French
Language Course
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Contents

004 - Lessons
• • • •

005 - Introductory lessons 039 - Level one lessons 081 - Level two lessons 129 - Level three lessons

• • •

170 - Grammar 209 - Appendices 244 - About this Wikibooks
• •

245 - Authors 246 - GNU Free Documentation License

Third Edition
Published: May 05, 2006

PDF created by Hagindaz

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The current version of this book can be found at

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LESSONS

Vue de Paris depuis la terrasse de la Samaritaine

.Introductory French Logo officiel du gouvernement français Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world*! * The views and opinions expressed do not necessarily state or reflect those of Wikibooks as a whole or any of its affiliates.French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! .

03 Leçon 03 : L'alphabet Letters Punctuation 011 Lesson 03 : The Alphabet 0.06 Leçon 06 : Le discours formel Vous vs. Names 017 Lesson 05 : Greetings 0.02 Leçon 02 : Apprendre le français Reasons To Learn French.09 Leçon 09 : Les dates Numbers 01-31. Stress 015 Lesson 04 : Accents 0.07 Leçon 07 : Ça va? Asking How One Is Doing 021 Lesson 07 : How are you? 0. tu.01 Leçon 01 : L'introduction History of the French Language Extent of the French Language 007 Lesson 01 : Introduction 0.05 Leçon 05 : Les salutations Greetings Good-byes. Seasons Days of the week. Months of the Year 027 Lesson 09 : Dates 0. Grave Accent Tonic Accent.08 Leçon 08 : Les numéros Cardinal Numbers Ordinal Numbers 024 Lesson 08 : Numbers 0.04 Leçon 04 : Les accents Acute Accent. France . Asking For One's Name 019 Lesson 06 : Formal Speech 0. Times of Day Asking for the time 029 Lesson 10 : Telling Time Aiguilles d'Arves.Introductory Level Contents 0. Courtesy Titles.10 Leçon 10 : L'heure Numbers 30-60. Book Organization 009 Lesson 02 : Learning French Advice on Studying French 0.

thus appropriately becoming the lingua franca of its time.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. It is the native tongue of over 87 million people and has an additional 68 million non-native speakers. most noticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. Spanish. For this reason. culture. although English is a Germanic language. at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French. French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past. royal courts across Europe and also in trade. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question History Further information: History of the French language In medieval times and until the 19th century. administration. Italian.01 • Introduction Introduction See also: French language French is a Romance language. it was often the language used in diplomacy. and Romanian. descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese. .

but it is also used in other parts of the country notably New Brunswick. Algeria.01 • Introduction live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Switzerland. Mauritius. being an official language of the United Nations. Togo. Tunisia. Burundi. the Seychelles. Main article: La Francophonie Main article: French colonial empires In modern terms. Rwanda. and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec. which is the only bilingual province. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French labels). Haiti. Morocco. Chad. Burkina Faso. It is the official language of 29 countries and is spoken in France. Niger. where it is the primary language. Belgium. Mali. Cameroon.Extent of the Language French is spoken all around the world. Gabon. it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language. the Olympic Games. Luxemburg. the Ivory Coast. Madagascar. the Congo. Allons-y! Bonne chance! congratulations on completing Lesson 0. and the European Union. Djibouti. Senegal.

generally long-term. a period of immersion (where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. If you are serious about learning French. You must train all of these skills. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. While it is true that it poses certain difficulties to native English-speakers. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the more complex. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. and practice. For listening and speaking. In addition to societal reasons. it is highly likely that you will begin to forget it. Listen. This allows you to start with a clean slate. it may be noted that English is also considered to be 'difficult'. which links to French-language news stories. TV. or the Internet. Try to make it a part of your schedule. as babies do. even if it's not daily. an excellent source is Google's news page. Pay attention to pronunciation. . Because much can be lost in translation. Most countries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country. In fact.02 • Learning French Reasons To Learn French As mentioned earlier. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. most of us are unwilling to take that step. at least make it regular. then try listening to French-language programs on the radio. and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language. French is significantly used as a diplomatic language. which will enrich your vocabulary. While this course can teach you to read and write in French. the best way to go about reading these works is in the native language. You are bound to find speakers almost everywhere in the world. French is a complete language. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Advice on Studying French Main article: How to learn a language French tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. Remember that you are learning a new skill. The next best thing is immersion. Remember that. the French language can be learned in only ten months. Read French newspapers and magazines. like any skill. it requires a certain amount of effort. speak. However. Rent or buy French-language movies. If you can't travel to a French-speaking country. Again. there exist dozens of famous French novels and nonfiction works in a variety of subjects. finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with these skills. and they will reinforce one another. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. And if you do not practice your French regularly.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. this is only half of the skills that make up fluency. Learning any new language requires some commitment.

the most common past tense. The fourth level (still in development). congratulations on completing Lesson 0. is given. most common present tense.Book Organization This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons. see the lessons planning page. the passé composé. you will learn basic grammar. In the first level. the page of which you are reading now. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases. For more on course structure. you will learn several more tenses and complex grammar rules. will be conducted in French and will focus on French literature and prose writing. In the third level.02 • Learning French live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . including pronouns. and information on how you can help improve this book. In the second level. and four increasingly complex lesson levels. and several irregularly-conjugated verbs. along with many other irregular verbs. the present indicative.

ü. . î. û. è.03 • Alphabet Introduction French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash Characters Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Pronunciation zhee kah el emm enn oh pay ku Characters Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Pronunciation ess tay oo vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ii ee Rr air In addition. ö. ù. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. ë. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. ô. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. These are: à. ê. ï.

Letters and Examples French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français name in French letter pronunciation (in IPA transcription) Aa like a in father /a/ Bb like b in baby* /be/ before e and i: like c in center Cc /se/ before a. Vv like v in violin /ve/ Depending on the derivation of the Ww word. like u in nut Oo /o/ open: like o in nose Pp like p in pen* /pe/ /ky/ see 'u' Qq like k in kite for details force air through the back of your throat Rr /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at begining Ss of word or with two s's /ɛs/ or like z in amazing if only one s Tt like t in top /te/ Say the English letter e. o. or u: like c in cat Dd like d in dog /de/ Ee approx. or w in water either /ks/ in socks. Xx /iks/ or /gz/ in exit Yy like ea in leak /igrək/ . Uu /y/ but make your lips say "oo". like u in burp** /ə/ Ff like f in fog /ɛf/ before e and i: like s in measure Gg /ʒe/ before a. or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below* Hh /aʃ/ non-aspirated h: not pronounced*** Ii like ea in team /i/ Jj like s in measure /ʒi/ Kk like k in kite /ka/ Ll like l in lemon /ɛl/ Mm like m in minute /ɛm/ Nn like n in note /ɛn/ closed: approx. /dubləve/ like v as in violin. o.

héroïne is a non-aspirated h. say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (') before the pronunciation. your pronunciation is slightly off. are never pronounced at the end of a word. and try it again. Did you notice the extra puff of air in the first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ]. • • If the paper moved. (hero) has an aspirated h. Say the words baby. 3. What do these terms mean? • Ex. the words must be memorized. when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French. (h aspiré). In short. pronounced like the English 'bell. say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. the feminine form of héros. congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly! Aspirated vs. . 4. it becomes l'héroïne. certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. If the paper didn't move. If you're a native speaker. t (as in 'chat'). d (as in 'marchand). when you put the definite artcle in front of it. and x (as in 'paresseux'). s (as in 'héros'). depending on which language the word was borrowed from.: the word héros. non-aspirated h In French.'). the letter h can be aspirated. Notice how the paper moved when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively. the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of 'h' aspiré below.Zz like z in zebra /zɛd/ Final consonants and the liaison In French. However. without making the piece of paper move. Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is aspirated. 2. Concentrate. the result is le héros. the 'p' in 'spit' is not (like the 'p' in any position in French). Fortunately. but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). and is pronounced as one word. In terms of phonetics. and papa. (the French equivalent of "Dad"). Exercise 1. or not aspirated. and puppy like you normally would in English. The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary. in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face. little to no air should be expended from your mouth. b and p Unlike English. Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. Now. Therefore. (h non aspiré). The letters p (as in 'coup'). but only in specific environments. and both words must be pronounced separately. because when the definite article le is placed before it.

Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated héros. tiret _ soulignement : deux points ( ) parenthèses / barre oblique . heroine (l'héroïne) habiter. hero (le héros) haïr. et . eight (le huit novembre) non-aspirated héroïne. point virgule congratulations on completing Lesson 0.. Make a column of the two categories of h-word. and ten nonaspirated h words 2.. point * astérisque point + plus ! « » guillemets d'exclamation # dièse barre oblique > supérieur à point \ ? inverse < inférieur à d'interrogation [ ] crochets moins. Look at it every day and memorize the columns. and find at least ten aspirated h words. 3... a @ ' apostrophe commercial. arobe $ dollar . harmony (l'harmonie) Exercise 1.) harmonie. to hate (je hais or j'haïs.03 • Alphabet live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . to live (j'habite. Grab an English-French-English dictionary. Punctuation French Vocabulary • Alphabet • audio (info •608 kb • help) Punctuation • La ponctuation esperluette. virgule { } accolades ~ tilde & commercial = égal % pourcent arobase.) huit.

aigüe: acute(fem)* français: French examples live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question circumflex â. ambiguous). loved regarder. ü. both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text. ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem). (accent circonflexe) ô.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs. ÿ** ç only Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990. ê. Acute Accent . û diaeresis (tréma) cedilla (cédille) ë. maïs: corn. watched .04 • Accents Introduction There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. Pronounced like ï. to love past participle aimé. to watch regardé. it happened to me!) Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words. It is only used with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/. accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. là. ù éléphant: elephant fièvre: fever. à. infinitive aimer. there où: where gâteau: cake. chômage: unemployment. the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë. cigüe and not ciguë. Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding.Accent aigu The acute accent (French. ï. î. conium. île: island. être: to be. most old town names : L'Haÿ-Les-Roses (Paris surburb). They are: accent acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) letters used é only è. dû: past participle of devoir Noël: Christmas.

Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French. sing of avoir. or) • è with accent grave à (preposition. here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é. is used to graphically distinguish one word from another. replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word. Grave Accent .L’accent tonique In English. and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronounced at all. you stress certain syllables more than others. and the word begins with é. to. In careful speech. The è used for pronunciation. without accent grave a (3rd pers. or an approximation thereof: • Ex. at. you pronounce each syllable evenly. congratulations on completing Lesson 0. et al. However in French.Accent grave • à and ù In the case of the letters à and ù.: • • • étable --> stable (for horses) école --> scole --> school il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu.04 • Accents live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . è is not used to distinguish words from one another. an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/. Speech: Tonic Accent .) là (there) où (where) Unlike à and ù. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet. the grave accent (Fr. accent grave). to have) la (definite article for feminine nouns) ou (conjunction.

Euh ? Tu t'appelles comment ? Moi[1]. And you ? (informal) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier 1. à demain. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. Quoi de neuf. Salut. Ah. Marie. Olivier et Luc Salut. Marie.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0.05 • Greetings D: Greetings French Dialogue • Greetings Greetings • Les salutations Jacques et Marie Bonsoir. so. Ah. Jacques ? Pas grand-chose. Bonjour. then 3. à bientôt. Jacques. oui. Luc ! 2. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grand-chose. Olivier. me V: Greetings French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi. (lit./Bye. oui. au revoir. Et toi ?[3] Je suis Olivier. À la prochaine. no big-thing) . je m'appelle Jacques. Tu t'appelles comment ? Luc. Alors. Not much. Alors[2].

Another informal greeting is ciao. V: Names Tu t'appelles comment ? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name. is used to say Good night. In the next lesson. Bonsoir. You want to introduce yourself to him.05 • Greetings live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . tell him your name. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. V: Good-bye French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. It's English equivalents would be hi and hey. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. You respond to this with Je m'appelle [name]. or À tout à l'heure. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain.Good-byes In addition to being used as an informal greeting. À tout à l'heure./Bye. Check for understanding One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France. Hi. should be used for anyone else. tomorrow. À bientôt. and doesn't speak a word of English. Salut. is used if you will be seeing the person the following day.Greetings When talking to one's peers or to children. is used to say Good evening. also means bye. Tomorrow) Au revoir. Bonjour. See you tomorrow. Au revoir is the only formal way to say Good-bye. Bonne nuit. is used. Salut! is used as a greeting. it should only be used among friends. and ask "What's up?" congratulations on completing Lesson 0. see you demain. à Bye. If you will be meeting someone again soon. À demain. literally meaning good day. See you soon. (informal) Au revoir.Formal Lesson . ah byantoe Ciao Bye. an Italian word commonly used in France. you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name. Again. Good-bye. before going to bed. chow (Italian) Formal Lesson .

of course. and also used between children or when addressing a child. except that it is much more formal than all but the last example. otherwise use "vous". "Vous" is a plural form of "you". "all of you". As a rule of thumb. Lambert above as an example of this use. formal version of "you" (although "thou" used to be the informal (arguably archaic) singular version in the days of Shakespeare). This is known as w:Tutoiement. it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu". This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all". I (I is not capitalized in French (unless. French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". someone who is older than you are. Conversely. 1. tu This is an important difference between French and English. to be polite or to be neutral. It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important. use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name. . In French.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. enchanted) G: Vous vs. Et vous ? Monsieur Bernard Moi. Note the conversation between M. Enchanté. Bernard and M. English doesn't have a singular and plural.06 • Formal speech live version discussion D: A Formal Conversation exercises French Dialogue • Formal speech • audio (info •65 kb • help) edit lesson A Formal Conversation • Une conversation formelle comment Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first report an error time: ask a question Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. If it is used when speaking to a stranger. "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. beginning a sentence)) 2. It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member. This is known as w:Vouvoiement. je[1] suis Marc Bernard. it signals disrespect. "you guys". "youse". or someone you are unfamiliar with. Monsieur Lambert Enchanté[2]. "Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect. Nice to meet you (lit. Comment vous appelez-vous ? Monsieur Lambert Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert.

it is polite to say monsieur. shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) V: Titles French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. Pronunciation English. and mademoiselle are almost always used alone. or generally someone older than you.. Young lady M Plural Mesdemoiselles mehdmwahzell Young ladies Formal Lesson .) (Lit: Not of what. madame.) Please S'il vous plaît. Ma'am. Plural Messieurs. M. Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyeu Mr.) (No Pas de quoi. Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). madame. (formal). (Lit: If you please.. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle mahdmwahzell Miss. (Lit: Of nothing. without the last name of the person. or mademoiselle. De rien. Singular Madame mahdamn Mrs. Je t'en prie. mehsyeu Gentlemen. .V: Courtesy French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. employer.Titles The titles monsieur. Sir. When beginning to speak to a professor. problem.) You're welcome.

V: Asking For One's Name
French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •403 kb • help) Asking For One's Name • Demander le nom de quelqu'un Comment vous appelezHow do you call yourself? vous? (formal) Quel est votre nom? What is your name? What is your name? (informal) Tu t'appelles comment? (lit: You call yourself how?) Je m'appelle... My name is... (lit. I call myself...) Je suis... I am... congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.06 • Formal speech
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
D: A Simple Conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
• • • • • • •

Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? Marie: Pas mal. Jean: Quoi de neuf ? Marie: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Au revoir Jean. Jean: Au revoir, à demain.

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • How are you? • audio (info •311 kb • help) How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal) Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways.

E: 1.01 1 - Basic Phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • How are you? • audio (info •266 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Expressions de base Exercise Put the following conversation in order: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques Au revoir bien. Ça va très bien! Et Désolé. vous? À demain. Allez-vous bien? Solution: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques. Comment ça va? bien. Ça va très bien! Et Salut, Michel! vous? Désolé. Allez-vous bien?

Fourth Comment ça va? Salut, Michel!

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Fourth Au revoir. À demain.

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Formal Lesson - Asking How One Is Doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaning very well, and vraiment bien, meaning really well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaning Not bad. Comme-ci, comme-ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add merci, meaning thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.

congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
V: Cardinal Numbers
Main article: French/Appendices/Dates, time, and numbers#Les numéros live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

French Vocabulary • Numbers • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux - neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60

soixante-dix soixante-et-onze soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] quatre-vingts quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf] quatre-vingt-dix quatre-vingt-[onze - dixneuf] cent [deux - neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard

70 71 72-79 80 81 82-89 90 91-99 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1.000 un millier (one thousand) 1.000.000 1.000.000.000

Things of note about numbers:
• • • •

For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21,31,41,51,etc) have "et un"; but past this it is simply both words consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number; this continues up to 1000 and onward. Many speakers of French outside of France refer to the numbers 70 to 99 in the same pattern as the other numbers. For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un," 72 "septante deux," and so on. Ninety is "nonante". In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante".

V: Mathematics Exercices
• • • • • • • • • •

huit plus cinq égal : (treize) cinq et un égal : (six) neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept) trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un) soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts) cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq) dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf) quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze) Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze) soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze)

D: In School
Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est cancre à l'école. Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto, un jour je vous en raconterai une ! Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I will tell you one of them! - L'instituteur : Bonjour, les enfants ! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi, nous allons réviser la table d'addition. Combien font huit plus six ? - Toto : Treize, monsieur ! - L'instituteur : Non Toto tu t'es trompé ! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ? - Clément : Quatorze ! - L'instituteur : Très bien Clément. congratulations on finishing

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. • Les jours de la semaine. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun Notes:
• • • •

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What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less formal). Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. The days of the week are not capitalized in French.

1a 1b 2a 2b

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •320 kb • help) Asking For The Day • Demander le jour Aujourd'hui on est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor jour ? Aujourd'hui on est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour ? Duhman on ay kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day].

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •164 kb • help) Relative Days • Les jours relatifs avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujourd'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow le lendemain the day after tomorrow

V: The Months of the Year
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron. English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 décembre daysahmbruh December • The months of the year are not capitalized in French. • For phrases relating to the months of the year, see the phrasebook French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •99 kb • help) Asking For The Date • Demander la date Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (d'aujourd'hui) ? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. say leuh...

V: Seasons
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
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It is noon. Il est quatre heures et demie.10 • Time V: Asking for the time French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. Il est quatre heures moins le It is a quarter till 4. Il est quatre heures trente. though it would literally translate as “he is”. Il est quatre heures et quart. quart Il est quatre heures quinze. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. Time • Demander le jour/la date/le temps Asking for the time. Il est trois heures. It is four fifteen. French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. It is [number] hours.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. Il est minuit. eelay [nombre] er live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Time In French. It is twenty to five. In English. It is three o’clock. It is ten o’clock. It is midnight. . “il est” is used to express the time. 4a Quelle heure est-il ? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? 4b Quelle heure il est ? kell er eel ay 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). Il est dix heures. Date. it is OK to say. It is half past four. it is actually. It is four forty. in this case. It is four thirty. Il est quatre heures cinq. It is one o’clock. Il est midi. It is a quarter past four. “It’s nine. Il est quatre heures quarante. Unlike in English. It is five past four.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il").

du soir P. in the evening . midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening..10 • Time live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . le matin morning .V: Times of Day French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •618 kb • help) Times of Day • L'heure relatif daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun..du matin A. lit: of the evening la nuit night congratulations on completing Lesson 0..M. lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon...M.

ï.Introductory Lessons Introductory Level • Review G: The French alphabet French Grammar • Review • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee zhee kah el Characters Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy dubleePronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay eeks vay grehk live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Mm em Zz zedh In addition. no big-thing) bye (lit. ô. It's going (very) well) merci thank you et toi ? et vous ? and you? (informal) and you? (formal) pas mal not bad bien well pas si bien/pas très bien not so well comme ci. These are: à. hi (informal) Comment allez-vous? (formal). ê. ë. comme ça so-so Désolé(e) I'm sorry. î. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. è. Comment vas-tu? (informal). at tomorrow) Au revoir. akin to German auf au revoir Wiedersehen) à demain see you tomorrow (lit. quoi de neuf ? what's up (about you)? (lit. û. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ V: Basic Phrases French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •353 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Les expressions de base bonjour. see you tomorrow . How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) ça va (très) bien I'm doing (very) well (lit. ö. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. ü. salut hello (formal). with reseeing. ù. à demain. Bye. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. what's new) pas grand-chose not much (lit.

neuf] 82-89 quatre-vingt-dix 90 quatre-vingt-[onze .neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60 soixante-dix 70 soixante-et-onze 71 soixante-[douze .dix-neuf] 72-79 quatre-vingts 80 quatre-vingt-un 81 quatre-vingt-[deux .V: Numbers French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux .dix91-99 neuf] .neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux .

Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. It is [number] hours.etc) have "et un". le temps Asking for the day. etc) For 100-199. it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. Date. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].000 un millier (one thousand) 1.000. Asking for the date.41.51. Tomorrow is [day]. Today is [day]. this continues up to 1000 and onward. It's [month] [#]. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). trente-trois.000 1.000. V: Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day.31. eelay [nombre] er 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5 . it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number.cent [deux . Asking for the time.000. Time • Demander le jour.000 Things of note about numbers: • • • For 70-79. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six.neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1. la date.

Il est minuit. Il est quatre heures quarante. It is three o’clock. “It’s nine. It is five past four.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. Il est dix heures. It is one o’clock. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It is midnight. Il est quatre heures quinze. Il est trois heures. It is four forty. Il est midi. Il est quatre heures et demie. it is OK to say. it is actually. In English. It is noon. Unlike in English. It is four fifteen. French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. It is four thirty. equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il"). Il est quatre heures cinq. It is a quarter past four. Il est quatre heures et quart. in this case. . It is half past four. It is ten o’clock. “il est” is used to express the time. though it would literally translate as “he is”.V: Time In French. It is twenty to five. Il est quatre heures trente.

Notes: • • • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. or demain. (last two are less formal). # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.. aujourd’hui.. • Les jours de la semaine. • For phrases relating to the day of the week. V: The Months of the Year French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron.. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes... or On est. is not used with hier.. see the phrasebook. Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week.. English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 decembre daysahmbruh December . Nous sommes. C'est. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly.V: The days of the week...

le matin morning ..M..V: Relative Date and Time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •883 kb • help) Relative Date and Time • Date et heure relatives Times of Day daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun.du matin A. in the evening . lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon.. midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening..du soir P. lit: of the evening la nuit night Relative Days avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujord'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow lendemain the day after tomorrow V: Seasons French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter ..M.

1 Bien is an adverb meaning well. In English... J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. other than signifying that a question follows.1 thank you. A demain. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête. 2 Est-ce que.. one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que. entendu. Daniel Until tomorrow. it's at my place. You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne). I'm good. On va danser toute la nuit. 4 on can mean we or one. Hervé. And you.. and is often used to start questions... Since je vais. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. which means good. meaning I go. Et toi ça va ? Hervé I'm good. good day. merci..D: A Conversation Between Friends French Dialogue • Review A Coversation Between Friends • Une conversation entre amis Bonjour Hervé. Daniel March 3rd at 08:00 PM. Daniel Yes. 3 chez. It goes well. C'est très gentil de m'inviter. is a preposition meaning at the house of. A bientôt. C'est quand ? Hervé When is it? [lit: It is when?] Le 3 mars à 20h. Comment vas-tu ? Daniel Hello. thank you. is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. Hervé It's very nice to invite me. I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. How are you? [lit: How go you?] Je vais bien. which uses the linking verb am.. uses an action verb. Instead of You want it?. 3 Hervé Le 3 mars. Chez moi is used to say at my place. literally means Is is that. has no real meaning. merci. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party. agreed. Tu fais ça chez toi ? March 3rd.. bonne journée.. the adjective bien is used. . it goes (fine)? 2 Daniel Ça va bien.. So long. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. We4 are going to dance all night.

And you. Et vous. Director. how are you? Je vais bien. congratulations on completing Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Introductory Level • Review live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . thank you. In the large conference room on the second floor. Est-ce que vous allez bien ? Hello.D: The Principal French Dialogue • Review • audio (info •505 kb • help) The Principal • Le directeur (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc) (knocks on the door: knock knock knock) Entrez ! Enter! Bonjour. I'm well. le temps de tout nettoyer. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. Mr. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my birthday. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser une fête pour mon anniversaire. Are you well? Je vais bien merci. We would need it until 04:00 PM. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM. On en aurait besoin jusqu'à 16 h. monsieur le directeur. Entendu! J'espère que je serais invité ? Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup ! Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir ! Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci ! Good-bye and thanks again. comment allez-vous ? I am well. Et vous voulez l'organiser où ? And you want to organize it where? Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. the time of cleaning everything.

Basic French If you haven't done so already. you can move on to the next level. Finally.French Level One Lessons Allons! . go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Once that's done. spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level. Neouvielle and lac d' aumar .

Articles. Plays G: Prendre V: Elements. Numbers G: Avoir. te. Playing G: Faire.08 072 1.03 051 1. lui and leur V: Games. and les V: Family G: -er Verbs. Housework.05 057 1. me. Astronomy .10 078 Leçon 01 : Grammaire de base Lesson 01 : Basic Grammar Leçon 02 : Être Lesson 02 : To Be Leçon 03 : La description Lesson 03 : Description Leçon 04 : La famille Lesson 04 : Family Leçon 05 : Récréation Lesson 05 : Recreation Leçon 06 : La maison Lesson 06 : The House Leçon 07 : Le temps Lesson 07 : Weather Leçon 08 : Les voyages Lesson 08 : Travel Leçon 09 : L'art Lesson 09 : Art Leçon 10 : La science Lesson 10 : Science G: Gender. Nouveau. Possessive Adjectives V: Hotels. le.07 067 1.02 047 1. Sports.01 041 1. Music. and vous V: Household. la. Beau. Directions G: -re Verbs. Être. Furniture G: Negation.04 054 1. Subject Pronouns V: People G: Conjugation.09 074 1. and Vieux V: Museums. nous. Aller V: Weather G: -ir Verbs.Level One Contents 1.06 062 1. Places. Contractions. Adjectives V: Colors. Être V: G: Conjugation.

which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. professeur. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form.01 • Basic grammar G: Gender of Nouns In French. personne. the word for person. for example.g. and the word for teacher. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. is always feminine.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. is always masculine even if the teacher is female[1].. that is. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. all nouns have a grammatical gender. for example. even if the person is male. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. For example. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. This form can be masculine or feminine.

the (male) teacher) (la prof . there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned.Examples French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval[2] the horse -age the cheese le professeur[1] le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian 1. is always masculine. . (m) will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and (f) will follow a noun to denote a feminine gender. While the long form. There are even words that are spelled the same. and vice versa. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. whereas le foie means liver.the (female) teacher) '2. prof can be either masculine or feminine. Then there are some that just don't make sense. la foi is feminine and means a belief. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. the definate article will come before a noun in vocabulary charts. Unfortunately. (le prof . Professeur can be shortened to prof. In this book. for example. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. un livre (m) means a book. professeur. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. If the definate article is l due to elision. even when referring to female teachers.

"La" is used for feminine nouns.G: Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. the definite article is always “the”. Fils is one exception. le fils les fils un fils des fils the son the sons a son (some) sons le cours les cours un cours des cours the course the courses a course (some) courses Secondly. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Plurality. Pronunciation. Unlike English. The -s is added for the plural form of the noun. Fils: Most singular nouns do not end in -s. there is no change in the plural form. However. It is the article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. Gender 2. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. and Exceptions The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. It is similar to english. Fils (pronounced feece) is also an exception to this rule. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). . the -s ending is not pronounced. In French. 3. Plurality 3. the final consonant is almost always not pronounced unless followed by an -e (or another vowel). Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular [3] masculine le le fils the son singular. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine).

the (male) friend (la) amie . Well when a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound.unnami (uhnahmee) . • • (des) ami . • The Indefinite Article In English.a student un garçon (uh gairsoh) Compare the pronunciation to words without liaiison: • Une is unaffected by liaison. called “elision. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une oon une fille a daughter singular masculine un uh un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des day des fils1 some sons 1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" (when pronounced like "fill") Liaison Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. Liaison also occurs with des. the consonant often becomes pronounced. the vowel sound is dropped. . • • • (le) ami . • • (un) ami .lahmee .the hour/the time This process.deszami (dayzahmee) .(some) (female) friends In this book.lay lev . the indefinite articles are "a" and "an".a (male) friend (un) élève . The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. Again. This is a process called liaison. When a vowel goes directly after un.(some) (male) friends (des) amie . you will see liaison denoted with n or z between two words.the student (la) heure . When pronounced. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality.Elision The definite articles le and la are shortened to l’ when they come before a noun that begins with a vowel.deszamie (dayzahmee) . the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced.” also occurs before a silent h.leur .l'amie .l'ami .l'élève .lahmee the (female) friend (le) élève .l'heure .unnélève (uhnay lev) .

• • C'est un livre.It's a book."Some" Note that des. looking at nothing in particular.. C'est une chemise. you would say "Je regarde les photographies." In French.? at the beginning of sentences.") If you were just flipping through the album. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album.What is it? Literally. "Je regarde des photographies. Qu’est-ce que c’est? translates to What is it that it is? You will be using Qu'est-ce que.") V: People French Vocabulary • Basic grammar People • Les personnes la personne person pehr son Gender and Age l'homme (m) man ohm la femme woman fehm le garçon boy gehrsoh la fille girl fee la fillette little girl fee let Friends l'ami (m) ahmee male friend le copain co pahn l'amie (f) ahmee female friend la copine co peen V: Expressions Qu’est-ce que c’est? To say What is it? or What is that? in French.. we would say "I am looking at photographs. Qu’est-ce que c’est? (pronounced kehss keuh say) is used.It's a dog. you say C’est un(e) [nom].. .. In English. . . C'est un chien.. To respond to this question. • Qu’est-ce que c’est? . If you were looking at a set of specific pictures.? often to say What. you would say." ("I am looking at some photographs. meaning It is a [noun]." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. • . like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. "Je regarde photographies. Remember that the indefinate article (un or une) must agree with the noun it modifies.It's a shirt." ("I am looking at the photographs. you cannot say.

. when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same. voici and voilà are used. and here are. Like in English. They are used to point out objects in front of you or in exclamatory sentences.. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses.. is not often used to point out an object in front of you. To say that. . It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of be and not have. congratulations on completing Lesson 1.Il y a. translates to here is. then. .01 • Basic grammar live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . The -s at the end of the most plural of most nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is.. • Il y a des pommes. Il y a (pronounced eel ee ah) is used to say there is (or there's) and there are.. You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir.. literally translates to he has there. il y a does not change form. The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. il y a. Unlike in English (is => are)..There are (some) apples. and that y is a pronoun meaning there. voilà means there is and there are. The phrase il y a. Similarly. • Il y a une pomme. the verb meaing to have. In spoken French.There is an apple.. the article (and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun) is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions. Voici et Voilà Voici.

02 • To Be D: Where are you from? French Dialogue • To be • audio (info •226 kb • help) Where are you from? • Tu es d’où? Quentin Bonjour. elles they (feminine) . Quentin. Quentin Alors. Léon. Au revoir. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. 2nd. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. elle. Léon. French Grammar • To be • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. Quentin Et Marie. and 3rd person plural. elle est d’où? Elle est de Marseille.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. Elle est française. exactement. on he. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. Léon aussi. tu es français? Léon Oui. she. Dis donc. 2nd. Quentin Merci. Tu es d’où? Léon Je suis de Paris.

as discussed earlier. . however. which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. G: Introduction to Verbs A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state. Each mood has a varying number of tenses. are irregular. “on” is used. “vous” must be used. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns. see notes in the introductory lessons. finir translates to to finish. Infinitives In this book. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". The French third person "on" has several meanings. to express “we”. Tenses and Moods French verbs can be formed in four moods. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. The only exception is the verb "to be" (I am. the male form is used. The most common verbs. we will look at the conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood. when pronounced. which indicate the time when an action takes place. you see. The pronoun it does not exist in French. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. which means that they conjugate in the same way.). Most verbs are regular. Also. the infinitive is one word. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. that is the third person singular (I see. (thou art). However. In French. parler translates to to speak. For more. Conjugation French verbs conjugate. we see. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. When referring to a single person. he/she sees. and aller translates to to go. For example. For example. the infinitive form is to ___. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable.” (formal). he/she is. Il replaces all masculine nouns. even those that are not human. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. Also. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". English verbs only have one conjugation. if a group of people consists of both males and females. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. the infinitive form of the verb will be used to identify it. we are. see the Wikipedia entry. you are. instead of “nous”. Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females.When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. each of which express a unique feeling. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. While in English. they are. they see). the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. more commonly called the present indicative. In English. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. In everyday language. In the next section.

Tu es d’accord? (lit: You are of agreement?). It is an irregular verb. jzeuh swee ah voh cah You are at the Tu es à la banque. or mized) third person elle est ell ay she is on est ohn ay one is elles sont ellsohn they are (fem.Are you ready? Expressing Agreement Tu es d’accord ou pas?. eel ay boh Try to learn all these conjugations. I am (a) lawyer.) Examples French Grammar • To be • audio (info •87 kb • help) To Be Examples • Exemples d'Être Je suis avocat. They will become very useful in forming tenses. or simply D'accord? is used informally to ask whether someone agrees with you.I've done it! Finished! J'y suis! . . or simply D'accord.G: Être . Il est beau.I get it! Vous y êtes? . too ay ah lah bahnk bank. when D'accord. one would say Okay. In English. To respond poitevely. you say Oui. He is handsome.To Be Être translates as to be in English. Formation French Verb • To be • audio (info •103 kb • help) être • to be Singular Plural first person je suis jeuh swee I am nous sommes noo sum we are second person tu es too ay you are vous êtes voozett you are il est eel ay he is they are ils sont eelsohn (masc. Idioms • • • Ça y est! . is used in French. je suis d'accord. and is not conjugated like any other verb.

This is an exception to the normal rule. In the next lesson.02 • To Be live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality . Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French. For example. Elle est de Rome. it is not necessary to include the article.He is Australian. you use the preposition de. Then say what nationality some of your friends are. Marie est italienne. • • Il est Australien. When stating your nationality or job. congratulations on completing Lesson 1. . and what city they are from. • Il est de Paris. Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are. .for males and females respectively. • Je suis Australien(ne).I am Australian.She is Australian. Elle est Australienne.G: Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from. you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person. .

Most adjectives. it does not change in the masculine plural form. Exceptions and Irregularities Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. See French/Grammar/Adjectives for more. amusant.03 • Description G: Adjectives . such as gros. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. lent With plural adjectives. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. When an adjective. the -s ending is not pronounced. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. amusan.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. are affected by this rule. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. ends in -s. so the adjective will sound exactly the same as the singular form. such as those above. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. .Les adjectifs Main article: French/Grammar/Adjectives Just like articles.

Il est gros. Elle est moyenne. Ils sont amusants. gentle Difficulty strict(e)(s) strict facile(s) easy fort(e)(s) strong difficile(s) difficult . Ils sont gros. Elles sont grosses. Elles sont brunes. Ils sont intéressants. Ils sont moyens. Elle est brune. Ils sont petits. intelligents'. Elles sont grandes. Elle est blonde. Elles sont moyennes. Elle est amusante. Ils sont blonds. Elles sont intéressantes.V: Describing People French Grammar • Description • audio (info •1636 kb • help) Describing People • Décrire des personnes Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural size and weight Il est petit. Elle est grosse. V: Common Adjectives French Vocabulary • Description Common Adjectives • Les adjectifs communs Attitude and Personality Size and Weight sympa(thique)(s) nice gros(se)(ses) fat amusant(e)(s) funny petit(e)(s) small intelligent(e)(s) intelligent moyen(ne)(s) average intéressant(e)(s) interesting grand(e)(s) big patient(e)(s) patient sociable(s) sociable Actions timide(s) timid bon(ne(s) good mauvais(e)(s dynamique(s) outgoing bad ) gentil(le)(s) nice. Elles sont blondes. Il est amusant. Elles sont amusantes. Elle est intelligente. Il est grand. Elle est intéressante. Il est intéressant. Elle est petite. Ils sont bruns. Elle est grande. Il est brun. Il est moyen. hair color Il est blond. Ils sont grands. Elles sont intelligentes. Elles sont petites. attitude and personality Ils sont Il est intelligent.

really • Il est vraiment intelligent.03 • Description live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . This process is called liaison. In this book. enough • Il est assez intelligent.He is very intelligent. . z vraiment . . .dark haired) rose rose pink safran safranne saffron G: Adverbs Expressing Degree • • • assez .V: Colors French Vocabulary • Description • audio (info •160 kb • help) Colors • Les couleurs Masculine Feminine English blanc blanche white gris grise gray noir noire black rouge rouge red orange orange orange jaune jaune yellow vert verte green bleu bleue blue violet violette violet marron marron brown (everything but hair) brun brune brown (hair .He is rather intelligent. the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. très .very [1] • Il est très intelligent.rather. ^ Often when a vowel sound comes after a consonant.truly. Trèszin is pronounced trayzahn. congratulations on finishing Lesson 1.He is really intelligent. will will show that the sound is connected usung z.

• • Il y a un livre. [lit: I have thirty years] There is/are . Il y a des livres.04 • Family G: The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (100 kb • help) avoir • to have Singular Plural first person j'ai zjay I have nouszavons noozahvohn we have second person tu as too ah you have il a eel ah he has third person elle a ell ah she has onna ohnah one has vouszavez voozahvay you have ilszont eelzohnt they have (masc.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. I have two pens. or mized) they have (fem. • • Tu as quel âge? . You have three brothers. Il a une idée.I'm thirty (years old).There is a book.There are books. . Tu as trois frères.) elleszont ellzohnt Examples J'ai deux stylos. Expressing Age Avoir is used to express age. . .How old are you? [lit: You have what age?] J'ai trente ans.Il y a The expression il y a means there is or there are. He has an idea.

tati aunt f) les enfants children le neveu nephew la fille daughter la nièce niece le fils son le/la cousin(e) cousin (m or f) Step Family la belle-mère stepmother la demi-soeur half sister le beau-père stepfather le demi-frère half brother To speak about more complex family relations. you must use the de mon/ma/mes form . such as "my grandmother's cousin"."le cousin de ma grandmère".V: The Family French Vocabulary • Family • audio (info •1245 kb • help) The Family • La Famille Immediate Family Extended Family ma famille ma famille my family my extended family éloignée les parents parents les grand-parents grandparents la mère mother le grand-père grandfather le père father la grand-mère grandmother la femme wife les petits-enfants grandchildren le mari husband le petit-fils grandson la soeur sister la petite-fille granddaughter le frère brother l'oncle. . tonton uncle child (m or l'enfant la tante.

. because they are pronouns that are. Il les jette. Lesson 1.).replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . Similary. . both masculine and feminine Il la jette.He throws it. la. • Il jette la boule.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb.. you guessed it.04 • Family live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . tu. and les le.replaces a masculine singular direct object la .replaces plural direct objects.He throws the ball. can be replaced by pronouns. . • • • • le . and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. such as "la boule". In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. direct objects.G: Direct Object Pronouns le. and les are called direct object pronouns. • • Le.He throws them. . congratulations on completing The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. la. used as direct objects. la.

Level One Lessons Lesson 1. Also.. as in J'habite. To conjugate. In all plural forms. . Example: J'attends..05 • Recreation G: Regular -er Verbs Formation Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. normally unpronounced. ne changes to n'..to play French Grammar • Recreation • audio (info •184 kb • help) -er Verb Formation • Formation de verbes en -er pronoun ending verb je -e joue tu -es joues il/elle -e joue nous -ons jouons vous -ez jouez ils/elles -ent jouent Elision and Liaison In all conjugations. drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. as a rule of thumb: h is considered a vowel. the s at the end of each subject pronoun. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question jouer . becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel. If a phrase is negative.

remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb.Common -er Verbs French Grammar • Recreation Formation of Common -er Verbs • Formation des verbes communs en -er Infinitive Stem Present Indicative Conjuagtion First Person Second Person Thrid Person parler parl Je parle Tu parles Il parle Singular to speak Nous parlons Vous parlez Ils parlent Plural habiter habit J'habite Tu habite Il habite Singular to live Nous habitons Vous habitez Ils habitent Plural écouter écout J'écoute Tu écoutes Il écoute Singular to listen Nous écoutons Vous écoutez Ils écoutent Plural S'amuser Main article: French/Grammar/Verbs/Pronominal The verb s'amuser means to have fun in English. Pierre : Je vais au parc. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject. some verbs can be followed by infinitives. . Je n'aime pas parler. • • J'aime parler. Formation Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Like in English. Michel : J'attends mon ami. • • • • • • Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis.We hate working. . Nous détestons travailler. .I like to speak. It is a type of pronominal verb (a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it) called a reflexive verb.I don't like to speak. The most common -er verbs used in this manner are aimer and détester. Christophe : Je viens du stade. When negating a sentence. . • D: Recreation Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. Literally translated. the verb means I amuse myself.

^ Tu rigoles! means You’re joking! or You don’t mean it! V: Places la bibliothèque library1 le parc la piscine la plage le restaurant le stade le théâtre 1Caution: park swimming pool beach restaurant stadium theater a librairie is a bookshop. salle de concert concert hall .V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing? jouer to play finir[1] to finish attendre[1] to wait (for) aimer to like détester to hate rigoler to joke around[2] (mon/ma) ami(e) (my) friend ^ Finir and attendre are not regular -er verbs. You will learn their conjuagtion in a later lesson.

Il leur jette la boule. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects. • • lui . "He throws him the ball" is also said. In English. • Il la lui jette. Note that while le.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. la. .G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. la.He throws the ball to him. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. lui is never shortened . and les. Also note that unlike le and la. .He throws the ball to them. When used with the direct object pronouns le. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. . . and means the same thing.He throws the ball to her. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. Il lui jette la boule. Il jette la boule à Marie. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques.He throws it to him. .He throws the ball to Jack. . lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things.replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur . lui and leur come after those pronouns.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.He throws the ball to Mary. .

. use jouer de.. As always. but when referring to instruments. football de la guitare guitar American football du violon violin au baseball au basket au football au football américain au golf au tennis au volley aux cartes aux dames aux échecs golf de la batterie drums tennis (singular in French) volleyball cards checkers/ draughts chess congratulations on completing Lesson 1. baseball de la clarinette clarinet basketball du piano piano soccer. When referring to sports.. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments. use jouer à..05 • Recreation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question ... jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. jouer de. French Vocabulary • Recreation Play • Jouer jouer à.V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play.

M. view rentrer (à la maison) to go back home quitter (la (tout) près (de) (very) close (to) to leave (home) maison)[2] (pas) (tout) loin (de) (not) (very) far (from) to leave (a room) quitter (une salle) at the house of donner sur la rue to overlook the street chez [person] [person] donner sur la cour to overlook the courtyard at [person]'s house Houses habiter to live (somewhere) la maison house. le premier étage second floor (Habitations à low income housing le deuxième étage third floor Loyer Modéré) le troisième étage fourth floor Cities and Neigborhoods le quartier neigborhood le centre ville downtown l'arrondissement (m) district la ville city la banlieue the suburb le village town Rooms Parts of a Room la pièce room le plafond ceiling la chambre la salle de séjour family room le sol ground la cave basement la fenêtre window le grenier attic le toit roof la cuisine kitchen Entering and Exiting .06 • The house V: The House live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • The house The House • La maison General Actions la rue[1] street arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home) la (belle) vue (beautiful) sight. home habiter en ville to live downtown la maisonnette small house habiter en banlieue to live in the suburb le pavillon individual house l’immeuble (appartment) building Floors l'appartement (m) flat/apartment l'étage (m) level le studio studio le rez-de-chaussée lobby.Level One Lessons Lesson 1.L. ground floor H.

you say habiter rue ____ • • la salle à manger dining room la salle de bains bathroom la chambre à coucher bedroom le garage Garage les toilettes water-closet.le mur wall l'escalier (m) stairs monter à pied to walk up stairs l'ascenseur (m) elevator monter en ascenseur to go up by elevator prendre l'ascenseur to take the elevator monter à pied to go up by foot la porte door l'entrée (f) entry(way) Furniture le rideau curtain la chaise chair la table table l'armoire (f) cupboard le lit bed le tapis carpet le fauteuil armchair ^ To express to live on ____ street. usually a room or building. Partir is used in other phrases. . Il habite Rue de Rennes. .I live on Lecourbe Street. no bath) le bureau office Outside a House la voiture car la terrase patio le balcon balcony le jardin garden la fleur flower l'arbre (m) tree la cour courtyard le (la) voisin(e) neigbor J'habite Rue Lecourbe. ^ Quitter must be followed by a direct object.He lives on Rennes Street. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. . restroom (f) (no singular) (only toliet..

G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. to make Singular Plural first person je fais jzeuh fay I do nous faisons noo fezohn we do second person tu fais too fay il fait eel fay third person elle fait ell fay on fait oh fay you do vous faites voo feht he does ils font eel fohnt she does one does elles font ell fohnt you do they do (masc. or mized) they do (fem. Related Words • • • défaire .to have something done for oneself • Je fais réparer le fourneau.to scold faire la queue .I make/have the stove repaired.to demolish malfaire .to do badly refaire .to pay attention faire connaissance . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (432 kb • help) faire • to do.to remake Expressions with Faire • • • • • faire attention .) Uses For Faire • • • • sports weather tasks le faire causatif • faire (conjugated) + infinitive .to worry . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb).to wait in line s'en faire .to get acquainted faire la morale . .

Il vous voit.me. formal) Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. . .He sees me. te. Il te voit. Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. informal) nous .you.I see you. . • Je veux te voir. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb.He sees us.us. to you (plural.. .I want to see you.V: Housework French Vocabulary • The house • audio (info •524 kb • help) Housework • Le ménage faire la cuisine to do the cooking faire la lessive/le linge to do the laundry faire le jardin to do the gardening faire le lit to make the bed faire le ménage to do the housework faire la vaiselle to do the dishes faire les carreaux to do the windows faire les courses to do the shopping/errands faire le repassage to do the ironing G: me. to you (singular. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • me . . Il nous voit. • Je t'ai vu. If a perfect tense is used. . .you.He sees you. to me te .He sees you. . to us vous .I saw you. nous.

to like to watch computer ^ manger . La maison est de plein pied et ne comporte pas d'étage. Nous aimons regarder[5] la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil. next to ^ y (ee) . il y a un petit salon.He calls to me. . ^ à coté de . La cuisine est toute petite et nous y[6] mangeons[7] le soir. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs.there ^ l'ordinateur (m) ^ aimer regarder . You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary.Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. Chez moi J'habite une villa à Mornant.He throws it to you. à coté de[3] Lyon en France.He throws it to you. .He throws it to us. Don't forget prepositions. Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs[4] : un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté.at the side of. Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises. . Ma maison a 2 chambres : la première pour moi et ma femme avec un grand lit. Il vous le jette.to eat congratulations on completing Lesson 1. Il nous le jette. .06 • The house live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Il te le jette. La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils.

Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. I play the piano. You sell your car. He is [a] lawyer. not the participle. • Je veux ne pas voler. Examples French Grammar • Weather • audio (info •262 kb • help) Negation Formation Examples • Exemples de formation de négation Il est avocat..pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb.I did not steal it. He is not [a] lawyer. The ne is placed before the verb. pas construction must be used. ne. • Je ne le vole pas. while the pas is placed after.. . Nous faisons nos devoirs.. You do not sell your car. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. . Je joue du piano. In a perfect tense. Vous vendez votre voiture. . . We are doing our homework.I do not want to steal. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs.. • Je ne veux pas voler. ne. I do not play the piano..Level One Lessons Lesson 1.07 • Weather G: Standard Negation In order to say that one did not do something. Je ne joue pas du piano.I want to not steal. the ne . ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. Il n'est pas avocat.I do not steal. • Je ne vole pas. We are not doing our homework. • Je n'ai pas volé.. .. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation and Rules • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne.. .pas around the verb.pas wraps around the auxillary verb.I have not stolen. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects.

and des change to de (or d’) when negating a sentence.I have some books. Je n'ai pas de livres. Nous lisons un livre. I eat a cherry. Il n'est pas belge. J'ai des livres..Negation of Indefinate Articles The indefinite articles un. We read a book. I do not eat a cherry. Examples Il est belge.I don't have any book. . . . We do not read a book. Je ne mange pas de cerise. une. He is not Belgian. Nous ne lisons pas de livre.I have a book.I don't have any books. • • • • J'ai un livre. Je mange une cerise. He is Belgian. . Je n'ai pas de livre. .

agitated l'averse (f) downpour le tonnerre thunder ^ Le temps means both the weather and the time. rainy. lit: It falls of the hail. The skiy is clear. mist l'hiver (m) winter la neige snow le brouillard fog Il neige. It's snowing. haze. Le temps est pluvieux. l'éclairage (m) lightening Il va pleuvoir. The sun is shining. break (in clouds) Il fait beau It's nice. . la grêle hail Il tombe de la la bruine drizzle It's hailing. Le soleil brille. Il fait du vent. tempest lit: The weather is . le vent wind lit: The sky is freed. Le ciel est dégagé. The skiy is clearing up. lit: covered Warm Weather l'éclaircie (f) clearing. le soleil sun Il y a des nuages.Le temps[1] French Vocabulary • Weather Weather • Le temps General Cloudy Weather cloud le nuage It's cloudy. Il y a un orage! There's a storm! Il pleut. Le ciel se dégage. The wind blows. grêle.V: Weather . Il fait froid. une goutte de pluie a drop of rain Extreme weather un orage a storm la pluie rain orageux(-euse) stormy La pluie tombe. It's going to rain. clouds. It's cold. rainy pluvieux(-euse) It's raining. It's warm. The rain falls. large black clouds agité(e)(s) stormy. It's windy. It rained. la tempête storm. l'éclair (m) flash (of lightening) il a plu. la rafale gust of wind Rainy Weather Snowy Weather la brume fog. le ciel sky nuageux(-euse) cloudy couvert(e)(s) overcast. Le vent souffle. . de gros nuages noirs. It's raining. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. lit: There are some .

I'm going to the stage. . Il va faire froid. • • • J'y vais. or mized) they go (fem. . . followed by the place. • Tu vas a l'école? . Futur Proche The strucure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future. Tu y vas. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb). you can use the pronoun y. meaing in.We're going there. is used. aller is conjugated as follows: French Verb • Weather • audio (info •327 kb • help) aller • to go Singular Plural nouszallons nouzah lohn we go first person je vais jeuh vay I go second person tu vas too vah you go vouszallez vouzah lay you go they go (masc.You're going there. .It's going to be cold.) il va eel vah he goes ils vont eel vohn third person elle va ell vah she goes on va ohn vah one goes elles vont ell vohn Usage There is no present progressive tense in French. . Remember that à le contracts to au and à les contracts to aux. Remember that aller must be used with a place (there or a name) when indicating that you are going somewhere.You're going to school. • . Formation In the present indicative. at. • Instead of a preposition and place. Je vais au stade. Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. meaning there. Nous y allons.G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English. Y comes before the verb. so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going.It's not going to rain tomorrow. .I'm going there.It's going to rain tomorrow. • • Il va pleuvoir demain. . or to. Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone. The preposition à.

There is therefore no liaison in allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous. nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay.How are you? (lit: It goes?) On y va! .. since allons and allez begins with vowels. • • In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?.ons or .Idioms • • • • Allons-y .Let's go! (impératif) Ça va? . In order to have a pleasing and clean sound. (This process is called liaison.Should we go? Liaison Usually. two liaisons should not go connsecultively.) However. In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?".Let's get going! On y va? .. congratulations on completing Lesson 1. vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah.. whenever a vowel sound comes after . the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable.07 • Weather live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .ez.ahlonzee . allez à is pronounced ahlayzah..

mes my ton. vos your their leurs .to finish ask a question French Grammar • Travel -ir Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -ir pronoun ending verb je -is finis tu -is finis il/elle -it finit nous -issons finissons vous -issez finissez ils/elles -issent finissent G: Possessive Adjectives Formation French Grammar • Travel Possessive Adjectives • Les adjectifs possessifs First Person Second Person Third Person Singular mon. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. To conjugate. notre.08 • Travel live version discussion G: Regular -ir Verbs exercises The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. ses his. her leur. votre. leur. ta. nos our votre. Plural notre. tes your son. ma. sa. drop the -ir edit lesson to find the "stem" or "root". comment report an error finir .

since they all end in s. ton. . Il est tonnami.It's my book.They are my friends.He is his/her friend. • C'est mon livre.08 • Travel live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object. • • • Il est monnami.He is my friend.She reads her book. • • Mon. French Grammar • Travel Possesive Adjective Usage • Utilisation des adjectifs possesive Masculine Noun Feminine Noun le livre la voiture le livre de Marc son livre la voiture de Marc sa voiture the book of Marc his book the car of Marc his car les livres de Marc ses livres les voitures de Marc ses voitures the books of Marc his books the cars of Marc his cars le livre de Marie son livre la voiture de Marie sa voiture the book of Marie her book the car of Marie her car les livres de Marie ses livres les voitures de Marie ses voitures the books of Marie her books the cars of Marie her cars Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son. t'. Il est sonnami. But in French. and son are followed by a vowel. ton.Usage As you can probably tell from their name. Ils sont nosz . . .They are our friends. . Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon. In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject (his sister. or s') does not occur. her brother). congratulations on completing Liaison also occurs with all plural forms.He is your friend. possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify. Elle est monnamie. and son are used before a feminine singular noun. Elision (to m'.She is my friend. • Elle lit son livre. sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context. Ils sont mesz . • Lesson 1. . .

09 • Art live version discussion G: Regular -re Verbs exercises The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. You will however see the following verbs fairly often. To conjugate. Add endings to the root based on the subject and comment tense. -re verbs are not very common.Level One Lessons Lesson 1.) first person second person tu vends il vend third person elle vend on vend Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs. . as demonstrated below for the present tense. report an error ask a question Formation attendre – to wait French Grammar • Art -re Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -re pronoun ending verb je (j') -s attends tu -s attends il/elle attend nous -ons attendons vous -ez attendez ils/elles -ent attendent Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: French Verb • Present Indicative vendre • to sell Singular Plural je vends jzeuh vahn I sell nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell too vahn eel vahn ell vahn oh vahn you sell vous vendez voo vahn day' he sells ils vendent eel vahnde she sells one sells elles vendent ell vahnde you sell they sell (masc. or mized) they sell (fem. drop the edit lesson -re to find the "stem" or "root".

V: Going to a Museum la portraitiste portraitist V: Music French Vocabulary • Art • audio (info •287 kb • help) Music • La musique écouter la musique to listen to music des paroles lurics (le parole = word) Composing le musicien musician le compositeur composer l’auteur (des paroles) (lyrics) writer Instruments l'instrument (m) instruement la clarinette clarient le violon violin la harpe harp la guitare guitar le piano piano V: French Museums. Theaters. and Opera Houses The Louvre The Louvre Pyramid .

Sing. and Old • Beau. Vowel Fem. and Vieux Formation French Grammar • Art The Adjectives Beautiful.a pretty car de jolies voitures . nouveau. • Note that in informal speech. New.G: Beau. . and vieux come before the noun. Nouveau.an intelligent man des hommes intelligents . • • un homme intelligent . including beau. Nouveau.pretty cars However. des in very often used in place of de. (all) Singular un beau garçon un bel individu une belle fillette Beau de beauxzindividus de belles fillettes Plural de beaux garçons Singular un nouveau camion Nouveau de nouveaux Plural camions Singular un vieux camion Vieux Plural de vieux camions un nouvel ordre une nouvelle idée de nouveauxzordres de nouvelles idées un vieil ordre de vieuxzordres une vieille idée de vieilles idées Sentences Placement As you have already learned. • Des is replaced with de when an adjective comes before the noun. and Vieux Masc. Consonant Masc. most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French.intelligent men une jolie voiture . some common French adjectives.

09 • Art live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .V: Plays French Vocabulary • Art Plays • Les pièces At the Theater Play Genres le théâtre theater le ballet ballet (theatrical) play la pièce (de théâtre) lit: (theatrical) la comédie comedy piece l'acte (f) act la comédie la scène scene musical comedy musicale l'entracte (m) intermission chanter to sing le (la) chanteur le drame drama singer (-euse) danser to dance la tragédie tragedy le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer V: French Artists and Entertainers • • • • • • • • • • Charles Aznavour Gilbert Becaud Jacques Brel Robert Charlebois Joe Dassin Raymond Devos Celine Dion Garou Juliette Greco Edith Piaf congratulations on completing Lesson 1.

or mized) they take (fem. and is conjuagted differntly.10 • Science G: Prendre Prendre is not a regular -re verb.to comprehend/understand méprendre .to take apprendre .) third person ils prennent eel prehn elles prennent ell prehn Related Words • • • • prendre .to mistake .to learn comprendre . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation first person second person French Verb • Present Indicative prendre • to take Singular Plural noo prenn je jzeuh nous I take prends prahn prennons ohn tu too prahn prends eel il prend prahnn elle ell prend prahnn on oh prend prahnn you take he takes she takes one takes vous prenez voo prennay we take you take they take (masc.Level One Lessons Lesson 1.

to make a decision prendre des kilos .to become aware (of) prendre la correspondance .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • • prendre .to take.La chimie la cellule a cell des microbes germs la chimie l’étude des éléments des bactéries baceria chemistry the study of elements des virus viri le chimiste chemist le microscope microscope .to eat breakfast prendre rendez-vous .to make an appointment V: The Sciences .La physique anatomy the study of the human body l’étude de la matière et de la physique la zoologie l’étude des animaux l’énergie physics zoology the study of animals the study of matter and energy le physicien physicist le biologiste biologist Chemistry .to take part (in) prendre la parole .to gain weight prendre part (à) .to surpass prendre le petit déjeuner . to have something to eat prendre conscience (de) .Les Sciences French Vocabulary • Science The Sciences and Scientists • Les sciences et les savants General Biology .La biologie le savant une personne qui expérimente la bio(logie) l’étude des organismes vivants scientist a person who experiments biology the study of living organisms observer to observe la botanique l’étude des plantes analyser to analyse botany the study of plants l’anatomie (f) l’étude du corps humain Physics .to change trains prendre une décision .to start talking prendre le pas sur .

10 • Science live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .V: Astronomy French Vocabulary • Science Astronomy The Planets Mercure Mercury Venus Mercury La (planete) terre Earth Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter Saturne Saturn Uranus Uranus Neptune Neptune Pluton Pluto Other Obejcts Le soleil sun La lune moon congratulations on completing Lesson 1.

la Catedral de Notre Dame en París . and each lesson now gives much more information. and review the grammar you have already learned.French Level Two Lessons Toujours Là? . The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced. you can move on to the next level. the most common French past tense.Slightly More Advanced French Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course. After you have completed this level. you will learn the passé composé. Inside.

Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs V: Pets.02 Leçon 02 : La culture 089 Lesson 02 : Culture 2.10 124 Leçon 07 : La vie rurale Lesson 07 : Rural Life Leçon 08 : La nourriture Lesson 08 : Food and Drink Leçon 09 : Dîner Lesson 09 : Dining Leçon 10 : La communication Lesson 10 : Communication G: Passé Composé of Regular Verbs.04 Leçon 04 : Sortir 098 Lesson 04 : Going Out 2. Boire. Envoyer. Methods of transportation G: Devoir. -aître Verbs. Dairy Products. -enir Verbs (Venir). Dining at a Restaurant G: Dire. Calling Others. -rir Verbs (Ouvrir). Vouloir & Pouvoir V: Meals. Farm Animals G: Manger. Waking up. Shoes G: Sortir & Partir. Christmas. Directions. -yer Verbs (Payer). School Subjects G: Regular Verbs Review. Religions.06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien 108 Lesson 06 : Everyday Life 2. Desserts G: -cer Verbs. Bastille Day) G: exer Verbs (Acheter). Irregular Past Participles (so far) V: Shopping. Y.01 Leçon 01 : L'école 083 Lesson 01 : School 2. Lire. Preparing for work.08 114 2. Silverware. Clothing. Partitive Article. Reflexive Verbs V: Employment. Movies G: -uire Verbs (Conduire). Celebrations (Birthdays. How to Get to Places. Mettre V: Meat.07 111 2.03 Leçon 03 : Faire des courses 092 Lesson 03 : Shopping 2. En. Naître. Croire & Voir V: Life. Recevoir V: Mail. Falloir. Object Pronoun Review.Level Two Contents 2. Computers . Drinks. Driving to Work.09 120 2. Places to go. Servir.05 Leçon 05 : Le transport 103 Lesson 05 : Transportation 2. Connaître & Savoir. -éxer Verbs V: Leisure Activities. Vivre. Sleep G: Suivre. Holidays. Passé Composé with Être V: Local Travelling. Écire V: School.

I have finished. continue on to the school comment section. report an error ask a question Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Composed • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses. Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs .replace -re with u irregular verbs . for example. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.replace -ir with i -re verbs . and if not.01 • School live version discussion G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses exercises The next section is optional.replace -er with é -ir verbs . but if you would like a preview. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. read it. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être.must be memorized . You will eventually learn everything that is covered in edit lesson it. • J'ai fini.

the auxillary verb is avoir.I have finished the task.add an s to the past participle. 7. . • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. • Je l'ai finie. .add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. under certain situations. • That is. However. 6. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. 4. • the direct object is feminine plural . • the direct object is masculine plural .I have finished it. These are: 1.I have finished the games.add an es to the past participle. . the passé composé is introduced.I have finished them. . Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. • J'ai fini les jeux. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. • Je l'ai finies. 3. • The verb is reflexive. In the next lesson. • the direct object is masculine singular . the subject of the verb is also its object. . Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) Don't worry if you don't completely understand the perfect tenses. the auxillary verb is être.I have finished them.I have finished the tasks. . 2. • the direct object is feminine singular . • Je les ai finis. • Je l'ai fini.Past Participle Agreement • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course. . 5.no change • J'ai fini le jeu. • J'ai fini les tâches. . the auxillary verb becomes avoir.I have finished it.I have finished the game. .

] in [.V: School French Vocabulary • School School • L'école General Classes / Grades[1] teacher 12th Grade Classe Terminale scholarship 11th Grade 1ère (la première classe) le professeur[2] la bourse le diplôme diploma 10th Grade 2ème (la deuxième classe) (professionnel) le bac(calauréat) high school exit exam 9th Grade 3ème (la troisième classe) la bibliothèque library 8th Grade 4ème (la quatrième classe) les notes grades (as on a test) 7th Grade 5ème (la cinquième classe) les cours classes or courses 6th Grade 6ème (la sixième classe) la classe grade (e..During Classes 3rd Grade CE2 (CE=cours élémentaire) le tableau chalkboard 2nd Grade CE1 la craie chalk 1st Grade CP1 (CP = cours préparatoire) le pupitre desk Verbs passer l'examen (m) test to take a test un examen les devoirs homework étudier to study la classe class écrire[3] to write la cantine cafeteria lever (la main)[4] to raise (your hand) déjeuner to (eat) lunch la récré(ation) recess poser to ask (a question) la cour courtyard (une question) Schools and Students parler to speak l'école (f) school écouter to listen (to)[5] l'étudiant student (m) entendre to hear (of)[5] l'étudiante student (f) le collège jr. high school le collégien déjeuner to (have) lunch student le lycée high school (classes 6-4) (grades 10-12) le lycéen high school student Describing Teachers and Students intelligent(e) intelligent l'université (f) university la fac(ulté) nul(le) not good.] class 4th Grade CM1 Pendant les cours .. high school regarder to watch (classes 3-terminale) (grades 6-9) jr... 6th Grade) 5th Grade CM2 (CM = cours moyen) en cours de [. not bright higher education l'enseignement supérieur strict(e) strict graduate school .g.

the definate article is always used in French. you do not "own" body parts. even if the teacher is female. or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur". or mized) elles écrivent ell aycreeve they write (fem. • • • la main .) . Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year. meaning to respond (to).my leg le bras . ^ In French. ^ Écrire is an irregular verb. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. While in English.School Supllies la craie chalk cray le papier paper la feuille de pahpeeyay le tableau the board tahbloh sheet of paper papier le stylo(pen steeloh (bee) le bloc-notes (small) notepad block nut bille) le classeur three-ring binder le crayon pencil krayoh le sac à dos backpack sack ah doe la calculatrice calculator la gomme eraser gum le livre book leevr le bouquin le règle ruler rehgluh le cahier notebook kie ay le feutre marker feuhtr ^ The word professeur is considered masculine at all times. Other verbs. are almost always followed by a preposition.my arm ^ To and of are built into the verbs écouter and entendre respectively.my hand la jambe . they descend in France. you would say my hand or your hand. G: Écire & Lire French Verb • School écrire • to write past participle: écrit first person j' écris second person tu écris il écrit third person elle écrit on écrit Singular jay cree too aycree eel aycree ell aycree ohn aycree I write you write he writes she writes one writes Plural nous écrivons newzay creevohn we write vous écrivez voozay creevay you write they write ils écrivent eel aycreeve (masc. ^ The way that grades are numbered in France is opposite the way they are in the US. It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. such as répondre {à). The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof".Des fournitures scolaires .

or mized) ell leez they read (fem.) V: School Subjects French Vocabulary • School School Subjects • Les matières d'enseignement les mathématiques les langues languages mathematics les maths l'anglais English l'algèbre (f) algebra le français French le calcul calculus l'espagnol Spanish la géométrie geometry les sciences social l'allemand German sociales sciences le russe Russian l'économie economics l'italien Italian la géo(graphie) geography l'histoire (f) history les sciences natural d'autres other subjects naturelles sciences matières la biologie biology le dessin drawing la bio la chimie chemistry l'informatique (f) computer science la technologie engineering la littérature literature la physique physics la musique music G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Present perfect The passé composé is a perfect tense.first person je lis second person tu lis il lit third person elle lit on lit French Verb • School lire • to read past participle: lu Singular jeuh lee I read nous lisons too lee you read vous lisez eel dee he reads ils lisent ell lee she reads ohn dee one reads elles lisent Plural noo leezohn we read voo leezay you read they read eel leez (masc. that auxililary verb is avoir. With most verbs. . and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle.

Vous avez joué. He has played. so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense. • For example. the helping verb. but also means spoke. congratulations on completing Lesson 2. literally mean has/have spoken.Meaning In English. j'ai I have nous avons we have tu as you have vous avez you have il a he has ils ont they have Past Participle • • • -er verbs . Auxiliary Verb . Ils ont joué. I have played Nous avons joué. it is only used in formal writing. You have played. is conjugated in the present indicative and the past participle is then added. verbs comjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed.replace -ir with i -re verbs . Il a joué. They have played.replace -er with é -ir verbs . the passé composé form of parler (to speak). We have played. [avoir] parlé. Basic Formation To conjugate a verb in the passé composé.replace -re with u Formation of the Past Participle Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle -er verbs jouer jou joué -ir verbs finir fin fini -re verbs répondre répond répondu Avoir + Past Participle J'ai joué. usually avoir. You have played.01 • School live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . While there is a simple past tense in French. Tu as joué.Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative.

Formation French Grammar • Culture Regular Verbs • Les verbes réguliers -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs parl. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are ask a question simply irregular.. reflecting live version regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. try and discussion reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture.to answer Irregular Verbs Ending in -re boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre . vend.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. fin... Also.. The culture of France is diverse... exercises edit lesson comment G: General Verbs Review report an error Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs. Ending Example Ending Verb Ending Example -e parle -is finis -s vends -es parle -is finis -s vends -e parle -it finit vend -ons parlons -issons finissons -ons vendons -ez parlez -issez finissez -ez vendez -e parlent -issent finissent -ent vendent Stem: Subject Je Tu Il Nous Vous Ils Irregular Verbs Ending in -er aller Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir | servir | venir | voir | vouloir Common -re Verbs attendre .to wait (for) | répondre .02 • Culture This lesson is on the culture of France.

or mized) they believe (fem. and is conjugated irregularly. French Verb • Present Indicative voir • to see (past participle .G: Croire & Voir Croire is not a regular -re verb.) Voir is not a regular -ir verb. French Verb • Present Indicative croire • to believe (past participle . and is conjugated irregularly.) athiest Le Père noël Santa Clause le 14 juillet Bastille Day .vu) Singular Plural jzeuh vwah I see nous voyons noo vwahyoh too vwah you see vous voyez voo vwah ay eel vwah he sees ils voient eel vwah ell vwah she sees oh vwah one sees elles voient ell vwah first person je vois second person tu vois il voit third person elle voit on voit we see you see they see (masc.cru) Singular Plural jzeuh crah I believe nous croyons noo croy oh too crah you believe vous croyez voo croy ay eel crah he believes ils croient eel crah ell crah she believes oh crah one believes elles croient ell crah first person je crois second person tu crois il croit third person elle croit on croit we believe you believe they believe (masc.) V: Religion la religion Chrétien L'Islam religion Christian Islam le musulman Muslim l'athée (m. or mized) they see (fem.

Armistice Day Independance Day Christmas Eve Christmas .02 • Culture live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . J'ai ____ ans.] le gâteau cake le cadeau gift la bougie candle la fête party inviter to invite donner une fête to throw a party V: Holidays Les jours fériés New Year's Day Labor Day Memorial Day . Yule le Nouvel An La Fête du Travail l'Armistice la Fête Nationale le Reveillon Noel congratulations on completing Lesson 2. [lit: I have ___ years.V: Birthday Birthdays l'anniversaire (m) birthday Tu as quel âge? How old are you? I am ____ years old.

pâtisserie seafood store.to ask for the price payer to pay cash register la caisse payer à la caisse to pay at the counter checkout counter vendre to sell coûter to cost How much is it? acheter to buy C’est combien? [lit: It's how much?] Ça coûte combien? [lit:It costs how much?] How much does [noun] cost? Combien coûte [nom]? [lit: How much costs [noun]?] General Goods Stores Foods Stores le magasin shop.03 • Shopping V: Shopping live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • Shopping Shopping • Les achats To Go Shopping Buying Goods faire des courses le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson to go shopping faire du shopping le(la) cassier(-ière) cashier faire le marché to go grocery shopping (plus/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive faire du lècheto go window la vitrine display window vitrine shopping porter to wear.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. to carry en solde on sale demander to ask (for) le prix price demander le prix . store le supermarché supermarket le centre mall. big supermarket commercial le grand magasin department store la boucherie butcher shop 1 le rayon la boutique la pharmacie le marché department small store pharmacy. chemist outdoor market la boulangerie le dépôt de pain la charcuterie la crémerie la pâtisserie la poissonnerie l'épicerie (f) bakery 2 a place that sells bread 2 delicatessen 3 dairy store pastry shop. shopping centre le hypermarché hypermarket. fishmonger grocery 4 .

. te. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. Pierre. l' him. it us1 you1 them 1 me. a tense that uses a past participle. G: Object Pronouns Review Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. nor horsemeat. 3. Il lui donne du pain. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre. Pierre le vois. m' te. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. 4. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them . l' nous vous les her.. Pierre sees him. 2.. For these products. French butchers do not sell pork. and to you respectively. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. nous. to us. He gives bread to him. was referring to a masculine object. go to a charcuterie. in te phrase Je les ai eus. salami. Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. the bread is baked on site. t' le. For example. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. quiches and pizzas. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. including pâte..?.? or From whom. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). Pierre sees the burglar. to you. salads. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle.g. In France. m' te. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: French me. pork products. bakeries only sell fresh bread. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me.1. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. e. or I had them. les. cold meats.

This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. te. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). and vous are used in a perfect tense.) first person second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy il achète eel ahshet he buys ilszachètent eelzahshet elle achète ell ahshet she buys third person onnachète ohnahshet one buys elleszachètent ellzahshet Other -exer Verbs • • • • • • • peser . but also are stem changing. or mized) they buy (fem. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. nous. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. The bread is given by the man (direct). nous. Formation French Verb • Present Indicative acheter • to buy (past participle .to carry out emmener .acheté) Singular Plural nouszachetons noozashtoh we buy j'achète jzah shet I buy vouszachetez voozahshtay you buy they buy (masc.to raise soulever .to raise .to overwork lever .to take along amener .• • • • 1 me. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. te.to bring surmener .to weigh mener . and you respectively. us. G: -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. When me. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. you.

when y is part of the last syllable.shoes clothes clothes la chemise button down shirt la casquestte cap les chaussures shoes la paire de la cravate tie le tee-shirt t-shirt pair of shoes chaussures basketball le pantalon pants le polo polo shirt les baskets shoes trainers le complet suit le pull(over) a sweater les tennis tennis shoes le costume le manteau coat le sweat-shirt sweatshirt les sandales sandals le blouson le tailleur women's suit jacket la veste la robe dress le jean jeans le chemisier blouse les chaussettes socks la jupe skirt G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows: .dress les vêtements sport . Formation In the present indicative. this affects all forms except nous and vous. However.V: Clothing French Vocabulary • Shopping Clothing • Habillement les vêtements habillés . Payer The verb payer translates to to pay.casual les chaussures .

été faire .eu croire .) Other -yer Verbs • • • • • • appuyer . or mized) they pay (fem.fait voir .vu D: Practice Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1.first person je paie second person tu paies il paie elle paie third person on paie French Verb • Present Indicative payer • to pay (past participle .ça fait deux euros.to employ essayer . je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard : Très bien . to call someone informally G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles. s'il vous plaît Camille : Merci beaucoup .cru être .to wipe nettoyer .to try essuyer .to address as tu. À la boulangerie (At the bakery) Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur Bernard : Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette.payé) Singular Plural jzeuh pay I pay nous payons noo pay oh too pay you pay vous payez voo pay yay eel pay he pays ils paient eel ell pay she pays ou payent elles paient oh pay one pays ell ou payent we pay you pay they pay (masc.to clean tutoyer .to support employer . • • • • • avoir . s'il vous plaît Bernard : C'est tout ? Camille : Non.

They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo "Il faut" .vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay). "C'est tout ?" .That'll be two euros Remember your verb . Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez.Some cherries "Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" . Note of a frenchman : "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt. ?" ..What would you like? "Je voudrais. . s'il vous plaît. je voudrais trois kilos... pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros. We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirezvous ?".A large range "Des cerises" . congratulations on completing Lesson 2. s'il vous plaît Marie : Très bien.. Au marché (At the market) Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ? Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes Clément : Très bien. monsieur.One must/You need to Remember your verbs .. Same for "C'est tout ?". Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ? Marie : Oui. 2.03 • Shopping live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . elles coûtent deux euros le kilo Clément : Bon." .Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" .I would like . . Alors..Is that all? "Ça fait deux euros" . we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (and with this?).acheter (to buy).What do you have? "Un grand choix" .

a characteristic. the à and le combine into au. When le follows à. When le follows de. contents. purpose. the de and le combine into du. measurement. de and les combine into des. Similarly. à and les combine into aux.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. possession.04 • Going out G: À and De The preposition à can indicate a destination. and several other things which will be covered later. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs le cinéma la musique le baladeur une sortie un spectacle le théâtre le repos le vacancier la danse allumer/éteindre la télévision le(la) téléspectateur(trice) le sport cinema music walkman going out a show the theater rest a vacationer dance to turn on/turn off television television viewer sport . manner. a location. and several other things which will be covered later. cause. The preposition de can indicate an origin. Similarly. a point in time.

G: Partir & Sortir French Verb • Present Indicative partir • to leave (past participle .to set out again répartir .to distribute . or mized) they leave (fem.) Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems.parti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh pahr I leave nous partons noo partoh too pahr you leave vous partez voo pahrtay eel pahr he leaves ils partent eel part ell pahr she leaves oh pahr one leaves elles partent ell part first person je pars second person tu pars il part third person elle part on part we leave you leave they leave (masc.sorti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh sore I go out nous sortons noo sortoh we go out too sore you go out vous sortez voo sortay you go out eel sore he goes out they go out ils sortent eel sort (masc. or mized) ell sore she goes out oh sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort they go out (fem. • • repartir . to take out (past participle .) first person je sors second person tu sors il sort third person elle sort on sort French Verb • Present Indicative sortir • to go out.

O.Take a seat! Les films sont fascinants! Vous allez au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? On parle Qu’est-ce qu’on joue au cinéma? pour démander les films qui jouent. • Prenez la place! . On entre la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film. On achète les places au guichet. (Version unaltered vidéo) video) originale) sub-titles le film (étranger) (en DVD) (foreign) movie (on DVD) les sous-titres l'acteur (m) actor la vidéo video l'actrice (f) actrice le DVD DVD louer to rent The Movie Theater Film Genres le cinéma the (movie) theater le dessin animé cartoon theater showing room la salle du cinéma le documentaire documentary lit: room of the the theater la séance showing le film d’amour love story le guichet ticket window le film d’aventures adventure movie seat/place to sit la place le film d’horreur horror film le fauteuil chair1 coûter to cost le film policier police film le film de sciencejouer to play sci-fi film fiction 1Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on. Quel est votre genre de film préféré? Vous louez les vidéos? les DVDs? . One would normally use "une place" • whenever "a seat" is used in English. où l'employé(e) vous les vend.V: Movies French Vocabulary • Going out Movies • Les films General le film (domestique) (en (domestic) movie (on V.

or mized) ell vee ehn they come (fem.) Other -enir Verbs • • revenir .to become appartenir .to come back.to hold • • • • • • • .to belong contenir .to support tenir .to retain se souvenir .venu(e)(s)) Singular jzeuh vee ehn I come nous venons too vee ehn you come vous venez eel vee ehn he comes ils viennent ell vee ehn she comes oh vee ehn one comes elles viennent first person je viens second person tu viens il vient third person elle vient on vient Plural noo venn oh we come voo vennay you come they come eel vee ehn (masc. to detain retenir . Venir • • • • The most common -enir verb is venir. The verb venir is translated to to come.G: -enir verbs • -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they does not count as regular -ir verbs). venir (and all other -enir verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Present Indicative venir • to come (past participle . When it means to come from.to contain détenir . You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action.to remember soutenir . • Nous venons du stade.to keep. venir is used with the preposition de. to return devenir . Formation In the present indicative. **Je viens de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework).

or mized) they suggest (fem.to hope oblitérer . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative suggérer • to suggest (past participle .to celebrate espérer .to obliterate préférer .to accelerate célébrer .) Other -éxer Verbs • • • • • • accélérer .G: -éxer Verbs -éxer verbs are regular -er verbs.suggéré) Singular Plural jzeuh soo nous noo soo first person je suggère I suggest zjair suggérons zjairoh second voo soo tu suggères too soo zjair you suggest vous suggérez person zjairay il suggère eel soo zjair he suggests ils suggèrent eel soo zjair she elle suggère ell soo zjair third person suggests one on suggère oh soo zjair elles suggèrent ell soo zjair suggests we suggest you suggest they suggest (masc.to prefer sécher .to dry congratulations on completing Lesson 2.04 • Going out live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . but are also stem changing.

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.05 • Transportation G: -uire Verbs -uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.to produce V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close .) Other -uire Verbs • produire . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative conduire • to drive (past participle .conduit) Singular Plural jzeuh I drive nous noo cohndwee conduisons cohndweezoh too you vous voo cohndwee drive conduisez cohndweezay eel he ils eel cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent ell she cohndwee drives oh one elles ell cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent first person second person third person je conduis tu conduis il conduit elle conduit on conduit we drive you drive they drive (masc. or mized) they drive (fem.

• • • • couvrir . following the -er conjugation scheme.To Run • • • • • • • je cours tu cours il court nous courons vous courez ils courent past participle: couru Mourir .to offer souffrir .G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly. -rir is replaced with -ert for these verbs.to discover offrir . A common -rir verb is ouvrir.To Die • • • • • • • je meurs tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous mourez ils meurent past participle: mort(e)(s)1 .to suffer -rir Verb Exceptions Courir .to cover découvrir . Formation • • • • • • • j'ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvrez ils ouvrent past participle: ouvert Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form.

Acquérir . rester Je suis resté à la maison. She left to go to work. List of Verbs French Grammar • Transportation Perfect Past with Être • Passé composé avec être Verb Example aller Je suis allé au cinéma. He returned to the restaurant. The train has arrived. however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. I came to France. I climbed to the top. I went out with my friends. mourir Il est mort en 1917.To Acquire • • • • • • • j'acquiers tu acquiers il acquiert nous acquérons vous acquérez ils acquièrent past participle: acquis G: Passé Composé with Être Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir. chambre. He got out of the train. partir Elle est partie travailler. It happened in front of the passer Il est passé devant la maison. rentre Il est rentré tôt de l'école. naître Je suis né en octobre. He came back early from school. I fell into the pool. venir Je suis venu en france. I went to the cinema. I was born in october. arriver Le train est arrivé. tomber Je suis tombé dans la piscine. . house.1Mourir is the only -rir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense). I stayed home. monter Je suis monté au sommet. retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. He died in 1917. descendre Il est descendu du train. Je suis entré dans ma entrer I entered my room. sortir Je suis sorti avec mes amies.

• • • • If the subject is masculine singular. If the subject is feminine singular. Ils sont allés. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. an -es is added to the past participle. . there is no change in the past participle. Elle est allés. Tu es allé(e). If the subject is masculine singular. RD VANDERTRAMP: M R S R D monté resté sorti revenu devenu V A N D E R T R A M P venu arrivé né descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object • For Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai descendu mes baggages. Elles sont allées. an -s is added to the past participle.The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. J suis allé(e). an -e is added to the past participle. Il est allé. Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai monté mes baggages. Nous sommes allé(e)s. • • Subject-Past Participle Agreement The past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a sentence in gender and plurality. If the subject is masculine plural. Yet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" • becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passport. Vous êtes allé(e)(s).

Note that en. Idioms • • Ça y est! .to it. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). The men go to France . are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. I respond to the questions.05 • Transportation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .It's Done! J'y suis! . .Les hommes y vont. and not y.I respond to them. . Replacement of Places .G: The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . • • Les hommes vont en France.I get it! congratulations on completing Lesson 2. .The men go there. • • Je réponds à les questions.J' y réponds. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. Note that lui and leur.

if the subject were to act on someone else.dormi) Singular Plural first person je dors jzeuh I sleep nous noo door dormons doormoh second tu dors too door you vous voo person sleep dormez doormay third il dort eel door he sleeps ils dorment eel dorm person elle ell door she dort sleeps on oh door one elles ell dorm dort sleeps dorment live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we sleep you sleep they sleep (masc. • • Je m'habille: I get (myself) dressed.) V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready • • • • • • • • se lever: to get up se laver: to wash (oneself) se raser : to shave se doucher: to shower se baigner: to bathe (oneself) se brosser les cheveux/les dents: to brush one's hair/teeth se peigner les cheveux: to comb one's hair s'habiller: to dress (oneself) If the subject is performing the action on him or herself.06 • Everyday life G: Dormir French Verb • Present Indicative dormir • to sleep (past participle . or mized) they sleep (fem. . the verbs are reflexive. Je t'habille: I get you dressed.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. the verb is no longer reflexive. instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct object. However.

include pronouns. people perform actions to each other. Georges et Martin se sont habillés. Marc et Claire se sont habillés. • Nous nous aimons.I'm going to not wash myself. Je m'appelle Lucie. . Je vais ne pas me laver. . vous vous avez levés assez tard. Lisette et Rose se sont habillées. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. put simply. Nous nous lavons. . se. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. • • • • • • • Pierre s'est habillé.I wash myself. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. Alice s'est habillée. Jean et Paul. reciprocal verbs.I'm going to wash myself. Tu te souviens? . .We wash ourselves. Ils se lavent. Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. These pronouns are me. et je me suis levée à six heures. • • Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. Je vais me laver. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects.We like each other. G: Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are verbs that. .In the passé composé. te. • • • Je me lave.They wash themselves. the participle must agree in gender and number with the subject. nous.You remember? V: At Work travailler: to work travailler pour: to work for (somebody) . . depending on the verb that they modify. and naturally pronominal verbs.

" Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need.to be necessary il faut .G: Devoir French Verb • Everyday life devoir • to have to. owe). congratulations on completing Lesson 2.06 • Everyday life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . to owe past participle: dû Singular Plural jeuh dwah I have to nous devons noo dehvohn too dwah you have to vous devez voo dehvay eel dwah he has to ils doivent eel dwahve ell dwah she has to ohn dwah one has to elles doivent ell dwahve first person je dois second person tu dois il doit third person elle doit on doit we have to you have to they have to (masc. one must conjugate verbs correctly. "I want to pass my French test.it was necessary (passé composé) il fallait . duty. such as "To live. or mized) they have to (fem.it is necessary il a fallu . "I need to study for my test. it's tomorrow".it will be necessary il faudrait . so I must study verb conjugations.) G: Falloir • • • • • • falloir ." Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do. Falloir expresses general necessities.it was necessary (imparfait) il faudra .it would be necessary The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do something]) and devoir (must. Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular. one must eat" or "To speak French well. whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses.

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.) .07 • Rural life G: Suivre French Verb • Rural life suivre • to follow past participle: suivi Singular Plural jeuh nous noo first person je suis I follow swee suivons sweevohn second too you voo tu suis vous suivez person swee follow sweevay il suit eel dee he follows ils suivent eel sweeve elle she third ell swee suit follows person ohn one elles on suit ell sweeve swee follows suivent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we follow you follow they follow (masc. or mized) they follow (fem. or mized) they live (fem.) G: Vivre French Verb • Rural life vivre • to live past participle: vécu [vaycoo] Singular Plural jeuh vee I live nous vivons noo veevohn too vee you live vous vivez voo veevay eel vee he lives ils vivent eel veeve ell vee she lives ohn vee one lives elles vivent ell veeve first person je vis second person tu vis il vit third person elle vit on vit we live you live they live (masc.

or mized) third person elle naît ell nay she is born on naît ohn nay one is born elles naissent ell nesse they are born (fem.G: Naître French Verb • Rural life naître • to be born past participle: né(e)(s)1 Singular Plural first person je nais jeuh nay I am born nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay you are born il naît eel nay he is born they are born ils naissent eel nesse (masc. .) 1 Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in perfect tenses).

The dog lies down. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. congratulations on completing Lesson 2. Elles se sont téléphoné. Elle s'est lavé les mains.We wash ourselves. . the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit). . Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. Note that assis(e)(es). in gender and plurality. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. . Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. Elle s'est souvenue. Nous nous sommes parlé. Otherwise. the past participle agrees with the subject. Le chien se couche.We spoke to each other. .She was herself.We liked each other.G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses.We washed our hands. . .She washed her hands. être is used as the auxiliary verb.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses. . Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. .She remembered.They called to one another. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs • • • In perfect tenses. but not the indirect object pronoun. Reciprocal Verbs • • Like reflexive verbs. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. .07 • Rural life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. does not change in the masculine plural form.

This only applies in the nous form.mangé Singular Plural jeuh mahnge I eat nous mangeons noo vmahnge ohn too mahnge you eat vous mangez voo mahngay eel mahnge he eats ils mangent eel mahnge ell mahnge she eats ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge first person je mange second person tu manges il mange third person elle mange on mange we eat you eat they eat (masc.) Other -ger Verbs • • • • • changer . The most common -ger edit lesson verb is manger. In this case.08 • Food and drink live version discussion G: -ger Verbs exercises -ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs.to relieve voyager .to swim soulager .to travel . or mized) they eat (fem. the stem change is comment adding an e after the g.to require nager .to change exiger . the change report an error is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be ask a question present if the e were not included. Formation French Verb • Food and drink manger • to eat past participle .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.

fish le poulet chicken les anchois (m pl) anchovies le boeuf beef le saumon salmon la saucisse sausage l'anguille (f) eel les produits laitiers .meat les fruits de mer (m pl) . seafood La coquille Saint-Jacques l'agneau (m) lamb scallop (f) la dinde turkey le crabe crab le jambon ham le porc pork le poisson .V: Food French Vocabulary • Food and drink Food • La nourriture les fruits .dessert la moutarde mustard le bonbon candy le pain bread le chocolat chocolate le beurre butter le gâteau cake la tartine de pain beurré slice of buttered bread la glace ice cream le poivre pepper la mousse mousse le riz rice la tarte (aux (apple) pie le sel salt pommes) (chocolate) ice la glace (au chocolat) le sucre sugar cream la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream la confiture jam .fruits les légumes .vegetables la banane banana la carotte carrot la cerise cherry les épinards (m pl) spinach le citron lemon l'oignon (m) onion la fraise strawberry les petits pois (m pl) peas l'orange (f) orange la pomme de terre potato la pomme apple la tomate tomato le raisin grape les asperges (f pl) asparagus le pamplemousse grapefruit les haricots (m pl) beans la viande .shellfish.dairy products Other Foods le beurre butter le croissant crescent roll le fromage cheese les frites (f pl) "French fries" le lait milk la crêpe crepe le yaourt/le yoghurt yogurt la mayonnaise mayonnaise le dessert .

) V: Drinks les boissons drinks la bière beer le café coffee le chocolat chaud hot chocolate le coca soda la limonade lemon soda le citron pressé lemonade l'eau (f) water le jus juice le jus d'orange orange juice le jus de pomme apple juice le jus de raisin grape juice le jus de tomate tomato juice le thé tea le vin wine . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows: French Verb • Food and drink boire • to drink past participle .G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink.bu Singular Plural jeuh bwah I drink nous buvons noo boovohn too bwah you drink vous buvez voo boovay eel bwah he drinks ils boivent eel bwahve ell bwah she drinks ohn bwah one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve first person je bois second person tu bois il boit third person elle boit on boit we drink you drink they drink (masc. or mized) they drink (fem.

As learnt earlier. in this context.G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates. certain rules apply. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte.. the word some. and the indefinite article (un. Def. du. une) in yet another set of situations. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. In general "de" refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). de l' is used in front of vowels. The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie). When speaking about food. la. Nous avons mangé de la tarte. de la. un or une changes to de (meaning. I ate some pie. J'ai mangé la tarte. Similarly.. We ate some pie. Nous avons mangé une tarte. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed. art. or des change to de in negative constructions. instead of du or de la. Part. J'ai mangé de la tarte. art. Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. use the definite article: J'aime la glace. We prefer steak. Nous préférons le steak. art. In the negative construction. "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?) . I ate a pie. As one has learnt in a previous lesson. any) in a negative construction. Also. there are specific situations for the use of each article. les) is used at other times. We ate a pie. as de and les contract into des. Ind. among other things. I like ice cream. When speaking about preferences. known quantity unknown quantity J'ai mangé une tarte. When speaking about eating or drinking an item. de and le contract (combine) into du. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie. the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le. specific/whole items I ate the (whole) pie.

or mized) they put (fem. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent.to allow remettre . As well. I don't play it. to turn on. nous en avons commandé.G: En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases.to recover from an illness se remettre en route . de la or des when there is nothing after it. For more detailed information. G: Mettre Formation French Verb • Food and drink mettre • to put past participle . j'en prends. For instance. to place permettre . Tu joue du piano? Non. Like with 'me'.to put back remettre en place . Did you order some water? Yes. This is because what en does is replace du.to get back on the road . je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui.to put on. I'm having some. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. if the idea of money has already been raised.to set back into place soumettre . 'te' and other pronouns. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'.) Related Words • • • • • • • mettre . Are you having fish? Yes.to submit se remettre . 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. see French Pronouns Do you play piano? No.mis Singular Plural jeuh may I put nous mettons noo mettohn too may you put vous mettez voo mettay eel may he puts ils mettent eel met ell may she puts ohn may one puts elles mettent ell met first person je mets second person tu mets il met third person elle met on met we put you put they put (masc. we use the pronoun 'en'. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. we ordered some.

to sit down to eat se mettre d'accord .08 • Food and drink live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .to put money aside mettre fin à .to get in shape congratulations on completing Lesson 2.to start the car mettre le couvert .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • mettre au jour .to bring to light mettre de l'argent de coté .to put an end to mettre la main à la pâte .to set the table se mettre à table .to agree se mettre en forme .to pitch in mettre le contact .

. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). cold meats.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. -eille is pronounced ay 6. nor horsemeat. Do not confuse with le livre (book). 4. including pâte. lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper. French butchers do not sell pork. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. salami. For these products. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. 3. In France. 1.09 • Dining V: General Dining French Vocabulary • Dining Dining • Diner Places Actions and Feelings kitchen avoir faim to be hungry dining room avoir soif to be thirsty live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question la cuisine la salle à manger le restaurant restaurant Meals le repas the meal le petit-déjeuner breakfast le déjeuner lunch le dîner dinner le goûter snack Food Stores la boucherie butcher shop 1 la boulangerie 2 manger to eat boire to drink prendre to take vouloir to want mettre le couvert to set the table préparer un repas to prepare a meal Quantity gram le gramme le kilo(gramme) kilogran bakery a place that sells bread le dépôt de pain 2 le litre liter la charcuterie l'épicerie (f) delicatessen 3 la bouteille la boîte la livre le paquet le pot grocery 4 la crémerie dairy store la poissonnerie seafood store le marché outdoor market la pâtisserie pastry shop bottle 5 can pack 6 packet pot Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner. bakeries only sell fresh bread. salads. go to a charcuterie. quiches and pizzas. 2. pork products. 5.

pu first person je peux second person tu peux Singular jeuh nous I can/am able to peuh pouvons you can/are able too peuh vous pouvez to eel peuh he can/is able to ils peuvent she can/is able ell peuh to one can/is able ohn peuh elles peuvent to Plural noo poovohn we can/are able to voo poovay you can/are able to eel peuhve ell peuhve they can/are able to (masc. or mized) they can/are able to (fem. or mized) ell veuhl they want (fem.) il peut elle third person peut on peut .) Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner: French Verb • Dining pouvoir • to be able to past participle .voulu Singular jeuh veuh I want nous voulons too veuh you want vous voulez eel veuh he wants ils veulent ell veuh she wants ohn veuh one wants elles veulent first person je veux second person tu veux il veut third person elle veut on veut Plural noo voolohn we want voo voolay you want they want eel veuhl (masc. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb) as follows: French Verb • Dining vouloir • to want past participle .G: Vouloir & Pouvoir The verb vouloir is translated to to want.

. or mized) ell sairve they serve (fem. .V: Dining at a Restaurant arriver la table occupée la table libre trouver commander déjeuner dîner désirer le serveur la serveuse la carte l'addition le pourboire laisser je voudrais.) G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are ragular -er verbs. but are also stem changing... to arrive an occupied table a free table to find to order to eat lunch to dine to eat dinner to desire waiter waitresse menu check tip to leave I would like. G: Servir French Verb • Dining servir • to serve past participle: servi Singular jeuh sair I serve nous servons too sair you serve vous servez eel sair he serves ils servent ell sair she serves ohn sair one serves elles servent first person je sers second person tu sers il sert third person elle sert on sert Plural noo sairvohn we serve voo sairvay you serve they serve eel sairve (masc. The most common -cer verb is commencer.

or mized) they begin (fem.commencé Singular Plural jeuh coe nous noo coe first person je commence I begin mahnce commençons mahnsohn second tu too coe you voo coe vous commencez person commences mahnce begin mahnsay eel coe il commence he begins mahnce ils commencent eel coe mahnce third elle ell coe she person commence mahnce begins ohn coe one elles on commence ell coe mahnce mahnce begins commencent we begin you begin they begin (masc.09 • Dining live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Etc.to erase V: Silverware. le couvert le bol le couteau la cuillère la serviette la nappe la tasse le verre cover bowl knife spoon napkin tablecloth cup glass congratulations on completing l'assiette (f) plate la soucoupe saucer la fourchette fork Lesson 2.Formation French Verb • Dining commencer • to begin past participle .) Other -cer Verbs • effacer .

) third person Other -aître verbs • • • • apparaître .to disappear naître . or mized) they know (fem.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.to know disparaître .10 • Communication G: -aître Verbs Formation French Verb • Communication connaître • to know (personally) past participle: connu Singular Plural je jeuh nous noo I know connais cohnay connaissons cohnehssohn tu too you vous voo connais cohnay know connaissez cohnehssay eel he il connaît cohnay knows ils eel cohnesse connaissent elle ell she connaît cohnay knows on ohn one elles ell cohnesse connaît cohnay knows connaissent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question first person second person we know you know they know (masc.to appear connaître . 1Naître .to be born1 has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses.

so the verb is used with indirect.) V: Calling Others Téléphoner (à) is used to say that you are calling (to) someone. as you may have noticed. .I'm calling Jacques. or mized) they call (fem.. Je m'appelle. In French... you call to someone. Appeler is a regular -er verb. French Verb • Communication savoir • to know (as a fact) past participle: su Singular Plural jeuh say I know nous savons noo sahvohn too say you know vous savez voo sahvay eel say he knows ils savent eel sahve ell say she knows ohn say one knows elles savent ell sahve first person je sais second person tu sais il sait third person elle sait on sait we know you know they know (masc.) . objects. In the present indicative... but in English you would say My name is. • Je téléphone à Jacques. Savoir is used to say that you know someone by reputation or that you know a fact or piece of information.. G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. literally means I call myself. and not direct. is also stem changing. or mized) they know (fem.G: Connaître & Savoir Connaître is used to say that you know someone personally. it is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Communication appeler • to call past participle: appelé Singular Plural first person j' appelle jahhpell I call nous appelons newzahh pell ohn second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call vous appelez voozahh pellay il appelle eel ahhpell he calls ils appellent eel ahhpell third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell we call you call they call (masc. but.

) V: Mail • • • • • • le poste le courier le lettre le boîte des lettres envoyer recevoir .G: Dire French Verb • Communication dire • to say past participle: dit Singular Plural jeuh dee I say nous disons noo deezohn too dee you say vous dites voo deet eel dee he says ils disent eel deez ell dee she says ohn dee one says elles disent ell deez first person je dis second person tu dis il dit third person elle dit on dit we say you say they say (masc. or mized) they say (fem.

or mized) they receive (fem. or mized) they send (fem.) .) first person second person French Verb • Communication recevoir • to receive past participle: reçu Singular Plural jeuh nous newzay first person je reçois I receive rehswah recevons rehsevohn second tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay person il reçoit eel rehswah he receives ils reçoivent eel rehswahve elle she ell rehswah third person reçoit receives one elles on reçoit ohn rehswah ell rehswahve receives reçoivent we receive you receive they receive (masc.G: Envoyer & Recevoir French Verb • Communication envoyer • to send past participle: envoyé Singular Plural nous j' envoie jahnvwah I send newzahnvwahyohn we send envoyons tu envoies too ahnvwah you send vous envoyons voozahnvwahyay you send il envoie eel aycree third person elle envoie ell aycree on envoie ohn ahnvwah he sends she sends one sends ils envoient eelzahnvwah elles envoient ellzahnvwah they send (masc.

carry exécuter l'e-mail (m) e-mail out naviguer (sur stocker (des données) to store (data) to navigate (the Internet) Internet) cliquer to click télécharger to download allumer to turn on transmettre to transmit to turn off éteindre (to extinguish) French fact: the name of the company Logitech comes from the French term logiciel technolgie.V: Computers & the Internet French Vocabulary • Communication Technology • La technologie la technologie technology Computer Hardware Computer Software le hardware hardware le software software l'ordinateur (m) computer l’information information l'écran (m) monitor le logiciel software (program) le programme program le clavier keyboard programmation programming (adj) le document document la souris mouse le fichier file l'imprimante (f) printer le CD-ROM CD-ROM The Internet la disquette floppy disk aller sur Internet to go on the Internet Computer Use le modem modem utiliser to use la connexion connection connecter to connect taper (un texte) to type (a text) être connecté to be connected sauvegarder (un to save (a file) le site site fichier) to run.10 • Communication live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . congratulations on completing Lesson 2.

you can graduate to the third level. This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language. and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables. Drapeau de la France .Intermediate French After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course. Several verb tenses will be introduced in this level. After you have completed this level. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course. you can move on to the next level.French Level Three Lessons Formidable! . But we didn't decide to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real French literary works and news articles. go to the lessons planning page.

02 141 3. Stating If. Government. Emergencies. Leçon 09 : La France moderne G: Past Conditional. Adverbs. Asking Questions Review Lesson 09 : Modern France V: The 20th Century. Medecine. Government. Handling Money.05 153 3. Perfect Tenses Introduction. Possesive Pronouns. European Union.Level Three Contents 3. Present Conditional.. Stem Changing Verbs Review V: Children's Games and Toys. France's Role in Global Politics. Napoleonic Era. Mass Media. Blue-collar. Songs.03 143 3. The Lesson 07 : Ancient History Rennaissance. Relative Pronouns (Qui. Lesson 10 : Current Events Social Problems. Interrogative Pronouns V: Farming and Peasant Life. Lesson 03 : Health Healthcare Leçon 04 : L'argent G: Personal Pronouns Review.10 166 G: Geography Prepositions. Faire Causitif) V: Companies. Demonstrative Pronouns. 20th Century Advancements and Changes. Lesson 08 : Revolution! Post-Napoleon France. Nationalities Leçon 02 : Le travail G: Irregular Past Participles Review. Politics . Noble Life.06 157 3.07 160 3. Going to a Bank Leçon 05 : Jeunesse G: Imparfait. Office Supplies Leçon 03 : La santé G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs. Pronominal Verbs Review. The Reformation Leçon 08 : Révolution! G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs.08 162 3. Part-Time Jobs Leçon 07 : L'histoire Antique G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs. Service. Pronouns with Commands Lesson 04 : Money V: Forms of Money. the Dentist. Commands V: Visiting the Doctor. Passé Composé. V: News. French Rev. Lesson 05 : Life as a Child and Stories Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs. Que. The King. Payment. Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review (Futur Proche. Lesson 02 : Work The Office.04 149 3. French Children's Poems. Simple Future of Regular Verbs Lesson 01 : Vacations V: General Travelling. Industrial Rev. Democracy.09 165 3. Dont) V: Enlightenment. White-collar.. International Travelling. Plus-Que-Parfait Lesson 06 : Adolescence V: Pop Culture. Comparative & Superlative. Modern War Leçon 10 : L'actualité G: Future Perfect.01 Leçon 01 : Les vacances 131 3..

) airport l’autobus (m..01 • Vacations V: General Traveling Audio: Ogg French native speaker General il y a there is.) aircraft.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.) bus l’avion (m. métro) le train train la valise suitcase la voiture car Audio : French native speaker Visiting Other Cities 1a Tu es d'où? (informal) Where are you from? D'où êtes-vous? 1b (formal) 1c Je suis de.. underground la poste post office le taxi taxi le ticket ticket (for bus... airplane les bagages baggage le billet ticket (for train. airplane) le métro subway. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . (d') I am from. there are l’aéroport (m.

Je reviens du Havre.I return from Paris. .Je reviens du Caire.V: Geography Audio : French native speaker Geography the world le monde Political Geography a city une ville a village un village a country un pays a state un état Natural Geography river le fleuve mountain la montagne lake le lac ocean l'océan (m) Cardinal Directions north le nord south le sud east l'est west l'ouest G: Geography Prepositions Cities French native speaker • • • à is used to say in. • la Nouvelle-Orléans . at.Je vais au Havre. .I'm going to Paris de is used to say from. • le Caire . • le Havre . to • Je vais à Paris.Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans. . cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine. .Je reviens de la NouvelleOrléans. .Je vais au Caire. . • Je reviens de Paris.

Je reviens du Texas. that ends in -e is feminine. provinces. . is used to say in. with one or two exceptions.I return from France. • Je vais au Texas. at. and Continents • • • Most geographical areas are feminine Every French geographical area. to.Feminine Regions. . Countries. a contraction of de + les. en is used to say in. . a contraction of à + les. de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je reviens de France. • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je reviens du Portugal. . is used to say from for most regions. .I go to France. Every continent is feminine. (pronounced aytahzoohnee) des. and states • Je vais dans le Limousin. au is used instead of dans le • Je vais au Québec. as if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je vais aux Êtats-Unis.Je reviens du Québec. • Je vais en Espagne. . is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je reviens des Êtats-Unis. . and states • Je reviens du Limousin.I return from the United States. provinces. . to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je vais au Portugal.I'm going to the United States.Je reviens d' Espagne • • • Masculine Regions • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline dans le is used to say in. de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel. at. du.I return from Limousin. at. . to for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je vais en France. a contraction of de + le. • Plural Countries Audio : French native speaker • • aux.I'm going to Limousin. If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state.I return from Portugal. Audio : French native speaker • • • Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant • • all countries that do not end in a silent e are mascuiline le Cambodge and le Mexique are masculine au is used to say in. . . to for most masculine regions.I'm going to Portugal. .

.I'm going to Israel. at.. (body) la compagnie (aérienne) a(n airline) company l'appareil (m) system le billet (plane/one-way/round trip) décoller to take off (d'avion/simple/aller-retour) ticket le décollage take-off la classe tourisme coach le vol flight (also theft) la première classe first class passer à la douane to go through customs le pilote pilot le contrôleur security officer l'hôtesse (de l'air) (f) flight attendant le contrôle de sécurité security check la porte gate (also door) le passager passenger atterrir to land embarquer to board l'atterrissage (m) landing .. to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je vais en Israël. d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je reviens d' Israël.I return from Israel. .Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel • • en is used to say in. machine. Check For Understanding • • • • Are all French countries ending in e feminine? What geographical areas use the preposition dans le? What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use? What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? .the province of Quebec? V: Airports and Airplanes French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two (258 + 205 kb • help) Airports and Airplanes • Les aéroports et les avions The Airport Baggage airport (pronounced l'aéroport (m) les bagages (f pl) baggage ahehrohpor) le passeport passport les bagages à main carry-on bagage la livraison des un chariot a (shopping/baggage) cart baggage claim bagages enregistrer (ses to check in (one's les arrivées (f pl) arrivals bagages) baggage) les départs (m pl) departures arriver (en avance/en to arrive (early/late) retard) The Terminal The Airplane l'aérogare terminal l'avion (m) plane plane.

Dijon Bretagne .Caen Bourgogne .Rennes Continents l'Afrique (f) l'Amérique du nord (f) l'Amérique du sud (f) l'Antarctique (f) l'Asie (f) l'Australie (f) l'Europe (f) Oceans l'Océan atlantique (m) l'Océan glacial arctique (m) l'Océan indien (m) l'Océan pacifique (m) Audio : French native speaker Audio : French native speaker European Countries la France France * Paris * Paris la Belgique Belgium * Bruxelles * Bruxelles le Portugal Portugal * Lisbonne * Lisbon l'Espagne Spain * Madrid * Madrid l'Italie Italy * Rome * Rome la Grande-Bretagne Great Britain * Londres * London l'Irlande Ireland * Dublin * Dublin .Paris Basse-Normandie .V: Places Audio : French native speaker French Regions Île-de-France .

le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg * Luxembourg les Pays-Bas * Amsterdam l'Allemagne * Berlin l'Autriche * Vienne la Suisse * berne La principauté de Monaco * Monaco la Pologne * Varsovie la République Tchèque * Prague la Slovaquie * Bratislava la Hongrie * Budapest la Roumanie * Bucarest la Grèce * Athènes La principauté d'Andorre * Andorre-la-Vieille la Moldavie * Chisinau la Biélorussie * Minsk la Lituanie * Vilnius la Lettonie * Riga l'Estonie * Tallinn la Finlande * Helsinki la Suède * Stockholm la Norvège * Oslo la Russie Luxemburg * Luxemburg Netherlands * Amsterdam Germany * Berlin Austria * Vienna Switzerland * Bern Monaco * Moncao Poland * Warsaw Czech Republic * Slovakia * Hungary * Romania * Greece * Athens Andorra * Moldavia * Belarus * Lithuania * Latvia * Estonia * Finland * Helsinki Sweden * Stockholm Norway * Oslo Russia .

V: Nationalities French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two • Three (v2 300kb) (250 + 234 +186 kb • help) Nationalities • Les nationalités Masculine Feminine English allemand allemande German américain américaine American anglais anglaise English australien australienne Australian belge belge Belgian birman birmane Burmese cambodgien cambodgienne Cambodian canadien canadienne Canadian chinois chinoise Chinese coréen coréenne Korean espagnol espagnole Spanish français française French indien indienne Indian indonésien indonésienne Indonesian italien italienne Italian japonais japonaise Japanese malaisien malaisienne Malaysian mauricien mauricienne Mauritian néerlandais néerlandaise Dutch philippin philippine Filipino portugais portugaise Portuguese singapourien singapourienne Singaporean suédois suédoise Swedish suisse suisse Swiss thaïlandais thaïlandaise Thai vénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelan vietnamien vietnamienne Vietnamese .* Moscou * Moscow l'Ukraine Ukraine * Kiev * Kiev • Nations of the World • More audio pronunciation: here.

must be memorized Past Participle Agreement Audio: French native speaker • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. . • Je les ai finis. • J'ai fini les tâches. . • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. • Je les ai finies. If you are referring to a person. . • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses. • the direct object is feminine singular .I have finished the game. . the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. • the direct object is feminine plural . • the direct object is masculine plural . un tapis arabe.replace -ir with i -re verbs .replace -er with é -ir verbs . le chinois. However. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. This time.I have finished them. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. .I have finished it.I have finished the task.I have finished the tasks. If the nationality is used as an adjective. un livre chinois.Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. the French would not capitalize: l'arabe.I have finished. Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. • Je l'ai fini.I have finished the games. .no change • J'ai fini le jeu. . • J'ai fini les jeux. make sure you know all the rules. G: Perfect Tenses You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. • Je l'ai finie. .I have finished them.replace -re with u irregular verbs . . • J'ai fini. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . as in an Arab person or a Chinese person. . if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language.add an es to the past participle.add an s to the past participle.I have finished it. for example. it is normally left uncapitalized. Review the grammar behind them. • the direct object is masculine singular .

the auxillary verb becomes avoir. Le pssé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs There are three versions of the futur tense in French. • That is. 5.g. • The verb is reflexive. These are: 1. 4. the auxillary verb is avoir. under certain situations. 7. one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez. the subject of the verb is also its object. e. elle va réussir (she will pass.Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit To conjugate a verb in the futur simple. However. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. the futur simple the futur composé. as according to the table: Audio: French native speaker Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ai réussirai Tu -as réussiras Il / Elle / On -a réussira Nous -ons réussirons Vous -ez réussirez Ils / Elles -ont Réussiront Subject . the auxillary verb is être. and the futur antérieur(future perfect). 2. 3. 6.

Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d'Azur. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions. L'après-midi.01 • Vacations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer.Les vacances Audio: French native speaker Cet été. Vivement les vacances ! congratulations on completing Lesson 3. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud.

vu (to see) vouloir .ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs) pouvoir .été (to be) faire .voulu (to want) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . to owe) être .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.bu (to drink) conduire .dit (to say) devoir .mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre) ouvrir .suivi (to follow) vivre .pris (to take) recevoir .lu (to read) mettre .02 • Work G: Irregular Past Participles Review Audio : french native speaker Audio : french native speaker • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • avoir .eu (to have) boire .connu (to know (personally)) courir .su (to know (as a fact)) sourire .cru (to believe) dire .conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs) connaître .fait (to do.dû (to have to.souri (to smile) suivre . to make) falloir .vécu (to live) voir .reçu (to receive) rire .ri (to laugh) savoir .plu (to rain) prendre .fallu (to be necessary) lire .couru (to run) croire .pu (to be able to) pleuvoir .

j'obtiendrais le travail. Mais aujourd'hui.. • Je le fais fixer. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Pronouns Pronouns come before the verb they modify. which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence • Je vais le voir. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours. .I'm going to go. • • Je n'aime pas marcher. Le chomage Audio : french native speaker Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque.02 • Work live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review Faire Causitif Audio : french native speaker The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive. J'aime ne pas marcher.I have it fixed. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au chomage. . . j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche. . Je n'ai pas souvent une réponse.I don't like to run. each meaning slightly different things. Avec un peu de chance. Futur Proche The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive • Je vais aller. Negation Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated.I like to not run.. .I'm going to see it. Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres de candidature.

.. French Grammar • Health • audio (info •104 kb • help) The Imperative • L'impératif -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs Subject Ending Verb Ending Verb Ending Verb Tu -e Parle! -is Finis! -s Vends! Nous -ons Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons Vendons! Vous -ez Parlez! -issez Finissez! -ez Vendez! . avoir mal au ventre to have a bellyache ask a question hurt avoir mal à la to have a headache avoir mal partout to ache all over tête avoir mal â avoir des maux de to feel sick..ache.l'impératif • • The nous form commands are used to say "Let's.03 • Health live version discussion V: Illness exercises French Vocabulary • Health • audio (115 kb • help) edit lesson Illness • La maladie comment To ache report an error to have a .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3."... Formation Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table. to have an earache l'oreille cœur nauseaus avoir mal aux to have a toothache Actions dents Sickness and Pain éternuer to sneeze être malade to be sick s'évanouir to faint avoir la grippe to have the flu saigner to bleed avoir de la fièvre to have a fever tousser to cough être enrhumé to have a cold vomir to throw up G: Issuing Commands in French . The subject is not used when giving a command. to avoir mal à..

like their English counterparts. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. however. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. as in English. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. similarly. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly").G: Adverbs French adverbs. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. They do not display any inflection. nor any characteristics of what they modify. Formation In French. In most cases. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. that is. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio : Native French Speaker • • • If the adjective ends in an i. as in English. other adverbs. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. For example. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. As in English. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). most adverbs are derived from adjectives.

unlike in English. (I cough) Comment allez-vous ? Prenez de l'aspirine. this is true even of negative adverbs: • D: Visiting the Doctor Audio : Native French Speaker Le patient : • • • • • • Je suis malade. Je vomis. or before the clause: • Note that. and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. plus ("not any more").Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. Il faut vous opérer. (I have a headache). midi et soir Il faut passer un "scanner" Il faut passer des radios. J'ai de la fièvre. Je tousse. (I am fevrish) J'ai mal au ventre. Audio : Native French Speaker An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. Le docteur • • • • • • • . Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin. such as pas ("not"). J'ai mal à la tête. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). Je vais vous prescrire un médicament. (I am ill).

SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence En cas d'accident grave. Je dois procéder à une extraction. Je vais utiliser la roulette. (Il va enlever la dent) J'ai un appareil dentaire. . J'ai eu un accident de voiture. il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112. Vous avez une carie. Ahhhhhhhhhh ! D: Emergencies Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • Je vais à l'hôpital.D: Visiting the Dentist Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • J'ai mal aux dents. C'est grave ! Je vais aux urgences.

les yeux) La bouche Mouth La dent Tooth Le nez Nose L'oreille (f) Ear Le cou Neck La langue Tongue Les cheveux Hair L'ongle (m) Nail Le poumon Lung L'estomac (m) Stomach Le coeur Heart Le foie Liver L'instestin (m) Intestine L'os (m) Bone Le crâne Skull Le muscle Muscle Le cerveau Brain La rate Spleen L'utérus (m) Womb Le nombril Navel.V: Body parts Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : (Audio : One (Native French Speaker) Two French English La tête Head Le corps Body Le bras Arm La jambe Leg La poitrine Chest Le ventre Belly L'épaule (f) Shoulder Le coude Elbow Le poignet Wrist La main Hand Le doigt Finger Le genou Knee Le pied Foot L'orteil (m) Toe L'oeil (m) Eye (pl. belly button .

(I have a headache).03 1 ..Visual Memorization • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur.Body Parts .".. When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore. Example: J'ai mal à la tete.V: Body position And here is the vocabulary for body positions : French Debout Assis Couché À genoux Accroupi English Standing Seating Laying down Kneeling Squatted V: Common sentencies When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. you say "J'ai mal à [body part] . E: 3.03 • Health live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt). When you're sick. tu es malade.

l' nous vous les her. or I had them.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. a tense that uses a past participle. . nous. was referring to a masculine object. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. For example. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. les. t' le. in te phrase Je les ai eus. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. and to you respectively.04 • Money G: Personal Pronouns Review Main article: French personal pronouns live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. to you. to us. Pierre sees him. Pierre le vois. it us1 you1 them 1 me. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. l' him. Pierre sees the burglar. te. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. m' te.

Les hommes y vont. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à Pierre.I get it! . t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me.The men go there.. The man gives some bread to Pierre.Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. you. • • Je réponds à les questions. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. He gives bread to him. Idioms • • Ça y est! . to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. nous. nous. I respond to the questions. te. When me. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. . Replacement of Places . The men go to France . Note that lui and leur. us. . m' te. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. Note that en.?. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • • • French me. The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . • • Les hommes vont en France. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. te. The bread is given by the man (direct)..to it.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). Pierre gets the given apple (indirect).. and not y..J' y réponds. Il lui donne du pain. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.It's Done! J'y suis! .I respond to them. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed.? or From whom. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. and you respectively. and vous are used in a perfect tense. .

'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. • Retrouve-la. Le. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. This is because what en does is replace du. la. • Donnez-moi les vidéos.Find it.En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. and les precede all other object pronouns. Do you play piano? No. • Donnez-le-moi. 'te' and other pronouns. . we ordered some. For instance. .L'impératif When expressing positive commands. I'm having some.Give it to me. Did you order some water? Yes. . Me and Te become moi and toi. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. As well. G: Commands with Pronouns . we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. I don't play it. Like with 'me'. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent.Give me the videos. if the idea of money has already been raised. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. . Are you having fish? Yes. j'en prends. we use the pronoun 'en'. de la or des when there is nothing after it. nous en avons commandé. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. Tu joues du piano? Non.

one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using the imparfait. as according to the table: Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ais réussirais Tu -ais réussirais Il / Elle / On -ait réussirait Nous -ions réussirions Vous -iez réussiriez Ils / Elles -aient réussiraient Subject congratulations on completing Lesson 3.G: Present Conditional To conjugate a verb in the Conditional.04 • Money live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

and add these endings: French Grammar • Youth • audio (info •181 kb • help) The Imperfect • L'imparfait jouer finir attendre subject ending (nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons) je -ais jouais finissais attendais tu -ais jouais finissais attendais il/elle/on -ait jouait finissait attendait nous -ions jouions finissions attendions vous -iez jouiez finissiez attendiez ils/elles -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être.to play singular plural first person je joue nous jouons second person tu joues vous jouez third person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem. • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate: jouer . In French.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.05 • Youth live version discussion G: Imperfect ." It tells what was going on when a comment particular action or event occured.Imparfait exercises The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation. Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root. An example in English edit lesson being: "We were singing when Dad came home." ask a question In order to conjugate the imperfect. . the above example would be: "Nous report an error chantions quand papa est rentré. The imperfect ending are added to ét___.

nous avons la nôtre.Yes. elle est à moi. French Grammar • Youth • audio: One • Two (238 + 232 kb • help) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre le leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre la leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs • Vous avez votre voiture? . À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. we have ours.G: Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.Is that your car? Oui. • • Elle est ta voiture? . . it is mine.Yes.You have your car? • Oui. . This usually occurs in sentences with être. .

when y is part of the last syllable. but also are stem changing. -ger Verbs An e is added after the g in the nous form. However. -yer Verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. une ps2) des jeux de société : le monopoly. V: Children's Games and Toys • • • • • • • • • • un hochet un cheval de bois une poupée une dinette un train électrique des légos un ours en peluche une console de jeu (une nintendo. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. une gameboy. le cluedo. -cer Verbs The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form. the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ).G: Stem Changing Verbs Review -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. this affects all forms except nous and vous. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. la bonne paye des "transformers" . Appeler All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled. -éxer Verbs Like -exer verbs.

Songs. and Stories Petit Papa Noël Petit Papa Noël Quand tu descendras du ciel Avec des jouets par milliers N'oublies pas mes petits souliers Mais avant de partir Il faudra bien te couvrir Dehors tu vas avoir si froid C'est un peu à cause de moi .. congratulations on completing Lesson 3..05 • Youth live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .V: French Children's Poems.

the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun.06 • Adolescence live version discussion G: Pronominal Verbs Review exercises Pronominal verbs are verbs that. . Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. Ils se lavent.She washed her hands.I wash myself. Je vais me laver. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. être is used as the auxiliary verb. se.They wash themselves. There are three types of ask a question pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.I'm going to wash myself. • Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings.We wash ourselves.She was herself. . Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. include pronouns. te. . reciprocal verbs. These pronouns are edit lesson me. Elle s'est lavé les mains. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. .We wash ourselves. comment depending on the verb that they modify. • • • Je me lave. . Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. • • • • Elle s'est lavée.We washed our hands. . and naturally pronominal verbs. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. but not the indirect object pronoun. in gender and plurality.I'm not going to wash myself. • In perfect tenses. Nous nous lavons. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in report an error perfect tenses. . put simply. . Je ne vais pas me laver. nous. . Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object.

It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects.They called to one another.to return. to give back se rendre (à) . . . Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Elles se sont téléphoné. . • • . the past participle agrees with the subject. . Elle s'est souvenue. people perform actions to each other.She remembered. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . Otherwise. Nous nous sommes parlé. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Like reflexive verbs. • • • Nous nous aimons.You remember? • • In perfect tenses.We liked each other.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.We spoke to each other.We like each other.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. rendre . Tu te souvenu? . .

He had already come.. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait. Il a été mon ami. Nous avons réussi We passed the test. I had eaten." In this example. the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the past participle. l'examen. In French. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other. He came/used to come every day. this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy before he went to sleep. conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). I spoke French (on one particular occasion). He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more) Il était mon ami lorsque. He came the day after.. I spoke French (during a period of time. one finds the appropriate auxiliary verb (avoir). not just the plusque-parfait. Essentially. but they occur at different times. Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Il est venu.G: Plus-Que-Parfait The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one occurrence happened before the other. In English. in English. Il était déjà venu. the conjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or. . Il venait tous les jours. Je parlais français. .06 • Adolescence live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . the past before the past. He came (and I don't need to say when) Il vint le lendemain. and I don't speak French any more). They did their homework. Examples J'ai parlé français. He was my friend when . there are two past tenses. It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses. So.

You danced. . Nous -âmes Nous dansâmes. Il -a Il dansa. We danced Vous -âtes Vous dansâtes. one finds the stem and appends the following. This past tense is the passé simple. there is a literary past tense. Formation To conjugate in this tense. used when writing formally. L'histoire de la France jusqu'en 1700. I danced. Note that the passé simple is not a composed tense. and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the passé composé does. They danced. Tu -as Tu dansas.07 • History live version discussion exercises G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs edit lesson comment Unlike English. He danced. as according to the table: French Grammar • History The Simple Past • Le passé simple Subject Edning Conjugated Verb English Je -ai Je dansai. It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense: for report an error every occurrence of the passé composé in conversational French.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. You danced. Ils -èrent Ils dansèrent. one simply uses ask a question the passé simple in literary French.

07 • History live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question ... put are regular in their passé simple stems.Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative. -ir verbs dormir dorm dormis partir part partis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Verbs couvrir couvr couvris découvrir décrouvr découvris offrir offr offris ouvrir ouvr ouvris souffrir souffr souffris -re Verbs combattre combatt combattis rompre romp rompis suivre suiv suivis Infinitive congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Stem Je.

G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ending Formation je -is je -in_ Endings -ins je -u_ Endings -us -i_ Endings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -îmes nous -înmes nous -ûmes vous -îtes vous -întes vous -ûtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent Irregular Verb List French Grammar • Revolution! Simple Past Irregular Verbs • Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple Past Stem Passé simple Part. je tu il nous vous -i_ Endings assis ass m'assis t'assis s'assit nous assîmes vous assîtes conduis conduisis conduisis conduisit conduisîmes conduisîtes conquis conqu conquis conquis conquit conquîmes conquîtes contruis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes craign craignis craignis craignit craignîmes craignîtes dit d dis dis dit dîmes dîtes f fis fis fit fîmes fîtes écriv écrivis écrivis écrivit écrivîmes écrivîtes mis m mis mis mit mîmes mîtes naqu naquis naquis naquit naquîmes naquîtes peign peignis peignis peignit peignîmes peignîtes pris pr pris pris prit prîmes prîtes rejoin rejoignis rejoignis rejoignit rejoignîmes rejoignîtes Infinitive ils s'assirent conduisirent conquirent construisirent craignirent dirent firent écrivirent mirent naquirent peignirent prirent rejoignirent s'asseoir conduire conquérir construire craindre dire faire écrire mettre naître peindre prendre rejoindre .08 • Revolution! Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen . Others must be memorized.Historical Text for this lesson.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.

rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir ri souri avoir eu boire bu connaître connus courir couru croire cru devoir dû être falloir fallu lire lut mourir plaire plu pleuvoir plu pouvoir p recevoir reçu savoir su valoir valu vivre vécu vouloir voulu r ris ris sour souris souris vainqu vainquis vainquis -in_ Endings dev devins devins t tins tins v vins vins -u_ Endings e eus eus b bus bus conn connus connus cour courus courus cr crus crus d dus dus f fus fus fall fallus fallus l lus lus mour mourus mourus pl plus plus pl plus plus pus pus put reç reçus reçus s sus sus val valus valus véc vécus vécus voul voulus voulus rit sourit vainquit devin tint vint eut but connut courut crut dut fut fallut lut mourut plut plut pûmes reçut sut valut vécut voulut rîmes sourîmes vainquîmes devînmes tînmes vînmes eûmes bûmes connûmes courûmes crûmes dûmes fûmes fallûmes lûmes mourûmes plûmes plûmes pûtes reçûmes suûmes valûmes vécûmes voulûmes rîtes sourîtes vainquîtes devîntes tîntes vîntes eûtes bûtes connûtes courûtes crûtes dûtes fûtes fallûtes lûtes mourûtes plûtes plûtes purent reçûtes sûtes valûtes vécûtes voulûtes rirent sourirent vainquirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent furent fallurent lurent moururent plurent plurent reçurent surent valurent vécurent voulurent .

it is shortened to qu'. • L'homme qui l'a fait est ici. remember that in perfect tenses.They are the women that I have seen. .08 • Revolution! live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . but more naturally mean what.I see the man that did it. .He is the man that he has seen. which literally mean that which. If que is folled by a vowel. que is the direct object of the clause it introduces • Il est l'homme que j'ai vu.The man that did it is here. qui is never shortened. . .I see the car that is broken. qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns in the phrases ce qui and ce que. .G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que Les pronoms relatifs qui et que • • • • • • • • • • relative pronouns begin adjective clauses • the man that was here • the man that I saw qui is the subject of the clause it introduces • Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait. • Il est l'homme qu'il a vu. ce is the noun congratulations on completing Lesson 3.He is the man that I have seen. even when followed by a vowel qui and que can modify both people and things • Je vois la voiture qui est cassé. . the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality if the direct object comes before the verb • Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues.

09 • Modern France live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Lesson 3.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. + Verb Comparative Noun Comparative plus de Je joue à autant de jeux que moins de more than I play as many games as less than live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Object toi. you. + Verb Comparative Adjective Comparative Je suis plus intelligent que I am more intelligent than Je suis moins intelligent que I am less intelligent than Je suis aussi intelligent que I am as intelligent as Adverbs Sub. you toi. you. Object toi. Object toi toi. + Verb Comparative Adverb Comparative Je vois plus/aussi/moins clairement que more than I see as clearly as less than Verbs Sub. you toi. Object toi. Verb Comparative Comparative Je joue plus/autant/moins que more than I play as much as less than Nouns Sub. you.09 • Modern France G: Comparative French Grammar • Modern France The Comparative • Le Comparatif Adjectives Sub.

Past Part. j' aurai parlé je serai passé(e) tu auras parlé tu seras passé(e) il aura parlé il sera passé elle aura parlé elle sera passée nous aurons parlé nous serons passé(e)s vous aurez parlé vous serez passé(e)(s) ils auront parlé ils seront passés elles auront parlé elles seront passées Use Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English. such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb.10 • Current events G: Future Perfect In French. avoir or être. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation The future perfect is a perfect tense. the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur. French Grammar • Current events The Future Perfect • Le futur antérieur parler passer Subject Avoir Conj.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. . The auxiliary verb. and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past perfect. This construction is used to say that before an event occurs. All rules that apply to the passé composé and other perfect tenses. is conjugated in the future tense. something else "will have" occured by that time. appy to the future perfect as well. Subject Être Conj. Past Part.

) le vandalisme l'acte de terrorisme (m.V: News un quotidien l'actualité les nouvelles les faits divers la une a daily newspaper news.) or un attentat la criminalité burglar a thief fire vandalism terrorism crime . current events news local news items the frontpage un hebdomadaire a weekly magazine se tenir informé(e) to stay informed V: French Social Problems le cambrioleur un voleur l'incendie (f.

il y a un candidat du PS et un candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour. L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour la plupart des partis. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale. Il existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. L'Assemblée Nationale : • Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours. Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté avec 80% des voix. En général. • Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas. petits ou grands. Les sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir. proposent un candidat. • L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement. Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner. • En 2002. Le sénat : • Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. Les 2 candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du deuxième tour. Il y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. • Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il désigne le Premier Ministre. Jean-Marie Lepen (FN) est arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). Le second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et Jean-Marie Lepen (FN). à la surprise générale.V: French Government • • L'élection présidentielle : • Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage universel direct. .

Jack Lang. François Hollande. L'UDF et l'UMP sont actuellement fachés mais ils ont souvent gouverné ensemble. Le Parti Communiste Français (PCF) : MarieGeorges Buffet Les Verts : Dominique Voynet Front national (FN) : Jean-Marie Lepen (extrême droite) La ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR) : Olivier Besancenot. L'UMP et l'UDF refusent tout contact avec le FN. Ségolène Royal. congratulations on completing Lesson 3.. Nicolas Sarkozy L'UDF : François Bayrou. la LCR et LO. • • • • • • • • La politique en France • • En france. Les gouvernements de gauche sont composés de membres du Parti Socialiste. l'UDF et le Front National (FN). • à gauche : le PS. En 2005. les partis politiques sont de droite ou de gauche. L'UMP : Jacques Chirac (Président de la République). de quelques membres du PCF et des Verts. le gouvernement est soutenu par l'UMP.. Dominique de Villepin (Premier ministre). Le FN est un parti souvent classé à l'extrême-droite et certains l'accusent de racisme. • à droite : l'UMP. le PCF... Lutte Ouvrière(LO) : Arlette Laguiller.V: French Politics Quelques hommes politiques Le Parti Socialiste (PS) : Lionel jospin. La LCR et LO sont souvent classés à l'extrême gauche et refusent de participer à tout gouvernement. les Verts.10 • Current events live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

GRA M M AR une fleuve au pont de Sainte-Marguerite .

Gender 181 .Adjectives 175 .Negation 183 .Grammar Contents • • • • • • • • • 172 .Pronominal .Tenses 195 – Verbs • • 196 .Prepositions 185 – Pronouns 191 – Sentences 192.Adverbs 177 .Irregular Conjugations 205 .

• • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. lent .Grammar Adjectives Just like articles. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. amusant. such as those above. Regular Formation Spelling Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. are affected by this rule. amusan. Most adjectives.

un genou (des genoux. seven are the exception. chacal. carnaval. owl). These are: un bijou (des bijoux. Masc. Plural Sing. stone)). cal. un chou (des choux. louse). festival. cabbage). pneu (pneus) Exceptions:bal. pal. un hibou (des hiboux. toy ). Singular > -s un plafond bas des plafonds -s un gros porc bas -x des gros porcs un homme généreux des hommes No -x un garçon généreux change furieux des garçons -z furieux un gaz -z des gaz dangereux dangereux -au -aux un journal des journaux -eu -eux un pieu -eau -eaux un château des pieux -al -aux un journal des châteaux des journaux __x -ou -oux un bijou des bijoux Notes Exceptions:landau (landaus). un pou (des poux. knee) . -Masc. > Pl. un joujou (des joujoux. un caillou (des cailloux. sarrau (sarraus) Exceptions:bleu (bleus). récital et régal take an 's' Notes:While most -ou adjectives have an s added in the plural form.M.Irregular Formation Irregular Plural Formation Katy Leeanne Jones Examples M -. jewel).

Vowel Beau un beau garçon un bel individu un nouveau Nouveau un nouvel ordre camion Vieux un vieux camion un vieil ordre Masc. sa.ton. ma. Masc. Plural de beaux garçons de nouveaux ordres de vieux camions Fem. Sing. These are: • • • beau nouveau vieux bon mauvais petit grand long joli jeune gros Changes in Meaning When grand goes before a noun. but be careful.son. it means unfortunate. mes Second person singular (informal) . Plural de belles fillettes de nouvelles idées de vieilles idées Possessive Adjectives In English.votre. (all) une belle fillette une nouvelle idée une vieille idée Fem. it means tall. Beau. nos Second person plural (and polite form) . ses First person plural . we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. This rule works most of the time. ta. First person singular . In French. leur. it means great. Sing. tes Third person singular . when it goes after the noun. vos Third person plural . they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male. notre.notre. It is not the owner who determines the gender of the possessive adjective but the object owned. when pauvre goes before a noun. votre. When it comes after the noun. Nouveau. However. "pauvre" can mean "financially poor" even when used before the nouns. leurs Grammar Adjectives live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .leur. Sing Cons. and Vieux Masc.Special Rules Adjectives That Precede Nouns Adjectives that are used frequently go before nouns. it means financially poor.mon. Likewise.

and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . their form does not change to reflect exercises their precise role. For example. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. as in English. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). In most cases. edit lesson comment report an error Formation ask a question In French. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. As in English. as in English. that is. similarly. like their English counterparts. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. are used to modify live version French/Grammar/Adjectives. discussion They do not display any inflection. other adverbs. nor any characteristics of what they modify. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions.Grammar Adverbs French adverbs. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: • • • If the adjective ends in an i. however.

Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. such as pas ("not"). or before the clause: • Note that. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). unlike in English. An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. this is true even of negative adverbs: • List of Common Adverbs • après 1. Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. also a preposition Grammar Adverbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . plus ("not any more"). and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. afterwards On va au cinéma après We'll go the cinema afterwards 2.

that is. For example. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . personne. all nouns have a grammatical gender.g. This form can be masculine or feminine.. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. is always feminine. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). for example. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. the word for person. for example. professeur.Grammar Gender Gender of Nouns In French. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. even if the person is male. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. and the word for teacher. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine.

which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. whereas le foie means liver.Examples French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval the horse -age the cheese le professeur le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian Unfortunately. . for example. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. and vice versa. Then there are some that just don't make sense. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. un livre (m) means a book. There are even words that are spelled the same. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. la foi is feminine and means a belief.

Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. Again. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. "La" is used for feminine nouns. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une une fille a daughter singular masculine un un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des des fils1 some sons . a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Note: Unlike English. The Indefinite Article In English. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). Gender 2. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular le le fils the son singular. Plurality 3. It is similar to english. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. the definite article is always “the”. In French. the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel.

looking at nothing in particular. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation.1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. In everyday language. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. if a group of people consists of both males and females. as discussed in lesson 1. "Je regarde photographies. see the Wikipedia entry. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. you would say "Je regarde les photographies. you cannot say. Grammar Gender live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. she. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. The French third person "on" has several meanings. Also.” (formal)." ("I am looking at some photographs. elles they (feminine) When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person." ("I am looking at the photographs. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. “on” is used. you would say.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". "Je regard des photographies. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. instead of “nous”. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. In English. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. When referring to a single person. 2nd. For more. on he. the male form is used.") Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. “vous” must be used. we would say "I am looking at photographs. when pronounced. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. For example. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. However." In French. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. While in English. see notes in lesson 1. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. Also. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". to express “we”. 2nd. and 3rd person plural. elle.") If you were just flipping through the album.

.pas around the verb.pas • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne.I do not want to steal... • Je n'ai pas volé.Grammar Negation ne.I want to not steal.I do not steal. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . • Je ne vole pas. • Je ne veux pas voler. . ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects.. • Je veux ne pas voler.I have never stolen.pas wraps around the auxillary verb. In a perfect tense. ne. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning.. ne. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. . . not the participle. • Je ne le vole pas..I did not steal it.. .pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb. .

Il Je ne peux guère voir mon frère et ma sœur .. Il n'a qu'une feuille de papier.personne wraps around the entire verb set.. • Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère. Aucun. In ne. Spoken French Now.pas encore not yet ne. None... None. .He has no friend.. .I can hardly see my brother and sister. it is always used in written French and in formal conversations. .ni. .aucun(e). However.. ..Other Negative Expressions ne... Aucune.que • nobody no longer hardly only • • • • ne.aucun(e) ne.. • Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur. and comes before them. • • Je l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone) Je sais pas (I don't know) Grammar Negation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . • Je ne l'ai donné à personne.jamais ne... ni à ma sœur..I did not give it too anyone... ..I do not want to give it to anybody.. ne. the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. no never neither.pas du tout not at all ne..He has only one piece of paper. either direct or indirect.He has no sheet of paper.. none.I am not able to see neither my brother nor my sister.guère ne....plus ne.. • Je ne veux le donner à personne. • Il n'a aucune feuille de papier...nor ne..personne ne... • Il n'a aucun ami. aucun(e) goes before an object..ni.I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister.ni not any. .ni requires two objects..

at 3. time (at). La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house Synonym: en Also an indefinite artcle. in Example Je vais à Paris.Grammar Prepositions Common Prepositions live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Notes -Expresses a report/ratio of place (to). des IPA: /də/ . -. about outside behind in front of in between here far Used mostly to indicate distance in time or space. Contractions: du.I am leaving at five C'est un ami à moi.I am going to Paris. -. possession (of or 's). Also a pronoun. a complement of the name or adjective. of 4. to 2. means. Also a conjugation of the verb entrer. C'est la voiture à John. -. -This is John's car. of. price. besides inside after beyond with at the home of against in 1. from 2.Introduced a complement of indirect object or a complement of attribution. à côté de à l'intérieur de après au-dela avec chez contre dans de dehors derrière devant en entre ici loin de next to. manner.This is a friend of mine. Alternative: dedans (rarely used as a preposition) On mange après avoir bu We eat after we drink Also an adverb. . Prepostion Translation à 1. Je pars à cinq heures.

au-dessous-de (below) Also an adjective: m sing. peanuts Synonyms: au-dessus de (above) Antonyms: sous (below. out of 6.par près de pour sans selon 1.(golf) par IPA: /pur/ sous Related term: dessous Also a noun: m pl of sou . under 1.penny. by. through 2. sept sur dix (seven out of ten) Grammar Also a noun: le par . under) Antonyms: dessous. according to 2. meaning sure IPA: /syr/ (audio) sur Prepositions live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . on top of 4. on 2. for near for without 1. upon 3. in accordance with below. wothless thing. above 5.

In this case. The pronoun quelqu'un ("someone") can fill some of the roles of on. only the reflexive pronoun se. On (indeterminate) ask a question • First person plural (we) . not on." In French as in English. Because of French's limited passive voice. its disjunctive-pronoun form.") It is used as a less formal substitute for the subject pronoun nous (we). » ("It is by blacksmithing that one becomes a blacksmith. Similarly. "Two went in and one came back out" — but the number 1 is un(e). note that the other forms of nous (direct object. "to think oneself right").Grammar Pronouns live version discussion Subject Pronouns exercises • First person singular (I. "They gave it to us.Vous (polite). On does not have ordinary direct.Il (male). it is often used as an empty subject when the agent is unknown or unimportant: « On me l'a donné.Ils (male). me) ." but « On se l'est donné ». numbers can be used as pronouns — « Deux sont entrés et un est ressorti ». and disjunctive) are not replaced by forms of on unless on is the subject as well. "We gave it to ourselves. It has a number of uses: • • • • It is used in the same ways as the English personal pronoun one: • It is used in expressing generalities: « C'est en forgeant qu'on devient forgeur.Vous • Third person plural (them) . well-known comment acquaintances only) report an error • Third person singular (he. is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity. except that it is not so formal. « Ils nous l'ont donné ». and therefore is not used to mean "one of them. Tu (informal. "We're American"). » ("[On] gave it to me" or "I was given it" or "It was given to me.Nous • Second person plural (you) . (Hence." i. Elles (female) The pronoun on The subject pronoun on is analogous to the English personal pronoun one.e.") • It is the implicit subject for an infinitive that has no other implicit subject: « penser qu'on a raison » ("to think that one is right. moi edit lesson • Second person singular (you) . Also. in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English.Je. .") It is not the number 1. she) . indirect object. it takes plural adjectives (« On est américains ». Elle (female). soi. and is more common.and indirect-object pronouns. note that even though on always takes a third-person singular verb.

. le. Il nous le jette.I saw you. nous. Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. Il te le jette. and les are called direct object pronouns.He throws it to you. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object.He sees us.He sees me. • Je veux te voir. • Je t'ai vu. formal) leurs . . .me. .to him nous . informal) lui . .He throws it to us.I want to see you. you guessed it. because they are pronouns that are. . te. .He throws the ball.you. Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. .me.to them Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. . . . la. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb.I see you. to me te . used as direct object. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • • • me . If a perfect tense is used. .He calls to me. • Il jette la boule. and les le. to you (plural.us. . A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.He sees you. to us vous .He sees you.you. Il te voit. Il vous voit. Il vous le jette. la. to you (singular.He throws it to you. Il nous voit.

.replaces a masculine singular direct object la . Il lui jette la boule. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. lui and leur come after those pronouns. • • lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. tu.to it. • • lui . la.He throws the ball to her. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. and means the same thing. "He throws him the ball" is also said. • • • • le .He throws the ball to him. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. . Also note that unlike le and la.He throws it to him. . and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects.He throws them. Il leur jette la boule. and les. . An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.. Il les jette.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . . .You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je.). They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. In English. Il jette la boule à Marie. • Il la lui jette. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie.He throws the ball to Jack. .He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. such as "la boule". . . direct objects.He throws the ball to them. When used with the direct object pronouns le..replaces plural direct objects. lui is never shortened y Indirect Object Pronoun . can be replaced by pronouns.He throws it. Note that while le. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . Similary. .He throws the ball to Mary.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. la.replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur .

I get it! en Replacement of a Partitive Construction Replacement of Quantified Nouns Replacement of Phrases with de • • The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is referring to a thing or place. • Je viens de Paris.Les hommes y vont. Replacement of Places . are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. Pronoun Order Order Chart If a sentence uses no infinitive. The men go to France . . Note that lui and leur. and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons. Note that en. I respond to the questions. the pronouns are embedded as follows: . .I come from it.J' y réponds.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de (for which en is used). and not y. • • Les hommes vont en France.I come from Paris. Idioms • • Ça y est! .It's Done! J'y suis! .I respond to them.• • Je réponds aux questions. Note that stress pronouns. . . • J' en viens. .The men go there.

When there are two pronouns in a sentence. nous. and vous with the direct object pronouns le. Y in conjunction with en is only used in a few cases. Le. y goes after all of them with the exception of en...He takes me there.Give me the videos. . When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns. . .He gave it to me.Give it to me. en always go last. vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) If a sentence uses an infinitive.There exist several ones. la. me. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. and vous go first. vous vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) Order Rules • • • • • When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me.. Me and Te become moi and toi. . L'impératif When expressing positive commands. te. la. . • Donnez-le-moi.He gave it to him/her. • Il y en a. la. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. . there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns.Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le te pas il (elle) la lui conjugated past ne nous y en plus nous l' leur verb participle vous etc. te. When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le. • Il m'y emmène. . the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le pas te il (elle) conjugated past la lui ne plus nous y en infinitive nous verb participle l' leur etc. • Il m'emmène à Paris. and les. and les precede all other object pronouns. • Il me le donne.. la. • Retrouve-la. nous. . • Il le lui donne. and les.He takes me to Paris. and les go first. . le.Find it.

French Grammar • Pronouns Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours • Vous avez votre voiture? . it is mine. Grammar Pronouns live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . . • • Elle est ta voiture? .Is that your car? Oui.Yes. . we have ours. nous avons la nôtre. leur copain their friend le leur theirs leurs copains their friends les leurs theirs leurs copine their friend la leur theirs leurs copines their friends les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. This usually occurs in sentences with être.You have your car? • Oui.Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets. elle est à moi.Yes.

When? Pourquoi? .Grammar Sentences Interrogation Question Words • • • • • • Où? .Where? Quand? .Why? Comment? .What? Qui? .How? Quel/Quels/Quelle/Quelles? .Who? live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Commands Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative Grammar Sentences live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Grammar Tenses Verb Tenses Sorted by Mood Non-finite Forms • • • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le Verbe Auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) L'infinitif (The Infinitive) L'infinitif passé (The Past Infinitive) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question L'indicatif (The Indicative Mood) Simple Tenses • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Perfect Tenses • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Other Tenses • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) • • • • Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Le subjonctif passé (The Past Subjunctive) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) .

L'impératif (The Imperative Mood) • • L'impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Le conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) • • • Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The Second Form of the Past Conditional) Verb Tenses Sorted by Type Simple Tenses • • • • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le présent du subjonctif (The Present Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Perfect Tenses • • • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect of the Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Conditional Past) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Perfect Tense Components • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le verbe auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) .

Other Tenses • • • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) L'Impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Grammar Tenses live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in the page linkd to by the section heading. are in italics. Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs. when the conjugation of the root verb is given. Grammar Verbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . One may assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. devenir and revenir follow the same patterns as venir. In this appendix. which are only used in formal writing. Literary tenses. an accent mark is shown without a letter below it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem. only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity. For instance. Instead of mentioning both. it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated.Grammar Verbs • • • • Irregular Verb Conjugations Verb Negations Pronominal verbs Verb Tenses live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question General Notes • • • • • The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner. The verb tenses here are organized by mood.

and they are listed below.[aj-] all.Grammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations You spend a lot of time in French learning the grammatical rules . Also see wiktionary:Category:French verbs and wiktionary:fr:Catégorie:Verbes français. . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question aller indicatif présent je vais [vE] tu vas [va] il va [va] j'allai [alE] tu allas [ala] il alla [ala] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous allons [alO~] vous allez [ale] ils vont [vO~] passé simple nous allâmes [alAm] vous allâtes [alAt] ils allèrent [alER] impératif va [va] allons [alO~] allez [ale] participes allé1 [ale] allant [alA~] radicaux ir. with what they do.[al-] imparfait 1 The verb aller uses the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.[iR-] aill.there are some words which break these rules.

[akeR-] acquér.[akeR-] .[akjER-] acquér.acquérir indicatif présent j'acquiers [akjER] tu acquiers [akjER] il acquiert [akjER] j'acquis [aki] tu acquis [aki] il acquit [aki] tu nous vous passé conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous acquérons [akerO~] vous acquérez [akeRe] ils acquièrent [akjER] passé simple nous acquîmes [akim] vous acquîtes [akit] ils acquirent [akiR] impératif acquiers [akjER] acquérons [akeRO~] acquérez [akeRe] participes acquis [aki] radicaux acquerr.[akER-] acquièr.

avoir indicatif présent j'ai [e] ou [E] tu as [a] il a [a] j'eus [y] tu eus [y] il eut [y] que j'aie [E] que tu aies [E] qu'il ait [E] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait nous avons [avO~] vous avez [ave] ils ont [O~] passé simple nous eûmes [ym] vous eûtes [yt] ils eurent [yR] subjonctif que nous ayons [EjO~] que vous ayez [eje] qu'ils aient [E] impératif aie [E] ayons [EjO~] ayez [eje] participes eu [y] ayant [ajA~] radicaux aur.[av-] .[Or-] av.

to sit participe présent: s'asseyant participe passé: assis(e)(es) présent je m'assieds nous nous asseyons tu t'assieds vous vous asseyez il s'assied ils s'asseyent impératif asseyons-nous assieds-toi asseyez-vous passé simple je m'assis tu t'assis il s'assit nous nous assîmes vous vous assîtes ils s'assirent être indicatif présent je suis [sHi] tu es [E] il est [E] je fus [fy] tu fus [fy] il fut [fy] nous sommes [sOm] vous êtes [Et] ils sont [sO~] passé simple nous fûmes [fym] vous fûtes [fyt] ils furent [fyR] subjonctif que je sois [swa] que tu sois [swa] qu'il soit [swa] tu nous vous que nous soyons [swajO~] que vous soyez [swaje] qu'ils soient [swa] impératif sois [swa] soyons [swajO~] soyez [swaje] .s'asseoir .

[s(@)r-] ét.participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait été [ete] étant [etA~] radicaux ser.[fEz-] .[et-] faire indicatif présent je fais [fE] tu fais [fE] il fait [fE] je fis [fi] tu fis [fi] il fit [fi] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait nous faisons [f(@)zO~] vous faites [fEt] ils font [fO~] passé simple nous fîmes [fim] vous fîtes [fit] ils firent [fiR] impératif fais [fE] faisons [f(@)zO~] faites [fEt] participes fait [fE] faisant [f(@)zA~] radicaux fer.[fER-] fass.[fas-] fais.

[fOdR-] faill.falloir indicatif présent il faut [fo] passé simple il fallut [faly] participe passé fallu [faly] radicaux conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait faudr.[sOR-] .[faj-] fall.[fal-] savoir indicatif présent je sais [sE] tu sais [sE] il sait [sE] je sus [sy] tu sus [sy] il sut [sy] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple nous savons [savO~] vous savez [save] ils savent [sav] passé simple nous sûmes [sym] vous sûtes [syt] ils surent [syR] impératif sache [saS] sachons [saSO~] sachez [saSe] participes su [sy] sachant [saSA~] radicaux saur.

[v(@)n-] imparfait 1 The verbs venir. indicatif présent je viens [vjE~] tu viens [vjE~] il vient [vjE~] je vins [vE~] tu vins [vE~] il vint [vE~] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous venons [v(@)nO~] vous venez [v(@)ne] ils viennent [vjEn] passé simple nous vînmes [vE~m] vous vîntes [vE~t] ils vinrent [vE~R] impératif viens [vyE~] venons [v(@)nO~] venez [v(@)ne] participes venu1 [v(@)ny] venant [v(@)nA~] radicaux viendr.[sav-] venir The verb tenir and verbs ending in -tenir and -venir also follow this pattern.[saS-] sav. and revenir use the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.[vjEn-] ven. devenir.subjonctif imparfait sach. .[vjE~dR-] vienn.

2 The imperative form veuillez is used to make very polite requests. "Veuillez suivre les instructions ci-dessous. voulons. and voulez are rare.[vul-] imparfait 1 The imperative forms veux.[vudR-] veuill.g.[v9j-] voul.vouloir indicatif présent je veux [v2] tu veux [v2] il veut [v2] je voulus [vuly] tu voulus [vuly] il voulut [vuly] nous voulons [vulO~] vous voulez [vule] ils veulent [v9l] passé simple nous voulûmes [vulym] vous voulûtes [vulyt] ils voulurent [vulyR] impératif tu nous vous veux1 [v2] or veuille [v9j] voulons1 [vulO~] voulez1 [vule] or veuillez2 [v9je] participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) voulu [vuly] voulant [vulA~] radicaux voudr. (e.") . It is most often used on signs and in impersonal writing.

devoir indicatif présent je dois tu dois il doit je dus tu dus il dut tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous devons vous devez ils doivent passé simple nous dûmes vous dûtes ils durent impératif dois devons devez participes dû1 devant radicaux devrdoive devGrammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

put simply.We wash ourselves. être is used as the auxiliary verb. . include pronouns. Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. • Je vais me laver. nous. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. .I'm not going to wash myself.We washed our hands. • Je ne vais pas me laver. Ils se lavent.She was herself. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. These pronouns are me. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. se. . te. . Elle s'est lavé les mains. • • • Je me lave. .They wash themselves. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.I wash myself. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. and naturally pronominal verbs. In perfect tenses. but not the indirect object pronoun. . Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. reciprocal verbs. in gender and plurality. depending on the verb that they modify.We wash ourselves.I'm going to wash myself. . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. . Nous nous lavons. . • • • • Elle s'est lavée.She washed her hands. . Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.Grammar Verbs Pronominal Pronominal verbs are verbs that. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.

to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. rendre . people perform actions to each other.to return. to give back se rendre (à) . Tu te souvenu? . .She remembered.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.You remember? • • In perfect tenses. . Nous nous sommes parlé. Elles se sont téléphoné. • • . these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. .We like each other. Otherwise. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . the past participle agrees with the subject. .We liked each other. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects.They called to one another. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. • • • Nous nous aimons.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Elle s'est souvenue. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Like reflexive verbs. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. .We spoke to each other.

to go to bed Present Je me couche Tu te couches Il se couche Elle se couche Nous nous couchons Vous cous couchez Ils se couchent Elles se couchent NB The futur simple. When conjugating a reflexive verb you must use the correct reflexive pronoun. passé simple. The following tables show which reflexive pronoun to use with each form of the verb: Subject je tu il nous vous ils Reflexive Pronoun me te se nous vous se Here is an example conjugation of a reflexive verb: Se coucher .Reflexive Verbs Details Reflexive Verbs in French are actions that one does to oneself. . conditional and subjuntive are all conjugated with the reflexive pronoun in this position. imperfect. They can be recognised because their infinitive form has the pronoun se in front of it or s' before a vowel.

. aller.Passé Composé Je me suis couché Tu t'es couché(e) Il s'est couché Elle s'est couchée Nous nous sommes couché(e)s Vous vous êtes couché(e)(s) Ils se sont couchés Elles se sone couchées NB All reflexive verbs are take être in the passé composé and therefore have an e added to the past participle for females and an s for plural.) it still takes the appropriate reflexive pronoun. pouvoir. Futur Proche Je vais me coucher Tu vas te coucher Il va se coucher Elle va se coucher Nous allons nous coucher Vous allez vous coucher Ils vont se coucher Elles vont se coucher NB When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb (e.g. vouloir. Grammar Verbs Pronominal live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question ..

Appendices Le midi d'ossau dans les pyrénées .

Time.Slang 6. 211 .Appendices Contents 1. 215 . 226 . 242 .Web Resources . 213 . 229 .Dates.Typing Characters 7.Nations of the World 4. and Numbers 2. 240 .French Authors 3.Phrasebook 5.

and numbers • audio (info •420 kb • help) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Days of the Week.Appendices Appendix A. [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Dates. For phrases relating to the day of the week. see the phrasebook. and numbers Les jours de la semaine • The days of the week. French Pronunciation English Origin lundi luhndee Monday Moon mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.01 • Dates. . • Les jours de la semaine. time. time.

Les mois de l'année • The months of the year. English janvier jzahnveeyay January février fayvreeyay February mars mahrse March avril ahvrill April mai maye May juin jzwan Juin juillet jzooeeyay July août oot/oo August septembre septahmbruh September octobre oktuhbruh October novembre novahmbruh November decembre daysahmbruh December The months of the year are not capitalized in French. and numbers • audio (info •142 kb • help) la saison le printemps l'été (m) l'automne (m) l'hiver (m) Seasons • Les Saisons season Spring Summer Autumn Winter Appendices Appendix A. For phrases relating to the months of the year. [lay mwah duh lahnay] help) French Vocabulary • Dates. and numbers live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . time.01 • Dates. time. see the phrasebook Les Saisons French Vocabulary • Dates. and numbers • audio (info •561 kb • # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 • • The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année French Pron. time.

1650) Pierre Corneille (1606–1684) Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695) Molière (1622–1673) Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Charles Perrault (1628–1703) Jean Racine (1639–1699) 18th century • • • • • • Marivaux (1688–1763) Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 .1784) Beaumarchais (1732 .1778) Denis Diderot (1713 .around 1183) 16th century • • • live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553) Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) Louise Labé (a.Appendices Appendix A.1526 .02 • List of authors Middle Age • Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 .1565) 17th century • • • • • • • René Descartes (1596 .a.1799) .

02 • List of authors live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .1880) Jules Verne (1828 .1982) Links List of French authors in the French Wikipedia.1918) Jean Cocteau (1892 .1876) Alfred de Musset (1810 .1976) Raymond Queneau (1903 . Appendices Appendix A.1896) Henri Bergson (1859 .1961) Jean Giono (1895 .1897) Emile Zola (1840 .1966) Jacques Prévert (1900 .1955) Marcel Proust (1871 .1848) Honoré de Balzac (1799 .1980) Robert Merle (1908 .1918) 20th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Claudel (1868 .1870) George Sand (1804 .1941) Edmond Rostand (1868 .1870) Prosper Mérimée (1803 .1977) André Malraux (1901 .1902) Paul Verlaine (1844 .1976) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 .1905) Alphonse Daudet (1840 .1850) Victor Hugo (1802 .1998) Georges Perec (1936 .1922) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 .19th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 .2004) Nicolas Bouvier (1929 .1963) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 .1857) Charles Baudelaire (1821 .1885) Alexandre Dumas (1802 .1867) Gustave Flaubert (1821 .1970) Marcel Pagnol (1895 .1974) André Breton (1896 .

Appendices Appendix A.03 • Nations of the world Les pays du monde (Nations of the World) A French l'Afghanistan (m) l'Afrique du Sud (f) l'Albanie (f) l'Algérie (f) l'Allemagne (f) Andorre (f) l'Angleterre (f) l'Angola (f) l'Arabie saoudite (f) l'Argentine (f) l'Arménie (f) Aruba l'Australie (f) l'Autriche (f) l'Azerbaïdjan (f) English Afghanistan South Africa Albania Algeria Germany Andorra England Angola Saudi Arabia Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda .

B French le Bahreïn le Bangladesh la Barbade la Belgique le Belize le Bénin le Bhoutan la Biélorussie la Birmanie la Bolivie le Botswana le Brésil le Brunéi la Bulgarie le Burundi English Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Belarus Burma Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burundi les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso .

C French le Cambodge le Cameroun le Canada le Cap-Vert le Chili la Chine Chypre (f) la Colombie les Comores (f) le Congo English Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China Cyprus Columbia Comores Congo la Corée du Nord North Korea la Corée du Sud South Korea le Costa Rica la Côte d'Ivoire la Croatie Cuba Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba D French Djibouti English Djibouti le Danemark Denmark la Dominique Dominica .

E French l'Écosse (f) l'Égypte (f) les Émirats arabes unis (m) l'Équateur (m) l'Érythrée (f) l'Espagne (f) l'Estonie (f) les Étas-Unis (m) l'Éthiopie (f) Scotland Egypt The United Arab Emirates Equador Eritrea Spain Estonia The United States Ethiopia English F French English les Fidji (f) Fiji la Finlande Finland la France France G French le Gabon la Gambie la Géorgie le Ghana la Grèce la Grenade le Guatemala la Guinée la Guinée-Bissao la Guyana English Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guniea Guinea-Bissau Guyana la Guinée-équatoriale Equatorial Guinea .

H French Haïti la Hongrie English Haiti Hungary le Honduras Honduras I French l'Île Maurice (f) les Îles Cook (f) les Îles Marshall (f) les Îles Salomon (f) l'Inde (f) l'Indonésie (f) l'Iran (m) l'Iraq/l'Irak (m) l'Irlande (f) l'Islande (f) Israël (m) l'Italie (f) English Mauritius Cook Islands Marshall Islands Solomon Islands India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Iceland Israel Italy J French le Japon English Japan la Jamaïque Jamaica la Jordanie Jordan .

K French le Kenya Kiribati (f) le Koweït English Kenya Kiribati Kuwait le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan L French le Laos le Lesotho la Lettonie le Liban le Libéria la Libye la Lituanie English Laos Lesotho Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembourg Luxembourg .

M French la Macédoine la Malaisie le Malawi le Mali Malte le Maroc la Mauritanie le Mexique la Micronésie la Moldavie Monaco la Mongolie English Macedonia Malaysia Malawi Mali Malta Morocco Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldavia Monaco Mongolia Madagascar (f) Madagascar les Maldives (f) The Maldives le Mozambique Mozambique N French la Namibie la Nauru le Népal le Nicaragua le Niger le Nigeria la Norvège English Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand .

O French l'Oman (m) English Oman l'Ouganda (m) Uganda l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan P French le Pakistan le Panama le Paraguay les Pays-Bas (m) le Pays de Galles (m) le Pérou les Philippines (f) la Pologne la Polynésie français le Portugal English Pakistan Panama Paraguay The Netherlands Wales Peru The Philippines Poland French Polynesia Portugal la Papouaise-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea Q French English le Qatar Qatar R .

French English la République centrafricaine Central African Republic la République dominicaine Dominican Republic la République tchèque la Roumanie le Royaume-Uni la Russie le Rwanda Czech Republic Romania The United Kingdom Russia Rwanda S French Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m) Sainte-Lucie (f) Saint-Marin (m) le Saint-Siège (le Vatican) Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) le Salvador les Samoa (f) Sao Tomé et Principe (m) le Sénégal les Seychelles (f) la Sierra Leone Singapour la Slovaquie la Slovénie la Somalie le Soudan le Sri Lanka la Suède la Suisse le Surinam le Swaziland la Syrie Saint Lucia San Marino The Holy See (The Vatican) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines El Salvador Samoa Sao Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia Sudan Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Surinam Swaziland Syria English Saint Kitts and Nevis .

T
French la Tanzanie le Tchad la Thaïlande le Togo les Tonga (f) la Tunisie le Turkménistan la Turquie Tuvalu English Tanzania Chad Thailand Togo Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Tuvalu le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan

Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

U
French l'Ukraine (f) English Ukraine

l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay

V
French Vanuatu le Vatican English Vanuatu The Vatican

le Venezuela Venezuela le Viêt-Nam Vietnam

W
[None]

X
[None]

Y
le Yémen la Yougoslavie (m) Yemen Yugoslavia

Z
French la Zambie English Zambia Appendices

le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe

Appendix A.03 • Nations of the world
live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question

Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
TravelWiki phrase book

V: Greetings
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi./Bye. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grandNot much. (lit. no big-thing) chose.

live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •311 kb •
help)

How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal)

Titles
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. Pronunciation English, Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyur Mr., Sir. M. Plural Messieurs. mehsyur Gentlemen. Singular Madame mahdahmn Mrs., Ma'am. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle mahdmwoizell Miss, Young lady Plural Mesdemoiselles M maydmwahzell Young ladies

V: Courtesy
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. (Lit: If you please.) Please S'il vous plaît. (formal). Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). De rien. (Lit: Of nothing.) (Lit: Not of what.) (No Pas de quoi. problem.) You're welcome. Je t'en prie. shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal)

V: Good-bye
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. Hi./Bye. (informal) Au revoir. Good-bye. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. See you tomorrow. Tomorrow) Au revoir, à Bye, see you demain. tomorrow. À tout à l'heure. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. See you soon. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. chow (Italian)

V: Asking for the day/date/time
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day, Date, Time • Demander le jour, la date, le temps Asking for the day. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day]. Asking for the date. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. Asking for the time. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). It is [number] hours. eelay [nombre] er

1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5

Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
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Appendices

Appendix A.05 • Slang
Notes on how to use slang
Foreign speakers
It is important to note that, as a foreigner, your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny, depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. To understand this, think on how it would sound to you if a foreigner—with a strong accent and odd rythym of speech—came up to you and said "Dude, what a sketchyass hater that bizz-natch was, I totally was just like 'fuck off o-sheezy'". Therefore, no matter how much slang you use in your native language, limiting your use of slang in French (proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronized and giggled at by native listeners. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

Slang: consistency & style
To use slang effeciently, it is important to maintain a consistency of style. Mixing styles might sound like saying: "Thy face, it is quite finely rawkin'".
• •

Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary. Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion or 'est-ce que', only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. When doing this with interrogatives (qui, quand, comment, etc.), place them at the end of the sentence; i.e. "On va bouffer quand?"

Translating 'Fuck'
The English term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun, verb, adjective, exclamation, and others. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language. Therefore the translation of 'fuck' into french depends on the corresponding part of speech. Examples noun "He's a great fuck" = "Il est bien baisable" (although 'baisable' = fuckable) "He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult) "He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté" verb sexual: baiser, niquer, coucher avec ; insulting: foutre, enculer "I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai raté/niqué mon examen de français" "I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole" "He fucked me over" = "Il m'a trahi" "I fucked your mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère" "Fuck off" = "Fous-moi la paix", "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre') "Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" adjective "This is fucking awful" = "Putain, ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde" "I am so fucked-up" = "Ça va pas du tout" (mental state); "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk) adverb "I am trying to fucking work here" = "Putain, là, j'essaie de bosser" exclamation "Fuck!" = "Merde !" ; "Putain !" ; "Bordel !" n.b.: these can also be compounded in French, i.e., "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde" (for stringing these together, see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the restaurant)

Glossary
Notes on Pronunciation: *To feel how R should be pronounced, gargle with water, then try gargling without water. That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R. *The U is hardest for English speakers. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see a mouse and are saying "eee!", but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo".

Look up Category:fr:Slang on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Abruti(e) n., A retard, an idiot ah-BROO-tee Accro n., addict ack-RO Ado n., teenager; short for 'adolescent' AH-doh Apero n., Short for apéritif. ah-PAIR-roh Appart n., flat or apartment; short for 'appartement' ah-PARR Aprèm n., Short for après-midi. ah-PRIm Bagnole n., Slang for 'car' ban-YOLE Bahut n., Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory') Barj' or Barjot

and followed by "ouais" or "non" Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end) Bite n. to wobble) suh BRAhn-lay . dick bEEt Blaireau n.. Synonym for 'tête'.. la bouffe. Loser bl-AIR-roh Le Bled n.... job bOOL-oh Se Branler v. i. often used at the beginning of a phrase. to get a hard-on BAHN-day Ben interj.. or 'head' in its slang usage.. food BOOF-fay Bosser v.. 'ball'.. crazy n.... to masturbate (lit. for 'well'.adj. litt. to work boss-SAY Boulot n. the boondocks blED Boule n. a crazy person BARge BAHR-joe Bander v.e. a rough equivalent in English would be 'face' rather than 'head'. to eat n. to become erect.: "Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face" bOOL Bouffer v.

'cunt' (as used in UK English).Ça a été exp. creh-vay lah crehve Débile n. dear-loh Enculer v. : "enculer des mouches" (litt. in a stupid way. it went well. to bugger... the flu. Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'.. crevé(e). "à la con".. eñ-CU-lay . exp. Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt. ghetto see-TAY Con adj. "J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test" cohÑ Crever v. To fuck.. Sex maniac (lit. slang for "stupid" DAY-beel Dirlo n. exp. or adj. 'to kick the bucket' adj.. As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted" n.. stupid. and means "bastard" or "asshole". hot rabbit) show lah-PAÑ Cinoche n. Also. la crève. "Quel con" = "What an idiot" exp.: "J'ai la crève". to burst or explode. Answers to this question: "Ouais. ça a été" (Yes. A night at the movies SEE-noh-sh La Cité n. Equivalent to "fuck in the ass" ("cul"="ass"). "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive. stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out" n. ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" .. exhausted. "to fuck flies in the ass") means "to nit-pick". also a question "Ta présentation. litt. a cold. to die. "go get fucked in the ass") which stands for "fuck off".. it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all) saw ah AY-TAY Chaud Lapin n.

"faire la gueule". guh-lay .g "il est débile grave. to pout..g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid) adv..g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her).. with you)" FOO-truh Hyper adj. "brilliant". keef-ay Génial adj. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English). gull Gueuler v. e. lui!" (he's really stupid) grah-ve Gueule n. 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at me'. Sperm. e. Exists also engueuler. litt. slang. Sometimes used under the form faire kiffer. Means 'to shout'. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood). avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e.g. it can be placed before or after it. e. "severe".La Fac n. college or university fack Faire la tête exp. When used with a predicate. roughly means "stupid" e. "great". "sensational" or "awesome" j-knee-al Grave adj. oñ-guh-lay . It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut up!'. lui!" or "il est grave débile. Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar expressions such as: "Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked" "J'en ai rien à foutre (ici. 'really' .. slang for 'to reprimand'. Colloquial word from arabic meaning 'to like'. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'. slang for 'mouth' or 'face'. 'very'. v. "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad" EE-pair Kiffer v..g Tu me fais trop kiffer. fer lah tet Foutre n. to do or to make.

As a name. Stuff trew-uhk Tronche . adults use it often.. sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'. 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck'). slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'. 'really' . work. translated as 'shit'. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your mother)... maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH N'importe quoi exp. ce qu'il dit" nahm-poRt-UH-kwah Niquer v. "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy" soup-air Taff n... That is to say. Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation. Metaphorically. old form for 'pute' (whore). task taff Truc n. mack-doh Merde n. excl.' (This door is out of order. pew-tAÑ Super adj.Macdo Short for MacDonald's.. or 'The meal is crap' This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres». merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. an exact transcribed meaning of the English phase "four-letter word".' (This game is great. c'est de la merde'. 'whatever' n. as well as the youth. bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi. job.) 'Ce jeu nique tout. It can also mean 'rubbish'. excl. Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'.g. 'very'.) NEEK-ay Ouais 'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes") waay Putain n. 'Cette porte est niquée. for example 'Ce repas. 'Je vais te niquer ta gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi ! e.

For instance . TRon-shuh Vachement adj.. as an exclamation. vachement is a synonym for "very".'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or other such expressions of discontent.'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated as 'He is quite stupid'. Colloquial word meaning 'face'. a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which.n. France. For example . Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'. vah-shuh-MAWÑ Zinzin n. . means 'damn!' or 'darn!'. Literally "cowly". and can be translated in some cases for the English adjective 'quite'. It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial ce truc' vah-shuh. slang. Whilst on the subject of 'vache'.

'reub'). Ouf adj. unlike Pig Latin. ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan form. from femme.Verlan Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin.. from pourri Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux pl : des ripoux Teuf n.. angry. from louche. from enervé(e). from fête. and the two componenents switch positions. pissed off. from fou. in verlan it will become [2-1]. Relou adj. suspicious. . Fishy. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is some crazy shit"). gross. heavy. Chelou adj. (the d is dropped in Verlan because the final d does not pronounce in lourd). if you have word [12]. Party. Crazy. from lourd. aggravated." Meuf n. Venère adj. difficult.. in that certain words are split in half. awful. Common verlan expressions include: Beur ou rebeu n. quite commonly used among young adults and even adults. girl. it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). The word verlan is in itself an example of this. Keuf Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs. shady. chick... Not funny. For example. Rotten. A person of Arab descent. Verlan is. Woman. something that sucks.... from arabe. ridiculous. but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation patterns). Ripou adj.

il faut que. "sorry". "-ait". "kisses". (equivalent of lol.. "to be"). also seen in pourkoi. biz c subj+verb. laughing out loud). ki interr. ke interr. koi interrogative. pour. ct subj+verb. laughing out loud). words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa). "why".. so". "bursting with laughter". fok exp. peté(e) de rire. stronger than mdr. que.. désolé(e). n.Common Chat Abbreviations There are two general guidelines: • • é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais". "but".. quoi. mé conj.. "it is". and vois (voi). pr prep. mais. "-es" (such as in the articles les and des). "therefore. .. conjugation of être. c'est. and rel. dc conj.. qui. and the verb "est" (third person sing. imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est. "that" or "which". "what". and relative pronoun. donc. (equivalent of lol.. "laughing myself to death". dsl adj. bisous. "that". "it is necessary". pron. mort(e) de rire.. "for". the conjunction "et" (and). ptdr exp. c'était. mdr exp. "it was".

.tt adj. vnr adj. also seen in the expression tout le monde. pissed off. angry. aggravated.05 • Slang live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . "all". tout(e).. from the Verlan form of enervé(e). Appendices Appendix A.

Appendices Appendix A. Under Keyboard layout/IME. 2. choose your native language. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Now to form accents. 5. you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So. or ù. but there is a much better method.starr. Click Add. to get è. One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US (Qwerty) International setting. 4. In Windows XP: 1. Under Input language. For instance if you want to create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to create à.. ù Alt+151 or Alt+0249 û Alt+150 or Alt+0251 ü Alt+129 or Alt+0252 In Mac OS X You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents. however... To get Ë.06 • Typing characters International Keyboard Configuration Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below). 3.. For longer texts. choose United States-International. ì. è.net/kbh for more information. this can become quite tedious. 6. Start -> Settings -> Control Panel Regional and Language Options Languages -> Details . ò. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are. Just try to pull up a web page or a document that contains the special characters and paste them into your text. one types ` and then e. one types " and then E. option option option option + + + + "`" "e" "i" "u" = = = = ` ´ ˆ ¨ Copy & Paste This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a computer where you can/want change language settings. . See http://www.

Unix and the Compose key If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86.06 • Typing characters live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . This feature can be used to 'type' special characters. After you have written your text you replace marked characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à). then type two characters. The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special character. press and release the Compose key. for example typing ~a when you mean à. Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code or paste the character. Combinations useful for typing in French follow: à Compose + a + ` â Compose + a + ^ ä Compose + a + " ç Compose + c + .Search & Replace If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text. you can define a compose key by opening a terminal window and typing: To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: "keysym Menu = Multi_key" right Windows key: "keysym R_Meta = Multi_key" right Alt key: "keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key" To use the Compose key. è é ê ë É Compose Compose Compose Compose Compose + + + + + e e e e E + + + + + ` ' ^ " ' î Compose + i + ^ ï Compose + i + " ô Compose + o + ^ ö Compose + o + " ù Compose + u + ` û Compose + u + ^ ü Compose + u + " Appendices Appendix A. but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every single à that you want to type.

Appendices Appendix A. Dictionnaire francais/anglais. Meul Etienne) Online verb conjugator . Translators • • • Google Translator Babelfish Translation : A translation website Google Toolbar .tv5.automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to French only) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Learning french • • • • • • • • • • • • • About. Conjugaisons.org) Dictionnaire de langue francaise. Dictionnaire de synonymes.com French Language Anne Fox BBC Jump-Gate University of Adelaide. and lots more! French grammar Wikipedia has more about this subject: French language French grammar • • • • • Portail lettres Clo7 French grammar lessons Exercises on French grammar (Dr. Dictionnaire anglais/francais.Dozens of valuable links. Australia French Language Learning Software Free Online French Tutorial BBC Bitesize grammar TravelWiki Phrasebook Orbis Latinus French MIT French I Assignments MIT French II Assignments Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www.07 • Web resources Wikipedia French language external links .

Dictionaries • • Lexilogos : all online French dictionaries French dictionary French Culture • • • Le portail de la culture Cortland Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande Travel in France • • Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français TravelWiki French Administration • Le portail de l'administration Appendices Appendix A.07 • Web resources live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Bucht von Pors Poulhan .About the Book Plouhinec .

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