to the cinema but I didn't enjoy the film much. uostyti kalbėti praleisti. sulaužyti atnešti (nu)degti pirkti pagauti pasirinkti ateiti kainuoti pjaustyti daryti. 24 . The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were. see the table below: Infinitive be become begin bite break bring burn buy catch choose come cost cut do drink eat fall feed feel find freeze get give go grind have lend lose make put shake smell speak spend spill take tell think throw Past was. • Was the weather good when you were on holiday? • They weren't able to come because they were so busy.

more specifically Bavaria. she. II f. It is traditional in Germany.• Did you go out last night or were you too tired? Study the table: Sent. it my brother her friend the cake ____ Auxiliary Verb Verb. type Question word Auxiliary Verb/ to be Subject I You We They He. Be ready to present your group’s text to your friends.ką?) Whom (ką?) Who (ką?) did I you we they he. Make dialogues using the examples below: What do you usually have for breakfast? What is your favourite breakfast dish? What did you have for breakfast yesterday? What do you have for breakfast at weekends? What did you have for breakfast on Sunday? Do you like cooking breakfast? And what about you? PRACTICE 4. it My brother Her friend The cake I You We They He. It is typical to 25 . she. she. In groups read the texts A-C and summarize the information given. it My brother Her friend The cake When Why Where How What (kas. A. loved made brought wrote tasted smelled was were love make bring write taste smell was not were not love make bring write taste smell Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time Positive ___ Negative did not (didn’t) me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the café on the table in the morning in the evening in the afternoon during the day at night in summer in winter at 8 o’clock Question was were _____ PRACTICE 3. Second breakfast Second breakfast is a meal eaten after breakfast. but before lunch. where special dishes are made only to be eaten during second breakfast.

The meal usually involves standard breakfast foods such as eggs. many types of breadstuffs. but menuordered meals may be available instead of. one eats similar things both at lunch and at supper ." a word nowadays only sometimes used to mean a noontime meal in the British Isles. unlike Tiffin. Some restaurants and hotels serve brunch. In parts of India a light lunch is known as tiffin. ham. It is served with brezen. Buffets may have large roasts of meat or poultry. In other places. and the like. as the kitchen continuously produces and sends out more freshly prepared dishes. It is usually a more relaxed meal than breakfast or lunch. lunch is the 26 . dumplings. and few people still refer to morning tea as such. 7. LUNCH AND TIFFIN 7. In Australia.eat four to five meals a day in these locations. and desserts of all sorts. The word "elevenses" is seen as a little old fashioned. pancakes. pastries. It is generally less savoury than brunch. it can include almost any other type of food served throughout the day. It originated in the USA. The sausage is prepared during the early morning to serve during the second breakfast. It consists of a wide variety of stuffed bao (buns). sweet mustard. Canada and Australia. The dim sum brunch is a popular meal in Chinese restaurants world-wide. the buffet. The second breakfast is typically a lighter meal or snack eaten around 10:30 in the morning. However. It consists of coffee. sometimes with more than one course. Such brunches are often serve-yourself buffets. Lunch is a newer word for what was once invariably called "dinner. Lunch food varies. and wheat beer. elevenses is a snack that is similar to afternoon tea. The term is short for "luncheon". or some sausages. vegetable dishes.1. The name refers to the time of day that it is taken: around 11 am. soups. especially on weekends and holidays. or baked. Elevenses In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Brunch can be served after a morning event or prior to an afternoon one. such as a wedding or sporting event. but eaten in the morning. B. Customers select what they want from passing carts. fruits. The term is a portmanteau of breakfast and lunch. and in parts of the United States. Lunch Lunch is a meal that is taken at noon or in the early afternoon. pastries. salads. usually eaten when one rises too late to eat breakfast. and might consist of some cake or biscuits with a cup of tea or coffee. it is called morning tea (often little lunch in primary school). Brunch Brunch is a late morning meal between breakfast and lunch. and considered appropriate for informal celebrations. deep-fried. or with. C. bacon. as a replacement to both meals. In some places. cold seafood like shrimp and smoked fish. and other savory or sweet food items which have been steamed.a hot meal. sausages. or as a specially-planned meal.

supper being a smaller cold meal. say. deriving from tiffing. and forwarded to them by Dabbawalas (people who carry boxes) who use a complex system to get thousands of tiffin-boxes to their destinations. tiffin.2. People also refer to cups of tea as "a cup of tiffin". In modern day India. an old English dialect or slang word for taking a little drink or sip. In Chinese cultures. 6) Please put some more water in my tea f) but it was as tough as old boots. 7. dal in another and yet other items in the third or fourth. Answer the following questions: 1) What is Tiffin? 2) Where is the difference between lunch and Tiffin? 3) How can you explain the flowing: Dabbawala. German and Scandinavian lunch mostly is large and cooked (as opposed to. the stacked porcelain or metal round trays with handles are called tiffin carriers. 5) I wouldn't eat those strawberries if I were you e) if you had put more garlic in it. 27 . The word became popular in British India. The lunches are packed in tin boxes. Complete each sentence with one of the endings. also sometimes called tiffins or tiffin-boxes. tiffin-boxes. 4) These vegetables are very tasty d) but was afraid of making a scene. PRACTICE 1. such as naan. The other items could be breads. A B 1) There is nothing more refreshing on a hot a) I'm sure you would like them if you only tried summer day them. 2) The steak looked tender b) it is weak coffee. g) as there's been yet another increase in prices.main meal of the day. vegetable curry and finally a sweet. 7) "If there is one thing I don't like. a cup of tiffin? PRACTICE 2. a sandwich). Lunch from Karnataka served on a plantain leaf. the word mostly is used for light lunches prepared for working Indian men by their wives after they have left for work. 3) The smell was so bad c) as the food and the service had been excellent. A common approach is to put rice in one box. Tiffin Tiffin is an Indian and British English dialect word meaning a light meal eaten during the day.

E... 10)My father decided to leave the waiter a big tip j) consists of some eggs and several rashers of bacon.g. I'll give it to you this afternoon. 14) As the cake was delicious.' In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (. What would you like to drink? I’ll have an orange juice.. I promise. 11)Food is very expensive now k) I had a second helping.. I won't tell anyone what happened. 28 . 15) A traditional English breakfast o) Would you mind asking the waiter for the bill? 7. I've left the door open. Future Simple Tense. n) that it completely put us off our food.? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions). I'll pay you back on Friday. E. Can I have it back if you've finished with it? B: Of course.. please.: I can see you're busy. I'll go and shut it. 9) We must leave now.. please? • • Shall I.-?) Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.g.? We use shall I.will not. I expect she'll phone this evening. I'm sure you'll pass.3.. Will you shut the door. i) than a glass of ice-cold fruit juice... Promising to do something: Thanks for lending me the money. so I won't stay long.? / shall we.? / shall we.I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking.....? Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I. • I haven't seen Carol today. 12)The customer wanted to complain to the 1) because it is too strong.Shall I open the window? Where shall we go this evening? We often use will ('ll) with: probably expect (I'm) sure (I) think (I) don't think I wonder • I'll probably be home late this evening.: Oh. Future Simple is used to describe future actions and events.8) The sauce would be more tasty h) is keeping it in a fridge. We often use will in these situations: • • Offering to do something: That bag looks heavy. Agreeing to do something: A: You know that book I lent you. • I wonder what will happen. Asking somebody to do something (Will you. • Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her? • I don't think the exam will be very difficult.? Shall we. I’ll help you with it. waiter 13)A good way of preserving food m) they don't look ripe to me. We use I'll (. • Don't worry about the exam.

............... You say: I don't think........... she.... we shall or we will (we'll): I shall be tired this evening... ………………………………………………………………………………………….. Normally we use shall only with I and we................) Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they: She will be very angry.. Now you decide that you don't want to play........ (not 'she shall be') Study the table Sent.. she......... type Question word Auxiliary Verb/ to be Subject I You We They He.........) In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll: We'll probably go to Scotland................... / we shall..... 2) You are feeling tired and it's quite late....... 3) A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk........... You say: I think I’ll! close the window.... (or I will be........................ You can say I shall or I will (I'll)... You decide to go to bed....ką?) Whom (ką?) Who (ką?) me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the café on the table in the morning in the evening in the afternoon during the day at night in summer in winter at 8 o’clock Negative shall will ____ _____ PRACTICE 3. 4) You arranged to play tennis today.. Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll.... 5) You were going to go swimming.}............................I shall..... You say: Thank you but...... ... You say: I think ………………… ............................ it My brother Her friend The cake You They He. Now you decide that you don't want to go..................... You decide to close the window..... 29 ... 1) It's a bit cold............. (or 1 won't be..................... or I don't think I'll... she.. it my brother her friend the cake Auxiliary Verb Will/ shall + Verb love make bring write taste smell be love make bring write taste smell was not were not love make bring write taste smell Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time Positive ___ will not (won’t) shall not (shan’t) Question When Why Where How What (kas........... We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday......... it My brother Her friend The cake I We We I you we they he.................. The negative of shall is shall not or shan't: I shan't be here tomorrow....... (or We will probably go.....

dinner may be a synonym of supper – that is......rain...... 8.. 4) I'm sorry about what happened yesterday.. starters) refer to the food served before or outside of the main dishes of a meal.. "Dinner".. Tea Tea is the afternoon/evening meal. Northern England.... It traditionally takes place at sometime around 6pm (though these days........2....never believe what's happened.. In the United Kingdom... It.be hungry later. particularly in the Southern United States and among older Americans.. with the evening meal in turn called supper....... There is sometimes snobbery and reverse snobbery about which meaning is used......... She. The minimum is usually two but there can be as many as seven. Around North America in general.... the midday meal is sometimes termed dinner. Under such usage...... in parts of Canada and the United States.... cider. Dinner Dinner is a term with several meanings..... called that even if the diners are drinking beer... Possible dinner courses are: 1) Hors d'oeuvres (also known as appetizers.. The purpose of the hors d'œuvre is to whet the appetite.... 2) There's no need to take an umbrella with you.. you..... tea as a meal is synonymous with dinner in Standard English. 1) Can you wait for me? I hope I won’t be very long.......... 3) If you don't eat anything now..... is any meal consisting of multiple courses. New Zealand....PRACTICE 4........... For the most part these terms only persist in rural areas....... especially outside North America...... 5) I've got some incredible news! You. if there is a long waiting period between when the guests arrive and when the meal is served might also serve the purpose of sustaining 30 .. 8. who may describe their evening meal as tea)... However.. a large evening meal... It.. dinner traditionally meant the main meal of the day.. DINNER. Because of differences in custom as to when this meal was taken...happen again... SUPPER 8...... TEA... dinner might mean the evening meal (typically in the higher social classes) or the midday meal (typically in lower social classes...... dinner can be a synonym of lunch...1. Put in will ('ll) or won't.... or juice.know what to do. rather than lunch............ it often takes place as late as 9pm)... and sometimes in Australia and Northern Ireland. In Scotland...... a significant part of the English Midlands. 6) Don't ask Margaret for advice.

mackerel. The established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Other water-dwelling animals such as mollusks. Salad also commonly refers to a blended food item— often meat. Formal meals can consist of many more courses. finely chopped vegetables and seasonings— which can be served as part of a green salad. trout. tuna. and grain. calming both the palate and the stomach. heartiest. butter and cream. cod. and followed by a dessert. for example. snapper. and shellfish are often called "fish" when used as food. dogfish. 2) Soup course. shrimp. in some menus the main course follows the entrée. the main course sometimes attempts to mimic a meat course. tuna. 4) Salad course. as a main course in itself. a well-planned main course can function as a sort of gastronomic apex or climax. and veloutés are thickened with eggs. and most complex or substantive dish on a menu. Salads of this kind include egg. crustaceans. in vegetarian meals. The main course is usually the heaviest. sausages. increased in its ability to satisfy and delight the diner. soups are classified into two broad groups: clear soups and thick soups. seafood or eggs blended with mayonnaise. when the scheme is successful. the preceding courses are designed to prepare for and lead up to the main course in such a way that the main course is anticipated and. and the salad course. The main course can also be called the entrée.guests during the long wait. In formal dining. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch. The main ingredient is usually meat. but is often used as a sandwich filling. carp. 5) Main course (also known as meat course) A main course is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of several courses (a full course dinner can consist of ten or even twelve courses). flour. bisques are made from puréed shellfish thickened with cream. as a part of the sit-down meal. however. or entry. Traditionally. 3) Fish course. snack foods. Hors d'oeuvre might include canapés. or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. cream soups are thickened with béchamel sauce. Some commonly harvested and eaten fish species include: salmon. course. It is most often preceded by a starter or a salad. It is sometimes called the meat course. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include rice. or they may be served before sitting at the table. 31 . A salad is a food item generally served either before or after the main dish as a separate course. In such a scheme. cheeses. Hors d'œuvres may be served at the table. and ham salad. anchovy. chicken. with the courses following the main course acting as a sort of denouement or anticlimax. fish or fowl.

cream or ice cream as a hearty. • Crumbles. often serving each other a piece in their fingers. and plum. sweets were a privilege of the aristocracy. like raclette. Cake is considered delicious in many cultures. The crumble is baked in an oven until the topping is crisp. and may be eaten some time after the meal (usually in less formal settings). which are blown out after the celebrant makes a wish. Common types of desserts: • Biscuits or cookies In British English. Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions. As they are heated. blackberry. melt smoothly. warm close to a meal.6) Cheese course. Fondue. brown sugar is often sprinkled 32 . the dessert is seen as a separate meal or snack rather than a course. often with inscriptions in frosting and figural decorations. the development and popularity of desserts spread accordingly. is covered with candles. or reserve elaborate dessert concoctions for special occasions. paneer and ricotta. more brittle "biscuit". and the mechanization of the sugar industry. 7) Dessert Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a dinner. Dessert as a standard part of a Western meal is a relatively recent development. such as some cheeses. most cheeses melt and brown. • Cakes. a quality that can be enjoyed in dishes like pizza and Welsh rabbit. many others can be coaxed into doing so in the presence of acids or starch. Some cultures do not have a separate final sweet course but mix sweet and savoury dishes throughout the meal as in Chinese cuisine. do not melt at all and can become firmer when cooked. Popular fruits used in crumbles include apple. alone or with other ingredients. however. meaning "to clear the table". or a rare holiday treat. Australian English and New Zealand English. Before the 19th-century rise of the middle class. Some cheeses. more chewy "cookie" and the harder. that it has become increasingly more common within England and Australia for "cookie" to be used to differentiate between the softer. The word comes from the Old French desservir. It is often served with custard. In some traditions the bride and bridegroom are the first to eat their wedding cake. Other cheeses turn elastic and stringy when they melt. including halloumi. rhubarb. Also. a biscuit is a hard baked product like a small cake which in North America may be called a "cookie" or "cracker". Cheeses are eaten raw or cooked. As sugar became cheaper and more readily available. and sugar. a frosted (iced) cake. with wine providing the acidity. Sometimes sour milk (vinegar and milk) is added to give the crumble a more extravagant taste. peach. Some cheeses melt unevenly. it should be noted. is a good example of a smoothlymelted cheese dish. Some restaurants specialize in dessert. flour. while a few acid-curdled cheeses. Often. For birthdays. usually consisting of sweet food but sometimes of a strongly flavored one. their fats separating as they heat. particularly weddings or birthday parties. A crumble is a dish of typically British origin containing stewed fruit topped with a crumbly mixture of fat.

almond or coconut. tarts. egg yolks. fruit. without sugar. the term usually refers to just those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy. and in the United States and Canada (where "jelly" is a clear preserve stiffened by pectin and spread on bread) by its trademarked name. However. originally from France. Governments often regulate the use of these terms based on quantities of ingredients. cheeses. sorbet and other similar products are often also called ice cream. sugar. combined with flavourings and sweeteners. creams. Some meringue recipes call for adding a binding agent such as cream of tartar. e.g. or "two-crust. • Pies or tarts. When discussing fruit as food. with a baked shell usually made of pastry that covers or completely contains a filling of meat. it is usually reserved for frozen desserts and snacks made with a high percentage of milk fat. However. a great many common vegetables.. vegetables. corn starch. Frozen custard. when baked. custards. are the fruit of the plant species they come from. This mixture is cooled while stirring to prevent large ice crystals from forming. Common pastry dishes include pies. or gelatin are also added. but firm enough to support the weight of the filling. and should not have any large bubbles of air in it. It is believed that Meringue was invented in the Swiss town of Meiringen by an Italian chef named Gasparini (legend varies in regard to the date of invention. can be made with a filling of minced beef or lamb. fish. A similar dish. it is made from a combination of milk or cream. butter and eggs. Although the term "ice cream" is sometimes used to mean frozen desserts and snacks in general. the resulting pastry is delicate and flaky. A good pastry is very light and airy. overworking of the pastry will cause long gluten chains to form. Sometimes flour. apple and orange. Meringues are often flavoured with a small amount of essence. • Meringue is a type of dessert. • Custards. Thus the manufacture of good pastry is something of a fine art. Pies can be either "one-crust. Fruit. • • Gelatin desserts. and quiches. as well as nuts and grains. • Ice cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from dairy products such as cream (or substituted ingredients). resulting in a tough product. or other sweet or savoury ingredient." where the filling is placed in a dish and covered with a pastry/potato mash top before baking. that are rolled out thinly and used as the base for baked goods. in the United Kingdom and Australia gelatin desserts are referred to as jelly. between 1600 and 1720). and flavourings such as vanilla. • Pastry is the name given to various kinds of dough made from ingredients such as flour. chocolate. Good pastry must be uniformly mixed to achieve this layering.over the crumble topping. made from whipped egg whites and caster sugar. The shortening is distributed between the flour-and-water in many thin layers or sheets. They are very light and airy and extremely sweet. Jell-O. By far the most popular use for gelatin products is as gelatin dessert." with the filling 33 . ice milk. nuts. as these will expand during cooking and spoil the texture. examples of which include plum. A pie is a baked dish. As a dessert.

The usual form is for milk with sugar and other added ingredients to be solidified by means of some gelling or structural agent. Boiled puddings. sugar and starch or gelatine as the base of flavours ranging from the classic vanilla and chocolate to the newer tequila and ginger. were a common meal on board ships in the British Navy in the 18th and 19th centuries. 34 . it may also be blind-baked before the filling is added and then only briefly cooked or refrigerated. This older type of pudding. One example of a savoury bottom-crust-only pie is a quiche. These bottom-crust-only pies may be known as tarts or tartlets. • Sorbet (or sorbetto. Related foods include gelatin desserts such as Jell-O and aspics. resulting in a dense and extremely flavorful product.completely enclosed in the pastry shell. or. These kinds of puddings could be either baked. The Danish society Royale Danske Buddingentusiaster (Royal Danish Pudding Enthusiasts) was founded in 2005 and is organizing the promotion of the Danish type of pudding. • Pudding is either of two general types of food. in the case of savoury pies. The newer type of pudding is almost exclusively a dessert-type dish. and other starches. The type of pastry used depends on the filling. Sorbet is a form of gelato that contains no milk. and the usual manner in which daily rations of flour and suet were prepared. including cornstarch. to single-serve pies (e. Some pies have only a bottom crust. blood (black pudding). Sorbets are traditionally served between the starter course and main entrée in order to cleanse the palate. i. or a mixture of suet and flour or some other cereal (plum pudding). Forms of these include custard and blanc-mange. They are available in forms which require cooking or in instant form. and keep it from becoming soggy under the burden of a very liquid filling. resulting in a softer sorbet). a sturdy shortcrust pastry. This allows sorbet to match and sometimes exceed dairy-based gelato or ice cream for taste. It may be either a butter-rich flaky or puff pastry. with the crust underneath. the second deriving from the first. A pie crust is an important component of many pies. Pie fillings range in size from tiny bitesize party pies or small tartlets. Occasionally the term pie is used to refer to otherwise unrelated confections containing a sweet or savoury filling. still commonly made today in the British Isles. was often a main-course type of dish. Sorbets may contain alcohol (which lowers the freezing temperature.g. eggs. Tarte Tatin is a one-crust fruit pie that is served upside-down. unlike ice cream.e. generally if they have a sweet filling that does not require cooking. which might include batter (as in Yorkshire pudding). or boiled. The older puddings were foods that were presented in a solid mass formed by the amalgamation of various ingredients with a binder. a pasty) and larger pies baked in a dish and eaten by the slice. The term "Sherbet" is derived from the Turkish word for Sorbet. Sherbat. eggs (bread pudding). using boiled milk. steamed. Unlike ice cream. Blind-baking is used to develop a crust's crispiness. sorbeto) is a frozen dessert made from iced fruit puree and other ingredients. a hot water crust pastry. the machinery used whips almost no air into the sorbet. in particular. gelatin. tapioca (cassava). If the crust of the pie requires much more cooking than the chosen filling. such as Eskimo pie or moon pie.

and will 'fall' after 20 or 30 minutes (as risen dough does). ----------------Dinner is generally followed by tea or coffee. The cake and jelly bind together and produce a uniquely pleasant texture if made in the correct proportions (there should not be too much jelly added. One popular variant has the sponges soaked in liquid-gelatin dessert when the trifle is made. Souffle can be made in containers of all shapes and sizes.00). The word soufflé is the past participle of the French verb souffler which means "to blow up" or more loosely "puff up" an apt description of what happens to this combination of custard and egg whites. fruit juice or. which sets when refrigerated. jelly. Dinners with many courses tend to occur at formal events such as dinner parties or banquets. It may be served at midday or shortly afterwards. A well-made trifle is often used for decoration as well as taste.30 and 8. or nucleation will not occur). fruit. The base provides the flavor and the whites provide the "lift". • Trifle is an English dessert dish made from thick (or often solidified) custard. and chilled. soufflé should be eaten quickly. or with brandy or a digestif. This formal version of the meal is generally served in the evening. gelatin dessert and whipped cream. but the best are tall cylindrical containers which conduct heat well. most commonly sweet sherry or madeira wine) . sponge cake. as the liquid is necessary to moisten the cake. while hot and before it falls. beaten egg whites. Soufflé is considered a great delicacy. When dinner consists of many courses. 35 . incorporating the bright. It is traditional to make souffle in "souffle cups" or ramekins. layered colours of the fruit.• A soufflé is a light. or.30 (in the Netherlands typically at 6. more recently. sometimes served with mint chocolates or other sweets. For best results. jam. a soufflé is generally very large and fluffy. moistened with alcohol (commonly red wine or rum) and a sweet syrup or fruit juice. Every soufflé is made from 2 basic components: a base of flavored cream sauce or purée. and lemon (the last two made as desserts. Common varieties include cheese. starting some time between 7. Bakeries in New Orleans have been known to produce such cakes out of their leftover or imperfect baked goods. fluffy baked dish made with egg yolks and beaten egg whites combined with various other ingredients and served as a main dish or sweetened as a dessert. sometimes as a lighter alternative to the massively dense christmas pudding. However this tends to be more common practice in Scotland than in other countries. chocolate. custard and cream on top. The resulting cake contains an arabesque of color and flavor. and the contrast of the creamy yellow custard and white cream. usually arranged in layers with fruit and sponge on the bottom. these tend to be smaller and to be served over a longer time period than a dinner with only two or three courses.non-alcoholic versions use fruit juice instead. with a good deal of sugar). Some trifles contain a small amount of alcohol (port. Trifles are often served at Christmas time. A Creole trifle (also sometimes known as a Russian cake) is a different but slightly related dessert item consisting of pieces of a variety of cakes mixed together and packed firmly. When it comes out of the oven. Trifle containing sherry is sometimes called "Sherry Trifle" or referred to as being "High Church".

Can you recognize the following desserts? Use the hints: meringues. custard. gelatine dessert. pie. Christmas pudding. pastries. cherry ice cream. cake. Answer these questions yourself and ask your friends: What are your favourite dinner courses? Why? What are your favourite desserts? PRACTICE 3. American honey biscuits.PRACTICE 1. Summarize the texts read filling-in the table below: Dinner courses starter soup fish salad main cheese dessert PRACTICE 2. 36 .

Supper Supper is the evening meal . 8.ordinarily the last meal of the day. In English-speaking countries such as Britain. "dinner" can be used to refer to lunch in Britain and parts of the United States and Canada.3. in place of "dinner". "Supper" is typically a lighter meal. supper is a small meal just before bedtime. supper can be as late as ten or eleven p. would be called dinner.PRACTICE 4.m. However. when the main meal of the day is usually taken in the evening. However. what a Canadian or American would refer to as supper. Canada. In Britain and Ireland. Ask your friends: what’s on the menu today/ what was on the menu yesterday. often preceded by high tea. Canada and the United States? 3) What do like for supper? 37 . dinner and supper in Britain. Study the examples below and compose your own menu for dinner. or distinct from "dinner" in that it is another light meal taken several hours later on the same evening. PRACTICE 5. supper customs vary in European cultures. sometime between five and nine p. then. often served cold and unlikely to involve either elaborate preparation or more than one or two courses. the understanding of "supper" is typically a meal taken in the evening (between 6pm and midnight) when one's main meal or "dinner" has been eaten during the day.m. the evening meal is usually served in the early evening. 1) What type of a meal is supper? 2) What is there in common among lunch. In Spain. In the United Kingdom. and the United States.

Eat Greek and Live Longer If you want to live to a healthy old age and eat well along the way. A study of several villages on Crete and the Greek mainland showed that fat made up 40 per cent of the average person's calories. 1Researchers cannot yet explain why. though all of these products are produced by cows. well over what most experts consider to be healthy. There is an example at the beginning (0). Healthy food. Eight paragraphs have been removed from the article. an 82-year-old Greek carpenter. 3But it appears that their diet is so good that it can even overcome the dangers of smoking. 2Whether it's lactose or not. Choose from the paragraphs A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7).1. and it could be because they consume four times more milk and butter than the Greeks do. This kind of diet could account for the surprising health of one of the study's subjects. then perhaps you should move to the Greek mainland or Crete. DIETARY AND VEGETARIAN FOOD 9. HEALTHY FOOD. This concerns tobacco. this surprises some experts. For example. thanks to their varied diet. 0-C But although these people are healthy and live longer.9. He 38 . You are going to read a magazine article about food and old age. Another puzzle has come out of the study. Finns have one of Europe's highest rates of heart disease. It is possible that a chemical change could take place during the process of making cheese and yoghurt. national patterns in other parts of Europe appear to confirm this theory. There is one extra paragraph. These are the areas of Europe whose population -live longest. they should have such different effects on people. which you do not need to use.

has enjoyed food and wine all his life and has never dieted or taken special exercise. Cretans consume 68 per cent more of this acid than the average European. lunch with lots of vegetables and feta cheese. This could be the T". He starts the day with bread and milk. in women there was an even greater difference. Many of the people studied. He eats all kinds of meat but mostly chicken. this time done in Italy. who are in their eighties. 6Or could the secret be in olive oil? All the people studied consumed large amounts of olive oil. although experts are still not certain it could be the oil.factor which makes the difference. Some other foods however. which according to research can prevent heart disease. A final part of this mystery could be a vital fatty acid. It may be that it is the whole diet that helps people to stay healthy and live longer. 7But the search for a single magic ingredient may not be the answer. but in moderate amounts and always with meals. honey and fruit. There is a high level of chemicals which resist poisons in this kind of diet and it could be the chemicals that limit the effects of smoking. At midday he eats a large . 4He says he hardly ever eats butter and his. Everything is cooked in olive oil. vegetables and cheese. A B C D E F G H I But most of this fat comes from cheese and yoghurt and very little from butter or milk. which helps them live longer. which is the protein found in milk. It has been proved that some foods prevent illness. 39 . encourage it. The people who were studied drank wine regularly. not just one of its individual parts. 5The study also suggests that wine is an important part of the Greek formula. but only at certain times and in certain amounts. The resistant chemicals and many vitamins that are found in fruit and vegetables have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease and other illnesses. Tobacco is a big risk factor for heart disease as well as cancer. Men who drank between meals had a higher death rate than those who only drank when they were having a meal. Walnuts contain a great deal of this acid. and he also puts it on just about everything: salads. A Greek professor who worked on the study believes it may have something to do with lactose. favourite dessert is full-fat natural yoghurt with walnuts. There seem to be similarities between the Greek mainland and Cretan traditional diets that may offer scientists a clue as to their beneficial effects. This backs up a recent study. and these are eaten in large quantities by Cretans and rural Greeks. are smokers.

...the theory..... It makes them easier and faster for the farmer to grow... people can develop allergies to food... You didn't ask for it. In this way a new life form is created... The effects of genetic engineering on our health are not known. Use the word(s) only once.......disease 5 . long straight cucumbers and big fat chickens are now a normal part of our diets... For example.. Perfectly round tomatoes all exactly the same size. or an elephant to a horse.. The engineers may create life forms . fight for one — or kill for one.. The effects of genetic engineering on the natural world may be disastrous. which has been genetically engineered....... Be ready to present the summary to your friends.. Fill in the appropriate word(s) from the list....... PRACTICE 2.. mice and moths — are not part of our diet so we do not know how dangerous they may be. Genetic engineers take genes from one species — for example..... Read the text about Genetically engineered food and summarize it..level of fat 2 .. This does not make them cheaper......... and transfer them to another . corn.................PRACTICE 1..that we cannot control. We must all be aware of what is happening.. pigs were given human genes to make them bigger and less fatty......... Moreover.... They put hormones into cows to make them produce more milk..... which grow faster....longer 3 .. a scorpion.... and you might not know about it.. It's genetically engineered food...... They also make sure that a dog cannot give birth to a frog........ the effects of these experiments can often be cruel... They will have to find one. Some people believe. They are passed on from generation to generation.... In America. or cows which produce more milk. tastier or healthier. can save the lives of starving people.monsters .... The pigs became very ill and began to lose their eyesight..ever drinks.....regular exercise 7 He ......... that genetic engineering could be the solution to the problem of famine.. rats..... Some — but not all — food companies are refusing to use genetically engineered foods. They put genes from flowers into soya beans and from scorpions into corn.of smoking 9 It.. Many of the genes which are used such as those of scorpions.....not by nature... Genetic engineers put duck genes into chickens to make the chickens bigger.... The new life forms have no natural habitat or home. though. But you've probably already eaten some of it......for example... confirms to live high whether to take the effects heart to overcome hardly 1 ...... 8 . Every living thing has genes... 40 . They make sure that humans give birth to humans and cows give birth to cows...it's lactose or not 4 ...the dangers 6 ........... Greenpeace is trying to prevent all such food experiments.. Their genes have been changed. They are made that way by genetic engineering ....... Plants..

People who are overweight are more likely to become ill as they get older. Everybody knows that vitamins A. B. fish. This is because you use up the fat in your body to get the energy to digest the food. A fried egg will cost you 145 calories. spaghetti. Still others like to be more scientific. biscuits. salt and refined sugar. for example. which gives us all the nutrients we need to stay fit and well. On the other hand. jam. tomatoes contain vitamin C. potatoes. A well-balanced diet should provide all the vitamins we normally require. That means avoiding bread. 1) Did you know anything about genetically engineered food before reading the text? 2) What is your personal opinion about genetically engineered food? Is it good or bad to apply this method? 3) Ask your friends’ opinion. C. Frankenstein created such a terrible and dangerous monster that he had to destroy it. good health and maintenance of the normal functions of the body. fruit. D are essential for our body. cake.We would all like a better. but the problem here is that you can sweat off a couple of pounds playing tennis or jogging but you put it all back again with a big plate of macaroni. potatoes. In order to improve our health we should: • try to avoid becoming overweight • increase out intake of dietary fibre and starch 41 . In the story. together with overcooking. Vitamins are vital for growth. to cut them right out. We must make sure that it remains a story — and no more than that. meat. fruit contain a lot of vitamin A. and genetic engineering might give us this. cheese or stake and chips or bread and jam. The only reliable solution is dieting. Most people eat too much fat. vegetables. freezing and long-term storage of food. but a boiled one will give you only 65. Some people can keep slim without any effort. Some of the people put their faith in exercise. milk. For most of us these methods are too eccentric. Others keep to the theory that if you eat things like hard-boiled eggs. blood pressure and strokes. Some people stick to milk and bananas. if possible. margarine. They are the calorie-counters. To get all the nutrients we need we should eat a balanced diet containing a range of different foods. cancer. Dairy products. it may be a dangerous experiment with nature. Dietary food. A healthy diet is one. lOOg of raw cabbage is only 15. healthier and longer life. sugar. a 100ml glass of wine is 75 and a pint (568ml) of beer is 160. Poor diet has also been linked with heart disease. but a lot of people do put on too much weight and don't like it.2. The simplest system is to cut down on the carbohydrates or. destroy many of the vitamins. lOOg of roast leg of lamb gives you 330 calories and a 50g helping of Yorkshire pudding gives you 130. PRACTICE 3. you get thinner because they are hard to digest. macaroni and so on. rice. apples with their skins on. The calorie-counter will then allow himself say 1000 calories a day. and lean meat. whole cereals contain vitamin B and fresh green vegetables. 9. They get a table which tells them that. Modern methods of preserving. liver.

Fruit and vegetables are important for good health because of the dietary fibre and vitamins they contain. cakes. Pulses and nuts. Fruit and vegetables. Eat fresh food when you want a snack. Don't eat chips and hot-dogs every day. rice. These foods provide very little in the way of useful nutrients. If you would like to have a healthier diet here are some simple. These are a good source of protein. Discuss the following points with your friends. Fats. sweets and sweet cakes. positive steps you can take: • • • • Cut down on fizzy drinks. Although we do need some types of fat in our diet we do not need very much. some meat (often in beef burgers and sausages). which are good for us: Cereal foods. maize and rye. butter.• eat less fat. Here is a list of some foods which are bad for us: Sugar. sweets and chocolate. sugar. Fat is found in chocolate. Eat a healthy breakfast before you leave for school in the morning. These are a good source of starch and protein as well as a good source of vitamins and minerals. More and more teenagers (and indeed whole families) are eating fast food or convenience food rather than food cooked from fresh ingredients. barley. cheese. oats. Breakfast cereals are made from a variety of different cereals. It is important to eat at least three portions of vegetables or fruit a day. Starchy vegetables. Bread is the main product made from wheat. They have a damaging effect on teeth and should only form a small part of our diet. 1) What is a healthy diet? 2) What food is good for us? Bad? 3) What would you advise a person who wants to lose weight? 4) What are your eating habits: • how much meat or fish you eat on a typical day • what you eat a lot of • what you eat a little of • how much you drink 42 . Examples are: cans of fizzy drinks. salt and alcohol Here is a list of some foods. Cereals include: wheat. Examples are potatoes and sweet potatoes. sugary foods and drink. These contain a lot of starch. cream. PRACTICE 4.

Read the text. Be ready to present it to your friends. lunch and dinner. Look at the Checklist in the text for Healthy Eating and discuss with your partner what you eat too much of? What you don’t eat enough of? Compose dialogs in pairs. plain fermented and scalded.• whether you think you have a healthy diet (give reasons)? PRACTICE 5. Bread plays an important role in family holiday rituals and agrarian ceremonies. Bread. National food and cuisine PRACTICE 1. Two kinds of bread are traditional. Study the Vegetarian food pyramid and compose a vegetarian food menu. 43 .1. Summarize each paragraph into 1-3 sentences. Rye bread is eaten every day for breakfast. NATIONAL FOOD AND CUISINE 10. PRACTICE 6. One of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products was and is rye bread. 10.

brined or smoked. many varieties of sausage are made. beet and sorrel. Bacon and hams are salted and cold smoked. December. Potatoes came to Lithuania relatively recently. One of them. Lithuanians consume a lot of meat and meat by-products. January and early spring months are traditional pig slaughtering times. also known as kindzius. Fowl meat is also popular. was mentioned as early as 16th century. very popular foods. especially in summer. sugar and crushed fruit is very refreshing on hot summer days. Milk. fruit and tiny dumplings are a treat. and continues to be so to this day. eggs and dairy products. Meat cooked in soup is often eaten as a second course. Rich soups are served for dinner and easily digested milk soups are supper fare. the south eastern region. beet greens and milk soups are eaten in spring and summer. In olden times. Domestic birds are cooked. Many delicious. quality of meat and method and duration of drying and smoking. meat.Soup. These sausages are served to visitors. is made of coarsely chopped. Soup is the main dinner and supper food. an essential starch staple and are eaten throughout the year. make cheese. potato sausages. In olden times and now. Juniper branches are added towards the end of smoking. eaten during holidays and during busy summer days. Instead the salted cuts remain in brine or are hung and air dried. However. Lithuanian recipes reflect the diversity of potatoes. mutinys. skilandis. sauerkraut. water. mushrooms. with smoked meat stock as the base. Lithuanians eat soup every day. Lithuanians eat sweet and sour milk. The taste depends on choice. fish. Meatless soups are eaten on fast days. Cold sweet soups are also popular. Skilandis. cottage cheese and churn butter. Most popular are sour soups. smoked and baked. The most popular potato dishes are "zeppelins". Skilandis and other smoked meats are robust and delicious. They are the domain of hunters. more tender. Sauerkraut and beet soups are eaten in winter. tightly stuffed into a pig's stomach and intensely smoked. top quality pork meat. Milk is used to whiten soups. Potatoes have become Lithuania's second bread. The lesser cuts are cooked during slaughtering time because the meat is softer. fresh. soup was also eaten for breakfast. while sorrel. Cold beet soup with hot potatoes is a very popular summer fare. Pork has always been the most widely used meat. Another summer soup. Milk products have been popular since ancient times. quantity of seasonings. made with dried black bread. tasty dishes are made with potatoes. Meat. people of the southwestern region. The traditional smoked meat technology has remained the same throughout the years. Sauerkraut soup is also made with goose pieces. They are eaten alone or as an accompaniment to a main course of soup. Most soups are served with bread or potatoes. to give the meat a special flavor. sweet soups made with berries. potato casserole and pancakes. Meat curing by smoking is not practiced in Dzûkija. in some regions 44 . The greatest variety of pork dishes is prepared by Aukstaiãiai. the Highlanders and Suvalkieciai. Each homemaker works hard to prepare the best tasting skilandis. Game birds appear rarely in the Lithuanian kitchen. highly seasoned. For longer keeping. in the eighteenth century and soon became popular. Now every farm grows potatoes.

The forests are full of goodies: raspberries. fermented and are available all year round. marjoram. used mainly for rye bread. parsnips and horseradish. fish and potato dishes. plum and cherry trees and gooseberry and currant bushes. morels and many others. fruit leathers and fruit cheeses. dried. small fish are dried. to add special flavor to meat. For winter supplies. flax seed). barley. autumn being most abundant season. Fish are much used for food reserves. the south eastern region. more than four hundred edible varieties are found in the forests. beets. buckwheat. oats.The most abundant forests are in Dzukija. salted or marinated. powdered bay leaf. Mushrooms are used fresh. Beets are used fresh. salt water fish are also popular. primary. Traditionally the inhabitants of this part of the country are the most prolific mushroom gatherers and this region's cooks are known for the most creative mushroom recipes. apples and salt. wild strawberries. The most popular are boletes. blevits. original butter. Another basic Lithuanian food is grain. In summer. Fish. All over Lithuania mushrooms are used in many dishes. turnips. Mushrooms. such as rye. Rye was and still is the most important crop. Dishes prepared with cottage cheese are favored among the Highlanders. sour cream and a variety of seasonings. Fruits and berries and some vegetables are seasonal. There are also pear. Fish for salting are seasoned with black pepper. poppies. The most popular vegetables have always been cabbages. cucumbers. Also collected are chanterelles. In Lithuania most fish eaters live along lakes or the sea coast. farmers have always planted a large variety of grain. Aukštaiciai. prepare an ancient. cucumbers are eaten fresh and in autumn and winter. Along with fresh water fish. Lithuanian agrarian traditions are ancient. while larger ones are salted. garlic and horseradish. Other popular aromatic plants are dill. Vegetables. fresh or dried. Wheat is in third place and oats in fourth place. which is used to make groats and flour. which can be sour. with butter. aromatic vegetable. Peas and beans are 45 . During summer they are eaten fresh. Then entire families go mushrooming and return with overflowing baskets. beans and oil crops (hemp. the kings of all mushrooms. Most popular is Lithuanian cheese. caraway. Grain. fermented and pickled. blueberries. made into preserves. Herring are popular throughout Lithuania. fruit and berries are dried. žemaiciai. carrots. Almost every household in Lithuania has an orchard where the apple is the main tree. Cabbage is eaten fresh and fermented. kastinis. Some salted fish are hot smoked for immediate use. crushed juniper berries and ground cardamom. radishes. peas. The Samogitians. cranberries and nuts. Mushroom season begins early spring and continues till late autumn. cranberries. Lithuania is rich in mushrooms. onions. Buckwheat was and is grown in the hilly regions of northern and southern Lithuania.milk products are more popular. seasoned with caraway seed. sauces. Onion is the traditional. Second place goes to barley. sweet or flavored with caraway seed.

Earlier all cakes and dainties were baked by the homemaker herself or a person. among them tortes and the famous baumkuchen from Germany. Among oil crops. Groats have been used in Lithuania since olden times. Pancakes are also an ancient food and a popular breakfast food among the Highlanders. At the beginning of this century. At wedding receptions. Žemaičiai. Formerly. the northeast region. Lithuanians use eggs in many dishes because of their versatility and because eggs adapt well to a variety of cooking techniques and combine well with many ingredients. Today the traditional omelet remains a favorite dish among Lithuanian cooks. Chicken eggs are more popular than other eggs. it is best to have eaten a pig's tail. The farmer never went to work in the fields on an empty stomach. cookies and sweet rolls was baked. Travellers and chroniclers wrote about the manufacture and use of mead by Lithuanians and Prussians as early as the eleventh century. The biggest gruel eaters are the Samogitians. However. Rye and wheat flours are most commonly used throughout the country. Tables were laden with beautifully decorated. Eggs. for then the ears of grain will grow empty. for holidays and weddings a variety of cakes. Eggs are boiled and baked. Dishes made with peas and pea flour are popular in Aukštaitija. Peoples' well being always depended on the grain harvest. According to legend then the barley ears will grow long. Today groats are available commercially. Baked goods and sweets. Lithuanian people do not have a sweet tooth. Baked goods and sweets are not a part of daily eating. They are the basis of many recipes and are included in meat. vegetable dishes and baked goods.eaten raw. However each homemaker does her very best to be creative and to pamper the family especially during holidays and special occasions. delicious masterpieces. which now is a must for every special occasion. Drinks. Good conditions existed to 46 . fish. the most appreciated baked goods are homemade and for this reason each homemaker is intent on creating recipes which will awe everyone and will please her family. especially when an unexpected guest arrives. Mead and beer are ceremonial and traditional drinks. Today Lithuanian homemakers have many recipes for all occasions. hemp and poppy seeds have always been used to make hemp and poppy milk. Farmers used wooden mortars and pestles and hand grinders to make groats. Hemp seed is also used for similar flavorings. midus is the oldest and noblest drink. Aukštaičiai. famous for her culinary prowess would be hired. Most popular baked goods are made commercially from recipes based on traditional and newly arrived sweets. To assure an abundant harvest. a large wedding tart which was decorated with a variety of dough birds and animals. especially potatoes. Flax seed is fried with different seasonings and this mixture is used as a flavoring for many foods. all eyes would be on the ''karvojus''. which replaces cow's milk during fast days and special holidays. like the pig's tail. cooked and are also ground into flour. many new foods came to Lithuania. Even better. certain traditions were observed. served during banquets and special occasions. when preparing to sow barley. Mead.

Most often the man of the house brews his own beer. Discuss what particular food is used on special occasions (Christmas. It is always brewed for family celebrations.in the table. using ancient recipes. Beer has been brewed in Lithuania since ancient times and even today is a popular. However. Lithuanians brew a semi sour drink. Beer is brewed from sprouted barley malt. traditional drink. Another ancient drink is made from birch and maple sap. There was a time when mead took second place to vodka. for special occasions. gira kvass. for mead's quality increases with age. barn raisings and funerals. During festivities. Often to celebrate the birth of a child. wedding etc. together with songs about mead and its traditions. mint. where a strong beer is popular. camomile.make mead because Lithuanians since early times took honey from wild bees in tree hollows. Mead is again found on holiday tables. PRACTICE 2. caraway seed. hops and sugar. To satisfy thirst. to brew extra good beer. beer is brewed using dried bread. What food don’t you like? PRACTICE 3. from forest and orchard fruits and berries. Much appreciated from ancient times are linden. feast days. thyme. which not only refresh but also have healing properties. Most wine was made in the South Western region. collected in early spring. Today people have several hives on their farmsteads.) The most popular Lithuanian National food and drink Bread Soup Meat Potatoes Milk Mushrooms Fish Vegetables Grains Eggs Sweets Drinks 47 . Mead ten or more years old was the landlord's pride. However about 30 years ago there was a revival and mead was made again. the brew master's other job is to make sure that pitchers are always full. Žemaitija. to satisfy their family needs. dill seed and other herb teas. Discuss your favourite national food with your friend. This batch was kept and aged until the child's wedding. Classify the most popular Lithuanian food filling. raspberry. Sap is drunk fresh and fermented for summer drinking. a well known brew master is hired. the father made a batch of mead. strawberry. birthday party. In Samogitia. The most popular malt beer is made in Central and North Eastern Lithuania. Suvalkija. The making of home made wine in Lithuania was begun at the beginning of the twentieth century.

.. she.... it my brother her friend the cake making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the café on the table at 10 o’clock during the day at night at 8 o’clock Positive are not (aren’t) is not (isn’t) am not (I’m not) Negative ____ PRACTICE 4................... it My brother Her friend The cake You They We He... Shall I turn on the light? 4) They haven't got anywhere to live at the moment.. it My brother Her friend The cake I When Why Where How What (kas...2......' 'Yes.... at the moment of speaking and are not finished.ką?) Whom (ką?) Who (ką?) am are is I you we they he................................. which are in progress now. she........ type Question word To be: am are is Subject To be: am are is am are is Verb Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time I You We They He...... They........... 48 .10... Do you know where she is? 3) It... she..' 2) I...............dark........for Christine........... Study the table: Sent.. I have a lot to do...... Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs in the correct form: come happen look make start stay try work Question get 1) 'You're working hard today.........with friends until they find somewhere...... Present Continuous Tense Present Continuous Tense is used to describe events......

so this week I............' 4) Catherine phoned me last night.......................' 'Is she? What..................... They........... Ann?' 'Yes...................... 6) Angela has just started evening classes.......? PRACTICE 5.....better? (it/get) PRACTICE 6............. She's on holiday in France.................. Goodnight! 2) We can go out now............to rain.... 5) I want to lose weight................... 1) I’m going (go) to bed now..........to the radio or can I turn it off? (anybody/listen) 5) How is your English?.?' (she/study) 4) ... (have) a great time and doesn't want to come back............. I...........(eat) lunch.................................' (Colin/work) 2) Why......................... (speak) to each other...... She... She ...' 6) Have you got an umbrella? It......... 7) I think Paul and Ann have had an argument........... 3) 'How is your new job?' 'Not so good at the moment. I......………................ 1) 'Is Colm working this week?' 'No. (learn) German.. Put the verb into the correct form.....................5) 'Are you ready..at me like that? What's the matter? (you/look) 3) 'Jenny is a student at university........ It isn't raining (rain) any more..a lot of noise............................... 7) You.................to concentrate......... Sometimes you need the negative................. 8) Why are all these people here? What.......................................................... (enjoy) it very much........... Use the words in brackets to complete the questions............................................................................................................. he's on holiday.................... 49 ................. Could you be quieter? I.................................

.............. Study the table....... Past Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense is used to describe events.. type Question word To be: was were Subject I You We They He...........................................................3........... 3) (at 10...........................15 yesterday morning) .............. it My brother Her friend The cake You They We He..........30 this morning)............................... she. it my brother her friend the cake To be: was were was were was Verb Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the café on the table at 10 o’clock during the day at night at 8 o’clock Positive were not (weren’t) was not (wasn’t) Negative When Why Where How What (kas. she......................................45 yesterday evening) ...........10................................................. 4) (at 4..ką?) Whom (ką?) Who (ką?) was were was PRACTICE 7...................................... which were in progress in the past at a certain time.................. 2) (at 5 o'clock last Saturday) I was on the train to London............... it My brother Her friend The cake I I you we they he................................................................................. Question ____ 50 ................. 6) (half an hour ago) .......... she..... 5) (at 7..... Sent.................................. The Past Continuous is not always necessary (see the second example)................ 1) (at 8 o'clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends.... What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples........

....................... We............... 9) I...(not/know) what to do... usual to you and which ones you do not use in every day life...... ........(follow) me......................... she..... Put the verbs into the correct form.. Past Continuous or Past Simple..............(take) a photograph of me while............... METHODS OF COOKING AND PREPARING FOOD 11.......................... (you/go) out last night?' 'No.. (hear) footsteps behind me... he ………………........................ I was too tired..(walk) along the street when suddenly I.......................(see) him............ 11............ 10)When I was young.' 5) How fast.........(happen)? 6) John..... Methods of cooking and preparing food There are a lot of various ways to prepare food.............. Look at the table and decide which of them are the most familiar....(start) to run...... 1) Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive).................(you/do) this time yesterday?' ‘I was asleep............................ When I last................………(wear) a really nice dress......................................1.. I..... Translate the unknown words....(want) to be a bus driver.....................................(not/look).........(try) to find a job in London.............. 7) We were in a very difficult position............................................................................. Method of cooking/ preparing food English to steam to simmer to boil to fry to bake to roast to grill to stew to barbecue to smoke to mix to peel to stir to mince to cut to chop to slice to grate 51 Translation ways of cooking food ways of preparing food .........(you/drive) when the accident.......... Somebody.................................................' 4) 'Was Carol at the party last night?' 'Yes.......................PRACTICE 8............................... I was frightened and I ............................ 8) I haven't seen Alan for ages... 2) 'What....' 3) '.......

etc e) the food is placed in the oven. used for preparing cakes... Answer the questions: 1) Do you like cooking? 2) Does your friend like cooking? 3) What are you cooking on Sundays? 4) What were you cooking yesterday? PRACTICE 2... at 100°C PRACTICE 3. Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right.. Present Perfect is used when we want to describe that something has happened/ has been done but do not indicate the time of the event ...... (4). the crab pieces..to crack to season to sprinkle to dry to pickle to marinate PRACTICE 1. But the action in the past has a result now: a) minced b) cut c) add d) serve e) fry f) stir g) chop h) heat 52 . fish.. 11.onions very quickly before adding (3)...... half a pint of chicken stock or water... etc b) cooking meat or fruit in a small amount of water and its own juices c) cooking foods in enough water to cover them..the crab into large pieces.. used for puddings... Present Perfect Tense.. at a temperature lower than 100°C d) cooking in fat. ginger and (2). meat..... doughnuts.it is only the fact that is important.2. 1) baking 2) boiling 3) frying 4) roasting 5) simmering 6) steaming 7) stewing a) cooking in steam. again for one minute and then (5)... slowly for one minute and then (8). (6).. (1). Match the method of cooking with its definition. breads f) is done by placing the food in the oven or oven coals and cooking until it is tender. for ten minutes and then add two beaten eggs. (7). Then fry black beans. used for cooking meats g) cooking foods in enough water to cover them. and a little dry sherry or rice sprinkle wine.. used for chips.. garlic.

). The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc. she. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. she. Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you. but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/been/written etc.). see pages 23 and study the table below. 53 Question . Use the Present Perfect. it my brother her friend the cake To have: have has have Verb been made brought written tasted smelt cleaned cried seen been made brought written tasted smelt cleaned cried seen been made brought written tasted smelt cleaned cried seen Object the cake drunk to me the room them my dog his brother him them Adverbial Modifier (Manner) Place Time Positive has at work beautifully in the kitchen tasty at home loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at the restaurant at school in prison in the café on the table have not (haven’t) has not (hasn’t) Negative has ____ PRACTICE 4. For a list of irregular verbs. she. Sent. Use the words given to make sentences.ką?) Whom (ką?) Who (ką?) have I you we they he.The present perfect is have/has + past participle. it My brother Her friend The cake You They We He. You are writing a letter to a friend. it My brother Her friend The cake I When Why Where How What (kas. type Question word To have: have has Subject I You We They He. Dear Chris.

......................................... 5) Suzanne / have / a baby........................ PRACTICE 5..................................................... 1) (ever / ride / horse?) Have you ever ridden a horse? 2) (ever/ be / California?) ............. already or yet. Read the situations and write sentences with just...................................... I've bought lots of things..................1) I / buy / a new car..............it................................ 3) Alice isn't here at the moment................... 3) I/give up / smoking.................... 1) After lunch you go to see a friend at her house.................................................................................................. You phone to reserve a table.........................................................................out.............................................................. 1) Jim is on holiday.................. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done............ I’ve just had lunch..... thank you....... the phone rings and the caller says 'Can I speak to Joe?' You say: I'm afraid...................to the shops. She's................................ 4) Tom has............to the shop to get a newspaper............................. He's gone to Italy.................................... You say: Wait a minute!. Put in been or gone..................... Five minutes later................................................ Later your friend says 'Shall I phone to reserve a table?' You say: No.......................................................................? (find) 6) Ann went to the bank............... Ask her.....(go out) 3) You are eating in a restaurant.................. You say:...... 2) my father / start / a new job.... 4) Charles and Sarah /go / to Brazil.... 5) Are you going to the bank?' 'No.....................................................................................to the bank................................................ The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.................................... He'll be back in about an hour........................................ 2) Hello! I've just.................... I've bought a new car.. 54 ........................................................................................ Perhaps she has been successful......... Make questions from the words in brackets....................................................... (have lunch) 2) Joe goes out..................... but a few minutes ago she returned............. I've already.................................................. 3) (ever / run / marathon?)............ (not/finish) 4) You are going to a restaurant this evening................................. (do) 5) You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job........................ Somebody asks ‘Is Ann still at the bank?' You say: No............. She says 'Would you like something to eat?' You say: No.(come back) PRACTICE 6......' PRACTICE 7.....

.. SERVING THE CLIENT PRACTICE 1....... the pie is so delicious.... 5) (always / live / in this town?)................................. take my order............... help yourself to some more cake.......... Study the vocabulary: restaurant snack bar café pub bar canteen self-service / help-yourself fast food service waiter waitress menu on the menu There's no roast beef on the menu to choose (chose............................................................ helping to do with / manage another helping / think I could do with another helping... chosen) to decide to order Please.......................……................ please.........4) (ever / speak / famous person?)............................ 6) (most beautiful place / ever / visit?) What . to help oneself to Please... change tip service charge to treat sb to sth She treated us to a very delicious cake....... 55 . 12...megejas gerai pavalgyti......................................... to pass Pass me the salt......... What would you like to order? bill receipt I paid the bill and he gave me a receipt........................ hearty eater ..................................................

..-The food/kitchen is very good here...I'm not very hungry. . I might have fowl/chicken /poultry/hen. g) leave the restaurant..... ". i) go to the restaurant.. thank you.. Alice said to me... now. to pour May I pour you some wine? to recommend What would you recommend? PRACTICE 2. could you bring me my. You say... The first has been done for you. b) give the waiter a tip. she said.......We should come here more often.I'll have a veal / steak / mutton.. thank you c) Thanks a) addition b) bill c) account a) I like b) I love c) I'd like d) I may like a) want b) want any c) want some d) want i a) pig b) pork c) hog a) plate b) serving c) dish a) called b) ordered c) commanded 56 .-Mice said.1.... . I said. a) look at the menu. sheep/lamb or hog/pig/pork....This is a wonderful restaurant.... a) Thank you b) No.. 1) order the meal... e) book a table. please...... m) ask for the bill.. 7) This chicken is not what I.. a cup of coffee... . I think I'll skip the first course /dish/serving........ j) have the main course. We enjoyed the meal and finished with fruits / fruit. 5) A lot of people don't eat.... “.. Read the story... looking round..It isn't good for you to have so much flesh /meat. My meal was very tasty/tasteful.... .?" 3) You want some coffee.... followed by cafe / coffee........ 6) This . I said..... is a speciality of our restaurant...to have a sweet tooth My friend has a sweet tooth. PRACTICE 3. f) decide to go out for a meal . The account / bill / receipt was quite reasonable. d) pay the bill.... Choose the most suitable word ... You say. h) have the starter." 2) "Waiter.From tomorrow... I’ll order just one plate/dish... but I don't. Put the following events into the correct order..... Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence..... Alice didn't agree.. we'll be back on a diet! PRACTICE 4.... k) sit down. I'm going to have fish. as we were leaving. c) have dessert." 4) Do you drink coffee? -1 do. 1) You are refusing food that is offered.

. 5) I wouldn't eat those strawberries if I were you.... 15) Would you like. The restaurant is no smoking only..? 9) I avoid eating biscuits and cakes because I don't want to. Can I take your order? 5) Yes. f) but it was as tough as old boots. Would you like anything to drink? 2) Good evening. n) that it completely put us off our food... b) it is weak coffee.. 57 .. please. i) than a glass of ice-cold fruit juice.... 15)A traditional English breakfast a) I'm sure you would like them if you only tried them.. and an ashtray please. 3) The smell was so bad 4) These vegetables are very tasty.8) Have you decided what to have for your main.. madam.. I think so.... 8) The sauce would be more tasty 9) We must leave now.. 1) Here you are.. Could I have a second. May I take your coat? 6) Yes. They're delicious. 1) There Is nothing more refreshing on a hot summer day 2) The steak looked tender. 10)My father decided to leave the waiter a big tip 11) Food is very expensive now 12)The customer wanted to complain to the waiter 13)A good way of preserving food 14)As the cake was delicious. could I have a gin and tonic? Oh... Complete each sentence with one of the endings. o) Would you mind asking the waiter for the bill? PRACTICE 6. d) but was afraid of making a scene. Write the sentences in the correct order to make a conversation between a waiter and a customer.. 12) Can you give me the .? a) course b) helping c) food a) get fat b) fatten c) get fatty a) plate b) helping c) course a) bad b) rotten c) stale d) hard a) receipt b) ingredients c) recipe a) with b) in c) by d) to a) me too b) I too c) so do I d) also I a) a fruit b) some fruits c)fruits d) some fruit PRACTICE 5.. j) consists of some eggs and several rashers of bacon. Could I see the menu? 4) I'm sorry. 10) That was fantastic. for these biscuits.. 13) This salad should be dressed .. please? 11) I bought this bread five days ago and now it's. and. oil...... 7) If there is one thing I don't like. Have you reserved a table? 3) Thank you. 14) You like ice-cream... Come this way. 1) because it is too strong. e) if you had put more garlic in it.. c) as the food and the service had been excellent. m) they don't look ripe to me.. h) is keeping it in a fridge. 6) Please put some more water in my tea. k) I had a second helping. g) as there's been yet another increase in prices. madam.

B: OK/1 / manage/ a/ piece/ maybe/ small/ could/ very. A: was / to / pleasure / it / have / a / you. B: think / time /1 / off / it's / was /1.cream for dessert. A: about / a / coffee / you / before / cup / how / of / go? B: if / having / you / one / are / only. Capitalize the words where necessary. B: you / no / thank. A: it / to / me / take / just / please. A: you / to / what / like / drink / would? B: light / just / please / a / beer. A: pity / a / what! B: much / for / thanks / the / very / party / enjoyable. coming / for / you / thank. Work in pairs.7) No. I / too / had / already / much/ have. A: take / milk / do / sugar / and / you? B: much / and / too/ milk/ not/ just/ a/ spoonful/ please. think /1 / of. a beefsteak with vegetables and an ice . Discuss the following questions with your partner: • • • Where do you usually have your meals? When do you eat out? What do you prefer: eating out or eating at home? Why? PRACTICE 10. B: kind /1 / that's / you / but / don't / will / very / A. Work in pairs. PRACTICE 9. Read the conversation and make notes under the following headings: Starter Main course Drinks 58 . I'm afraid not. Put the words in the right order to make a dialogue. A: So soon? stay / a / longer / can't / little / you? B: could /1 / mustn't / too / wish / late /1 / but / be /1. PRACTICE 8. Compose your own dialogs and present to the rest of your group. driving / am / I / know / you. I'd like the crab salad. Could I possibly have a table near the window? 8) Yes. A: must / some / have / chicken / you / more. A: with / you / have / tonic / won't / a / me / gin / and. PRACTICE 7.

I'm very fond of prawns.. certainly... Some cauliflower.. a prawn coctail for my wife and the trout for me. yes.. I can't decide. Mr B: Yes. Using the above dialogue as an example compose your own dialogues “In a Restaurant”/ “What’s on the menu today?”.. Shall I take your coats? Mr Brown: Thank you. sir? Oh..I think I'll have the prawn salad. Fd have the trout. Jane? W: W: Oh. Mr B: Ah. Mr B: Yes. sir? And the main course. PRACTICE 11. please.. if I were you. sir.. Where shall we sit. Here it is. You always say that you like trout. What do you recommend? Mr B: OK! I'll take it And two mixed salads. I can't decide between the veal and the chicken. sir? Near the window! Yes. Why don't you try a bottle of English wine? You'll be surprised. sir? Anything to follow? May I suggest something? Of course.. Mr B: Veal for my wife. What about you? Mr B: Fm not sure. it's very good. and you haven't had it for a long time. some tomatoes and some boiled potatoes. W: W: W: W: W: W: Mr B: W: Are you ready to order. madam. Could we see the menu? Mr B: What would you like for a starter? Mrs B: Mm. I'd have the veal Any vegetables. 59 . if I were you.In a Restaurant Waiter: Good evening. please. would you like to sit over here. Mr B: Yes. we'd like a bottle of dry white wine. Mrs B: Oh..

Study the vocabulary and compose sentences with the following words: telephone/ phone to phone to call/ make a call to dial to contact/ reach up tax to send a fax emergency call call collect to lift/ pick up the receiver to be on the phone hold the line/ hold on line the line is engaged to order/ make an order to delay the order to change the order to accept an order to reserve/ make a reservation account cash/ to pay in cash credit card/ to pay by credit card 60 . ORDERS ON THE PHONE PRACTICE 1.13.

A. I would like to reserve a table for 3 people for tomorrow dinner. Good afternoon! B.m. Do you accept orders? A. I am glad to help you! What kind of cakes would you like to order? B. Yes. Non-smoking please. Yes. It would be good for us to sit in the corner I suppose as we are having a business meeting tomorrow. And would you like anything to drink as soon as you come? B. you know. No. “Sweetie Rose”. A. Read the dialogues A-C in pairs. A. Great! So we will set a nice table especially for you! C. They are very delicious. Good morning. I am happy to reserve you a table for tomorrow. Your fruitcakes will be ready to collect at 5 o’clock tomorrow. A. B. Sure. That would be nice! A. Thank you for calling! We will wait for you tomorrow at 6 p. What time exactly are you coming? B. We will have a look at the menu and decide tomorrow. I think at 6 p. A. A. Have a nice day! B. I have just placed it. I would like to order a couple of birthday cakes for my anniversary. Biscuit and fruit. Let me note your order onto the register. A. Fine! I have just made a reservation for a corner table! Would you like us to set the table for dinner before you come? B. What would you like to order? B.m. Good-bye! B. Good afternoon. A. A.PRACTICE 2. Thank you! A. Can I help you? B. I would like to get it at 5 o’clock tomorrow evening. I see. And what time would you like to receive your order? B. Would you like to pay in cash? 61 . You too! Bye! A. A. Browns’ Restaurant. A. Smoking or non-smoking? B. I would like to have 2 fruitcakes. thank you. Would you like to sit near the window or it would be a better variant to have a table in the corner for you? Corner tables are usually a quieter place. I see.

That’s OK. I’ll do that this afternoon. Fine. No. Thank you! Bye! A. And what kind of service would you like to pay for? B. Fine. Thank you! Have a nice anniversary! C. Thanks! Bye! A. A. “John and Jane”. I would prefer paying by credit card. You can successfully transfer money into our account No. No problem. Good bye! PRACTICE 3. Compose your own dialogues 62 . A. I ordered 20 baked wedding decorations last month and I haven’t paid for that yet.B. So we will fix that tomorrow then. A. I would like to make money transfer into your account but I am not sure about the exact number of it. I see. A. Can I help you? B. B. B. Your orders are always welcome! B. A. xxx xxx xxx xxx. Hello.

PRACTICE 2.14. Give 1 point/ a word. Work in groups. Choose a topic covered and ask your friends 10 words from the topic you have chosen. Pay attention to the structure of the questions. Answer the following questions. The winner is the group having received the biggest number of points. 1) What is the time now? 2) What are your working hours? 3) Do you work full time/ part-time/ shifts? 4) What kitchenware can be found there in your kitchen? 5) What’s on the menu today? 6) How much does cappuccino coffee cost in your café? 7) What’s your favourite food/ drink? 8) What do you usually like for breakfast? 9) What will you have for lunch today? 10) What did you have for dinner yesterday? 11) What dinner courses do you know? 12) What would you like for supper this evening? 13) What meals are included into traditional English breakfast? 14) What is traditional Lithuanian food? 15) What is healthy food? 16) What methods of food cooking/ preparing can you name? 17) Do you like eating out? Why? 63 . REVISION PRACTICE 1.

Dooley MISSION COURSEBOOK. Cambridge. B.htm 12.vegsource. www. 2000 10. Evans. Newbury. Oxford. Soars HEADWAY WORKBOOK. Dooley ENTERPRISE 3 WORKBOOK. D. 1998 7.Soars. J. Newbury. Swansea. Swansea.1999 5. 1998 3. Evans.1999 4. J. Evans. 1998 2. http://en.bicyclegermany. FCE USE OF ENGLISH. 1998 8. Vilnius. Dooley ENTERPRISE 3 COURSEBOOK.Lenkauskienė 14 ENGLISH TOPICS. 2000 9. L.REFERENCES 1.wikipedia. J. R. L. http://www. V. Oxford. Evans. Murphy ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE.htm 64 . Imbrasienė LITHUANIAN TRADITIONAL FOODS. V. J.com/nutrition/pyramid.Soars. 1997 6. V. Guščiuvienė. J. V.org/wiki 11.com/german_food_&_drink. L. Kaišiadorys. Soars HEADWAY STUDENT’S BOOK.

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