COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM Successful suppression of revolutionary outbreak after the formal end of the Fil-Am war was

enough reason for the Filipino elite to pursue the alternative of peaceful struggle. Involvement During the Military Phase, 1899-1913 1899, Schurman Commission --> also known as the First Philippine Commission -->the legislature of the Philippines, then known as the Philippine Islands under the sovereign control of the United States during the Philippine-American War. It was established by United States President William McKinley on January 20, 1899, and tasked to study the situation in the Philippines and make recommendations on how the U.S should proceed. --> five-person group headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University, to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. Members: George Dewey Charles H. Denby Elwell S. Otis-military governor Jacob G. Schurman-head of the commission Dean C. Worcester In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it. Specific recommendations included the establishment of civilian government as rapidly as possible (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor), including establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels, and a system of free public elementary schools. The Christian Filipinos In the local level Negros Island-->as early as November 1899, they organized themselves into a provisional government clearly opposing Aguinaldo’s revolutionary movement. February 1899-->committee of prominent landowners from Negros were welcomed by the military government under Gen. E. Otis March 1, 1899-->Otis created the Visayan Military district with Gen James. F. Smith as governor of Negros. Negrense provincial junta-->useful ally of American against Malolos government, represented by Aguinaldo-appointed emissaries, Quintin Salas and Zoilo Mauricio, and the masses led by Dionisio Magbuela (“Papa Isio”) Baliwag, Bulacan-->first organized municipal government by the Schurman Commission In the Central Government Involvement of the Filipino elite or occupying the top executive, legislative and judicial positions exercised vast powers and influence international affairs.

Compromise with Colonialism Hand-Out



2. the tausugs in sulu. gave him the advantage to deal with of the muslim in the moro province. Cayetano Arellano-->appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Gen. Basic orientation of the elite. Illustrated by Datu Santiago of Cotabato. In tribal communities. bandits. & even the proposed Datu school in zamboanga were meantto prepare the ruling clas for active involvement in their own local areas. Saleeby-->medical practitioner turned educator. Why the Elite Two basic reasons for the elite’s willingness to accept colonialism: 1. The Cultural Communities In cultural communities the Americans were also successful in coopting the ruling elite at the start of their rule. John Pershing( Governor of Moro Province).he remarked “ the school system depends for its success entirely upon the American teachers. Natural fear of losing the security of their interests because of the growing demand of the masses for the redistribution of economic benefits and resources.Gregorio Araneta and Benito Legarda--> appointed as members of the Philippine Commission which performed executive and legislative powers and functions. -->believed in the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. Compromise with Colonialism Hand-Out 2 czap . and enemies of what they represented in the society. Dr. Local leaders helped by setting personal examples of hygiene and proper sanitation. American teachers and missionaries opened path to understanding the American benevolent (kind/giving/compassionate) rule through schools. The building of schools were undertaken under American supervision of course of native workers. educational direction must for some time remain in the hands of the American teachers. In Mindanao -->part of American strategy to make use of local datus and leaders to promote the need for social services. and medical work. -->professor of law of Santo Tomas and top practising lawyer. & although Filipino teachers do excellent work under proper supervision. > Christian Arab. Cayetano Arellano & Trinidad Pardo de Tavera -->examples of condescending (arrogant) attitude toward Filipino masses. religious missions. /*schools for the subanuns. which felt distrust in the integrity and character of the masses whom the elite regarded as trouble makers. Education were emphasized. > His knowledge of Arabic and islam provided him with a personal touch that enabled him to win lot of friends. Brig. Nejeb M.

American have impressive firepowers that impressed Ifugaos. Barows (who became the head of the Bureau of NonChristian Tribes) study the set-up of Cordillera. the American gun made the difference. He was only allowed to exercise the rights & duties of a spiritual leader. -->the change from the mere theoretical to actual grant of substantial participation in the gov’t of the Filipinos. The Carpenter-Kiram Agreement Sultan Jamamul KIram and Governor Frank W. -->the agreement created problems for the Sultan. Increase in Filipino Participation Political Change in the United States 1912--> new president Woodrow Wilson -->political change: from republican to democratic rule. About 92 chiefs of the ifugao went to a conference to organize a gov’t in the ifugao area. change to Filipino majority in the Phil . Only the Nagacaran ifugaos boycotted the meeting. In executive branh.> His initial work as medical surgeon in Malabang. reinforced by a practice of avoiding outright confiscation of food and resources and valuables and readiness to assist in rendering speedy justice in disputes and conflict. 1915--> the agreement divested the Sultan all his political powers and privilege/right. Carpenter March 22. Humiwat-leader of an Ifugao band. who beheaded an American soldier. first Democratic governor general for the Philippines.The secretary of the interior Worcester had gotten Dominga Atandada of Dullayan and Rafael Baluyunoan to accept American rule. Compromise with Colonialism Hand-Out 3 czap . 1903.Dr. 1912 presidential election 1913-->Francis Burton Harrison. surrendered and offered his cooperation in the American effort to establish a presence in the cordillera. Commision(1913). Effects on Colony Change from republican to democratic brought changes in American expansionist policy. --> the condition of the agreement emphasized the total sovereignty of the United States over all the territory of the sultanate in all matters except in mattes of religion. Council of State (advisory body of the Chief executive)& Board of Control(regulated government participation in business corporation and firms)(1918). David P. Conflict of two Ifugao group (Sabangan and Hapao). 1902. Civil service-70% Filipino by 1913 & 6% American by 1921. Ifugao head-hunting activities were constant problems. Lanao provided oppurtunties to win Ilanus( a muslim sub-ethic group) In the Cordillera Americans were confronted by the many problems of the Filipino american war which had brought the retreating force of 200 filipinos under Aguinaldo to the traditionally hostile ifugao.

“Rapid Filipinization”. or have been government employees during Spanish period.S & the Phil. the Bureau of Customs. There were a lot of practical advantages the elite could get from the American colonial government compared to the zero offerings under Spanish rule. 1907-Philippine Assembly was created -->’lower house’ which is subordinate to Philippine Commission which serve s the ‘upper house’. In effect. Limits to Filipinization Restraints to Elitism -->Filipinization involved only the upper crust of Filipino society. -->the partnership of Filipino and American interests were strengthened by the dependence of the Filipino land owning class on lucrative American markets for agricultutal exports. American knew that aside from superior American control.Gen. and must be property owners. Social Effects of Filipinization Tradition vs. -->legislative powers were given to the Filipinos. economic control is basic to political control. wealth and status in the islands. Tydings-McDuffie Law-->the quotas were re-imposed. interests was limited by a quota system while American interests were free. Filipino member of the Philippine commission were from the landlord and capitalist families. was not equal. The restriction of Filipino participation to the elite guaranteed the success of American colonial administration nevertheless the numerical dominance of the Filipinos in the government. Economic Limitation “free trade” provision of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909 -->the exercise of freedom by the U. Those who could run for office must be able to read and write. the election law is limited participation to the elite. -->bicameral legislature was created composed of 24-member senate as the upper house & a House of Representatives as the house Chamber. Compromise with Colonialism Hand-Out 4 czap . All members were elected except the 2 senators from the non-christian sector were appointed by the Gov.S the cooperation and loyalty of the Filipino elite.Harrison’s colonial policy was called. 1916. Underwood-Simmons Tariff 1913 abolished the quotas in the Phil. & the Cabinet of the Governor-General. American readiness to give more to the Filipinos the administration of the bureaucracy except the highest executive post in the islands: the position of Secretary of Public Instruction and the positions controlling the finances such as the National Treasury. exports. Filipino elite showed positive role they could play and that Americans were ready to give them significant share of power. The compromise of Filipino leadership earned for the U. The freedom of Fil. the Bureau of Internal Revenue and the local treasuries. Modernism -->confrontation between Filipino traditional ways and the new system.Jones Law was passed. The control of the sources of the revenues & their use was enough to neutralize any adverse effect of Filipinization on American control. Dichotomy of systems in which a democratic form and a traditional essence were welded to create a “Democracy Filipino sytle” American democratic style had found a distinct place in Filipino life.

-->Reports of petty violations were noted like thieveries to bribery of employees. Harrison’s term was the best because it was a demonstration of what trust could do to Filipino-American relations. graft and corruption. -->towards the end of Harrison Era changes of Filipino incompetence in the bureaucracy. -->but to the Filipinos. hence became the common basis for criticism against the administration of Harrison.-->the essence of democracy has not been developed because Filipino values continued to manifest their influence in the actual operation of the new democracy. Compromise with Colonialism Hand-Out 5 czap . and the unpreparedness of the Filipinos for independence.

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