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Joint Member Distribution Factor DC 0.33 95665 -18781.67

D DA 0.67 -39320 -37563.33 14595 -9730 AD 0.67 33830 29190.00 -18781.667 12521.1111

A AB 0.33 -77615 14595.00

F.E.M Balance

Carry Over Balance -4865 Carry Over Balance

6260.56

6260.55556 -4865 -2086.85185 -4173.7037 3243.33333 1621.66667 -2086.8519 -540.555556 -1081.1111 1391.23457 695.617284 -540.55556 -231.872428 -463.74486 360.37037 180.185185 -231.87243 -60.0617284 -120.12346 154.581619 77.2908093 -60.061728 -25.7636031 -51.527206 40.0411523 69073.2282 -69073.228 54164.6639

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I

1621.67

Carry Over Balance

695.62

Carry Over Balance

180.19

Carry Over Balance

77.29

Carry Over Balance

20.02 -54164.66 N-m

Final moments

Joint Member Distribution Factor DC 0.33 95665 -18781.67

D DA 0.67 -39320 -37563.33 14595 -9730 6260.55556 AD 0.67 33830 29190.00 -18781.667 12521.1111 -4865

A AB 0.33 -77615 14595.00

F.E.M Balance

Carry Over Balance -4865 Carry Over Balance

6260.56

-2086.85185 -4173.7037 3243.33333 Carry Over Balance 1621.66667 -2086.8519 -540.555556 -1081.1111 1391.23457 695.617284 -540.55556 -231.872428 -463.74486 360.37037 180.185185 -231.87243 -60.0617284 -120.12346 154.581619 77.2908093 -60.061728 -25.7636031 -51.527206 40.0411523 69073.2282 -69073.228 54164.6639

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I

1621.67

695.62

Carry Over Balance

180.19

Carry Over Balance

77.29

Carry Over Balance

20.02 -54164.66 N-m

Final moments

Joint Member Distribution Factor DC 0.33 95665 -18781.67

D DA 0.67 -39320 -37563.33 14595 -9730 AD 0.67 33830 29190.00 -18781.667 12521.1111

A AB 0.33 -77615 14595.00

F.E.M Balance

Carry Over Balance -4865 Carry Over Balance

6260.56

6260.55556 -4865 -2086.85185 -4173.7037 3243.33333 1621.66667 -2086.8519 -540.555556 -1081.1111 1391.23457 695.617284 -540.55556 -231.872428 -463.74486 360.37037 180.185185 -231.87243 -60.0617284 -120.12346 154.581619 77.2908093 -60.061728 -25.7636031 -51.527206 40.0411523 69073.2282 -69073.228 54164.6639

1621.67

Carry Over Balance

695.62

Carry Over Balance

180.19

Carry Over Balance

77.29

Carry Over Balance

20.02 -54164.66 N-m

Final moments

Ka = Ka.00 N/m Lateral pressure intensity bottom = 2 2 Due to symmetry. γCon.33 19000 N/m2 6000 h 19000 6000h Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.Job Number: Job Title: Client: Calcs by: Width (m) 3.5 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 3.93 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member DC D DA AD A AB .33 -77615 N-m 95665 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 33837. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 28500 N/m 2 79500 N/m 0.523599 rad.73 N-m -39324.pL /12 + WL/15 2 2 0.wL2/12 pos.67 0. and of uniform dimensions. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 19000 N/m Lateral pressure intensity at top = 41800.8 m 3 25000 N/m 2 300 Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.wL /12 pos.5 Sheet: Checked by: Date: Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Depth (m) 3.8 m 3. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 1: 2 12000 N/m 45000 N/m 18000 N/m 30 deg. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg. Since all the members have uniform thicknes. 2 3 0. 415 Fe M25 (C25/30) Steel strength 500 N/mm fyk Dead and live loads from outside while no water pressure from inside 2 7500 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 64500 N/m Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.

28 77.04 33837. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 3.E.42 Carry Over Balance -4864.14 3242.M 54872.67 0.M at E Free B.67 Carry Over Balance -540.57 77.M at mid-point "F " Net B.33 F.46 360.8 ha hd 46616.5 N-m 74421.04 -69076.18 -54168.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.46 Carry Over Balance -231.46 N-m -14907.85 Carry Over Balance -60.15 -120. carrying U.5 N-m 62254.33 0.76 Final moments 14592.02 12520.01 6260.10 -231.14 Carry Over Balance -2086. carrying U.92 -2086.03 20.M at F For the vertical member AD.L Vertical reaction at D and C 2 64500 N/m 122550 N 2 79500 N/m 151050 N For the vertical member AD.02 69076.M Net B.18 For the horizontal slab AB.28 -18780.05 40.38 -1080.D.85 154.11 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Width (m) 3.56 695.00 N-m 6750. simply supported B.Distributi on Factor 0.28 -51.15 180.02 -39324.67 1391.70 -540.88 N 68903.5 Slab thickness (mm) 300 .01 -4173.38 1621.0511 Carry Over Balance -25.04 54168.M Balance 95665 -18780.42 -9728.93 -37560.52 -60.5 Depth (m) 3.M at mid-point "E" Net B.76 1621.D.84 -77615 14592.01 6260.73 29184.12 N 116422.11 695.34 -4864.67 0.31 180.56 -463.86 137180 54872 0 Free B.32 N-m 143497.M at the mid-span B.

Ka = Ka.523599 rad.8 m 25000 N/m 500 N/mm2 fyk 3 2 45000 N/m 3 18000 N/m 30 deg.65 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributi on Factor DC D DA AD A AB 0. 0.67 0. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution. water pressure having an intensity of zero at A and 0 37240 N/m2 N/m 2 Pressure at A Pressure at D Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt. Since all the members have uniform thicknes. 415 Fe M25 (C25/30) Steel strength In this case. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 2: 12000 N/m 2 Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 3.67 0. and of uniform dimensions.wL2/12 pos.67 0.8 m 3.00 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity bottom = Due to symmetry. of Each side wall 2 7500 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 64500 N/m 28500 N/m 2 79500 N/m Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 0. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.33 19000 N/m2 6000 h 19000 6000h Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv.33 -77615 N-m 95665 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 15912.88 N-m -12437. γCon.wL /12 pos.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 19000 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity at top = 4560.Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.pL /12 + WL/15 2 2 0. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.33 0.33 .

23 32923.5 Depth (m) 3.53 0 Free B.M at mid-point "E" Net B.49 Carry Over Balance -761.75 Carry Over Balance -342.28 -342.37 -13711.49 2055.55 N 116422.50 228.D.18 N-m -12666.51 -3082.17 -76.99 -6855.M 21262.65 -55484.75 -77615 20567.45 N 21142.26 -1523.42 N-m 143497.30 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Superimposed dead load Live load Width (m) 3.45 18494.11 -84.F.M Balance 95665.M at mid-point "F" Net B.90 N-m 29161.64 56.D.50 1027.5 N-m 86740.M at F For the vertical member AD.26 2285.M Net B.84 253. carrying U.19995 69504.48 -6164.5 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 300 2 12000 N/m 2 45000 N/m 3.08 For the horizontal slab AB.92 253.00 1027.58 -27742.32 44091.50 -685.37 Carry Over Balance -6855.79 Carry Over Balance -3082. simply supported B.32 -56757.43 28.M at the mid-span B.45 -12437.00 -27742.75 507.79 4570.5 N-m 72331.M at E Free B.17 114.48 9247.00 -761.8 ha hd 23621.88 41134.64 Carry Over Balance -38.33 114.08 -44091.97 9247.53 2285.50 Carry Over Balance -84.L Vertical reaction at D and C 64500 N/m 122550 N 2 2 79500 N/m 151050 N For the vertical member AD.06 Final moments 20567. carrying U.21 56757.8 m 3. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 3.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.E.8 m .92 -169.90 15912.

of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 3: M20 18000 N/m 30 deg.Unit wt.523599 rad.04 -17722.67 0. Since all the members Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.23 -2137.wL2/12 pos.04 . of Each side wall 28500 N/m 79500 N/m 2 Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ pv.35 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributi on Factor DC D DA AD A AB 0.12 N-m 5612. 0 37240 N/m2 2 7500 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 64500 N/m Pressure at A Pressure at D Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.Ka Lateral pressure due to dead = Ka.00 -33759.12 22506.00 26584.999999 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 3999. 3 0.12 53168.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 0.00 N/m Earth pressure intensity bottom = Due to symmetry.M Balance 95665.pL /12 + WL/15 2 2 2 2 22800 N/m 2 0. γCon.33 4000 N/m2 6000 h 3999. 415 Fe 3 25000 N/m Steel strength In this case.67 0.999999 N/m Earth pressure intensity at top = 26800.08 11253. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.33 -77615 N-m 95665 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA -2137.35 -67518.04 Carry Over Balance -8861.12 5612.33 F.69 -33759.08 -77615.67 0.35 26584.wL /12 pos. it is assumed that there is no lateral pressure due to live load.E.33 0.

M Net B.M 5812.20 -218.L Vertical reaction at D and C 2 64500 N/m 122550 N 2 79500 N/m 151050 N For the vertical member AD.40 72.19 -3751.966 m 2 -1900 x 2 2000 x -3800.3 0 Free B.8 ha hd -4878.35 5907.55 x 2 -633.06 N-m -12666.78 277.5 N-m 95761.29 N-m 143497.33 x 2000 x 2 35070.44 35070.00 x 0.47 47736.31 Final moments 11253.34 -833.55 4000. hogging B.M at E Free B.M at the mid-span B.93 138.10 N-m 47215. and direct forces: B.43 N-m Let the max.M at F For the vertical member AD.93 36.21 For the horizontal slab AB.15 N-m 4878.D.45 N 116422. Design of top slab The top slab is subjected to the following values of B.40 Carry Over Balance -46.55 x 0.56 2953.23 28880 -34752. carrying U.D.59 656.33 x 3 = 0 5.21 -35070.44 -47736.34 1250.59 Carry Over Balance -416.40 328.5 x Mx For max. Mx 35070.04 -7502.85 138.M at Centre B.78 2953.01 Carry Over Balance -984.93 -92.M at mid-point "F" Net B. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 3.21 4878. dMx/dx which gives x = Mmax 50609. carrying U.21 4878.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.56 -984.78 -1969.Carry Over Balance -3751.03 -8861.62 -109.Direct force (N-m) m) (N) Case .M at End (N.20 328.55 N 7357.68 1250.M.M occur at a distance x below A. simply supported B.01 2500.78 Carry Over Balance -109.00 x 2.80 -416.M at mid-point "E" Net B.5 N-m 81352.

324 j 2 1184 mm 130 mm for HYSD bars 0.) -4878.45 (tensile) Case The section is thus to be designed for a B.24 % 2 379 mm 0.55 (comp. B. induced at mid-span.88 (comp. Overall depth (mm) Cover (mm) 50 Use M20 concrete.22E+07 N-mm 8.M at Centre B. on each face.28 mm 320 mm 8.45 (comp.M. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side)) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k d= 0. σst k Ast 54168. 6.) 23621.M.874 R 1.Direct force (N-m) m) (N) 1 74421.155 Against a required value of Hence increase the thickness to Mr = Ast Rbd2 2 2298.32 21142.761 N-m. Section at supports Max.04 68903.M.08 35070.1 2 3 62254.42 81352.155 .18 N-m 2 190 N/mm 0. of 95.) 2 86740.375 j 288 mm 0.14E+07 N-mm 0. Actual Ast provided 2 2415 mm 130 mm Bend half the bars up near supports at distance of = Area of distribution steel 2 Ast 759 mm Area on each face Spacing of 8 mm dia.M.352 N-m.55 (tensile) The section is thus to be designed for a B.375 j 7.8 m from edges. Overall depth (mm) Effective depth (mm) 300 Cover (mm) 250 50 Use M20 concrete. Provide 8 mm dia. 132. of 81.3 mm provide 8 mm dia.42E+07 N-mm d 270 Using 20 mm ɸ bars having Aɸ = Spacing 137 mm 2 314 mm provide 20 mm dia.18 44091. and direct forces: B.12 (comp.44 7357.18 56757.46 69076.06 47736.32 72331. Bars @ 130 mm c/c.892 R 1.) 3 95761. induced at mid-span.29 54168.874 R 1.M at End (N. Bars 0. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side)) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k Mr = Rbd2 0. Design of bottom slab The Bottom slab is subjected to the following values of B. Additional bars @ 200 mm c/c. Bars @ 130 mm c/c.011 Area available from the bars bent up from the middle section 2 1208 mm These bars will serve the purpose.21 46616.

00 2 29161.Direct force point (N-m) m) (N) 1 6750.011 Area available from the bars bent down from the middle section = Addition area required = 2 98 mm 2 1308 mm provide 8 mm dia. At the ends.M of And direct force of σst k Ast 2 190 N/mm 0. at its bottom.M. Actual area = Bend half the bars at the outer face near supports. Additional Bars @ 200 mm c/c.00 N Case The side walls are thus subjected to a maximum B. Bars @ 130 mm c/c on each face.32 151050. Bars @300 mm c/c provided on both the faces with a cover of 50 mm.3 mm 320 mm 1.43 < Let us reinforce the section with 20 mm di.30 56757.324 j 2 1406 mm 69076.892 R 1.M of And direct compression of Eccentricity (e) 457.00 69076.04 N-m 151050.M at Centre or intermediate B.5 Let the thickness of the wall be e/D = 1. 300 20 2 A st 104.28 mm 2 d= 290 mm Spacing of 20 mm ɸ bars = Provide these @ 120 mm c/c.04 151050.15 47736.11 69076.M at End (N. throughout the slab.D= Provide D = Ast 338 mm 340 mm 2519.00 3 50609.04 N-m 68903. 7. and direct forces: B.67 mm . Design side walls The top slab is subjected to the following values of B. the slab is subjected to a B.12 N for HYSD bars 0.44 151050. 125 mm 2 2616 mm Provide distribution reinforcement of 8 mm dia.

B1 Width (m) 1.63 N/m Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 9062. 250 Centre line of frame 1. γCon.63 N/m 0.34906585 rad.45 m 1. Concrete strength Case 1: M25 (C25/30) Steel strength 415 Fe 500 N/mm2 fyk Dead and live loads from outside while no water pressure from inside 2 6250.2 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.45 m 3 25000 N/m 0.0 N/m 2 33080.5 N/m 2 51830.49 . of Soil Angle of repose 2 21840 N/m 2 11240.63 N/m 2 39330.2 Sheet: Checked by: Date: Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Depth (m) 1.625 N/m 3 18000 N/m 20 deg.Job Number: Job Title: Ann's Grove Head Regulator Client: Ministry of Agriculture Calcs by: O.

wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 16219.60 -6891.12 N/m2 8825.16 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 3738.97 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributio n Factor DC 0.33 D DA 0.wL2/12 pos.Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv.83 Carry Over Balance -350.28 -700.56 543.33 F.23 h Due to symmetry.M Balance 9081.40 1087.E.67 -1631.05 N-m 9081.Ka = Ka. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.12 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity at top = 29015.67 0.05 1050.79 1050. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.67 A AB 0.33 -6891.40 -4186.67 AD 0.55 N-m -4186. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.83 3738.80 . half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.16 -1631.55 2101.70 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity bottom = 16219.pL2/12 + WL/15 0. and of uniform dimensions.wL2/12 pos.12 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 16219.97 -3262.

514.00 13.32 Carry Over Balance -2.28 233.92 Carry Over Balance -20.53 116.65 6.59 -350.27 120.14 13.Carry Over Balance -181.71 -4. indicating loading.43 -4.92 25.641.70 N 2 51830.641.42 12.11 N-m 13.D.48 -6852.42 -40.D.098.28 12.95 -20.76 60.97 -8.20 N 116.32 2. carrying U.52 -181.71 For the horizontal slab AB.11 1.84 60. carrying U.514.27 Carry Over Balance -38.098.L Vertical reaction at D and C The free body diagrams for various members.63 N/m 28514.44 -5098.38 N B 28.330.59 543.76 -77.63 N/m 37577.7 N E 1700.63 N/mm² 5.11 N-m w = 39.97 6.24 Final moments 6852.M and reactions are shown below: 5.80 -362.14 Carry Over Balance -4. B.84 -38.7 N (a) .L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.38 N A 28.88 5098.11 2 39330.

70 14210. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 2: Depth (m) 1.59 N-m 6.M at mid-point "E" Net B.M Width (m) 1.M Net B.M at mid-point "F " Net B. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base 9062.74 N-m 6769.45 m 1.21 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.35 4484.00 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 2 6250 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 63250 N/m Pressure at A Pressure at D Net Lateral pressure of Intensity Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt. water pressure having an intensity of zero at A and 0 14805.D 37577.87 N For the vertical member AD.852.14 N-m -1754. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 1.14 N-m 31.M at E Free B.852. γCon.2 N C F 37577.87 N w = 51.5 N/m 2 75750 N/m .38 N 19153.14 0 Free B.830.48 17050.35 rad.87 N 10336. 0.2 N 19153.45 ha hd 13641.2 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 1.63 N/mm² 6. 415 Fe M25 (C25/30) Steel strength 500 N/mm2 fyk In this case.47 N-m 13621.2 5944. simply supported B.M at F For the vertical member AD.58 N-m 5238.M at the mid-span B.45 m 3 25000 N/m 250 2 12000 N/m 2 45000 N/m 3 18000 N/m 20 deg.59 N-m 19153.

26 N-m .44 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity bottom = Due to symmetry. and of uniform dimensions.33 Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 0.pL2/12 + WL/15 -11081. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC 0.56 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 27946. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.49 27946.23 h Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv.56 N/m2 8825.67 0.93 N-m 13272.wL2/12 pos.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 27946.56 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity at top = 25937. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.03 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 4755.wL2/12 pos. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.Ka = Ka.67 N-m -4685.

51 -2862.68 5.10 52.07 2 63250 N/m 45856.56 -8.M Balance 13272.25 N 2 75750 N/m 54918.93 Final moments 9262.03 212.D.31 -156. indicating loading.67 26.89 -7638.33 D DA 0.09 -636.33 F. carrying U.85 -9262.75 N For the horizontal slab AB.36 11.03 Carry Over Balance -78.79 7638.02 -78.07 -11081.E.D.03 -2862.67 4217.84 954.26 -4685.03 11.78 -7.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.06 234.20 106.07 -35.78 2.10 Carry Over Balance -35.79 954.34 23.03 -17.93 2108. B.92 468.67 A AB 0.92 Carry Over Balance -318.51 2108.75 Carry Over Balance -702.67 AD 0.61 -318.79 -1405.L Vertical reaction at D and C The free body diagrams for various members.01 26.01 -70.26 -5724.75 4755. carrying U.34 Carry Over Balance -8.The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributio n Factor DC 0.17 -702.09 234.68 Carry Over Balance -3.26 1908.31 106.M and reactions are shown below: .

057821 0 Free B.26 N-m -1624.For the vertical member AD.73 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.72 27266. simply supported B.M Net B.35 rad.M 7080.45 m 3 25000 N/m 2 21840 N/m 2 11240.45 ha hd 18655.M at mid-point "F" Net B.2 Depth (m) 1. 0.05 N-m 10645.M at F For the vertical member AD. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 1.2 250 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 1.M at the mid-span B.63 N/m 3 18000 N/m 20 deg. γCon. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength M20 Width (m) 1.M at E Free B.89 N-m 8984.68 N 16622.M at mid-point "E" Net B.70 N-m 1369.82 N-m 19908. 415 Fe Steel strength .73867 1408.45 m 1.23 N 20410.

of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base 9062. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.63 N/m Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ pv.63 N/m 2 39330.Case 3: In this case.50 N/m 2 51830.95 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 10707. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2. and of uniform dimensions.wL2/12 pos.95 N/m2 Earth pressure intensity at top = 23504.49 10707.16 N-m .67 0.95 N/m2 8825.pL2/12 + WL/15 2 0.wL /12 pos.00 N/m 2 33080. it is assumed that there is no lateral pressure due to live load.Ka Lateral pressure due to dead = Ka.58 N/m 0.33 -6891.53 N/m2 Earth pressure intensity bottom = 2 12796. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.63 N/m Pressure at A Pressure at D Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 10707. 0 14210 N/m2 2 6250.230737 h Due to symmetry.05 N-m 9081.

.

07 -544.L Vertical reaction at D and C The free body diagrams for various members.14 Carry Over Balance -30.21 -1727.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.06 N-m -1727.16 -2451.66 2 39330.66 Carry Over Balance -568.54 -4902.44 817.26 Carry Over Balance -7.67 A AB 0.36 Final moments 5685.M Balance 9081.M and reactions are shown below: .36 Carry Over Balance -63.81 -272.02 4.54 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributio n Factor DC 0.02 Carry Over Balance -3.14 42.21 1634.09 -6.68 4055.60 -1136.60 817. indicating loading. B.71 189.41 -126.17 -7.27 90.33 D DA 0. carrying U.07 189.41 1704.05 10.09 -30.22 378.09 2.33 -2451.57 -63.05 1704.63 N/m 37577.D.67 AD 0.26 20.79 21.D.52 21.06 3409.22 Carry Over Balance -272.72 -5685.03 10.66 1777.34 -4055.33 F.05 -14.14 -568.63 N/m 28514.where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 1777.41 90.E.36 181.66 -6891.70 N 2 51830.20 N For the horizontal slab AB.79 -60. carrying U.

94 11256.58 N-m 6280.21 N 10336. dMx/dx which gives x = Mmax 28237. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 1.966 m 2 -487.For the vertical member AD.18 N-m x Let the max.95 x 2.66 -6297.92 N-m 13621.38 x 2 5353.45 ha hd 6297.66 -6297.M at mid-point "E" Net B.97 x -974.97 x 2 0.5 x Mx For max.M Net B.M at the mid-span B.M at F For the vertical member AD.28 0 Free B.M at mid-point "F" Net B.33 x 2 5353. Design of top slab .77 x3 -162. hogging B.59 10707.59 x 5. Mx 4055.73 -495.M occur at a distance x below A.46 0 = 4055.59 x 0.59 N -8204.74 N-m 7936.74 N-m -6297.M at E Free B.M -2628.14 N-m -1629. simply supported B.45 N-m 2242.

92 4055.82 7638.62E+07 N-mm 2 239. . of 81. Bars @ 150 mm c/c. Overall depth (mm) Effective depth (mm) 250 Cover (mm) 200 50 Use M20 concrete.352 N-m.47 5098.The top slab is subjected to the following values of B.) 3 6280.23 (comp. induced at mid-span.M. and direct forces: B.07 18655.87 R 1.3 m from edges.59 (tensile) Case The section is thus to be designed for a B.38 j 4.M.16 Against a required value of Hence increase the Mr = Ast Rbd2 250 mm 6.M at Centre B.11 13641.M at End Direct force (N-m) (N-m) (N) 1 5238.55 mm 2 314 mm Using 20 mm ɸ bars having Aɸ = Spacing 1311 mm provide 16 mm dia.26 % 2 321 mm 0.38 (comp.28E+06 N-mm d ok 200 4.62E+07 N-mm 0.66 6297. Actual Ast provided 2 2093 mm 150 mm Bend half the bars up near supports at distance of = Area of distribution steel 2 Ast 643 mm Area on each face 0.) 2 8984. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k Mr = Rbd2 0.

Design of bottom slab The bottom slab is subjected to the following values of B. Actual area = Bend half the bars at the outer face near supports. and direct forces: B. Provide 12 mm dia.) 3 7936.38 j 96 mm 196 mm 200 mm 0. Bars @ 200 mm c/c.324 j 2 150 mm 200 mm for HYSD bars 0.57 N-m.011 Ast 2 270 mm .Spacing of 8 mm dia.M at End Direct force (N-m) (N-m) (N) 1 6769.14 5685. the slab is subjected to a B.87 R 1.616.324 j 6852. Additional bars @ 200 mm c/c. Section at supports Max. B.) 2 10645.M.M of And direct force of σst k 2 190 N/mm 0.011 Area available from the bars bent up from the middle section These bars will serve the purpose.892 R 1.M.60 -8204. At the ends.59 19153.68 (comp.892 R 1. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side)) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k d= D= Provide D = Ast 2 541. 580 mm 2 2616 mm Provide distribution reinforcement of 8 mm dia.26 9262.79 20410. σst k Ast 5098.87 N for HYSD bars 0. Bars 156.59 N-m 19153. Bars @ 130 mm c/c on each face. on each face.16 d= 150 mm Spacing of 20 mm ɸ bars = Provide these @ 120 mm c/c.14 6852.21 (tensile) 2 1047 mm Case The section is thus to be designed for a B.87 (comp. Overall depth (mm) Cover (mm) 50 Use M20 concrete. 6. Bars 200 mm c/c provide 12 mm dia.2 mm use 12 mm dia.32 mm 0.M.11 N-m 2 190 N/mm 0. of 10. induced at mid-span.M at Centre B.

20 N Case The side walls are thus subjected to a maximum B.Area available from the bars bent down from the middle section = 2 1308 mm Addition area required = 2 -1038 mm provide 8 mm dia.67 mm 20 .74 5685.73 9262. throughout the slab.60 37577.M at End Direct force point (N-m) (N-m) (N) 1 31.59 N-m 37577.21 6852. Design side walls The top slab is subjected to the following values of B.M at Centre or intermediate B.M of And direct compression of Eccentricity (e) 182. 7. e/D = 1.M.01 < 1. and direct forces: B.20 3 28237. Additional Bars @ 200 mm c/c.5 300 A st 2 104. at its bottom.79 37577.59 37577. Bars @300 mm c/c provided on both the faces with a cover of 50 mm.4 mm 180 mm Let the thickness of the wall be Let us reinforce the section with 20 mm di.20 2 1369.20 6852.

H20. for example an H12 bar has the same cross-section area as a circular bar of diameter 12 mm.5 : Sectional areas of groups of bars (mm 2 ) . H16. that is π 12 2 /4 113 mm 2 . H8. The bars are not smooth cylinders but have raised ribs on the surface to improve the bond between the steel and the concrete. Table 3. H25.4 gives the cross-section area of one bar. Reinforcing bars are available designated H6.4: Cross-section areas. maximum lateral dimension and mass of reinforcing bars Table 3.Reinforcing Bars Table 3.3 : Tensile properties of steel reinforcing bars to BS4449 Note: Class H is normally specifi ed. H32 and H40. Table 3. H10. its maximum lateral dimension over the ribs and its mass per metre. although H40 bars are not often used. The number in the designation is a nominal bar diameter which describes the cross-section area of the bar. H12.

If a cube and a cylinder are made of the same concrete then the cube will achieve a higher strength because the steel platens of the compression testing machine exert a greater lateral restraint on a stocky cube than they do on a more slender cylinder. Table 3. A grade description of C25/30 means that the concrete is specifi ed for compressive strength and that the characteristic strength 28 days after casting should be at least 25 N/mm 2 if cylinders are tested or 30 N/mm 2 if cubes are tested. Concrete Cover to the Reinforcement .Table 3.6(a) : Sectional areas per metre width for various bar sizes and spacing (mm 2 /m) Concrete Concrete is normally specifi ed in terms of compressive strength.7 : Concrete grades to BS 8500 and BS EN 206 Design calculations are always based on f ck which is the cylinder compressive strength and is the lower of the two values in the grade designation. Other concrete grades are shown in Table 3. Cubes are normally used in the UK.7 . which may be tested by crushing cubes or cylinders.

9 . (3) If the element will be subject to freezing and thawing when it is wet. . Table 3.Durability depends on a combination of concrete grade and concrete cover. In some situations a thick cover of lower grade concrete can achieve the same durability as a thinner cover of higher grade concrete. a member of SpeCC. the nominal cover values may be reduced by 5 mm. Note that: Table 3. air-entrained concrete should be used. the Specialist Concrete Contractors Certiﬁcation scheme).10 : Nominal concrete cover to reinforcement for concrete made with OPC for a 50-year design life Notes: (1) The speciﬁed cover should be provided to all reinforcement.10 gives recommended covers and concrete grades for the exposure conditions in Table 3. (2) When the work is carried out by a company with a recognised quality control system (speciﬁcally.

Actual area = 580 mm 2 2616 mm Provide distribution reinforcement of 8 mm dia. Bars @ 130 mm c/c. Bars 156. Bars @ 130 mm c/c on each face.32 mm 130 mm Spacing of 20 mm ɸ bars = Provide these @ 120 mm c/c.3 m from edges. Bars @ 130 mm c/c.33 % 2 Ast 643 mm Area on each face 2 321 mm 0. Ast 2 270 mm Area available from the bars bent down from the middle section = Design side walls 2 1308 mm . Actual Ast provided 2 2415 mm 130 mm Bend half the bars up near supports at distance of = Area of distribution steel 0. Design of bottom slab Ast 2 541. on each face. Design of top slab Overall depth (mm) Effective depth (mm) Ast 2 239.Summary of Results 1. Spacing of 8 mm dia.55 mm 2 314 mm 250 Cover (mm) 200 50 Using 20 mm ɸ bars having Aɸ = Spacing 1311 mm provide 20 mm dia.2 mm provide 8 mm dia.

67 mm .A st 2 104.

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