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# MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I

Joint Member Distribution Factor DC 0.33 95665 -18781.67

D DA 0.67 -39320 -37563.33 14595 -9730 AD 0.67 33830 29190.00 -18781.667 12521.1111

A AB 0.33 -77615 14595.00

F.E.M Balance

Carry Over Balance -4865 Carry Over Balance

6260.56

6260.55556 -4865 -2086.85185 -4173.7037 3243.33333 1621.66667 -2086.8519 -540.555556 -1081.1111 1391.23457 695.617284 -540.55556 -231.872428 -463.74486 360.37037 180.185185 -231.87243 -60.0617284 -120.12346 154.581619 77.2908093 -60.061728 -25.7636031 -51.527206 40.0411523 69073.2282 -69073.228 54164.6639

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I

1621.67

Carry Over Balance

695.62

Carry Over Balance

180.19

Carry Over Balance

77.29

Carry Over Balance

20.02 -54164.66 N-m

Final moments

Joint Member Distribution Factor DC 0.33 95665 -18781.67

D DA 0.67 -39320 -37563.33 14595 -9730 6260.55556 AD 0.67 33830 29190.00 -18781.667 12521.1111 -4865

A AB 0.33 -77615 14595.00

F.E.M Balance

Carry Over Balance -4865 Carry Over Balance

6260.56

-2086.85185 -4173.7037 3243.33333 Carry Over Balance 1621.66667 -2086.8519 -540.555556 -1081.1111 1391.23457 695.617284 -540.55556 -231.872428 -463.74486 360.37037 180.185185 -231.87243 -60.0617284 -120.12346 154.581619 77.2908093 -60.061728 -25.7636031 -51.527206 40.0411523 69073.2282 -69073.228 54164.6639

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I

1621.67

695.62

Carry Over Balance

180.19

Carry Over Balance

77.29

Carry Over Balance

20.02 -54164.66 N-m

Final moments

Joint Member Distribution Factor DC 0.33 95665 -18781.67

D DA 0.67 -39320 -37563.33 14595 -9730 AD 0.67 33830 29190.00 -18781.667 12521.1111

A AB 0.33 -77615 14595.00

F.E.M Balance

Carry Over Balance -4865 Carry Over Balance

6260.56

6260.55556 -4865 -2086.85185 -4173.7037 3243.33333 1621.66667 -2086.8519 -540.555556 -1081.1111 1391.23457 695.617284 -540.55556 -231.872428 -463.74486 360.37037 180.185185 -231.87243 -60.0617284 -120.12346 154.581619 77.2908093 -60.061728 -25.7636031 -51.527206 40.0411523 69073.2282 -69073.228 54164.6639

1621.67

Carry Over Balance

695.62

Carry Over Balance

180.19

Carry Over Balance

77.29

Carry Over Balance

20.02 -54164.66 N-m

Final moments

415 Fe M25 (C25/30) Steel strength 500 N/mm fyk Dead and live loads from outside while no water pressure from inside 2 7500 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 64500 N/m Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.00 N/m Lateral pressure intensity bottom = 2 2 Due to symmetry.wL2/12 pos.Job Number: Job Title: Client: Calcs by: Width (m) 3.wL /12 pos.33 19000 N/m2 6000 h 19000 6000h Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv.pL /12 + WL/15 2 2 0. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 1: 2 12000 N/m 45000 N/m 18000 N/m 30 deg. Since all the members have uniform thicknes. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 28500 N/m 2 79500 N/m 0. and of uniform dimensions.523599 rad.5 Sheet: Checked by: Date: Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Depth (m) 3. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.67 0. γCon. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.8 m 3 25000 N/m 2 300 Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.33 -77615 N-m 95665 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 33837. 2 3 0.93 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member DC D DA AD A AB . half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.Ka = Ka.5 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 3.8 m 3.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 19000 N/m Lateral pressure intensity at top = 41800.73 N-m -39324.

M at E Free B.11 695.02 69076.Distributi on Factor 0.E.10 -231.03 20.04 33837.18 -54168.00 N-m 6750.M Net B.14 3242.M 54872.84 -77615 14592.56 -463.11 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Width (m) 3.28 -51.15 -120.8 ha hd 46616.04 54168.01 -4173.M at the mid-span B.M at mid-point "F " Net B.0511 Carry Over Balance -25. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 3.5 N-m 74421.52 -60.57 77.M at F For the vertical member AD.28 -18780.5 N-m 62254.D.31 180.93 -37560.67 1391.67 Carry Over Balance -540.76 1621.42 Carry Over Balance -4864.67 0.38 1621.04 -69076.M Balance 95665 -18780.15 180.5 Slab thickness (mm) 300 .M at mid-point "E" Net B.L Vertical reaction at D and C 2 64500 N/m 122550 N 2 79500 N/m 151050 N For the vertical member AD.86 137180 54872 0 Free B.46 Carry Over Balance -231.85 Carry Over Balance -60.01 6260. simply supported B.33 F.38 -1080.01 6260.32 N-m 143497.14 Carry Over Balance -2086.05 40.02 -39324.70 -540.28 77.46 N-m -14907.85 154.73 29184.D.33 0.88 N 68903.67 0.12 N 116422.42 -9728.76 Final moments 14592.56 695.18 For the horizontal slab AB.02 12520.34 -4864. carrying U.92 -2086.5 Depth (m) 3.46 360. carrying U.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.

67 0.33 -77615 N-m 95665 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 15912.Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.wL2/12 pos.wL /12 pos.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 19000 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity at top = 4560.67 0. of Each side wall 2 7500 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 64500 N/m 28500 N/m 2 79500 N/m Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 0. γCon.8 m 25000 N/m 500 N/mm2 fyk 3 2 45000 N/m 3 18000 N/m 30 deg. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.33 0.8 m 3.67 0. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 2: 12000 N/m 2 Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 3.00 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity bottom = Due to symmetry. 415 Fe M25 (C25/30) Steel strength In this case.523599 rad. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.65 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributi on Factor DC D DA AD A AB 0.33 . 0.pL /12 + WL/15 2 2 0.33 19000 N/m2 6000 h 19000 6000h Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv. water pressure having an intensity of zero at A and 0 37240 N/m2 N/m 2 Pressure at A Pressure at D Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.Ka = Ka. and of uniform dimensions. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.88 N-m -12437. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.

08 For the horizontal slab AB.32 -56757.30 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Superimposed dead load Live load Width (m) 3.26 2285.64 Carry Over Balance -38.06 Final moments 20567.E.M at mid-point "E" Net B.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.11 -84.5 Depth (m) 3.58 -27742.5 N-m 86740.90 15912.45 N 21142.33 114. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 3.17 114.19995 69504.75 Carry Over Balance -342.M at F For the vertical member AD.8 ha hd 23621.37 -13711. simply supported B.M Balance 95665.55 N 116422.5 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 300 2 12000 N/m 2 45000 N/m 3.49 Carry Over Balance -761.92 -169.50 228.42 N-m 143497. carrying U.00 -27742.37 Carry Over Balance -6855.18 N-m -12666.84 253.49 2055.L Vertical reaction at D and C 64500 N/m 122550 N 2 2 79500 N/m 151050 N For the vertical member AD.M at mid-point "F" Net B. carrying U.65 -55484.17 -76.79 4570.97 9247.08 -44091.00 1027.D.51 -3082.45 -12437.48 -6164.50 1027.F.D.8 m .21 56757.28 -342.64 56.43 28.88 41134.90 N-m 29161.23 32923.92 253.M at the mid-span B.M Net B.75 -77615 20567.53 0 Free B.48 9247.5 N-m 72331.00 -761.M at E Free B.75 507.50 -685.50 Carry Over Balance -84.99 -6855.45 18494.53 2285.32 44091.26 -1523.M 21262.8 m 3.79 Carry Over Balance -3082.

08 11253.Ka Lateral pressure due to dead = Ka.04 Carry Over Balance -8861. it is assumed that there is no lateral pressure due to live load.wL /12 pos. 415 Fe 3 25000 N/m Steel strength In this case.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 0.12 5612.67 0.12 22506.67 0.04 .33 4000 N/m2 6000 h 3999.35 -67518.Unit wt. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 3: M20 18000 N/m 30 deg.523599 rad. 0 37240 N/m2 2 7500 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 64500 N/m Pressure at A Pressure at D Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.wL2/12 pos.04 -17722.pL /12 + WL/15 2 2 2 2 22800 N/m 2 0.M Balance 95665. of Each side wall 28500 N/m 79500 N/m 2 Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ pv. 3 0.00 26584.67 0.69 -33759. γCon.08 -77615.12 N-m 5612.33 -77615 N-m 95665 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA -2137.33 F.35 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributi on Factor DC D DA AD A AB 0. Since all the members Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.00 -33759.E.00 N/m Earth pressure intensity bottom = Due to symmetry.23 -2137.12 53168.999999 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 3999.35 26584. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.999999 N/m Earth pressure intensity at top = 26800.33 0.

Direct force (N-m) m) (N) Case .68 1250.31 Final moments 11253.15 N-m 4878.35 5907.78 277.10 N-m 47215.29 N-m 143497.34 1250.55 4000.40 72.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.55 x 0. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 3.85 138.5 N-m 95761.33 x 2000 x 2 35070. carrying U.21 -35070.43 N-m Let the max.78 2953.06 N-m -12666.34 -833.93 -92.20 328.40 Carry Over Balance -46.21 4878.04 -7502.M at the mid-span B.D.40 328.44 -47736.78 Carry Over Balance -109. carrying U.5 N-m 81352.78 -1969.45 N 116422.33 x 3 = 0 5.03 -8861.M at Centre B.966 m 2 -1900 x 2 2000 x -3800.5 x Mx For max.01 Carry Over Balance -984.56 2953.20 -218.Carry Over Balance -3751.M at mid-point "E" Net B.47 47736. hogging B. Design of top slab The top slab is subjected to the following values of B.55 x 2 -633.56 -984.M at End (N.8 ha hd -4878.3 0 Free B.M 5812.00 x 2. dMx/dx which gives x = Mmax 50609.L Vertical reaction at D and C 2 64500 N/m 122550 N 2 79500 N/m 151050 N For the vertical member AD.M Net B.M at mid-point "F" Net B.59 656.M at F For the vertical member AD.59 Carry Over Balance -416.80 -416.62 -109. simply supported B. and direct forces: B.M at E Free B.21 4878.M occur at a distance x below A.23 28880 -34752.00 x 0.93 138. Mx 35070.19 -3751.21 For the horizontal slab AB.44 35070.55 N 7357.01 2500.M.93 36.D.

42 81352.22E+07 N-mm 8. Section at supports Max.761 N-m.375 j 7.29 54168.) 3 95761.) 23621.352 N-m. Actual Ast provided 2 2415 mm 130 mm Bend half the bars up near supports at distance of = Area of distribution steel 2 Ast 759 mm Area on each face Spacing of 8 mm dia.M at Centre B. Provide 8 mm dia.874 R 1.) 2 86740.324 j 2 1184 mm 130 mm for HYSD bars 0.155 .M at End (N. on each face. σst k Ast 54168.45 (comp.32 21142. Overall depth (mm) Cover (mm) 50 Use M20 concrete.18 44091. B.08 35070. Additional bars @ 200 mm c/c.155 Against a required value of Hence increase the thickness to Mr = Ast Rbd2 2 2298.M. 132. of 95. Overall depth (mm) Effective depth (mm) 300 Cover (mm) 250 50 Use M20 concrete.) -4878.1 2 3 62254.375 j 288 mm 0. Design of bottom slab The Bottom slab is subjected to the following values of B.18 56757.M. induced at mid-span.874 R 1.46 69076.14E+07 N-mm 0. Bars @ 130 mm c/c. 6.M.28 mm 320 mm 8.06 47736.88 (comp. induced at mid-span.32 72331.21 46616. of 81.42E+07 N-mm d 270 Using 20 mm ɸ bars having Aɸ = Spacing 137 mm 2 314 mm provide 20 mm dia.011 Area available from the bars bent up from the middle section 2 1208 mm These bars will serve the purpose.Direct force (N-m) m) (N) 1 74421.45 (tensile) Case The section is thus to be designed for a B.24 % 2 379 mm 0.892 R 1. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side)) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k Mr = Rbd2 0.44 7357.M. and direct forces: B.8 m from edges.3 mm provide 8 mm dia. Bars 0.55 (tensile) The section is thus to be designed for a B. Bars @ 130 mm c/c. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side)) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k d= 0.04 68903.12 (comp.18 N-m 2 190 N/mm 0.55 (comp.

67 mm . Additional Bars @ 200 mm c/c. At the ends. the slab is subjected to a B. Actual area = Bend half the bars at the outer face near supports. throughout the slab.M.3 mm 320 mm 1.D= Provide D = Ast 338 mm 340 mm 2519.00 N Case The side walls are thus subjected to a maximum B.15 47736. Bars @ 130 mm c/c on each face.011 Area available from the bars bent down from the middle section = Addition area required = 2 98 mm 2 1308 mm provide 8 mm dia.M of And direct force of σst k Ast 2 190 N/mm 0.28 mm 2 d= 290 mm Spacing of 20 mm ɸ bars = Provide these @ 120 mm c/c.44 151050.32 151050.04 N-m 151050.M at End (N.5 Let the thickness of the wall be e/D = 1.M at Centre or intermediate B.30 56757.892 R 1.Direct force point (N-m) m) (N) 1 6750.00 2 29161.00 69076.00 3 50609. and direct forces: B. 125 mm 2 2616 mm Provide distribution reinforcement of 8 mm dia. 7. at its bottom.04 N-m 68903. Bars @300 mm c/c provided on both the faces with a cover of 50 mm. Design side walls The top slab is subjected to the following values of B.324 j 2 1406 mm 69076. 300 20 2 A st 104.12 N for HYSD bars 0.43 < Let us reinforce the section with 20 mm di.04 151050.11 69076.M of And direct compression of Eccentricity (e) 457.

5 N/m 2 51830.49 .34906585 rad.45 m 1. γCon.63 N/m 0.625 N/m 3 18000 N/m 20 deg. of Soil Angle of repose 2 21840 N/m 2 11240.Job Number: Job Title: Ann's Grove Head Regulator Client: Ministry of Agriculture Calcs by: O. Concrete strength Case 1: M25 (C25/30) Steel strength 415 Fe 500 N/mm2 fyk Dead and live loads from outside while no water pressure from inside 2 6250.63 N/m Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.2 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt. 250 Centre line of frame 1.B1 Width (m) 1. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 9062.2 Sheet: Checked by: Date: Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Depth (m) 1.0 N/m 2 33080.45 m 3 25000 N/m 0.63 N/m 2 39330.

wL2/12 pos.67 -1631.67 AD 0.33 D DA 0.83 3738.M Balance 9081.83 Carry Over Balance -350.40 -4186.wL2/12 pos. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.80 .23 h Due to symmetry.16 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 3738.55 2101.12 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity at top = 29015.97 -3262.67 A AB 0.70 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity bottom = 16219.79 1050.55 N-m -4186.E. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.67 0.33 -6891.05 N-m 9081.05 1050.Ka = Ka.28 -700.12 N/m2 8825. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.40 1087. and of uniform dimensions.12 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 16219.97 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributio n Factor DC 0.33 F.56 543.pL2/12 + WL/15 0.Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv.60 -6891.16 -1631.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 16219. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.

84 -38.63 N/mm² 5.514.71 -4.84 60.63 N/m 28514.641.M and reactions are shown below: 5.28 12.11 N-m w = 39.42 12.D.7 N E 1700. carrying U.14 Carry Over Balance -4.52 -181.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.38 N B 28. carrying U.7 N (a) .330.38 N A 28.80 -362.27 Carry Over Balance -38.53 116.32 Carry Over Balance -2.43 -4.70 N 2 51830.098.14 13.098.59 543.11 1.95 -20.42 -40.92 Carry Over Balance -20. indicating loading.48 -6852.L Vertical reaction at D and C The free body diagrams for various members.97 -8.32 2.59 -350.97 6.92 25.641.44 -5098.24 Final moments 6852.76 60.11 2 39330.71 For the horizontal slab AB.Carry Over Balance -181.27 120.514.00 13.65 6. B.76 -77.28 233.20 N 116.11 N-m 13.88 5098.D.63 N/m 37577.

2 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 1.45 ha hd 13641.2 5944.59 N-m 6.48 17050.830. simply supported B.70 14210.M Width (m) 1.14 N-m 31.87 N w = 51.35 4484. γCon.2 N 19153.M at mid-point "E" Net B.M at the mid-span B.87 N For the vertical member AD. water pressure having an intensity of zero at A and 0 14805.59 N-m 19153.M at mid-point "F " Net B. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base 9062.35 rad. 415 Fe M25 (C25/30) Steel strength 500 N/mm2 fyk In this case.00 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 2 6250 N/m 2 57000 N/m 2 63250 N/m Pressure at A Pressure at D Net Lateral pressure of Intensity Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.45 m 3 25000 N/m 250 2 12000 N/m 2 45000 N/m 3 18000 N/m 20 deg.M at E Free B. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 1.D 37577.38 N 19153.14 N-m -1754.M at F For the vertical member AD.87 N 10336.21 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.852.63 N/mm² 6.58 N-m 5238.5 N/m 2 75750 N/m .M Net B.14 0 Free B. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength Case 2: Depth (m) 1.2 N C F 37577.852.47 N-m 13621.74 N-m 6769. 0.45 m 1.

03 N-m where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 4755.Ka = Ka.26 N-m . half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution.56 N/m2 8825. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC 0.56 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 27946.pL2/12 + WL/15 -11081.23 h Lateral pressure due to dead and live load pv.wL2/12 pos.56 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity at top = 25937.33 Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.93 N-m 13272.67 0. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.49 27946.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 27946.67 N-m -4685.44 N/m2 Lateral pressure intensity bottom = Due to symmetry.Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ 0. and of uniform dimensions. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.wL2/12 pos.

20 106.79 -1405.26 -4685.36 11.79 7638.68 Carry Over Balance -3.26 1908.85 -9262.61 -318.67 26.68 5.10 52.26 -5724.75 4755.03 Carry Over Balance -78. carrying U.92 Carry Over Balance -318.56 -8.34 Carry Over Balance -8.07 -11081.03 -2862.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.51 -2862.75 N For the horizontal slab AB.33 F.89 -7638.34 23.D.09 -636.31 106.The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributio n Factor DC 0.03 11.33 D DA 0.01 -70.78 -7.D. indicating loading.M Balance 13272.10 Carry Over Balance -35.17 -702.03 -17.93 2108.51 2108.01 26.75 Carry Over Balance -702.E.67 A AB 0.67 AD 0.84 954.92 468.M and reactions are shown below: .02 -78.06 234. carrying U.07 2 63250 N/m 45856.25 N 2 75750 N/m 54918.07 -35.09 234.67 4217.79 954.93 Final moments 9262.03 212.78 2.31 -156. B.L Vertical reaction at D and C The free body diagrams for various members.

82 N-m 19908.M 7080.M Net B.M at mid-point "F" Net B.M at F For the vertical member AD. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 1.70 N-m 1369.68 N 16622.05 N-m 10645.23 N 20410.M at the mid-span B. 0.26 N-m -1624.35 rad.45 m 1. simply supported B.45 ha hd 18655. γCon.2 Depth (m) 1.M at mid-point "E" Net B. 415 Fe Steel strength .M at E Free B. of Soil Angle of repose Concrete strength M20 Width (m) 1.73 N-m Design of Box Culvert Inside Dimensions Superimposed dead load Live load Unit wt.45 m 3 25000 N/m 2 21840 N/m 2 11240.89 N-m 8984.2 250 Slab thickness (mm) Vertical and horizontal slab Centre line of frame 1.73867 1408.63 N/m 3 18000 N/m 20 deg.For the vertical member AD.057821 0 Free B.72 27266.

wL /12 pos. half of the frame of the box culvert is considered for moment distribution. Since all the members have uniform thicknes.53 N/m2 Earth pressure intensity bottom = 2 12796.Case 3: In this case.00 N/m 2 33080.05 N-m 9081. of Each side wall Upward soil reaction at base 9062.95 6000h Total Lateral pressure at depth h = 10707.wh Lateral pressure due to soil = 10707.33 -6891.63 N/m 2 39330.Ka Lateral pressure due to dead = Ka.95 N/m2 Earth pressure intensity at top = 23504.67 0.63 N/m Pressure at A Pressure at D Self weight of top slab Live and dead loads Total load on top slab Wt.63 N/m Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka = 1-sinΦ/1+sinΦ pv.wL2/12 pos. and of uniform dimensions.49 10707. the relative stiffness K for AD will be equal to 1 while the relative stiffness for AE and DF will be 1/2.pL2/12 + WL/15 2 0.95 N/m2 8825. 0 14210 N/m2 2 6250. Distribution factor for AD and DA Distribution factor for AB and DC Fixed end moments MFAB MFDC MFAD neg.230737 h Due to symmetry.16 N-m .50 N/m 2 51830.58 N/m 0. it is assumed that there is no lateral pressure due to live load.

.

63 N/m 28514.21 1634.60 817. carrying U.26 20.79 -60.71 189.67 A AB 0.67 AD 0.L Vertical reaction at D and C The free body diagrams for various members.66 1777. B.09 2.17 -7.36 Carry Over Balance -63.41 90.34 -4055.66 2 39330.14 Carry Over Balance -30.41 -126.L Vertical reaction at A and B For Bottom slab DC.66 -6891.36 181.33 -2451.22 378.E.68 4055.66 Carry Over Balance -568.22 Carry Over Balance -272.09 -30.05 10.70 N 2 51830.M and reactions are shown below: .D.03 10.14 42.41 1704.81 -272.54 N-m The moment distribution is carried out as illustrated in table below: MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FOR CASE I Joint Member Distributio n Factor DC 0.21 -1727.44 817.16 -2451.57 -63.36 Final moments 5685.05 -14.M Balance 9081.72 -5685.06 3409. indicating loading.26 Carry Over Balance -7.33 D DA 0.09 -6.20 N For the horizontal slab AB.05 1704.02 4. carrying U.27 90.14 -568.06 N-m -1727.where W is the total triangular earth pressure MFAD MFDA 1777.54 -4902.07 -544.63 N/m 37577.60 -1136.79 21.02 Carry Over Balance -3.07 189.D.33 F.52 21.

M at F For the vertical member AD. Mx 4055. dMx/dx which gives x = Mmax 28237.M Net B.66 -6297. simply supported B.66 -6297.33 x 2 5353.97 x -974.966 m 2 -487.74 N-m -6297.59 N -8204.38 x 2 5353.59 x 0.45 N-m 2242.28 0 Free B.95 x 2.59 10707.14 N-m -1629.M at mid-point "E" Net B. the horizontal reaction is found by taking moments at D ha * 1.18 N-m x Let the max. Design of top slab . hogging B.M at mid-point "F" Net B.77 x3 -162.94 11256.M occur at a distance x below A.45 ha hd 6297.For the vertical member AD.M -2628.97 x 2 0.21 N 10336.74 N-m 7936.92 N-m 13621.58 N-m 6280.5 x Mx For max.59 x 5.46 0 = 4055.M at E Free B.M at the mid-span B.73 -495.

3 m from edges.The top slab is subjected to the following values of B. and direct forces: B. induced at mid-span. Overall depth (mm) Effective depth (mm) 250 Cover (mm) 200 50 Use M20 concrete.07 18655.M at Centre B.62E+07 N-mm 0.M.) 2 8984.38 j 4.26 % 2 321 mm 0.) 3 6280.352 N-m. .66 6297.47 5098.16 Against a required value of Hence increase the Mr = Ast Rbd2 250 mm 6.M.92 4055. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k Mr = Rbd2 0.87 R 1. Bars @ 150 mm c/c.11 13641.62E+07 N-mm 2 239. Actual Ast provided 2 2093 mm 150 mm Bend half the bars up near supports at distance of = Area of distribution steel 2 Ast 643 mm Area on each face 0.82 7638.M at End Direct force (N-m) (N-m) (N) 1 5238.59 (tensile) Case The section is thus to be designed for a B.55 mm 2 314 mm Using 20 mm ɸ bars having Aɸ = Spacing 1311 mm provide 16 mm dia.28E+06 N-mm d ok 200 4.23 (comp.38 (comp. of 81.

Bars @ 130 mm c/c on each face. Design of bottom slab The bottom slab is subjected to the following values of B. 580 mm 2 2616 mm Provide distribution reinforcement of 8 mm dia.M. of 10.59 19153.) 2 10645.Spacing of 8 mm dia.87 N for HYSD bars 0. Actual area = Bend half the bars at the outer face near supports.11 N-m 2 190 N/mm 0.57 N-m.60 -8204.59 N-m 19153.011 Area available from the bars bent up from the middle section These bars will serve the purpose.32 mm 0.14 5685. Bars 156. Overall depth (mm) Cover (mm) 50 Use M20 concrete.38 j 96 mm 196 mm 200 mm 0. Section at supports Max. (since tension occurs at the inner face (toward water side)) 2 σst 150 N/mm for HYSD bars k d= D= Provide D = Ast 2 541.324 j 2 150 mm 200 mm for HYSD bars 0. on each face.87 R 1.2 mm use 12 mm dia. σst k Ast 5098. Additional bars @ 200 mm c/c.M at End Direct force (N-m) (N-m) (N) 1 6769.14 6852.616.011 Ast 2 270 mm .M at Centre B.324 j 6852. and direct forces: B.21 (tensile) 2 1047 mm Case The section is thus to be designed for a B.M.M of And direct force of σst k 2 190 N/mm 0. 6.26 9262.M.) 3 7936.892 R 1. induced at mid-span. the slab is subjected to a B. Bars @ 200 mm c/c. Bars 200 mm c/c provide 12 mm dia.87 (comp.68 (comp. B.16 d= 150 mm Spacing of 20 mm ɸ bars = Provide these @ 120 mm c/c.79 20410. Provide 12 mm dia.892 R 1. At the ends.

60 37577.M at End Direct force point (N-m) (N-m) (N) 1 31.20 N Case The side walls are thus subjected to a maximum B.01 < 1.21 6852. Design side walls The top slab is subjected to the following values of B.59 N-m 37577.M at Centre or intermediate B.20 2 1369. 7.M. Additional Bars @ 200 mm c/c.73 9262.5 300 A st 2 104. at its bottom. e/D = 1.Area available from the bars bent down from the middle section = 2 1308 mm Addition area required = 2 -1038 mm provide 8 mm dia. throughout the slab.79 37577.20 3 28237.20 6852.74 5685.59 37577.M of And direct compression of Eccentricity (e) 182.67 mm 20 . Bars @300 mm c/c provided on both the faces with a cover of 50 mm. and direct forces: B.4 mm 180 mm Let the thickness of the wall be Let us reinforce the section with 20 mm di.

Table 3. although H40 bars are not often used.Reinforcing Bars Table 3.3 : Tensile properties of steel reinforcing bars to BS4449 Note: Class H is normally specifi ed. H20.4 gives the cross-section area of one bar. H16. The bars are not smooth cylinders but have raised ribs on the surface to improve the bond between the steel and the concrete. its maximum lateral dimension over the ribs and its mass per metre.4: Cross-section areas. The number in the designation is a nominal bar diameter which describes the cross-section area of the bar. maximum lateral dimension and mass of reinforcing bars Table 3. H32 and H40.5 : Sectional areas of groups of bars (mm 2 ) . Table 3. H25. for example an H12 bar has the same cross-section area as a circular bar of diameter 12 mm. H8. that is π 12 2 /4 113 mm 2 . H10. H12. Reinforcing bars are available designated H6.

A grade description of C25/30 means that the concrete is specifi ed for compressive strength and that the characteristic strength 28 days after casting should be at least 25 N/mm 2 if cylinders are tested or 30 N/mm 2 if cubes are tested. Other concrete grades are shown in Table 3.6(a) : Sectional areas per metre width for various bar sizes and spacing (mm 2 /m) Concrete Concrete is normally specifi ed in terms of compressive strength. Concrete Cover to the Reinforcement .7 : Concrete grades to BS 8500 and BS EN 206 Design calculations are always based on f ck which is the cylinder compressive strength and is the lower of the two values in the grade designation. which may be tested by crushing cubes or cylinders. If a cube and a cylinder are made of the same concrete then the cube will achieve a higher strength because the steel platens of the compression testing machine exert a greater lateral restraint on a stocky cube than they do on a more slender cylinder. Cubes are normally used in the UK.7 .Table 3. Table 3.

Durability depends on a combination of concrete grade and concrete cover. the nominal cover values may be reduced by 5 mm.10 gives recommended covers and concrete grades for the exposure conditions in Table 3.10 : Nominal concrete cover to reinforcement for concrete made with OPC for a 50-year design life Notes: (1) The speciﬁed cover should be provided to all reinforcement. (2) When the work is carried out by a company with a recognised quality control system (speciﬁcally. air-entrained concrete should be used. . Table 3. the Specialist Concrete Contractors Certiﬁcation scheme). Note that: Table 3. a member of SpeCC.9 . (3) If the element will be subject to freezing and thawing when it is wet. In some situations a thick cover of lower grade concrete can achieve the same durability as a thinner cover of higher grade concrete.

Design of top slab Overall depth (mm) Effective depth (mm) Ast 2 239. Bars 156. Actual area = 580 mm 2 2616 mm Provide distribution reinforcement of 8 mm dia. on each face. Actual Ast provided 2 2415 mm 130 mm Bend half the bars up near supports at distance of = Area of distribution steel 0.2 mm provide 8 mm dia.55 mm 2 314 mm 250 Cover (mm) 200 50 Using 20 mm ɸ bars having Aɸ = Spacing 1311 mm provide 20 mm dia. Ast 2 270 mm Area available from the bars bent down from the middle section = Design side walls 2 1308 mm .3 m from edges.Summary of Results 1. Bars @ 130 mm c/c on each face. Bars @ 130 mm c/c. Design of bottom slab Ast 2 541.32 mm 130 mm Spacing of 20 mm ɸ bars = Provide these @ 120 mm c/c. Spacing of 8 mm dia. Bars @ 130 mm c/c.33 % 2 Ast 643 mm Area on each face 2 321 mm 0.

67 mm .A st 2 104.