PROCESSES OF WORD FORMATION A.

Compounding Compounding is simply the joining of two or more words into a single word, as in hang glider, airstrip, cornflakes, busybody, downpour, cutoff, skywarn, alongside, breakfast, long-haired, devil-may-care, high school. B. Derivation Derivation is the forming of new words by combining derivational affixes or bound bases with existing words, as in disadvise, emplane, deplane, teleplay, ecosystem, coachdom, counsellorship, re-ask. C. Invention Now and then new words are totally invented, like Kodak, nylon, dingbat, goof, quark and blurb, but few of these find their way into the common vocabulary. D. Echoism (root creation) Echoism is the formation of words whose sound suggests their meaning, like hiss and peewee. But the meaning may also be the creature that produces the sound, like bobwhite. Examples: moan, click, murmur, quack, thunder, whisper, lisp, chickadee, bobolink. I Indicate by the first letter the process of formation represented by each of the words below. Compounding derivation Invention Echoism 1. roughneck _ 6. pop _ 2. codgerhood _ 7. cream puff _ 3. clink (of glasses) _ 8. wheeze _ 4. doodad _ 9. weirdoism _ 5. dacron _ 10. exflux _ E. Clipping Clipping means cutting off the beginning or the end of a word, or both, leaving a part to stand for the whole: lab, dorm, prof, exam, gym, prom, math, psych, mike… II Give the original words from which these clipped words were formed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. porno disco taxi cab deli vibes gin hype __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ 9. curio 10. memo 11. Fred 12. Al 13. Tom 14. Joe 15. Phil __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

6. NOW 3. OPEC 7. 1. van __________ 9. For example. chute __________ 10. Amerindian maître d’ contrail taxicab moped comsat agribusiness F. as in MP (military police. Blending Blending is the fusion of two words into one. usually the first part of one word with the last part of another. IV Give the originals of these clipped words. jeep 10. from gasoline and alcohol. such as modifier plus noun. or Member of Parliament). NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and radar (radio detecting and ranging). 1. UNESCO 4. sport (game) __________ 6. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ . is a clipped form of parachutist trooper. In others the initials and/or beginning segments are pronounced as the spelled word would be. V Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals.III Give the original words from which these clipped words were formed. Paratrooper. bus __________ 8. laser G. Gene __________ 4. wig __________ 2. pike (road) __________ 7. 2. for example. RV 2. cute __________ 3. In some cases the initials are pronounced. Tony __________ Clipped words are formed not only from individual words but from grammatical units. Acronymy Acronymy is the process whereby a word is formed from the initials or beginning segments of a succession of words. ICBM 9. scuba 6. 7. 3. WASP 8. as in gasohol. OK 5. Beth __________ 5. 4. 5. 1.

beggar. _____________ ____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ ____________ 2. and edit. flunk 2. after the introduction of the nouns peddler. VIII 1. form the noun speaker. beg. telecast 9. From this analogy what verb is back-formed from television? ______________ 3. speakers followed the analogy of such word-pairs as tell-teller. The noun greed is a back-formation from the adjective greedy. swindler. 1. This process is the reverse of customary method of word formation. On this analogy what back-formations would you expect from donation and oration? _______________ and ______________ IX These verbs are back-formations. Write the words from which they are back-formed. The pairs revise-revision and supervise-supervision are in common use in English. An example is hedgehop. dumbfound 8. transfer automobile escalade blare or blow squall + resistor + omnibus + elevator + spurt + squeak = _________________ = _________________ = _________________ = _________________ = _________________ H. 5. Back-formation Centuries ago. splatter _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ VII Give the blends that result from fusing these words. whereby we begin with a verb like speak and. Write four pairs of words that constitute an analogy for the creation of greed. simulcast 5. writewriter. reap-reaper. The process is called back-formation. and editor into our language. separate-separation. snap-judge ____________ . 3. gelignite 6. reminisce ____________ 3. smog 7. typewrite ____________ 10. housekeep ____________ 9.VI Give the originals of these blends: 1. stagflation 4. swindle. and created the verbs peddle. dandle 10. English has many pairs on the pattern of create-creation. 2. and deviatedeviation. happenstance 3. administrate ____________ 11. 1. escalate ____________ 2. 4. from the noun hedgehopper. by adding the agent morpheme {-ER n}.

resurrect 5. the verb frisbee comes from the Frisbie Bakery in Bridgewater. baby-sit 6. but it may be the first half. usually with a change of vowel or initial consonant. Connecticut. and hanky-panky. whose pie tins were used for a throwing game. emote 14. hangnail ____________ 8. reluct 15. like boogie-woogie. advance-register 7. tiptop. Usually the reason for the change will be apparent. carryall ____________ 6. female ____________ 5. frankfurter ____________ 8. or both halves. sidle I. coleslaw ____________ 3. originating morpheme is most frequently the second half. pitter-patter 5. super-duper 2. back-seat-drive 17. for instance. 1. hugger-mugger 3. Welsh rarebit ____________ 2. jeans ____________ 4. Reduplication Reduplication is the process of forming a new word by doubling a morpheme. a don juan. a verb. sandwich ____________ 6. hamburger ____________ 7. hang glide ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ A process of changing a word. If he is too quixotic. or neither half. he may meet his waterloo at the hands of some sheba or jezebel. cockroach ____________ 7. denim ____________ 2. a casanova. or a lothario. baloney. nitwit 6. bologna ____________ 10. XI Look up in your dictionary the following instances of antonomasia and write the original of each in the blanks. guy ____________ K. lovey-dovey . is known as folk etymology. as in pooh-pooh. bridegroom ____________ 4. wiggle-waggle 4. party-poop 16. Antonomasia Antonomasia means the formation of a common noun. X Look up in your dictionary the following examples of folk etymology and write the source of each in the blanks. The basic. laze 8. to make it more understandable and more like familiar words.4. in part or in whole. XII Underline the originating morpheme in each of these twin-words: 1. or an adjective from the name of a person or place. may be called a romeo. like singsong. Folk Etymology ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 12. like ticktock. A lover. For example. leotard ____________ 5. cashmere ____________ 3. deficit-spend 13. wiener ____________ 9. helpmate ____________ J. 1. like dilly-dally.

The base morpheme is repeated with a change of vowel. tiptop. razzle-dazzle. 1. hocus-pocus _ 8. wishy-washy _ 4. Examples: fuddy-duddy. humdrum _ 10. leaving only a small residue of irregular forms.Twin-words can be divided into three classes. hootchy-kootchy. flipflop _ 9. criss-cross XIII Identify the class of twin-word by one of these numbers: 1. The base morpheme is repeated with a change of initial consonant. knick-knack _ 2. Repetition with change of initial consonant 3. Examples: clop-clop. hotsy-totsy _ 7. quack-quack _ 5. tootsie-wootsie. heebiejeebies. The base morpheme is repeated without change. teeny-weeny. tick-tick 2. Repetition without change 2. Examples: chitchat. nitty-gritty . Repetition with change of vowel _ 1. ding-dong _ 3. roly-poly. 3. rowdy-dowdy _ 6.