CCNA – Semester1

Module 1 Introduction to Networking


• Network physical connection • Basic computer components • Network math and IP address concept

– The application: interprets the data and displays the information in an understandable form . A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network communicate.Connecting to the Internet Requirements for Internet Connection • Connection to the Internet can be broken down into the following: – Physical connection: used to transfer signals between PCs within the local network and to remote devices on the Internet – Logical connection: uses standards called protocols.

Information flow Case Study: Boot process BIOS ROM RAM OS HDD RAM SHELL RAM IO User Interface .

Network Interface Cards • A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer • When you select a network card. The modem converts (modulates) the data from a digital signal to an analog signal that is compatible with a standard phone line. • . or modulatordemodulator. is a device that provides the computer with connectivity to a telephone line. consider the following three factors: – Type of network – Type of media – Type of system bus Modem • A modem.

moved to the consumer market.NIC and Modem Installation • Connectivity to the Internet requires an adapter card. . such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modem access. • High-Speed and Dialup Connectivity • By the 1990s modems were running at 9600 bps and reached the current standard of 56 kbps (56. which may be a modem or NIC. Desktop systems may use an internal or external NIC.000 bps) by 1998. These are "always on" services that provide instant access and do not require a connection to be established for each session. Notebook computers may have a built-in interface or use a PCMCIA card. • High-speed services used in the corporate environment. • These services no longer required expensive equipment or a second phone line.

• Testing Connectivity with Ping • Ping is a program that is useful for verifying a successful TCP/IP installation. it must be configured using the operating system tools.TCP/IP Description and Configuration • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a set of protocols or rules developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. To enable TCP/IP on the workstation. . • It works by sending multiple packets to a specified destination requesting for replies.

file types that standard web browsers are not able to display – Flash/Shockwave. Real Audio • .0.0. • Web Browser and Plug-Ins • Web browsers acts on behalf of a user by – Contacting a web server – Requesting information – Receiving information – Displaying the results on a screen Plug-ins is to view special. It verifies the operation of the TCP/IP stack and NIC transmit/receive function.1 .A ping to a host PC verifies the TCP/IP address configuration for the local host and connectivity to the host. ping IP address .Ping Command • ping 127. or proprietary. QuickTime.This ping is unique and is called an internal loopback test.

Network math and IP address Binary presentation of data • Computers operate with electronic switches that are either "on" or "off". . • Computers have to translate in order to use decimal numbering. corresponding to 1 or 0.

1. Working with exponents – 103 = 10 X 10 X 10 = 1000 – 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16 • Binary numbers – Use principle of place value just as decimal numbers do ASCII • The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is the most commonly used code for representing alpha-numeric data in a computer. 1000011 1001001 1010000 1010100 ? . 4. 8. 2. 7.Number Systems • Knowing what base someone refers to – Decimal uses 10 digits: 0. • • Base conventions – 101 in base 2 is spoken as one zero one. 9. 5. – Binary uses 2 digits: 0 and 1. 3. 6.

they are represented by On/Off switches or the presence or absence of electrical charges. Base 10 Numbers Example . or radio waves. light pulses. In a computer. They are either 0s or 1s.Bits and Bytes • Bits are binary digits.

Base 2 (Binary) Numbers Converting Decimal to Binary 27 128 1 26 64 1 25 32 0 24 16 0 23 8 1 22 4 1 21 2 0 20 1 1 .

Hexadecimal • The base 16. . number system is used frequently when working with computers. or hexadecimal (hex). Converting Binary to Hexadecimal • Remember that hexadecimal is sometimes abbreviated 0x so hex 5D might be written as "0x5D". because it can be used to represent binary numbers in a more readable form.

Four-Octet Dotted-decimal Representation of 32Bit Binary Numbers • Currently. and a host part that represents a particular computer on a particular network. • Subnetwork mask a second 32-bit number to identify how many of the IP address bits are used to identify the network of the computer. Internet Protocol (IP) addresses assigned to computers on the Internet are 32-bit binary numbers • The 32-bit binary addresses used on the Internet are referred to as Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. . IP Addresses and Network Masks • The IP address of a computer usually consists of a network.

240.134 to binary would result in: 00001010. SubnetMask Example • Converting the IP address 10.23.00000000 Æ 255.23.00010111.00010111.32.0.0 (subnetwork address) .10000110 • Performing a Boolean AND of the IP address 10.0.10000110 Æ 10.0 produces the network address of this host: 00001010.00000000.00100000.134 (IP address) 11111111.00100010.11110000.0 (subnetmask) 00001010.34.0.SubnetMask • A subnet mask will always be all 1s until the network address is identified and then be all 0s from there to the right most bit of the mask.00000000 Æ 10.00100010.00000000.134 and the subnet mask 255.

0.0 • Broadcast address: 00001010. 11111111.34.255.00000000.134 • Network address: 00001010.00010111.0.11111111.0 00001010.255.0.255 View computer address • ipconfig : brief IP configuration • ipconfig /all : detail IP configuration • ipconfig /renew : renew IP address with DHCP • Practise IP and subnetmask .Address Example • IP address • Subnetmask • IP address: 10. 11111111=10.0.00000000.23.23.10000110 = 10.34.00000000 = 10.134 255.00100010.

Summary • The physical connection that has to take place for a computer to connect to the Internet • Network interface cards and/or modems • Web browser selection and configuration • The Base 2 number system • Binary number conversion to decimal • Representasion of IP addresses and network masks .

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