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Mathematics part 1 - Getting to grips with LaTeX - Andrew Roberts

**Andrew Roberts Home Coding » Writing » Photography »
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Tw eet 2 6

**Getting to Grips with LaTeX
**

Mathematics - Part 1

by Andrew Roberts One of the greatest motivating forces for Donald Knuth when he began developing the original TeX system was to create something that allowed simple construction of mathematical formulae, whilst looking professional when printed. The fact that he succeeded was most probably why Tex (and later on, LaTeX) became so popular within the scientific community. Regardless of the history, typesetting mathematics is one of LaTeX's greatest strengths. However, it is also a large topic due to the existence of so much mathematical notation. So, this will be part one - getting to know the basics.

Maths environments

LaTeX needs to know beforehand that the subsequent text does in fact contain mathematical elements. This is because LaTeX typesets maths notation differently than normal text. Therefore, special environments have been declared for this purpose. They can be distinguished into two categories depending on how they are presented: text - text formulae are displayed inline, that is, within the body of text were it is declared. e.g., I can say that a + a = 2a within this sentence. displayed - displayed formulae are separate from the main text. As maths require special environments, there are naturally the appropriate environment names you can use in the standard way. Unlike most other environments however, there are some handy shorthands to declaring your formulae. The following table summarises them: Type Environment LaTeX shorthand Tex shorthand

$ . . . $ $ $ . . . $ $

Text \ b e g i n { m a t h } . . . \ e n d { m a t h } \ ( . . . \ ) Displayed \ b e g i n { d i s p l a y m a t h } . . . \ e n d { d i s p l a y m a t h }\ [ . . . \ ]

Additionally, there is second possible environment for the displayed type of formulae: e q u a t i o n . The difference between this and d i s p l a y m a t his that e q u a t i o nalso adds sequential equation numbers by the side. See mathenv.pdf for an illustration of how the various basic environments are used.

Symbols

Mathematics has lots and lots of symbols! If there is one aspect of maths that is difficult in LaTeX it is trying to

www.andy-roberts.net/writing/latex/mathematics_1 1/4

We will of course see some of these symbols used throughout the tutorial. you are after the square root. The carat (^) character is used to raise something. as shown in the examples below: \ f r a c { x + y } { y z } \ f r a c { \ f r a c { 1 } { x } + \ f r a c { 1 } { y } } { y z } Powers and indices Powers and indices are mathematically equivalent to superscripts and subscripts in normal text mode. that's the top and bottom respectively!) You can also embed fractions within fractions. etc. Fractions To create a fraction. However. you must use the \ f r a c { numerator} { denominator}command. How to use them is best shown by example: x ^ n x ^ { 2 n } Power Index n _ i n _ { i j } Note: if more than one character is to be raised (or lowered) then you must group them using the curly braces ( { } ). and in fact. And there are a lot! Greek letters. set and relations symbols. binary operators. order is not significant). then that is achieved like this: x ^ { 2 i } _ { 3 j }(or x _ { 3 j } ^ { 2 i } . Roots Typically. (For those who need their memories refreshed. distinct commands must be issued in order to display the desired symbols.pdf. if you need to assign both a power and an index to the same entity. this can be generalised to produce a root of any magnitude: www. try symbols. Too many to remember. Also. for a complete reference document. arrows. for the majority of times.net/writing/latex/mathematics_1 2/4 . Therefore. which is done easily using the following command: \ s q r t { x } .Andrew Roberts remember how to produce them.8/13/12 Mathematics part 1 . they would overwhelm this tutorial if I tried to list them all.andy-roberts. and the underscore (_) is for lowering.Getting to grips with LaTeX . There are of course a set of symbols that can be accessed directly from the keyboard: +-=!/()[]<>|': Beyond those listed above.

(3 + 2) x (10-3) = 35) but not for equations that have greater vertical size. The a r r a yenvironment is basically equivalent to the t a b l eenvironment (see tutorial 4 to refresh your mind on table syntax.and \ r i g h t . Please check out table 5 from the symbols reference (symbols.Getting to grips with LaTeX .Andrew Roberts \ s q r t [ n] { arg} LaTeX will automatically ensure that the size of the root notation adjusts to the size of the contents. . As you can see. . you still use the \ s q r tcommand. but we shall focus on matrices. and can be used for many purposes. The second example illustrates the LaTeX way of coping with this problem. such as matrices typically rely on brackets to enclose them. and without it will output a square root. The n is optional. and then enclose it with appropriate left and right brackets. There are in fact many more possible symbols that can be used. . e. which should be more than adequate for most peoples' needs. but are somewhat uncommon. Also.g. . You must enclose the expression that you want in brackets with these commands. I think that can be shown by example: $ $ ( \ f r a c { x ^ 2 } { y ^ 3 } ) $ $ $ $ \ l e f t ( \ f r a c { x ^ 2 } { y ^ 3 } \ r i g h t ) $ $ The first example shows what would happen if you used the standard bracket characters.g. The \ l e f t .commands provide the means for automatic sizing of brackets.. You may recall that you already have the ( ) [ ]symbols at your disposal. Matrices LaTeX doesn't have a specific matrix command to use. For a simple 2x2 matrix: www.) Arrays are very flexible.andy-roberts. Also.8/13/12 Mathematics part 1 . formulae can become ambiguous. such as those using fractions. So why the need for a dedicated section? Well. The dots after the command should be replaced with one of the characters depending on the style of bracket you want.net/writing/latex/mathematics_1 3/4 . Brackets The use of brackets soon becomes important when dealing with anything but the most trivial equations. special types of mathematical structures. regardless of the size of root you're after.. and this will give you your matrix. It instead has a slightly more generalised environment called a r r a y . they would be fine for an equation a simple equation that remained on a single line (e. Without them. You can use the array to arrange and align your data as you want. n=3.pdf) for the rest.

Tw eet 2 6 10 comments Discussion Com m unity Andrew Roberts © 2012 www.Andrew Roberts $ $\ l e f t [ \ b e g i n { a r r a y } {cc} 1&2\ \ 3&4 \ e n d { a r r a y }\ r i g h t ] $ $ Files: mathenv.tex | matrices.pdf Useful resources: symbols.tex | mathenv.andy-roberts.8/13/12 Mathematics part 1 .tex | basic_maths.pdf Last updated: December 8.Getting to grips with LaTeX . 2011 « Back to LaTeX tutorials.net/writing/latex/mathematics_1 4/4 .pdf | matrices.pdf | basic_maths.

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