EN GL ISH AT HAND

Past Tense
Where were you born? I was born in Argentina. Were you born in Buenos Aires? Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t. I was born in Córdova. When did you move to los Angeles? I moved here ten years ago. I didn’t speak English.

Past Tense

Did you take English classes in Argentina? Yes, I did. I took classes for a year. No, I didn’t. My aunt taught me at home.

Used to

I used to be very messy, but now, I’m very neat. Did you use to collect things? Yes, I used to collect comic books. No, I didn’t use to collect anything, but now I collect art What sports did you use to play? I never used to play sports, but now I play tennis.

Adverbs of quantity

    

With count nouns There are too many cars. There should be fewer cars. We need more subway lines. There aren’t enough buses.

    

With noncount nouns There is too much trafic. There should be less pollution. We need more public transportation. There isn’t enough parking

Indirect questions using Wh-questions

  

Wh-questions with be Where is the bank? Where are the rest rooms?

  

Indirect questions Could you tell me where the bank is? Do you know where the rest rooms are? Indirect questions Can you tell me how often the buses leave? Do you know what time the bank opens?

  

Wh-questions with do or did How often do the buses leave? What time does the bank open?

  

In dir ect questio ns u sing Whquestio ns
 When did Flight 566 arrive?  Do you know when Flight 566 arrived?

Evaluations and comparisons

  

Evaluations with adjectives. Apartments aren’t big enough for families. Apartments are too small for pets. Comparisons with adjectives.

   

Evaluations with nouns. Apartments don’t have enough parking spaces. Houses cost too much money. Comparisons with nouns Apartments have just as many rooms as houses. Apartments don’t have as much privacy as houses.

  

 Houses aren’t as convenient as apartments. Houses are just as convenient as apartments. 

List of Irregular Verbs
Infinitive
be break bring buy do drive drink eat forget go grow know speak take teach

Simple Past Tense
was, were broke brought bought did drove drank ate forgot went grew knew spoke took taught

Participle
been broken brought bought done driven drunk eaten forgotten gone grown known spoken taken taught QUEBRAR TRAER COMPRAR HACER CONDUCIR BEBER COMER OLVIDAR IR CRECER

Meaning
SER/ESTAR

SABER-CONOCER HABLAR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Use of: “Was/Were”
I He She It + Yes, I was Yes, You were Yes, He was Yes, She was Yes, It was Yes, We were Yes, They were Was You We They Were

No, I wasn’t No, You weren’t No, He wasn’t No, She wasn’t No, It wasn’t No, We weren’t No, They weren’t

List of Irregular Verbs
Infinitive
be break bring buy do drive drink eat forget go grow know speak take teach

Simple Past Tense
was, were broke brought bought did drove drank ate forgot went grew knew spoke took taught

Participle
been broken brought bought done driven drunk eaten forgotten gone grown know spoken taken taught SER/ESTAR QUEBRAR TRAER COMPRAR HACER CONDUCIR BEBER COMER OLVIDAR IR CRECER

Meaning

SABER-CONOCER HABLAR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Use of: “Did”
       I did You did He did She did It did We did They did

Examples: Did you go to the supermarket? – Yes, I did / No, I didn’t Did he go to the zoo yesterday? – Yes, he did / No, He didn’t Did she go shopping last week? – Yes She did / No, She didn’t Did they go to the cinema? – Yes They did / No, They didn’t

List of Regular Verbs
Infinitive
Arrive Believe Cough Guess Happen Hate Learn Move Play Slow Sneeze Snow Work

Simple Past Tense
Arrived Believed Coughed Guessed Happened Hated Learned Moved Played Slowed Sneezed Snowed Worked

Participle
Arrived Believed Coughed Guessed Happened Hated Learned Moved Played Slowed Sneezed Snowed Worked Llegar Creer Toser Adivinar, Suponer Suceder

Meaning

Odiar, Cargarle a uno Aprender Mover, Trasladar, Cambiarse Jugar, Tocar, Disminuir Estornudar Nevar Trabajar, funcionar

List of Irregular Verbs
Infinitive
be break bring buy do drive drink eat forget go grow know speak take teach

Simple Past Tense
was, were broke brought bought did drove drank ate forgot went grew knew spoke took taught

Participle
been broken brought bought done driven drunk eaten forgotten gone grown know spoken taken taught QUEBRAR TRAER COMPRAR HACER

Meaning
SER/ESTAR

CONDUCIR BEBER COMER OLVIDAR IR CRECER SABER-CONOCER HABLAR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

List of Irregular Verbs
Infinitive
be break bring buy do drive drink eat forget go grow know speak take teach

Simple Past Tense
was, were broke brought bought did drove drank ate forgot went grew knew spoke took taught

Participle
been broken brought bought done driven drunk eaten forgotten gone grown know spoken taken taught QUEBRAR TRAER COMPRAR HACER

Meaning
SER/ESTAR

CONDUCIR BEBER COMER OLVIDAR IR CRECER SABER-CONOCER HABLAR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Used to

Past

“When I was a Kid, I used to be very messy, but now I’m very neat.

Adverbs of quantity
  Examples Too many + count nouns “There are too many cars”

Less + noncount nouns “There should be less pollution”

Wish Some Examples of Wish How to Use it I live with my Parents. I Wish I had my own apartment. We can’t move out. We Wish We Could move out. She drank too much at the party. She Wishes She hadn’t drunk so much at the party.

Simple Past VS Present Perfect

How to Use Simple Past How to Use Present Perfect Last Sunday I ate chinese food Yesterday I went to the cinema with my friends I have worked in this bank for ten years I have missed my Job

Seq uen ce A dverbs
First ,Then ,Next ,After ,Finally Some examples

Futu re wit h be going to and wi ll
What are you going to do on the weekend? I'm going to dance with my girlfriend I’m going to relax at the beach What about you, any plans ? I’m not sure, Maybe I’ll watch a few DVDs.

Mo dals f or ne ces sity an d Su gge st ion s
How to Use Modal Verbs The red light means you must stop You need to make a reservation I will have to buy the tickets before. You'd better avoid being late you ought to pack a first-aid kit You should be dancing Next Carlos

Wish

Return

I liv e with my Pa re nts . Return

Sh e dra nk too mu ch at the par ty.

Return

We Wish We Could move Return out

I ‘ve missed my Job

Return

I'm goi ng to dance with Return my gi rl frie nd
subje ct + b e + goin g t o + v erb in i nfi nitive

I’m the

goin g to rela x a t b each

Return

The red light means you Return must s top

I will h ave to b uy t he tic ket s b efor e.

Return

You need to make a reser vati on

Return

You' d bett er avoi d be ing Return late

you ai d

ought to pack a f irst Return kit

Return yo u sh ould b e d ancing

Affirmative: subject + must + verb in infinitive Negative : subject + must + not + verb in infinitive Interrogative : must + subject + verb in infinitive

Return

Affirmative

Negative mustn't don't have to / haven't got to needn't

Interrogative must I? do I have to? have I got to? had I got to? did I have to? will I have to?

Present

must have to

Past

had to

hadn't got to didn't have to

Future

will have to

won't have to

Wish

Subj ect + Wi sh + Subj ect + Ve rb in past tense to refe r to p resent wishe s Return
Subject I You She / He / IT We They How to use Wish Wish Wishes Wish Wish Present wishes I + Verb Past Tense You + Verb Past Tense She / He / IT + Verb Past Tense We + Verb Past Tense They + Verb Past Tense

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be do have / has take teach Past Tense was, were did had took taught Participle been done had taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR HACER TENER TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be do have / has take teach Simple Past Tense was, were did had took taught Participle been done had taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR HACER TENER TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Pr ese nt Pe rfect
Return

Affirmative
I have gone You have gone She / He / IT has gone We have gone They have gone

Negative
I haven't gone You haven't gone He hasn't gone We haven't gone They haven't gone

Interrogative
Have I gone ? Have you gone ? Has She / He / IT gone Have we gone ? Have they gone ?

Simp le Pa st
Return

Affirmative
I went You went She / He / IT went We went They went

Negative
I didn't go You didn't go She / He / IT didn't go We didn't go They didn't go

Interrogative
Did I go ? Did you go ? did She / He / IT go Did we go ? Did they go ?

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be do eat take teach Simple Past Tense was, were did ate took taught Participle been done eaten taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR HACER COMER TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be do go take teach Simple Past Tense was, were did went took taught Participle been done gone taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR HACER IR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be do go take teach Simple Past Tense was, were did went took taught Participle been done gone taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR HACER IR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be buy do take teach Simple Past Tense was, were bought did took taught Participle been bought done taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR COMPRAR HACER TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Irre gular Ve rb s
Infinitive be do go take teach Simple Past Tense was, were did went took taught Participle been done gone taken taught

Return

Meaning SER/ESTAR HACER IR TOMAR ENSEÑAR

Re gulars Ve rbs
Infinitive Call Fix Miss Turn Work Simple Past Tense called fixed missed turned worked Participle called fixed missed turned worked

Return

Meaning LLAMAR ARREGLAR PERDER GIRAR TRABAJAR

Pr ese nt Pe rfect

Return

Tw o-part verbs, wi ll for respondi ng to requests
With nouns With pronouns Turn down the radio. Turn the radio down. Pick up those leaves. Pick your tools up. Please let the dog out. Please let out the dog Turn it down. Pick them up.

Requests and responses

Please turn down the music. OK. I’ll turn it down. Pick up your clothes, please. All right. I’ll pick them up. Let the dog out, please. OK. I’ll let it out.

Requests with modals and Would you mind…?

Turn Down

Pick up

Let out

Return

Pe rso nal Pr onouns
Personal Pronouns Singular Subjective Possessive Objective

1st person

I

my, mine

me

2nd person you
3rd person he she it

your, yours you
his her, hers its him her it

Plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person we you they our, ours your, yours their, theirs us you them

Two-part verbs, will for responding to requests

Request s with modals and Woul d you m ind
Modal + simple form of verb Can you turn the stereo off? Could you close the door, please? Would you mind … + gerund Would you mind turning the stereo down Would you mind closing the door,please?

Would you please take your garbage out? Would you mind not putting your garbage here?

Infinitives and gerunds for uses and purposes

Mo dals
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I can go I could go I may go I might go I must go I should go I would go

I can't go I couldn't go I may not go I might not go I mustn't go I shouldn't go I wouldn't go

Can I go ? Could I go ? May I go ? Might I go ? Must I go ? Should I go ? Would I go ?

Requests with modals and Would you mind…?

Infinitives

Inf ini ti ves and gerunds for uses and purposes
Gerunds I use my computer for sending e-mails. Computers are often used for paying bills. I use my car for going to work.

I use my computer to send e-mails. Computers are often used to pay bills. I use my car to go to work

Imperatives and infinitives for giving suggestions

Irre gula r Ve rb s
Infinitive Simple Past Tense Participle

Gerunds

Meaning

Take Send Pay Go Be Forget Make Give Have/Has Keep Know Learn Lose Meet Sleep Speak Spend Swim

Took Sent Paid Went Was/Were Forgot Made Gave Had Kept Knew Learned/Learnt Lost Met Slept Spoke Spent Swam

Taken Sent Paid Gone Been Forgotten Made Given Had Kept Know Learned/Learnt Lost Met Slept Spoken Spent Swum

Taking Sending Paying Going Being Forgeting Making Giving Having Keeping Knowing Learning Losing Meeting Sleeping Speaking Spending Swimming

Tomar Enviar Pagar Ir Ser/Estar Olvidar Preparar Dar Tener Mantener Saber/Conocer Aprender Perder Reunir/Encontrarse Dormir Hablar Permanecer/Gastar Nadar

Infinitives and gerunds for uses and purposes

Re gula r Ve rbs
Infinitive Simple Past Tense Participle

Gerunds

Meaning

Turn Close Remember Try Celebrate Greet Guess Hail Hunt Identify Ignore Imagine Impress Improve Jump

Turned Closed Remembered Tried Celebrated Greeted Guessed Hailed Hunted Identified Ignored Imagined Impressed Improved Jumped

Turned Turning Girar Closed Closing Cerrar Remembered Remembering Recordar Tried Trying Tratar Celebrated Celebrating Celebrar Greeted Greeting Saludar Guessed Guessing Adivinar/Suponer Hailed Hailing Granizar Hunted Hunting Cazar Identified Identifiying Identificar Ignored Ignoring Ignorar Imagined Imagining Imaginar Impressed Impressing Impresionar Improved Improving Mejorar Jumped Jumping Saltar

Requests with modals and Would you mind…?

Be sure to turn it on.

Imper ati ves and inf ini tives for givi ng suggesti ons
Try not to talk for too long. Try to arrive early today.

Remember to pay the bill every month.

Don´t forget to dial the area code. Make sure to hit the “end” button.

Relative clauses of time

Rel at ive cl aus es of ti me
Thanksgiving is a day. February 14 is the day. New Year´s Eve is a night. When North Americans celebrate the harvest . When people give cards to the ones they love. When I have fun with my friends.

Next Grammar Focus

Thanksgiving

February 14

New Year´s eve

Relative clauses of time

Adver bial cl aus es of ti me
When people get married in Japan, After the food is served, Before the guests leave, they sometimes have the ceremony at a shrine. the guests give speeches or sing songs. the bride and groom give them presents.

She began cooking while I was finishing my homework.

Af ter
 Future tense is used in this adverbial clause. After she graduates, she will get a job. I will leave before he comes.

When
 When I arrived, he was talking on the phone.

 When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him.

During that time. * Adverb clause is in past progressive. While I was walking home, it began to rain.

Whil e/As

As I was walking home, it began to rain.

By t he t ime
 By the time he arrived, we had already left.  By the time he comes, we will have already left.

Sin ce
 From that time to the present  The present perfect is used in the main clause.  I haven’t seen him since he left this morning.  I’ve known her ever since I was a child.

Un til
 We stayed there until we finished our lesson.  We stayed there till we finished our lesson.

As so on a s On ce
 As soon as it starts raining, we will leave.

 Once I have a chance, I will throw you an ice ball.

As lo ng a s
From the Beginning to the end.  I will never speak to him as long as I live.  I will never speak to him so long as I live.

Wheneve r Eve ry t ime
 Whenever I see her, I say hello.

 Every time I see her, I say hello.

Th e firs t t ime, the se cond time…
 The first time that I went to New York, I went to an opera.

 I saw two plays the last time (that) I went to New York.  The next time (that) I go to New York, I’m going to see a ballet.

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