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componentsneedsinIndustry.Thetopicincludesmaintenanceprinciples,procedures, lubrication,powertransmission,bearing,clutches and brakes and pumps,valves and
compressor.Thiscoursealsogivesknowledgeandskillsregardingmaintenanceof componentsand assemblies.
Editor Arman Bin Md Said
Table of Contents 1.0 MAINTENANCEPRINCIPLESANDPROCEDURES 1.1 Understandingof maintenance. 1.1.1 Definethemeaningofmaintenance. 1.1.2 Describe theobjectiveandadvantagesofimplement maintenance. 1.2 Explain various types of cost maintenance related. 1.3 Describeworkplacesafety. 1.3.1 Identifythebenefitcleanandsafeworkingenvironment. 1.3.2 Explaintheimportantof personal protectionequipments. 1.3.3 Uselockoutandtag-outwhenneeded. 1.3.4 Identifyalltheorganizationthatgovernsthesafetyof hazardousmaterial. Identifytypesofhand tools,powertoolsandmaintenanceequipments. 1.4.1 Listthe mostcommon typesofhand tool andpowertools. 1.4.2 Demonstratetheproperuseofvarious typesofhandtooland powertools. 1.4.3 Determine theimportanceofinspectingahand toolandpower tools
LUBRICATION 2.1 Understandlubrication principle. 2.1.1 Describelubricationsystemandbenefitimplement lubricationsystem. 2.1.2 Stateseveralterm andprincipletounderstandandselect proper lubrication. 2.2 Understandfluidmanagement. 2.2.1 Applyfouressentialcomponentsina fluid management program. a. Selectionandpurchaseoflubrication b. Lubricationmonitoringduringuse c. Lubricantmaintenanceusingprocessing d. Refortificationtechniques e. Disposalofthespentlubricant. Identifylubricatingdevicesandsystem. 2.4.1 Evaluateeffectivenesslubricatesuchasselectrightlubricant type,place, amountandtimeto use. 2.4.2 Choosesuitable lubricatingdevices systembased onequipment ormechanical components.
3. d.6 Developgearchecklistforpreventivemaintenance.5 Producebeltdrivemaintenanceprocedure.4 Understandchain drive. 3.5 Identifygearmaintenancepracticesuchasdailyroutine inspection.3.3. 3. 3.1 Listapplicationofbeltdrives. 3.2. 3. 3. c.4 Explain coupling concept into gear system. 3.8 Developmaintenanceprocedure. 3.symptoms andrecord observationforpreventive maintenance .1.etc. Prematurebeltfailure. 3.2.4. Geartooth-wearandfailure.1 Classifytypesof drivemechanismsbeltdrive. d. 3. b. 3. 3. Problemswithsheaves. f.2 Classify FIVE typesofbelt drivesandtheircharacteristicsbasedonit‘sfunction. 3.3 Developchecklistchaindrivemaintenance. 3.5 . Banded(joined)beltproblems. b.2.2.3 V- 3. a.4.2. Lubrication contaminationandincorrectlubrication.3. 3.4 Producechaindrivemaintenanceprocedure. Beltnoiseandunusualvibration.etc 3. 3.2 Classifytypes ofgearsandtheir characteristics basedonit‘s function. 3.3 Identifybelttensionand misalignmentofbeltdrives.2 Describegear in powertransmissionsystem.2.2 Classify FIVEtypesofchaindrive and theircharacteristicsbased onit‘sfunction.4. Severeorabnormalbeltwear.As an examples componentscanbeuseisassemblyspurgearexercise or assemblyspur wheel /wormgear station.2.4. e.3.1 Describethedrivemechanismintheprocessoftransformingpower fromone pointtotheother. c.symptomsand recordobservationforpreventive maintenance. Overheating.1 List applicationof chaindrive. Lowoillevel.beltstretchesbeyondtakeup.4 Developedchecklistdrives belt maintenance. Implementcoupledshaftalignment orvariable-speed drives.etc Definebeltdrives inpower transmissionsystem.3.2.3 Identify gearmeshingandbacklash.3. chaindrive and gear drive 3.1 Listapplicationofgear. beltturnoverorjumpoffsheave. a. symptoms and recordobservationsforpreventive maintenance. 3.7 Assembleanddisassembleafewtypesofgearsa practical.
dismountingof bearing. Understandbearingdamage. in hour or rotation 4.1.mounting tapered-borebearing.5 Explain the concept ofseals.hydraulic method.3 Identify principleofbearinglubrication. 4.1 Identifyfrictioninbearingsystem. 3.4.3 Assembleanddisassembleofmechanicaldrivesystemasa practical.1.1.temperature mounting.2 Classify FIVE types of bearing based on its application.2.1 Applymountinganddismountingequipment andtools.vibrationandwear b. shafts andgear.1. 4.3 4.1 Describethefundamentalsofshaftalignment. 4.3.gasketsandpackingintobearing system. temperature andlubrication.2.4 5. 4. 4.3. e.2 Relateoperatingtemperaturewithbearingfriction. c.3 Applyconcepttoadjusting theclearanceduringinstallation. 4.1 Understandbearingconcepts. 4.3.3. Fatigue.2 Demonstratetheuseof thereversedialindicatormethodsto correct shaft misalignment.5. Localindentationsintheraceway. d.5.5. 4. 4.3 Identify bearing numenclature and code base on ISO 4. Poorlubricationand faultindesign.3.2 Usemeasuringequipmentforbearinginstallation. f.1.0 CLUTCHES ANDBRAKES .1 Listapplicationof bearing. a. 4. Scuffingandslidingmarks. 4. 4. Describe mountinganddismountingofbearing.5 Assembleanddissembleofbearingasapractical. 3. 4.4 Explain Bearing Service Life. 4.As anexamples componentscanbeuseare assemblyshaftwith journal bearingsandassemblyhydrodynamic journal bearing.Asanexamples components canbeusearegear assemblyforcombined drivesandalignment of drives. 4.symptoms forpreventive maintenance.4 Classifymountingmethods likes cold mounting. Faultymountinganddefectiveinstallationmethods.3.0 BEARING 4.2. Corrosiondamage.2 Understandfriction.1 Developedbearing maintenance check list.
Describe clutchesandbrakesprinciple. 5.1.1 Identifyfunctionofa clutch and brakes. 5.1.2 Classify various typesof clutches based on: iMechanical iiElectric and iiiHydraulic 5.1.3 Assembleanddissembleclutch and brake as a practical .C o m p o n e n t s canbeuseare multiple plate clutch and drum brakes Develop clutchesand brakes maintenance procedure 5.2.1 Developedchecklist clutchesand brakesmaintenance ,symptomsandrecordobservationsforpreventive maintenance.
PUMPS,VALVESANDCOMPRESSOR 6.1 Understandpumpsconcepts. 6.1.1 Listapplicationofpumps. 6.1.2 Classifytypes ofpumpsbasedonit‘s principle. i. Positive displacement ii. Rotor dynamic 6.1.3 Assembleanddisassemblepumpasapractical.Asaexamples componentscanbeuseiscentrifugal pump. 6.1.4 Developedcheck list pumpsmaintenance,symptomsandrecord observationsforpreventive maintenance. 6.2 Understand valve concepts. 6.2.1 Listapplicationofvalve. 6.2.2 Classify FOURtypes of valveandtheir characteristics basedonit‘s function. i. Butterfly ii. Gate iii. Ball iv. Globe 6.2.3 Assembleanddisassemblea fewtypesofvalveasapractical. Asanexamplesapparatuscanbeuseareassemblygate valve andangleseat valve,assemblybutterflyvalve and non-return valve,assemblyball valve andglobe valve. 6.2.4 Developedchecklistvalvemaintenance,symptomsand recordobservationsforpreventive maintenance. 6.3 Understandcompressor concepts. 6.3.1 Listapplicationofcompressor. 6.3.2 Classifytypesofcompressor based on it‘sfunction. i. Positive displacement
6.3.3 Identifyprinciple andcharacteristicofcompressor. 6.3.4 Determinecompressormaintenanceconcept. Assembleanddisassembleafewtypesofacompressorasapractical.Asanex amplescomponentcanbeuse ispiston compressor. 6.3.5 Developedchecklistcompressormaintenance,symptoms andrecordobservations forpreventivemaintenance. 2.4 Determinelubricatingprogram. a. Theplantlubricationsurvey. b. Establishmentoflubricationschedulesand improvementsin selection and applicationoflubrication. c. Lubricationanalysis
Hashimi Bin Lazim (PTSS) Zulkifli Bin Sulaiman (POLIMAS)
Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this chapter, students should be able to:1. Understandingof maintenance. 1.0 MAINTENANCEPRINCIPLESANDPROCEDURES 2. Explain various types of cost maintenance related. 3. Describeworkplacesafety. Introduction 4. Identifytypesofhand tools,powertoolsandmaintenanceequipments. Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) or maintenance , repair, and overhaul involve fixing any sort of mechanical, plumbing or electrical device should it become out of order or broken (known as repair, unscheduled or casualty maintenance). It also includes performing routine actions which keep the device in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevents trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). MRO may be defined as, "All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its required function. The actions include the combination of all technical and corresponding administrative, managerial, and supervision actions. 1.1 Understandingof maintenance.
1.1.1 Definethemeaningofmaintenance. I. Based on language maintenance is activities required or undertaken to conserve as nearly, and as long, as possible the original condition of an asset or resource while compensating for normal wear and tear. The definition of maintenance often stated maintenance as an activity carried out for any equipment to ensure its reliability to perform its functions. In engineering maintenance are actions necessary for retaining or restoring a piece of equipment, machine, or system to the specified operable condition to achieve its
III. by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system. oiling and re-tightening). designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis. over its design service life. predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values. 1. to measure deterioration. Preventive maintenance ( 1951 ) It is a daily maintenance (cleaning. Compared to periodic maintenance.TBM) Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost II.1. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 ) It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be . It includes corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. Breakdown maintenance It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it.maximum useful life. Maintenance is work that is carried out to preserve an asset (such as a roof or a heating boiler). in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. inspection. without unforeseen renewal or major repair activities. design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration. IV. b) Predictive maintenance This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis.2 Types of Maintenance I. in order to enable its continued use and function. the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance a) Periodic maintenance (Time based maintenance . above a minimum acceptable level of performance.
.To achieve the correct level of operational reliability and best possible personal safety at minimum cost. secondly the cost factors are taken into consideration. It is essential to mention that the target of availability performance is decided first. a number of measures are employed. Or in another words the objective of maintenance can be mentioned as follows: . Modern maintenance management is to keep the equipment into operation and produce quality products meaning that every time we need to do a unplanned repair work. during the past years.1. In order to achieve this. In fact the objective of the maintenance activity is a priority one to work for a planned availability performance and priority two is to do this at the lowest cost possible. and by minimizing the losses resulting from breakdowns or failures.e. In fact it is the objective of the maintenance function to maintain or increase the reliability of the operating system as a whole. the most economical operational reliability at as low a cost as possible. Obviously the safety aspects must also be taken into consideration. Maintenance prevention ( 1960 ) It indicates the design of a new equipment. Very often the maintenance cost was seen too high. The purpose of maintenance is to attempt to maximize the performance of equipment by ensuring that such equipment performs regularly and efficiently.carried out reliably.3 Describe theobjectiveandadvantagesofimplement maintenance. The objective of maintenance in the industry is: . This way of seeing maintenance was a sign of that the only objective of maintenance was to repair and mend broken equipment. been seen as a condition for production. by attempting to prevent breakdowns or failures. This objective can also be described as an attempt to achieve the optimum or best possible operational reliability i. it is not recommendable to concentrate 100% on breakdown jobs and repairing. Instead the previous action approach was that the maintenance was the necessary evil which only consumed a lot of money. The maintenance function has not. Planned availability performance means that the production manager and maintenance manager have agreed on the availability performance for a certain period of time in the future. In modern maintenance management. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention. safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment 1. This is the old fashioned way of maintenance management. easier maintenance and prevents of defects. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability IV.To keep up the planned availability performance at the lowest cost and within the safety prescriptions. some of which are described below. we have not succeeded with the maintenance strategy.
The way in which maintenance is carried out in a company is of considerable economic importance. Maintenance can also be facilitated through design changes. Planning also provides information for purchasing spare parts and materials and for determining personal requirements. resulting in increased revenue. productivity. Most of the measures described above result in less time and material being required for maintenance. VI. coupled with application of suitable methods of investigating the condition of plant and machinery (condition monitoring).e. but also in an improved working environment. V. VIII. it can be said that preventive maintenance increases the profitability of the company. Various means of learning from experience can also be employed. This data can be used as a basis for planning. Maintenance contributes to reduced consumption of capital by helping to maintain the value of materials and equipment. Properly carried out maintenance results not only in economic gains. II. therefore.1 Objective of Implement Maintenance I.1. Energy consumption and capital costs can also be reduced through proper maintenance.I. the amount of maintenance work necessary can be reduced through improved application of experience. leading to reduced costs for the company. IV. Planning of work improves the likehood of ensuring that the correct work is carried out at the right time. It is important to reduce maintenance requirements when maintenance work is to be rationalized. Correct maintenance also extends the life of the equipment. improved lubricants. VII. Proper maintenance increases reliability and. To achieve product quality and customer satisfaction through adjusted and serviced equipment Maximize useful life of equipment . Within the majority of areas. improved planning and better design. can be used for other purposes within the company. One way is to keeprecord every operational problem. purchase) new equipment. This means that fund that would otherwise have been required to invest in (i. III. improved human safety and reduced stress.. 1. all of which can reduce the need for maintenance. II.3. improved suspension system etc. In general.
Estimated 12-18% cost savings over Corrective Maintenance (CM).1 Introduction All enterprises and organisations are of course interested in lowering the maintenance costs.1. Should adverse variances occur due. to severe damage to an item of plant caused by an inefficient operator. II. VI. II.2 Advantages of Implementing Maintenance I. VII.2. II. IV.III. Decrease in equipment downtime. quality. In this case the consequences for production and other functions will not be taken into consideration due to the maintenance work. 1. safety) Must be comprehensive and include specific responsibilities 1. Some potential energy savings. Reduced asset failure. Estimated 6% to 15% cost savings over Preventive Maintenance (PM) program 1. III. c. Advantages of Preventive Maintenance Increased component lifecycle. b. Advantages of Predictive Maintenance Increased component lifecycle. Advantages of Corrective Maintenance I. IV.2 Explain various types of cost maintenance related. I. more dependable throughput Higher productivity Improved quality Continuous improvement Improved capacity Reduced inventory a. V. II. for example. III. Many enterprises are operating a cost controlled maintenance management meaning that the maintenance section is just controlled by the money which is available in the budget. V.3. Lower short-term costs. VII. Requires less staff since less work is being done. Lower operating costs Faster. III. I. the best course of action is . delivery. The maintenance cost must be controlled by the people with a knowledge in the field of maintenance. Keep equipment safe and prevent safety hazards Minimize frequency and severity of interruptions Maximize production capacity – through high utilization of facility Must be consistent with the goals of production (cost. VI. IV. Comparison of actual maintenance costs against the maintenance budget will be an inherent part of the cost control system.
This approach is to be preferred to the alternative of `delay tactics'. The maintenance cost must be put in relationship with the planned availability performance. For example a shut down in a large process industry can cost tens of thousands of dollars per hour. Direct maintenance costs. This principle must apply both at the budget preparation stage as well as the implementation stage. According to one of the maintenance objective is to "keep up planned availability performance to the lowest cost possible" which means that it is the long term results which must be taken into consideration. In these circumstances. intended to reduce. The reason for why maintenance has been treated as a cost controlled activity is often that technicians have had some difficulties to measure the investments in maintenance in total economic terms. It is very easy to find the cost of maintenance but it is difficult to see the results. Costs for lubricants. in the analysis of variances and consideration of the various alternative courses of action. twenty-four hours loss of service of a large ship can lead to losses of hundreds of thousands of dollars. Personnel cost for those carrying out the maintenance work. Costs for premises. to the possible detriment of the machinery's effectiveness in the future.. Costs for rebuilding etc. simplify or eleminate maintenance. where it is hope that savings will be created in other areas. i. When excessive maintenance occurs due to bad machinery design. 1. This could mean that the required level of maintenance on other machines has not been completed.2. paint. and other materials which are consumed in connection with maintenance. it is important that all interested parties appreciate the difficulties associated with the maintenance function and as a result the engineer/manager and the management accountant co-operate in developing a system which helps maintenance management to be more efficient. The visible part is representing the maintenance costs as the invisible part is representing the costs for different factors influenced by maintenance.e. a) b) c) d) e) f) II. Indirect maintenance cost Indirect maintenance cost is loss of revenue as a result of interruptions to production due to inadequate maintenance. . with the results that at the end of the year total actual costs compare favourably with the budget costs. Maintenance and its results can be like an iceberg was the biggest part is invisible under the water level and only a small part is visible above the surface.for the maintenance engineer to apply for a supplementary addition to his budget. In results controlled maintenance management it is always the direct maintenance costs put into relationship to the indirect costs. Cost of administrative systems connected with maintenance. Cost of work carried out by third parties and companies. gaskets. equipment and other services used by the maintenance department. The maintenance costs can be varying from organisation to organisation and divided into two categories:I.2 Cost or Result Controlled Maintenance The cost controlled maintenance is not connected to modern maintenance. it is equally important that there should be effective feedback of the appropriate information to the manufacturer and/or designer.
etc. Prosperous companies make efforts to ensure their workers safety as these companies have realized the importance of healthy and happy workers. III. Workplace safety is essential for providing a safe environment in which employees can work with minimal risk to their health.. Safe and healthy workplace leads to confident and productive workers. This encourages everyone working there to do their best and feel good about getting the job done. It is in the interest of the company to provide safe and healthy workplace if it needs to avoid dealing with complaints or lawsuits from its workers arising from injuries while at job. Companies emphasizing on tidy. On-the-job accidents can cause injuries and death. organized and safe work environment help boost the individual and the company‘s morale as a whole. When people feel safe and are healthy their productivity at work increases. Cost to replace or repair Losses of output Delayed shipment Scrap and rework Describeworkplacesafety. Everyone will be more productive.3 Defnition Workplace is the location at or from which an employee ordinarily performs the duties of his or her position and. in the case of an employee whose duties are of an itinerant nature. IV. Numerous workplace of risks exist. Safe and healthy work atmosphere assist in reducing the risk of avoidable problems. 1. When individuals practice the safety at workplace on daily basis it becomes a second nature. . An organization must use a combination of safety training and safety protocols to prevent as many employee injuries as possible.1.2.3 Four Types of Cost in Maintenance I. Everyone working in the company should be made aware of their responsibility to follow the local policies. Workers should be encouraged to report near misses which are critical in developing new strategies and safeguards against possible mishaps. Ensuring the safety at workplace does not require huge investment of time or money or other resources. and where other administrative matters pertaining to the employee's employment are conducted. including dangers resulting from human errors and mechanical malfunctions. the actual building to which the employee returns to prepare and/or submit reports. This in turn benefits the company. The number of work hours lost due to illness and injuries is also decreased in a safe and healthy workplace. provided training with regular updates then the whole environment will become safe and healthy. Preventing these accidents requires the effort of all employees in the organization. Safe and healthy environment in the workplace benefits everybody. II. All you need is to establish the basic framework and pathways to achieve the desired targets.
When people feel better about their environment. occupational health is fundamental to public health. A clean workplace improves air quality. Just the simple task of cleaning can improve performance and boost business.3.1 Identifythebenefitcleanandsafeworkingenvironment. AIDS. and that keeps everyone cutting down on sick days and absenteeism. such as pollution control and exposure reduction. In a dingy or cluttered workspace. surrounding communities and the environment for future generations have important common elements. a bright and clean workspace can help them through it and keep them productive. maintenance of a healthy and safe work environment. that can be beneficially influenced by occupational health and safety programmes. The fresh change may be just what everyone needs to feel better and try harder to get along with one another in the workplace Benefits healthy workers are productive and raise healthy families. If you are having issues with communication in the workplace and people seem to be bickering with co-workers. much pollution and many environmental exposures that are hazardous to health arise from industrial processes. but on those bad days. try making the space cleaner. cancer) need workplace wellness programmes.Working in a clean. Your workers will have more energy and feel more creative. the processes of protecting workers. heart disease. training and retraining. They may love their job. workplace health risks are higher in the informal sector and small industries which are key arenas of action on poverty alleviation. healthy environment can have a major effect on your employees. through workplace (re)design. A clean workspace can have a major impact on how people feel and behave in the workplace 1. where people can work their way out of poverty. occupational safety and health can contribute to improving the employability of workers. medical diagnosis. for it is increasingly clear that major diseases (e. assessment of work demands. Benefits of promoting a healthy workplace To the organisation a well-managed health and safety programme .g. which is the key to poverty reduction. thus healthy workers are a key strategy in overcoming poverty. they get along better. safe workplaces contribute to sustainable development. bad days and problems seem to fester a lot longer. health screening and assessment of functional capacities.
foot and eye protection. chemicals. Depending on the hazard or workplace conditions. For example. This guide will help both employers and employees do the following: Understand the types of PPE. employers must provide personal protective equipment (PPE) to their employees and ensure its use. Controlling a hazard at its source is the best way to protect employees. respirators and full body suits. Personal protective equipment.a positive and caring image improved staff morale reduced staff turnover reduced absenteeism increased productivity reduced health care/insurance costs reduced risk of fines and litigation To the employee a safe and healthy work environment enhanced self-esteem reduced stress improved morale increased job satisfaction increased skills for health protection improved health improved sense of well-being 1. . commonly referred to as "PPE". muffs) hard hats. changing the way in which employees perform their work is a work practice control. flying sparks. protective hearing devices (earplugs.3.2 Explaintheimportantof personal protectionequipments. work practice and administrative controls are not feasible or do not provide sufficient protection. building a barrier between the hazard and the employees is an engineering control. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers protect their employees from workplace hazards that can cause injury. OSHA recommends the use of engineering or work practice controls to manage or eliminate hazards to the greatest extent possible. is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Introduction Hazards exist in every workplace in many different forms: sharp edges. falling objects. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves. When engineering. noise and a myriad of other potentially dangerous situations.
published in 29 CFR. Understand what kind of training is needed in the proper use and care of PPE. fluctuating temperatures." Potential hazards may be physical or health-related and a comprehensive hazard assessment should identify hazards in both categories. Know the basics of conducting a "hazard assessment" of the workplace. The Hazard Assessment A first critical step in developing a comprehensive safety and health program is to identify physical and health hazards in the workplace. In general. high intensity lighting. employers are responsible for: Performing a "hazard assessment" of the workplace to identify and control physical and health hazards. Some standards require that employers provide PPE at no cost to the employee while others simply state that the employer must provide PPE. Specific requirements for PPE are presented in many different OSHA standards. This process is known as a "hazard assessment. rolling or pinching objects. Select appropriate PPE for a variety of circumstances. and Inform a supervisor of the need to repair or replace PPE. Appendix A at page 40 lists those standards that require the employer to provide PPE and those that require the employer to provide PPE at no cost to the employee. The hazard assessment should begin with a walk-through survey of the facility to develop a list of potential hazards in the following basic hazard categories: . Training employees in the use and care of the PPE. employees should: Properly wear PPE. including replacing worn or damaged PPE. clean and maintain PPE. The Requirement for PPE To ensure the greatest possible protection for employees in the workplace. updating and evaluating the effectiveness of the PPE program. Care for. electrical connections and sharp edges. In general. Examples of health hazards include overexposure to harmful dusts. Maintaining PPE. Examples of physical hazards include moving objects. Periodically reviewing. Identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees. chemicals or radiation. Attend training sessions on PPE. the cooperative efforts of both employers and employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful work environment.
furnaces. etc. Sources of motion such as machines or processes where movement may exist that could result in an impact between personnel and equipment. Name of the person conducting the assessment. Sharp objects that could poke. Light (optical) radiation. It is definitely a good idea to select PPE that will provide a level of protection greater than the minimum required to protect employees from hazards. This periodic reassessment should also include a review of injury and illness records to spot any trends or areas of concern and taking appropriate corrective action. Penetration. The suitability of existing PPE. such as welding. cut. and Identification of the document certifying completion of the hazard assessment. brazing. Sources of harmful dusts. Selecting PPE . Date of the assessment. Heat/cold. including an evaluation of its condition and age. eye injuries or fire. should be included in the reassessment. The workplace should be periodically reassessed for any changes in conditions. Chemical. cutting. stab or puncture. the employer should organize and analyze the data so that it may be efficiently used in determining the proper types of PPE required at the worksite. The potential for falling or dropping objects. Biologic hazards such as blood or other potentially infected material. equipment or operating procedures that could affect occupational hazards. things to look for during the walk-through survey include: Sources of electricity. Documentation of the hazard assessment is required through a written certification that includes the following information: Identification of the workplace evaluated. Sources of light radiation. high intensity lights. When the walk-through is complete. heat treating. The employer should become aware of the different types of PPE available and the levels of protection offered. Types of chemicals used in the workplace. In addition to noting the basic layout of the facility and reviewing any history of occupational illnesses or injuries. Harmful dust. Compression (roll-over). and Biologic. Sources of high temperatures that could result in burns. Impact.
Employers who need to provide PPE in the categories listed below must make certain that any new equipment procured meets the cited ANSI standard.1-1991. How to properly put on. OSHA requirements and ANSI standards. Other situations that require additional or retraining of employees . If several different types of PPE are worn together. Training Employees in the Proper Use of PPE Employers are required to train each employee who must use PPE. Most protective devices are available in multiple sizes and care should be taken to select the proper size for each employee. If PPE does not fit properly. when the first safety standard was approved to protect the heads and eyes of industrial workers. adjust and wear the PPE. the chemical resistance and the physical properties of the glove material. take off. useful life and disposal of PPE. there is no ANSI standard for gloves but OSHA recommends that selection be based upon the tasks to be performed and the performance and construction characteristics of the glove material.All PPE clothing and equipment should be of safe design and construction.1-1989 (USA Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection). Employers should make sure that each employee demonstrates an understanding of the PPE training as well as the ability to properly wear and use PPE before they are allowed to perform work requiring the use of the PPE. It may not provide the level of protection desired and may discourage employee use. The limitations of the PPE. ANSI has been preparing safety standards since the 1920s. maintenance. Proper care. Head Protection: ANSI Z89. it can make the difference between being safely covered or dangerously exposed. Employers should take the fit and comfort of PPE into consideration when selecting appropriate items for their workplace. Foot Protection: ANSI Z41. glove selection must be based on the chemicals encountered. OSHA requires PPE to meet the following ANSI standards: Eye and Face Protection: ANSI Z87. OSHA requires that many categories of PPE meet or be equivalent to standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). make sure they are compatible. For protection against chemicals.1-1986. What PPE is necessary. that employee should receive retraining. Employees must be trained to know at least the following: When PPE is necessary. If an employer believes that a previously trained employee is not demonstrating the proper understanding and skill level in the use of PPE. based on the hazard assessment. Existing PPE stocks must meet the ANSI standard in effect at the time of its manufacture or provide protection equivalent to PPE manufactured to the ANSI criteria. Employers should inform employees who provide their own PPE of the employer's selection decisions and ensure that any employee-owned PPE used in the workplace conforms to the employer's criteria. PPE that fits well and is comfortable to wear will encourage employee use of PPE. and should be maintained in a clean and reliable fashion. For hand protection.
Employers of workers in other job categories should decide whether there is a need for eye and face PPE through a hazard assessment. chains. sawyers. laborers. electricians. Also. hammering. the date of training and a clear identification of the subject of the certification. grinding. dirt. molten metal. sawing. glare. It is important to ensure that the protective eyewear does not disturb the proper positioning of the prescription lenses so that the employee's vision will not be inhibited or limited. sanders. metal or wood chips entering the eye from activities such as chipping. . such as tree limbs. grinding machine operators. Eye and Face Protection Employees can be exposed to a large number of hazards that pose danger to their eyes and face. millwrights. Eye Protection for Exposed Workers OSHA suggests that eye protection be routinely considered for use by carpenters. so employers must make sure that employees with corrective lenses either wear eye protection that incorporates the prescription into the design or wear additional eye protection over their prescription lenses. splash and flying particles). mechanics. Radiant energy from welding. potentially infected material or potentially harmful light radiation. chemical gases or vapors. Employers must be sure that their employees wear appropriate eye and face protection and that the selected form of protection is appropriate to the work being performed and properly fits each worker exposed to the hazard. tools or ropes. welders. OSHA requires employers to ensure that employees have appropriate eye or face protection if they are exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles. The employer must document the training of each employee required to wear or use PPE by preparing a certification containing the name of each employee trained. Objects swinging into the eye or face. acids or caustic liquids. machinists. assemblers. liquid chemicals. Many occupational eye injuries occur because workers are not wearing any eye protection while others result from wearing improper or poorly fitting eye protection. Prescription Lenses Everyday use of prescription corrective lenses will not provide adequate protection against most occupational eye and face hazards. sparks. hot liquids. Examples of potential eye or face injuries include: Dust.include the following circumstances: changes in the workplace or in the type of required PPE that make prior training obsolete. plumbers and pipefitters. chemical process operators and handlers. sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths. and timber cutting and logging workers. harmful rays from the use of lasers or other radiant light (as well as heat. Chemical splashes from corrosive substances. the use of power tools or even strong wind forces. employees who wear contact lenses must wear eye or face PPE when working in hazardous conditions. solvents or other hazardous solutions.
Should fit properly and be reasonably comfortable to wear. Constructed of vulcanized fiber or fiberglass and fitted with a filtered lens. must comply with the earlier ANSI Standard (ANSI Z87. Face shields protect against nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids but will not provide adequate protection against impact hazards. Some goggles will fit over corrective lenses. Some are polarized for glare protection.1-1968) or be shown to be equally effective. Laser safety goggles. Should be durable and cleanable. Side shields are available on some models. Face shields used in combination with goggles or safety spectacles will provide additional protection against impact hazards.Types of Eye Protection Selecting the most suitable eye and face protection for employees should take into consideration the following elements: Ability to protect against specific workplace hazards. welding shields protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light. Any new eye and face protective devices must comply with ANSI Z87. Some of the most common types of eye and face protection include the following: Safety spectacles. soldering and cutting operations.1-1989 or be at least as effective as this standard requires. OSHA requires filter lenses to have a shade number appropriate to protect against the specific hazards of the work being performed in order to protect against harmful light radiation. the employer must make sure that employees disinfect shared protective eyewear after each use. These transparent sheets of plastic extend from the eyebrows to below the chin and across the entire width of the employee's head. Should allow unrestricted functioning of any other required PPE. Protective eyewear with corrective lenses may only be used by the employee for whom the corrective prescription was issued and may not be shared among employees. The eye and face protection selected for employee use must clearly identify the manufacturer. they also protect both the eyes and face from flying sparks. dust and splashes. Face shields. These protective eyeglasses have safety frames constructed of metal or plastic and impact-resistant lenses. Should provide unrestricted vision and movement. These specialty goggles protect against intense concentrations of light produced by lasers. brazing. metal spatter and slag chips produced during welding. An employer may choose to provide one pair of protective eyewear for each position rather than individual eyewear for each employee. Welding shields. Any equipment purchased before this requirement took effect on July 5. If this is done. These are tight-fitting eye protection that completely cover the eyes. . 1994. eye sockets and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes and provide protection from impact. Goggles. The type of laser safety goggles an employer chooses will depend upon the equipment and operating conditions in the workplace.
500 (light) (heavy) < 500 500 .8mm) <3 3-5 5-8 >8 Arc current < 60 60 .250 250 .160 160 . Employers can identify the specific workplace hazards that threaten employees' eyes and faces by completing a hazard assessment as outlined in the earlier section.250 250 .400 400 .000 < 20 20 .800 (light)** (medium)** (heavy)** < 300 300 .400 400 .100 100 .800 Minimum* protective shade 7 8 10 11 7 10 10 10 8 8 10 10 11 6 8 10 11 8 9 10 3 2 14 Table 2 Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Plate thickness inches Plate thickness mm Minimum* protective shade Gas metal arc welding and flux cored arc welding Gas tungsten arc welding Air carbon Arc cutting Plasma arc welding Plasma arc cutting Torch brazing Torch soldering Carbon arc welding Operations . Table 1 Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Shielded metal arc welding Electrode size in 1/32" (0.Each type of protective eyewear is designed to protect against specific hazards. the electrode size and the arc current. cutting or brazing operations varies according to a number of factors including the task producing the light.500 < 50 50 .1. Welding Operations The intense light associated with welding operations can cause serious and sometimes permanent eye damage if operators do not wear proper eye protection.550 < 60 60 . The following table shows the minimum protective shades for a variety of welding.160 160 . cutting and brazing operations in general industry and in the shipbuilding industry. The intensity of light or radiant energy produced by welding.150 150 .
133(a)(5). CW maximum power density (watts/cm2) 10-2 Attenuation Optical density (O. so it is essential that all personnel in or around laser operations wear appropriate eye protection. as indicated in the table below: Laser Operations Laser light radiation can be extremely dangerous to the unprotected eye and direct or reflected beams can cause permanent eye damage.Gas welding: Light Gas welding: Medium Gas welding: Heavy Oxygen cutting: Light Oxygen cutting: Medium Oxygen cutting: Heavy Source: 29 CFR 1910. < 1/8 1/8 . Laser retinal burns can be painless.) 5 Attenuation factor 105 .150 > 150 4 5 6 3 4 5 * As a rule of thumb. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum. The table below lists maximum power or energy densities and appropriate protection levels for optical densities 5 through 8. ** These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum) operation.7 < 25 25 .2 . The construction industry has separate requirements for filter lens protective levels for specific types of welding operations.D. start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone.1/2 > 1/2 <1 1-6 >6 < 3. the optical density of those wavelengths and the visible light transmission. Safety goggles intended for use with laser beams must be labeled with the laser wavelengths for which they are intended to be used.2 3. Table 3 Selecting Laser Safety Glass Intensity. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light. Laser safety goggles should protect for the specific wavelength of the laser and must be of sufficient optical density for the energy involved.12. Experience has shown that lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.7 > 12.
18 cm) away from the head. head protection must be worn. or There is a possibility of accidental head contact with electrical hazards. Employers must ensure that their employees wear head protection if any of the following apply: Objects might fall from above and strike them on the head. 6 7 8 106 107 108 Head Protection Protecting employees from potential head injuries is a key element of any safety program.10-1 1. carpenters. linemen. such as exposed pipes or beams. Some examples of occupations in which employees should be required to wear head protection include construction workers. Hard hats can protect employees from impact and penetration hazards as well as from electrical shock and burn hazards.0 10. among many others.54 cm to 3.1-1986 (Protective Headgear for Industrial Workers) or provide an equivalent level of protection. Protective headgear must meet ANSI Standard Z89. Helmets purchased before July 5. They might bump their heads against fixed objects. Hard hats must have a hard outer shell and a shock-absorbing lining that incorporates a headband and straps that suspend the shell from 1 to 1 1/4 inches (2. Types of Hard Hats . A head injury can impair an employee for life or it can be fatal.0 Source: 29 CFR 1926. protective helmets or hard hats should do the following: Resist penetration by objects. Absorb the shock of a blow. such as working below others who are using tools or working under a conveyor belt. timber and log cutters. Have clear instructions explaining proper adjustment and replacement of the suspension and headband. 1994 must comply with the earlier ANSI Standard (Z89. welders.1-1969) or provide equivalent protection. electricians. Be water-resistant and slow burning. Hard hats must be worn with the bill forward to protect employees properly. This type of design provides shock absorption during an impact and ventilation during normal wear. Wearing a safety helmet or hard hat is one of the easiest ways to protect an employee's head from injury. plumbers and pipefitters. Whenever there is a danger of objects falling from above.102(b)(2). In general.
There are many types of hard hats available in the marketplace today. suspension system and other accessories for holes. face shields and mounted lights.000 volts). Size and Care Considerations Head protection that is either too large or too small is inappropriate for use. Class B hard hats provide the highest level of protection against electrical hazards. Another class of protective headgear on the market is called a ―bump hat. A daily inspection of the hard hat shell. cracks. They also provide protection from impact and penetration hazards by flying/falling objects. the ANSI designation and the class of the hat. since sunlight and extreme heat can . slip. Consult the helmet manufacturer for information on the effects of paint and cleaning materials on their hard hats. It is essential to check the type of hard hat employees are using to ensure that the equipment provides appropriate protection. Most protective headgear comes in a variety of sizes with adjustable headbands to ensure a proper fit (many adjust in 1/8-inch increments).200 volts). Never drill holes. Periodic cleaning and inspection will extend the useful life of protective headgear. These are not designed to protect against falling or flying objects and are not ANSI approved. Do not store protective headgear in direct sunlight. Paints. paint or apply labels to protective headgear as this may reduce the integrity of the protection. with high-voltage shock and burn protection (up to 20. even if it meets all other requirements. Hard hats are divided into three industrial classes: Class A hard hats provide impact and penetration resistance along with limited voltage protection (up to 2. It is important for employers to understand all potential hazards when making this selection. Some protective headgear allows for the use of various accessories to help employees deal with changing environmental conditions. paint thinners and some cleaning agents can weaken the shells of hard hats and may eliminate electrical resistance. Each hat should bear a label inside the shell that lists the manufacturer. Class C hard hats provide lightweight comfort and impact protection but offer no protection from electrical hazards. In addition to selecting protective headgear that meets ANSI standard requirements. including electrical hazards. A proper fit should allow sufficient clearance between the shell and the suspension system for ventilation and distribution of an impact. tears or other damage that might compromise the protective value of the hat is essential. employers should ensure that employees wear hard hats that provide appropriate protection against potential workplace hazards. Protective headgear must fit appropriately on the body and for the head size of each individual. fall off or irritate the skin. This can be done through a comprehensive hazard analysis and an awareness of the different types of protective headgear available." designed for use in areas with low head clearance. Protective headgear accessories must not compromise the safety elements of the equipment. such as slots for earmuffs. They are recommended for areas where protection is needed from head bumps and lacerations. The hat should not bind. Optional brims may provide additional protection from the sun and some hats have channels that guide rainwater away from the face. such as on the rear window shelf of a car. safety glasses.
chemicals or ultraviolet light and other radiation (in addition to a loss of surface gloss. or deformity of the brim or shell. Suspension systems are offered as replacement parts and should be replaced when damaged or when excessive wear is noticed.damage them. But the type and amount of protection is not always the same. Working with sharp objects such as nails or spikes that could pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoes. workplace exposure to static electricity may necessitate the use of conductive footwear. must meet or provide equivalent protection to the earlier ANSI Standard (ANSI Z41. Also. Safety snaps allow leggings to be removed quickly. Working on or around hot. nonconductive footwear should be worn. .1-1967). wet or slippery surfaces. such signs include chalking or flaking). Check the product's labeling or consult the manufacturer to make sure the footwear will protect the user from the hazards they face. Hard hats with any of the following defects should be removed from service and replaced: Perforation. If an employee's feet may be exposed to electrical hazards. On the other hand. Footwear purchased before July 5. Indication of exposure of the brim or shell to heat. Exposure to molten metal that might splash on feet or legs. cracking. 1994. Always replace a hard hat if it sustains an impact. It is not necessary to replace the entire hard hat when deterioration or tears of the suspension systems are noticed. even if damage is not noticeable. Foot and Leg Protection Employees who face possible foot or leg injuries from falling or rolling objects or from crushing or penetrating materials should wear protective footwear. including legs and feet. Foot and leg protection choices include the following: Leggings protect the lower legs and feet from heat hazards such as molten metal or welding sparks. employees whose work involves exposure to hot substances or corrosive or poisonous materials must have protective gear to cover exposed body parts. Different footwear protects in different ways. and Working when electrical hazards are present. Examples of situations in which an employee should wear foot and/or leg protection include: When heavy objects such as barrels or tools might roll onto or fall on the employee's feet. Safety footwear must meet ANSI minimum compression and impact performance standards in ANSI Z41-1991 (American National Standard for Personal Protection-Protective Footwear) or provide equivalent protection. All ANSI approved footwear has a protective toe and offers impact and compression protection.
Foot powder should not be used in conjunction with protective conductive footwear because it provides insulation. reducing the conductive ability of the shoes. Toe guards fit over the toes of regular shoes to protect the toes from impact and compression hazards. safety-toe shoes are nonconductive and will prevent the wearers' feet from completing an electrical circuit to the ground. They may be made of steel. Employees working in explosive and hazardous locations such as explosives manufacturing facilities or grain elevators must wear conductive shoes to reduce the risk of static electricity buildup on the body that could produce a spark and cause an explosion or fire. These shoes can protect against open circuits of up to 600 volts in dry conditions and should be used in conjunction with other insulating equipment and additional precautions to reduce the risk of a worker becoming a path for hazardous electrical energy. Silk. Combination foot and shin guards protect the lower legs and feet. or workers touch conductive. fiber or plastic. these guards may be strapped to the outside of shoes. safety-toe shoes may be compromised if the shoes become wet. broken buckles or laces. wool and nylon socks can produce static electricity and should not be worn with conductive footwear. Care of Protective Footwear As with all protective equipment. Electrical hazard. Safety shoes may also be designed to be electrically conductive to prevent the buildup of static electricity in areas with the potential for explosive atmospheres or nonconductive to protect workers from workplace electrical hazards. and may be used in combination with toe guards when greater protection is needed. separation of materials. Metatarsal guards protect the instep area from impact and compression. grounded items. These snug-fitting leather or leather-substitute shoes have leather or rubber soles and rubber heels. The soles of shoes should be checked for pieces of metal or other embedded items that could present electrical or tripping . This includes looking for cracks or holes. safety footwear should be inspected prior to each use. The insulating protection of electrical hazard. Shoes and leggings should be checked for wear and tear at reasonable intervals. Note: Nonconductive footwear must not be used in explosive or hazardous locations. All foundry shoes must have built-in safety toes. Conductive shoes must be removed when the task requiring their use is completed. steel. foundry shoes keep hot metal from lodging in shoe eyelets. the soles are worn through. Foundry Shoes In addition to insulating the feet from the extreme heat of molten metal. Note: Employees exposed to electrical hazards must never wear conductive shoes. Made of aluminum. Special Purpose Shoes Electrically conductive shoes provide protection against the buildup of static electricity. paving and hot metal industries. The metal insoles of some safety shoes protect against puncture wounds. tongues or other shoe parts. metal particles become embedded in the sole or heel. Safety shoes have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect the feet against hot work surfaces common in roofing. aluminum or plastic.
splash. abrasions. forearm. Chemical. etc. wet.and liquid-resistant gloves. oily). fractures and amputations. gloves fall into four groups: Gloves made of leather.). Potential hazards include skin absorption of harmful substances. Grip requirements (dry. . Hand and Arm Protection If a workplace hazard assessment reveals that employees face potential injury to hands and arms that cannot be eliminated through engineering and work practice controls. arm). Fabric and coated fabric gloves. cuts. machine guards may eliminate a hazard. employers must ensure that employees wear appropriate protection. canvas or metal mesh.hazards. Types of Protective Gloves There are many types of gloves available today to protect against a wide variety of hazards. The following are examples of some factors that may influence the selection of protective gloves for a workplace. The variety of potential occupational hand injuries makes selecting the right pair of gloves challenging. bruises. Employees should follow the manufacturers' recommendations for cleaning and maintenance of protective footwear. Nature of contact (total immersion. Thermal protection. Employers should explore all possible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate hazards and use PPE to provide additional protection against hazards that cannot be completely eliminated through other means. Installing a barrier to prevent workers from placing their hands at the point of contact between a table saw blade and the item being cut is another method. Size and comfort. Type of chemicals handled. In general. Duration of contact. For example. It is essential that employees use gloves specifically designed for the hazards and tasks found in their workplace because gloves designed for one function may not protect against a different function even though they may appear to be an appropriate protective device. finger guards and arm coverings or elbow-length gloves. chemical or thermal burns. Protective equipment includes gloves. punctures. The nature of the hazard and the operation involved will affect the selection of gloves. Abrasion/resistance requirements. electrical dangers. Area requiring protection (hand only. Gloves made from a wide variety of materials are designed for many types of workplace hazards.
These gloves are used for tasks ranging from handling bricks and wire to chemical laboratory containers. rocket fuels. polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene.and abrasive . leather or canvas provide protection against cuts and burns.resistant and wear well. are cut .Resistant Gloves Chemical-resistant gloves are made with different kinds of rubber: natural.and Liquid . chafing and abrasions. As a general rule. fabric gloves are transformed into generalpurpose hand protection offering slip-resistant qualities. the thicker the glove material. Synthetic gloves of various materials offer protection against heat and cold. having a negative impact on safety. Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves Fabric and coated fabric gloves are made of cotton or other fabric to provide varying degrees of protection. are cut . Butyl rubber does not perform well with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated solvents. butyl. . moderate heat. Aluminized gloves provide reflective and insulating protection against heat and require an insert made of synthetic materials to protect against heat and cold. ozone corrosion and abrasion. Some examples of chemical-resistant gloves include: Butyl gloves are made of a synthetic rubber and protect against a wide variety of chemicals. Fabric gloves protect against dirt. and remain flexible at low temperatures. Leather. sulfuric acid. Chemical . the greater the chemical resistance but thick gloves may impair grip and dexterity. nitrile and fluorocarbon (viton). Adding a plastic coating will strengthen some fabric gloves. Insulating rubber gloves (See 29 CFR 1910. Aramid fiber gloves protect against heat and cold. ketones. aldehydes. When selecting gloves to protect against chemical exposure hazards. Leather gloves protect against sparks. alcohols.and abrasive . They do not provide sufficient protection for use with rough. use and care of insulating rubber gloves). hydrofluoric acid and red-fuming nitric acid). By coating the unnapped side with plastic. These materials do not stand up against alkalis and solvents. Butyl gloves also resist oxidation. Canvas or Metal Mesh Gloves Sturdy gloves made from metal mesh. Coated fabric gloves are normally made from cotton flannel with napping on one side. esters and nitrocompounds.resistant and may withstand some diluted acids. highly corrosive acids (nitric acid. strong bases. neoprene. blows. or various kinds of plastic: polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Leather or canvass gloves also protect against sustained heat. slivers. These materials can be blended or laminated for better performance. always check with the manufacturer or review the manufacturer's product literature to determine the gloves' effectiveness against specific workplace chemicals and conditions. chips and rough objects.137 and the following section on electrical protective equipment for detailed requirements on the selection. sharp or heavy materials. such as peroxide.
punctured or made ineffective in any way. must wear appropriate body protection while performing their jobs. Potential impacts from tools. Neoprene gloves are made of synthetic rubber and offer good pliability. Latex gloves have caused allergic reactions in some individuals and may not be appropriate for all employees. high density and tear resistance. finger dexterity. ketones and acetates. work practice or administrative controls. storage and temperature. Gloves that are discolored or stiff may also indicate deficiencies caused by excessive use or degradation from chemical exposure. taking into consideration the absorptive qualities of the gloves. Care of Protective Gloves Protective gloves should be inspected before each use to ensure that they are not torn. Body Protection Employees who face possible bodily injury of any kind that cannot be eliminated through engineering. In addition to resisting abrasions caused by grinding and polishing. Hot splashes from molten metals and other hot liquids. They feature outstanding tensile strength. caustics and alcohols but are generally not recommended for use with strong oxidizing agents. Reuse of chemical-resistant gloves should be evaluated carefully. They generally have chemical and wear resistance properties superior to those made of natural rubber. salts and ketones. They protect against hydraulic fluids. acids. Nitrile gloves are made of a copolymer and provide protection from chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. Natural (latex) rubber gloves are comfortable to wear. gasoline. They offer protection when working with oils. aromatic solvents. Although intended for jobs requiring dexterity and sensitivity. elasticity and temperature resistance. A visual inspection will help detect cuts or tears but a more thorough inspection by filling the gloves with water and tightly rolling the cuff towards the fingers will help reveal any pinhole leaks. organic acids and alkalis. . greases. alcohols. the following are examples of workplace hazards that could cause bodily injury: Temperature extremes. which makes them a popular general-purpose glove. In addition to cuts and radiation. Any gloves with impaired protective ability should be discarded and replaced. glove liners and powderless gloves are possible alternatives for workers who are allergic to latex gloves. A decision to reuse chemically-exposed gloves should take into consideration the toxicity of the chemicals involved and factors such as duration of exposure. alkalis. these gloves protect workers' hands from most water solutions of acids. machinery and materials. Hypoallergenic gloves. nitrile gloves stand up to heavy use even after prolonged exposure to substances that cause other gloves to deteriorate. Hazardous chemicals.
Duck is a closely woven cotton fabric that protects against cuts and bruises when handling heavy. aprons. Noises are considered continuous if the interval between occurrences of the maximum noise . it must fit each worker properly and it must function properly and for the purpose for which it is intended. Treated wool and cotton adapts well to changing temperatures. and fireresistant and protects against dust. jackets. the clothing should be carefully inspected before each use. sharp or rough materials. For instance. below. Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials. ―Hearing Conservation" or refer to the OSHA standard at 29 CFR 1910. Rubber. Examples of body protection include laboratory coats. is comfortable. Table 5. coveralls. abrasions and rough and irritating surfaces. vests. employees may be exposed to a noise level of 90 dB for 8 hours per day (unless they experience a Standard Threshold Shift) before hearing protection is required. such as: Paper-like fiber used for disposable suits provide protection against dust and splashes. The duration of each employee's exposure to the noise.95. Occupational Noise Exposure. each effective against particular hazards. including: The loudness of the noise as measured in decibels (dB). On the other hand. check with the clothing manufacturer to ensure that the material selected will provide protection against the specific hazard. For a more detailed discussion of the requirements for a comprehensive hearing conservation program. Employee exposure to excessive noise depends upon a number of factors. if the noise level reaches 115 dB hearing protection is required if the anticipated exposure exceeds 15 minutes. Whether noise is generated from one or multiple sources.There are many varieties of protective clothing available for specific hazards. section (c). surgical gowns and full body suits. rubberized fabrics. the louder the noise. neoprene and plastics protect against certain chemicals and physical hazards. the shorter the exposure time before hearing protection is required. see OSHA Publication 3074 (2002). Leather is often used to protect against dry heat and flames. Generally. When chemical or physical hazards are present. Employers are required to ensure that their employees wear personal protective equipment only for the parts of the body exposed to possible injury. Whether employees move between work areas with different noise levels. If a hazard assessment indicates a need for full body protection against toxic substances or harmful physical agents. Hearing Protection Determining the need to provide hearing protection for employees can be challenging. shows the permissible noise exposures that require hearing protection for employees exposed to occupational noise at specific decibel levels for specific time periods.
They are self-forming and. silicone rubber or fiberglass wool. when properly inserted. Pre-formed or molded earplugs must be individually fitted by a professional and can be disposable or reusable. facial hair. Refer to Appendix B of 29 CFR 1910. long hair or facial movements such as chewing may reduce the protective value of earmuffs. Table 3 Permissible Noise Exposures 1/4 or less 115 Duration per day. The amount of this reduction is referred to as attenuation. Source: 29 CFR 1910. which differs according to the type of hearing protection used and how well it fits. Examples of situations or tools that may result in impact or impulse noises are powder-actuated nail guns. Some types of hearing protection include: Single-use earplugs are made of waxed cotton. Reusable plugs should be cleaned after each use.Table G-16. Earmuffs require a perfect seal around the ear.level is one second or less. in hours 8 6 4 3 2 11/2 5 1 1/2 1/4 or less Sound level in dB* 90 92 95 97 100 102 105 110 11 *When measured on the A scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. the employer is required to institute a hearing conservation program that includes regular testing of employees' hearing by qualified professionals. It is important to understand that hearing protectors reduce only the amount of noise that gets through to the ears. a punch press or drop hammers. Refer to 29 CFR 1910. If employees are exposed to occupational noise at or above 85 dB averaged over an eight-hour period. Manufacturers of hearing protection devices must display the device's NRR on the product packaging. foam. Occupational Noise Exposure. for detailed information on methods to estimate the attenuation effectiveness of hearing protectors based on the device's noise reduction rating (NRR). Noises not meeting this definition are considered impact or impulse noises (loud momentary explosions of sound) and exposures to this type of noise must not exceed 140 dB. Hearing protectors worn by employees must reduce an employee's noise exposure to within the acceptable limits noted in Table 5.95. .95. If engineering and work practice controls do not lower employee exposure to workplace noise to acceptable levels. employees must wear appropriate hearing protection.95(c) for a description of the requirements for a hearing conservation program. Glasses. they work as well as most molded earplugs.
Types of Lockout Devices: • Disconnect switches • Slide gates • Valves (ball. • Red locks .) Colour Code for Locks and Tags: Locks: • Blue locks .1.equipment locks . Energy-isolating devices can be: • Disconnect switches • Circuit breakers • Valve handles • Blocks • Blind flanges A tag also will be placed together with the locking device. Secondary is the protection of equipment from damage.3 Use lockout and tag-out when needed. Definition of Lockout/Tagout Lockout is a technique used to prevent equipment from being accidentally started and stored energy from being released while an associated machine or piece of equipment is being serviced. without locks. . A padlock or any other appropriate mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy is placed on the energy-isolating device that should be in the off or closed position.used for Personal Protection. by whom and for how long. to explain why the equipment is locked. etc.given to contractors to use on equipment. • Green locks . is acceptable if additional measures to protect equipment are put in place. For example: • Removal of the circuit-isolating element • Removal the valve handle • Blockage of a controlling device The ultimate goal of lockout/tagout is to protect the safety and health of employees.used to protect equipment.3. The use of only tags. gate.
The 5 Main Causes of Fatal Lockout/Tagout Injuries: 1. Installing ground wires to discharge electrical capacitors v. Accidental restarting of equipment 5.control a group lockout. Control of Stored Energy – after locking out/tagging out the equipment. Failure to stop equipment 2. Tags: • Red tags with Red locks . the stored energy must be controlled by: i.used for personal protection of employees. Application of Lockout Devices – apply lock and/or tags to all energy isolating equipment. neutralize) residual energy 4. Alert the operator (s) that power is going to be disconnected. Relieving trapped pressure iv. Relieving any residual energy ii. . 5. 2. 4. Locks out many pieces of equipment with only one locking device. Waiting until moving parts stop iii. Equipment Shutdown 3. • Yellow tags without a lock – non-energized equipment out of service. Failure to clear work areas before restarting Lockout Procedure: 1. check once more if all the equipment is locked out/tagged out and free from stored energy. Failure to disconnect from power source 3. The tag will tell what is wrong with the equipment.• Orange Locks . Preparation for Shutdown – study the equipment and the source(s) of energy before tagging/locking it. Anything that might restore the flow of energy to the work area must be locked out. Failure to dissipate (bleed. Verify Equipment Isolation – before starting the work. Equipment Isolation – find and isolate every form of energy that the machine uses. • Yellow tags with Blue locks – used for protection of equipment. Blocking or supporting elevated equipment 6. • Red tags with Green locks – used for contractor protection.
. Gather all workers involved in the operation in a safe place. Wait until the last lockout/tagout device is removed 2. Restore Serviced Equipment: • Remove all tools • Ensure all equipment components are securely in place • Re-attach all safety features (guards) • Close serviced equipment • Ensure equipment is safe to operate 2. to ensure nobody is still working in the area 3. workplace with less than 100 workers will need to have at least two representatives each for workers and management respectively. with the functions to identify hazards at the workplace. A series of regulations have been introduced under OSHA 1994. The emphasis of these regulations has been on establishing mechanism to implement OSH in workplaces. Tell workers the equipment is going to be re-energized 4. The Safety and Health Committee Regulations 1996 requires establishments with 40 workers and above to establish a safety and health committee. However. Report any problems found with the lockout/tagout procedure to your supervisor 2. Notify Personnel – that lockout/tagout devices are going to be removed 3. Workplaces with five or more workers are required to formulate a Safety and Health Policy. In terms of representation in the committee.4 Identifyalltheorganizationthatgovernsthesafetyof hazardousmaterial. Remove lockout/tagout devices – only the person who placed each lockout/tagout device is authorized to remove them.3. Re-energize the equipment Follow Up: 1.Removal of Lockout 1. institute control measures. The committee is required to meet at least once in every three months. Reactivating Equipment 1. Share this information with workers who were involved in the operation 1. workplaces with more than 100 workers will need to have a minimum of four representatives each for workers and management. investigate incident and conducting audit.
) • To analyse trend and cost for long term planning Who Should Investigate (Under The Act) • Supervisor • Safety and Health Officer • Safety and Health Committee Members • Special Team Responsibilities for Safety and Health The Occupational Safety and Health Act. and is committed to providing and maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. . visitors.The Safety and Health Officer Regulations provide for specific industries to have a Safety and Health Officer (SHO). as far as is practicable. 1994 (Malaysia) places a general duty of care upon managers to ensure. contractors and persons under labour hire agreements. students. The same Act also places on employees the responsibility to ensure that they do not expose themselves or others to hazards. that their employees are not exposed to hazards. The University acknowledges that the Vice Chancellor is ultimately accountable for the safety and health of its staff. Accident Investigation Purpose: • To establish the causes of the accidents • To establish proper control measures so that future accident can be prevented • To records all facts about the accident for various reasons (compensation. A SHO is an individual who has attended training in National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or other accredited training bodies and has passed the examination conducted by NIOSH and registered with Department of Safety and Health (DOSH). claims etc.
a manager needs to: • establish and maintain information on managing the known hazards in the work area. equipment. Provide and maintain workplaces. • make decisions about how to resolve safety and health issues following consultation • inform the SHR of identified hazards and incidents in their work area . To achieve this. processes and work practices do not expose staff to hazards • assess the risks associated with any intended changes to staff duties and work practices and make practicable changes to improve safety and health in the workplace • assess items before purchase or lease to ensure staff will not be exposed to hazards • identify hazards in the work area. Codes of Practice and Guidance Notes (iii) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) on hazardous substances • make sure staff are familiar with appropriate safety policies. 1. a manager needs to: • know and support the SHR for their work area • consult employees and SHRs about proposed changes to the working environment. standards. guidelines. To achieve this. Consult and cooperate with employees and Safety and Health Representatives (SHRs). codes of practice and MSDSs that relate to their work • provide relevant training to staff on safety and health in the workplace • maintain records of what training has been provided. Provide information. make assessments of risk and apply practicable control measures • investigate incidents to find ways of preventing them recurring • budget for the provision and maintenance of the working environment and appropriate equipment to enable work to be carried out safely.Responsibilities of Managers and Supervisors Managers and supervisors have an overall responsibility to ensure that employees are not exposed to hazards at work. including: (i) policies and safe work procedures (ii) Malaysian Standards. The Act bestows a number of specific duties on managers. when and to whom • ensure staff are supported and supervised in performing their work safely • promote safe work practices and safety and health in the workplace. 3. a manager needs to: • determine safe methods of work and ensure staff perform their work in a safe manner • develop and maintain safety policies and guidelines on safe work procedures • ensure that the existing working environment. instruction. training and supervision so employees can perform their work safely. equipment and systems of work that do not expose employees to hazards. To achieve this. 2.
etc. Employees who use hand and power tools and who are exposed to the hazards of falling. air grinders. flying. Introduction Hand Tools . reciprocating saws. and chisels. wrenches.Tools that are manually operated and powered by human force such as screw drivers. and there are facilities for cleaning. or gases must . gasoline. Provide adequate protective clothing and equipment where hazards cannot be avoided. mists. fumes. sanders. ―Ramset guns‖ etc. and cutting shears. end. abrasive and splashing objects. or explosion. manually operated. wedges.Power tools that are hand held. students and visitors under their control correctly use protective clothing and equipment provided. diesel. pliers. shallTools be kept of Tools mushroomed heads. vapors. drills. and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs. Different types of power tools source: Electric Pneumatic Liquid fuel Hydraulic Powder-actuated Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees. pipe. air wrenches. maintenance and storage • provide instruction and training on how to use and maintain the protective clothing and equipment correctly • ensure that employees. Portable Power Tools . To achieve this. a manager needs to: • know what protective clothing and equipment is required for the hazards in their work area • make sure the appropriate protective clothing and equipment is available.• work with the SHR to identify and investigate hazards and incidents and develop appropriate control measures. such as drift pins. including adjustable. and powered by electricity. Hand andfree Power Impact tools. chainsaws. Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. including tools and equipment which may be furnished by employees. or exposed to harmful dusts. air fasteners. Wrenches. The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool. such as circular saws. air. 4.
1 Listthe mostcommon typesofhand tool andpowertools. . or distortion. Floors should be kept as clean and dry as possible to prevent accidental slips with or around dangerous hand tools. • Use socket wrenches for hard-to-reach areas.4 Identifytypesofhand tools. (Examples would include cracked wooden handles that allow the tool head to fly off or mushroomed heads that can shatter upon impact). 1. General Hazards: • The two most common hazards associated with the use of hand tools are misuse and improper maintenance. and repeated impact. Using the correct size reduces the chances of wrench slippage. abrasion. Wrenches: • Choose a wrench that properly fits the fastener that is to be turned. (Always use non-sparking tools in the presence of flammable vapors or dusts. Employees and employers have a responsibility to work together to establish safe working procedures. At a minimum. Manufacturers design wrenches so that the amount of leverage obtained with the handle is the maximum safe application.powertoolsandmaintenanceequipments. eye protection should always be worn. This may cause the tip to break and strike someone). • Always try to pull on a wrench (instead of pushing) in case the fastener suddenly loosens.be provided with the particular personal equipment necessary to protect them from the hazard. it should be brought to the attention of the proper individual immediately. severe wear.4. • Inspect wrenches periodically for damage such as cracking. Insulated tools with appropriate ratings must be used for electrical work). • Improper maintenance allows hand tools to deteriorate into an unsafe condition. 1. If a hazardous situation is encountered. • Misuse occurs when a hand tool is used for something other than its intended purpose. (An example would be using a screwdriver as a chisel. • Avoid using a length of pipe or other extension to improve the leverage of a wrench. Personal Protective Equipment: • The type of personal protective equipment (PPE) needed when using hand tools depends on the nature of the task. • The use of hand protection may also be appropriate to provide protection against cuts. • Specially designed tools may be needed in hazardous environments. Appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn due to hazards that may be encountered while using portable power tools and hand tools.
Pliers: • Do not increase the handle length of pliers to gain more leverage. Such abuse is likely to result in cracks or breaks. Pliers cannot grip these items properly and will slip. punch. stirrer. • Throw away screwdrivers with broken or worn handles. or scraper. • Do not strike the surface at an angle. • Keep your free hand away from the line of the cut. 1. • Use magnetic or screw-holding screwdrivers to start fasteners in tight areas. or regrind a hammer head. • Match the proper type of hammer to the job it is designed to perform. Blades are brittle and can snap easily. 1. Only use a wrench on screw drivers specifically designed to accept them. • Always cut at right angles.2 Demonstratetheproperuseofvarious typesofhandtooland powertools. Never rock from side to side or bend the wire back and forth against the cutting edges. heat. • Do not substitute pliers for a wrench when turning nuts and bolts. or a mushroomed head. chips. • Remove from service any hammer exhibiting signs of excessive wear such as cracks. • Never use pliers on a screwdriver for extra leverage. • Never weld. • Never leave a knife unattended with the blade exposed. • Cut hardened wire only with pliers designed for that purpose. Dull blades require more force and thus are more likely to slip. Screwdrivers: • Never use a screwdriver as a pry bar. The hammer face should contact the striking surface squarely. Replace the blade when it starts to ―tear‖ instead of cut. chisel. Hammers: • Do not use a hammer if the handle is damaged or loose.4.4. • Never use pliers as a hammer or hammer on the handles. • Don‘t bend or apply side loads to blades by using them to open cans or pry loose objects. Utility Knives/Blades: • Always use a sharp blade. (The blade will retract when pressure on the knife is released). Use a larger pair of pliers or bolt cutters. Consider using a selfretracting knife with a spring-loaded blade.3 Determine theimportanceofinspectingahand toolandpower tools . Glancing blows made with a hammer often lead to injury. • Always use a screwdriver tip that properly fits the slot of the screw.
Hazards of Power Tools All hazards involved in the use of power tools can be prevented by following five basic safety rules: i. wet and/or explosive atmosphere -. They should understand the potential hazards as well as the safety precautions to prevent those hazards from occurring. v.Today’s Power Tools Offer more power. Wear proper apparel. and other mechanical hazards in your work area. Employees should be trained in the use of all tools . Examine each tool for damage before use. iv.fumes. particularly those below the work surface. ii. dangling objects or jewelry. adaptability and dependability than ever before. vi. Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance.not just power tools. Avoid dangerous environments. ii. iii. ii. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools Be aware of all power lines and electrical circuits. i. Gloves should not be worn when operating certain power tools. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools The following information offers general safety guidelines for power tools Individual manufacturers' tool owner/operator manuals. then ensure that manufacturer safety precautions and common sense are followed at all times. i. ii. are recommended as a final source for proper procedures for specific tool use. Do not wear loose clothing. hidden from the operator's view. that may be contacted. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools Power tools can be hazardous when improperly used. dust or flammable materials. Ground all tools unless double insulated. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools Know the power tool. Provide and use the proper protective equipment. Check appropriate tool manuals. iii. Long hair must be restrained. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools i. Do not use power tools in a damp. Labels affixed or included in the shipping container must be read and understood. iv. shipped with tools and accessories. Use the right tool for the job.With enhanced tool performance comes the responsibility to address power-tool safety issues. v. Maintenance management professionals and technicians responsible for specifying and using power tools have a responsibility to check out a tool's safety features. Operate according to the manufacturer's instructions. water pipes. . Operators must read and understand the owner's manual.
Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle. They should be kept sharp and clean for the best performance. ii. Secure work with clamps or a vise. Avoid accidental starting. Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance. . or jewelry can become caught in moving parts." i. v. iii. freeing both hands to operate the tool. iv. Loose clothing. oil. Keep cords and hoses away from heat. ties. Tools should be maintained with care. ii. before servicing. and when changing accessories such as blades. i.The following general precautions should be observed by power tool users: Never carry a tool by the cord or hose. All portable electric tools that are damaged shall be removed from use and tagged "Do Not Use. ii. Follow instructions in the user's manual for lubricating and changing accessories. iv. bits and cutters. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools All observers should be kept at a safe distance away from the work area. and sharp edges. The proper apparel should be worn. General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools i. iii. iii. Disconnect tools when not in use. Workers should not hold a finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool.
4. GREASES. . and SOLID LUBRICANTS. the complexity of the lubricating system allowed by machinery design. 3. Understandlubrication principle. Included are the basic properties and functions of a lubricant. INTRODUCTION The three major types of lubricants in use in industrial are LUBRICATING OILS. 2. The selection of a lubricant type is dependent on the type of machinery to be lubricated.LUBRICATION Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this chapter. Identifylubricatingdevicesandsystem. and the frequency of lubrication required. dissipate heat. and prevent corrosion. GENERAL IzharBin Ahmad (PTSB) FadzliHaizamBin Hamzah (PSP) 2 This section provides an overview of the fundamentals of lubrication. Understandfluidmanagement. and how a lubricant acts to reduce friction and wear. students should be able to:1. Determinelubricatingprogram 1 Explain lubrication principle.
They may be classified according to their viscosities and any special properties imparted to them by additives. The oil may be either petroleum or synthetic base. sodium-soap greases exhibit poor water resistance. Greases essentially consist of a semisolid mixture of oil and thickening agent. Critical grease properties. For example. such as hardness and water washout. or when a simplistic lubricating system is desired or required.1 GREASES Greases are typically used in situations where sufficient lube oil cannot be effectively maintained on machinery surfaces. Thickening agents are typically alkali soaps or clay (bentonite) materials.1 Table 2. Additives may be blended into the base stock to impart special properties to the finished product. are dependent on the selection of base oil and thickening agent. A list of commonly used lubricant additives is provided in Table 2. Oils that have been manufactured by chemical synthesis such as polymerization are called synthetic oils. Petroleum oils may be further classified as being paraffinic or naphthenic based on the types of hydrocarbons comprising the base stock. . lithium-soap greases have good water resistance and are excellent general purpose lubricants.LUBRICATING OILS Lubricating oils are used for the majority of applications. Oils whose base stocks are derived primarily from crude oil refining are called mineral or petroleum oils.
When grease is applied through hydraulic lubrication fittings. high temperature antiseize compound conforming to MIL-A-907 is typically used. Evaporation of the vehicle leaves a thin film of the lubricant on machinery surfaces. Solid lubricants form an essentially dry lubricating film between adjacent surfaces. In bearings fitted with felt or other seals. For threaded aluminum parts engaged with similar or dissimilar metals. . Hydraulic lubrication fittings form a readily installed and convenient means for lubricating numerous low-speeds. Additional lubricants for use on threaded fasteners include colloidal graphite in isopropanol (MIL-L24131) and molybdenum disulfide in isopropanol (MIL-L-24478). Powdered molybdenum disulfide conforming to MIL-L-7866 is used primarily as a thread anti seize compound. For the lubrication of threaded steel nuts and bolts. Electric Power Generators and Conversion Equipment. including superheated steam components up to 565°C (1050°F). zinc dustpetrolatum anti seize compound MIL-T-22361 shall be used. lightly loaded. pressure should be applied until grease seeps out around the edges of the bearings. This lubricant consists of a mixture of graphite and molybdenum disulfide suspended in mineral oil. SOLID LUBRICANTS Solid lubricants are typically used in situations where unusual temperature or environmental conditions preclude the use of conventional fluid lubricants. Other materials such as powdered zinc dust and red lead suspended in petrolatum or mineral oil may also be used. These fittings are not acceptable for use on electric motors or generators because of the danger of grease being forced out of the bearing and onto windings (refer to NSTM Chapter 310. If not. the bearing will fail due to a lack of lubrication. The type of fitting should be identified and carbon steel fittings which are corroded should be replaced with Corrosion Resistant Steel (CRES) or Monel fittings. for further discussion). Specific solid lubricant applications are as follows: Dry Graphite conforming to ss-G-659 May be used for the lubrication of such equipment as security locks. or widely separated bearings. or as a colloidal suspension in a vehicle such as isopropanol. or when the application of a fluid lubricant is difficult. The two most commonly used solid lubricants are powdered graphite and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). care shall be exercised to avoid breaking the seals by the application of too much pressure. A grease gun or other pressure device shall be used for applying grease through hydraulic type fittings.Grease Application Grease may be applied through grease cups or through hydraulic lubrication fittings. The lubricant may be applied directly in powdered form.
Another consequence of friction is that the energy created by resistance is converted into heat. These microscopic hills and valleys are called asperities.1 Describe lubrication system and benefit implement lubrication system. Salt water is considerably more corrosive than fresh water. the contaminant acts as a miniature lathe. 2. Another form of wear may occur when a hard contaminant particle becomes trapped between two opposing surfaces. and lost production. cutting into the softer machinery surface. When magnified. lubricants must form a protective barrier on machinery surfaces. surface imperfections become readily apparent. are the formation of a protective film between adjacent surfaces to reduce wear. Water molecules may also diffuse through the lubricant and enter surface micro cracks. An organized lubrication program will reduce the possibility of breakdowns and save on repairs. Modern day lubricants often contain corrosion inhibitors which chemically bond to the metallic surfaces of equipment components. The primary functions of a lubricant.1. The resistance generated when these adjacent surfaces come in contact is called friction. protection of machinery components from corrosion is of the utmost importance. Successful lubrication programs involve both management and plant personnel. To achieve corrosion protection. causing hydrogen embrittlement and subsequent surface failure. When dry surfaces move relative to one another. This process is termed abrasive wear. It is thus imperative that water contamination of machinery systems be minimized. and the dissipation of heat generated at these wear surfaces. lock together. The welding together and breaking apart of asperities is a form of adhesive wear. then. however. In environments where contamination of the system with water is likely. Corrosion inhibitors are an example of a class of compounds called additives. downtime.FRICTION AND WEAR The surfaces of machinery components appear well-finished to the naked eye. . Machinery is costly. An organized lubrication program should be an important component of preventive maintenance. When this occurs. and newer models designed for greater precision and faster production certainly require proper lubrication. and break apart. asperities may rub. CORROSION PROTECTION A second role provided by a lubricant is the prevention of system corrosion.
E.2) This system grades lubricants according to their viscosity characteristics at either -18°C (0°F) or 100°C (212°F). Various industry standards exist for the characterization of lubricant viscosity. is the characteristic most frequently stipulated by equipment manufacturers when making lubricant recommendations.1 .2. SAE grade 10W-30). The most important physical property of a lubricant is its viscosity.S. However. and one low enough to allow sufficient heat dissipation. all nations now recognize a universally applicable system of viscosity classification termed the International Standards Organization (ISO)/American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Viscosity System for Industrial Lubricants. Multi grade oils may be formulated to meet both low and high temperature requirements (for example. and Engler Degrees. Kinematic viscosity in centistokes is obtained by measuring the time required for a specified volume of fluid to flow through a calibrated capillary tube at a specified temperature. (Table 2. 1 Seconds. these viscosity designations are applicable primarily for the lubrication of internal combustion engines. viscosity was measured in such units as Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS). The preferred unit of measurement for the U. This system assigns viscosity grades from ISO VG2 through VG1500. Navy is the centistokes (cSt).1. The selection of proper lubricant viscosity is often a compromise between selecting one high enough to prevent metal to metal (wear) contact. Viscosity. There are ten (10) terms and principals as stated below: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Viscosity Cloud point and pour point Flash point and fire point Neutralization number Total base number Water content Demulsibility Hardness Water washout Load carrying ability a) Viscosity. The most familiar of these is the Society of Automotive Engineers (S. which may be defined as a fluid‘s resistance to flow.2 State several term and principle to understand and select proper lubrication.Redwood No. Table 2. where the number indicates the midpoint viscosity in centistokes of the lubricant at 40°C (104°F). In the past. Oils meeting high temperature requirements are assigned a grade number such as SAE grade 30. SAE grade 10W). Oils meeting low temperature viscosity requirements are assigned a Wafter the grade number (for example.) classification of automotive engine and gear case oils.A. By international agreement.
(Synthetic and paraffinic stocks are discussed further in detail in paragraph (Table 2. certain components such as waxes will begin to precipitate out and become evident in the liquid as a cloud. as a lubricant is cooled. Most naval oils of paraffinic base stock have VI‘s in the 95 -100 range.3 c) Cloud Point and Pour Point Since petroleum stock consists of a mixture of molecular components.3). When the VI scale was introduced in 1929. Rather. Table 2. a reference paraffinic base stock was assigned a VI of 100. and multi grade engine oils typically have VI‘s in excess of 100. lubricants do not exhibit sharp freezing points. The temperature at which this . the less a given lubricant‘s viscosity will change with a subsequent change in temperature.b ) V i s c o s i t y I n d e x The effect of temperature on a lubricant‘s viscosity is a measurement of its Viscosity Index (VI). The higher the VI. and a naphthenic base stock a VI of 0. Naval oils prepared from synthetic stock.
Both properties are related to the wax content of the base stock. and may also prove corrosive to certain alloys. The pour points of high-wax lubricants may be depressed by the addition of pour point depressant additives. condensation. Flash point is useful for both product storage requirements and for the detection of contamination of one product with another. It is quantitatively defined as the amount of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required neutralizing the acid present in one gram of sample. The fire point of a lubricant is that temperature at which sufficient vapors are present above the surface of the lubricant to sustain combustion upon ignition. lighter components begin to vaporize. Pour point behavior becomes important in applications such as refrigerant compressor lubrication where the oil is subjected to low temperatures. the process of oxidation occurs. The Total Base Number (TBN) is a measure of this additive package. f) Total Base Number Internal combustion engine oils are formulated with a highly alkaline (base) additive package designed to neutralize the acidic byproducts of combustion. steam turbine gland seal leaks. This quantity is also referred to as the Total Acid Number (TAN). g) Water Content The most common contaminant in Naval lubricating systems is water. and it may be used as an indication of when diesel engine oil should be changed. and diesel engine piston blow-by and jacket water . Oxidation leads to the formation of organic acids in the lubricant. e) Neutralization Number As petroleum products are subjected to elevated temperatures. This parameter is useful for storage and safety considerations. The temperature at which sufficient vapor concentration exists above the surface of the lubricant so that ignition with a test flame is possible is called the flash point of the product.occurs is called the cloud point of the lubricant. a point will be reached at which the lubricant will no longer flow or be efficiently pumped. The neutralization number measures the amount of acidity present in the lubricant. d) Flash Point and Fire Point As a lubricant is heated. This increase in acidity reduces the water-separating ability of certain oils. The temperature at which this occurs is termed the pour point of the lubricant. Common sources of water include lube oil cooler leaks. If the product is further cooled.
l) Load Carrying Ability The ability of a lubricant to maintain an effective lubricating film under high loads or pressures is a measure of its load carrying or extreme pressure (EP) . that a weighted cone penetrates the grease. softer greases are assigned a low NLGI number. and are classified as medium consistency greases.) test. in tenths of millimeters. Dropping point provides some indication of the high temperature characteristics of grease. This may result in accelerated wear due to rupture of the oil film and resultant surface to surface contact. and stiffer greases a high NLGI number (see Table 2. The temperature at which grease changes from a semi-solid to a liquid is termed its dropping point. A qualitative assessment of the amount of water present in some lubricants may be made by inspecting the oils‘ appearance.& W. i) Hardness Greases are classified according to a hardness scale developed by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI). Another method for determining water contamination levels is the Bottom Sediment & Water (B.4). j) Dropping Point Greases exist in an essentially semi-solid form. excessive water contamination increases the viscosity and decreases the fluid film strength of oil. Most Naval greases have NLGI numbers from 1 to 2. k) Water Washout Greases subjected to splashing or impinging water must possess good water washout resistance. The penetration numbers refer to the depth. The acceleration of system corrosion by water contamination cannot be overemphasized.leaks. h) Demulsibility Demulsibility refers to a lubricant‘s ability to readily separate from water. In addition. Oils used in force-feed lubrication systems should possess good water reparability to prevent emulsification.S. According to this system. Greases with good resistance will maintain an adequate lubricating film under excessive water contamination conditions.
etc. 2.4 2. used oil analyses. troubleshooting.2 Distinguish fluid management. and services. Purchase of lubricants on the basis of price alone is not justified when considering the cost of downtime for repair and lost productivity if attributed to the use of an inferior lubricant.1). purchase of premium-grade lubricants will not improve or correct lubrication problems if mechanical . The load carrying ability of a lubricant may be enhanced by the addition of EP additives (see Table 2. Lubricant maintenance using processing. On the other hand. a) Selection and purchase of lubrication Fluid management begins with purchasing the correct lubricant for the application. Disposal of the spent lubricant.characteristics. The overall cost of lubrication compared with the total cost of plant equipment is relatively insignificant. Refortification techniques. purchasing personnel should carefully consider the supplier. Lubrication monitoring during use. premium long-lasting lubricants meeting equipment manufacturers‘ recommendations and specifications should be purchased. products.2. In lubrication there five (5) essential components as stated below: a) b) c) d) e) Selection and purchase of lubrication. For most equipment. A supplier should be chosen on the basis of the quality of lubricants and services (engineering lubrication surveys. Table 2.) offered rather than on price alone. During the competitive bidding process.1 Apply four essential components in a fluid management program.
Since additive replenishment requires a considerable amount of technical expertise. Such action could include filtration to remove particulate matter and in some cases oxidation products and/or dehydration. The results of monitoring tests can be used in some cases to correct conditions that are contributing to degradation of the lubricant. This processing can be done either on site or at a recycle station. the lubricant supplier should be contacted to provide information and service to reclaim and refortify used lubricants. The lubricant supplier should provide actual limits for the products being used and interpretation of used oil test results. turbine/circulating. it may be possible to locate and eliminate the source of the water. such as slide ways. When used oil test results exceed the condemning limits.. corrective action needs to be taken. . This processing can be done either on site or at a recycle station. which involve small volumes and/or once through applications. etc. or there may be leakage of a different lubricant into the system. compressors. Table 1. need no monitoring. c) Lubricant maintenance using processing Lubricant maintenance is closely associated with the monitoring program.2 lists the properties and condemning limits for most large-volume applications of industrial lubricants. it may be determined that incorrect oil is being used for makeup. For example. Used oil analyses also can be used to extend lubricant life and establish oil change out intervals. When used oil test results exceed the condemning limits. If the viscosity is dropping. d) Refortification techniques Lubricant maintenance is closely associated with the monitoring program. Since additive replenishment requires a considerable amount of technical expertise. if the lubricant in a circulating system shows that water is present. corrective action needs to be taken. Additive replenishment for depleted inhibitors may be feasible for some products in some applications. namely. The condemning limits shown in the table are intended to serve as general guidelines. hydraulic. and gear oils. Additive replenishment for depleted inhibitors may be feasible for some products in some applications.factors such as misalignment or severe environments (high levels of dirt and water contaminants) are involved. the lubricant supplier should be contacted to provide information and service to reclaim and refortify used lubricants. Such action could include filtration to remove particulate matter and in some cases oxidation products and/or dehydration. The properties that should be monitored are dependent on the application and environment. Other lubricant applications. rock drills. b) Lubrication monitoring during use Monitoring programs may be used to determine the condition of the lubricant and to detect early signs of equipment failure.
e) Disposal of the spent lubricant. If drums are stored outside. state. These will clearly be affected by the location.3 Understand lubrication protection. they should be stored on their sides. land-filling. which makes the best method of disposal site-specific. tilted. and re-refining. Premium-grade products should be stored inside to prevent contamination with dirt and water and to protect against temperature extremes. or upside down. 2. and federal regulations. Proper handling and storage of lubricants and greases are important to ensure longevity and satisfactory performance. Drums will expand and contract as the temperature changes and any water on top of a drum may be drawn through the bung as the drum expands and contracts. . Lubricant disposal needs to be considered carefully on a case-by-case basis. burning. The most appropriate method of disposal will depend on local. Various options to consider include recycling. Ester. Disposal is the last step that must be addressed in fluid management when the monitoring results indicate that the oil is severely degraded and/or depleted of additives that cannot be restored.and polyglycol-based lubricants need especially to be protected from atmospheric humidity.
It should be specifically kept for lubricant storage and reserve lubricating equipment. according to the consistency of the grease. Drums should be labeled clearly to ensure application/use of the correct lubricant. where racks can be arranged along one or more walls so that oil drums can be raised by a forklift truck and spotted in order to draw the contents off with the least effort into distribution containers. one or two individuals are assigned the responsibility for inventory and dispensing of lubricants.1 Organize lubrication protection in term of: a) b) c) d) e) Location and personal Facilities for handling container Lighting Bulk storage Fire protection a) Location and Personnel A clean. scoops. the floor level should be the same as the delivery-truck floor.3. These individuals should be trained on the importance of protecting lubricants from contamination and commingling with other lubricants. scoop. a set of parallel rails (see Fig. Paddles. This facilitates rolling of drums into the storeroom.1) is useful for handling full drums to service racks as well as empties for return. b) Facilities for Handling Containers One-level handling is an important item wherever possible in planning for lubricant storage. and other devices must be kept clean to protect against abrasive particles and dirt. with provisions for heating in cold weather. In most plants. . If practical. 2. well-lighted room or building is advisable. In large plants. Each drum should have its own spigot to avoid commingling of products. Grease drums are normally stored on end because the contents are removed by paddle. where a considerable volume of lubricants must be stored. or pressure pump.2.
d) Bulk Storage Bulk storage can be an investment that provides benefits in improved efficiency. pump. Each product requires its own dedicated bulk storage system. Prior to unloading. If tanks are equipped with electric heating coils or steam lines. including tank. sampling line. if light outlets are well located to obviate glare. Tank lines and valves should be checked to ensure that the product is being unloaded into the correct tank. each tank should be gauged to ensure sufficient room. and simplified inventory. reduced handling costs. and if a comfortable record desk is installed. If the storeroom is painted gloss white. The tank should be equipped with a water draw-off line. precautions must be taken to prevent overheating and thermal degradation of the lubricant. personnel will keep more careful records. each product should be inspected visually for clarity and cleanliness and checked for viscosity with a handheld viscometer. tank trucks. Upon arrival of bulk shipments. Bulk shipments may be supplied in tank cars.1 c) Lighting This relates to good records. Lighting plays an important part.FIGURE 2. If dedicated lines and pumps are not being used. The lubrication and maintenance departments can function most effectively when they have complete records as to lubricant consumption per machine per area. or tote bins. and entry to permit periodic tank cleaning. and receiving line. the system should be flushed . This requires careful inventory (monthly) and recording of amounts of oil and grease issued. reduced risk of contamination.
2. insurance regulations will require installation of suitable fire-extinguishing equipment and possibly a sprinkler system. invoice number. lubricant manufacturers and distributors are other sources of information. Even so. By limiting the number of lubricants onsite. All the pertinent information on the equipment. In a larger area. lubricants should be purchased that can be used in several applications. such as operating speed. the chance of mixing different lubricants or using the wrong lubricant is minimized. and batch number. LUBRICANT SELECTION When choosing a lubricant for a particular piece of equipment. Some discretion should be used when dealing with a lubricant salesperson to prevent purchasing an expensive lubricant with capabilities in excess of what is required. assuming that no-smoking rules are observed. and any other special or unusual conditions. frequency of operation. should be provided to the lubricant manufacturer or distributor so that a lubricant with the proper characteristics can be chosen. that casual visits from other plant personnel are prohibited. In a small storeroom. e) Fire Protection The possibility of fire in a well-planned lubricant storage area is remote.3 Identify lubricating devices and system. date. or is vague in its recommendations. LUBRICANT STANDARDS There are a number of tests and standards that have been developed to define and measure the properties of lubricants. Samples should be obtained from the tank after unloading and labeled with product name. Whenever possible. The properties determined by these tests can be very . that waste or wiping rags are stored in metal containers and in minimum quantity. operating temperature. The operation and maintenance manual will usually outline the required characteristics of the lubricants as well as a recommended schedule for replacement or filtering.with one to three times the volume of the lines to prevent crosscontamination of products. the equipment manufacturer‘s operation and maintenance manual should be consulted. that oil drip is prevented or cleaned up promptly. and that sparking or arcing tools are used only under conditions of good ventilation. The accepted foam-type device for smothering is best. a multiplegallon foam cart with adequate hose may be required. Most of these tests have been standardized by ASTM. The samples should be stored for at least 6 months. one or two hand units may suffice. If the maintenance manual is not available.
Manual Devices Drop-feed Devices Splash or bath lubrication Ring. lubricant flow may or may not be stopped and started automatically. They are employed to deliver lubricant drop-by-drop to individual bearings and other machine elements. manual lubrication is satisfactory only for lightly loaded or low speed bearings. I. but it should be noted that many of these tests have little correlation to actual service conditions. Generally speaking. the maintenance costs can be high. certain characteristics should be considered. E. the test procedures for the required properties should be reviewed so that the relevance of the test is kept in perspective. typical applications include open gears. They give the best advantage when lubricant points are readily accessible. Following evaluation criteria can serve as a checklist to aid in selection of lubricating devices. J. F. Maintenance cost depends on type of service and location depending on the lubricator.helpful in comparing relative performance of several lubricants. C. D. G. chains. B. CATEGORIES OF LUBRICATION METHODS The methods for lubricating machine elements can be divided into following categories: A. collar oilers Pad .3. The term manual lubrication applies to methods in which the operator is directly responsible for quantity of lubricant and interval of lubrication.and waste-type devices Positive force feed lubricators Air oil devices Pressure circulating systems Centralized lubricating systems Built-in-lubrication A. CHARACTERISTICS OF LUBRICATING METHODS To evaluate a particular method for a specific application. wire rope. H. When selecting a lubricant. Drop-feed Devices Drop feed devices are gravity-flow lubricators. etc.2 Choose suitable lubricating devices system based on equipment or mechanical components. Typical service . B. Reliability may be owing to considerable dependence on human action. Automatic operation increase reliability. chain. Their cost is relatively low. Although the initial cost of manual lubrication is low. The lubricant is quite prone in contamination. Manual Devices Lubricating methods may require human action in one form or another. 2.
Typical applications include steam cylinders.applications include journal and roller bearings. Oil is lifted from the reservoir by capillary action in the wicking material. The splash system requires enclosing the mechanism to be lubricated. Pad-and Waste-type Devices These lubricators use the oil-retaining properties of felt pads and waste packing to provide the lubricant to a bearing. Splash or Bath Lubrication This type of lubrication is commonly used for machinery having high speed moving parts. Pressure circulating systems are built into the machine. enclosed gears. road and traction motor bearings F. Typical applications include electric motors. Maintenance costs are low. pumps and compressors. H. The initial-cost is very high. chains. This system requires an appropriate housing. These dip into oil and splash it on to the bearings or other machine elements. blowers. They are generally low. chain drives and enclosed gear sets. and line shaft bearings. Therefore initial cost is high. fans. prevents contamination. The pumps are driven from a rotating shaft through a mechanical linkage. However. E. G. Initial cost of splash system depends on the expense incurred in enclosing the mechanism. Generally these are designed to lubricate a number of parts on the machine. engine guides. D. gears. which accounts for a large initial cost. The oil is drawn by the aspiratory action of compressed air passing through an orifice or control valve. These are well suited for high speed bearings. Pressure Circulating Systems: Pressure circulating systems employ either gravity or pumps to develop the operating pressures necessary. Initial cost is high. Maintenance cost generally depends on the environment in which they are used. A splash system is reliable. Ring. bearings for diesel and gas engines. Chain. slides and table ways. maintenance costs are low and efficiency of the devices is high. Oilers These lubricators are applicable to horizontal rotating shafts. compressors. Maintenance costs are very low. It may have a separate drive motor. C. Each provides an automatic oiling system by bringing oil to the bearing clearance from the oil reservoir. Initial cost depends on housing for the bearing that must be built to contain these lubricators. Typical applications . Maintenance cost is usually low. This is often used for rail. The ring or chain oiler encircles the shaft and turns freely on it. Since oil is recirculated maximum economy is possible. Typical applications include internalcombustion engines. Positive Force feed Lubricators It consists of one or more plunger-type adjustable-stroke pumps mounted on a common reservoir. but maintenance cost is low. The lubricant is free from contamination. Air-oil Devices Air-oil devices operate by injecting or pumping oil drop-by-drop into an air stream.
mill bearings. I. a. Built-in-Lubrication Built-in lubrication refers to materials or components that do not require any external lubricating device. Initial cost is offset by dependability. The various categories of lubrication systems have been very briefly discussed in the above paragraphs. They can reduce maintenance costs. PTFE. a. machine tools etc. Centralized Lubrication Systems Centralized Systems can be designed for oil or grease. Establishment of lubrication schedules and improvements in selection and application of lubrication.4 The plant lubrication survey. where and when? Time and effort is required to adequately cover all areas of the equipment to determine lubrication needs. reduction gears.include steam-turbine bearings. however. A typical centralized system requires centrally located reservoir and pump. It can be either operated manually or automatically. number of lubrication points and recommended . These materials may be used for sleeve bearings. J. Centralized Systems are ideally suited for steel and paper mills. but maintenance costs are very low. nylon can rub together without a lubricant. Materials such as oil saturated porous metals. gears etc. very many varieties in each finding specific applications. 2. Depending upon the severity of the working situation of machine elements the most suitable means from cost. A physical survey is the only way to establish a complete schedule for an lubrication points on each machine. maintenance and efficiency point of view should be selected. The piping and intricate dispensing valves make initial cost very high. durability. A workable lubrication schedule should be developed. There are. paper-machine bearings and gears and internal-combustion engines. b. graphite materials. safety and resistance of system to contamination. Lubrication analysis Determine lubricating program. after the job of a lubricant is defined. but should not be used indiscriminately. components have builtin lubrication are well suited for use in inaccessible locations. These deliver measures quantities of lubricant at desired points. The plant lubrication survey. Check the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) manual for lubrication requirements such as type and frequency of service. and permanently installed piping and distribution valves. steel-mill gear drives. 2. c.4 Determine lubricating program. How much.
and supply source. excessive noise. Examine the lubricant recommendations made by the machine or parts manufacturer and supporting documentation for these selections. 2. Identify equipment and component parts requiring lubrication. operating instructions. Applications of lubricants 5. or automatic equipment is now being used. such as leakage. including quantity.The program implement or should work closely with plant personnel to determine information now available and programs and procedures presently being used. Make a detailed visual inspection of each machine and its components for indications of problems. The Plant Lubrication Survey 1. 6. serial number. start at . manufacturer. The activities to achieve and carry out an effective lubrication program are outlined in this segment and they consist of: 1. Note: An effective approach for conducting the initial lubrication survey is to start with the units of equipment that are critical to maintaining continuous production and work toward the less critical units. Determine the lubricants currently used. condition. cost. and factors to consider if a single supplier source is desired for all plant lubricants.lubricant. Quality assurance. 7. and the model. Lubrication schedules establishment and improvements in selection and application of lubrication. gears. Identify the nature of each lubrication point and whether circulating systems are fed from central storage tanks. and loose. semiautomatic. vibration. 8. Operating characteristics. Improvement in the selection 4. and bearings. damaged. Obtain similar information for each subcomponent of the machine. and limitations. Fluids management 7. or grease fittings and whether manual. This approach will achieve the greatest results in the shortest time period. such as drive motors. Provide similar information for all machine components. 4. When surveying an individual machine. quantity applied. and effectiveness of the lubrication systems encountered should be determined. individual machine sumps. including frequency. or missing parts. 5. All above activities required to implement the programs. 3. b. couplings. function. The plant lubrication survey 2. List the schedules in effect for each lubrication point. Lubricant analysis 6. Establishment of lubrication schedules 3. the specific location of each machine. and sampling schedules. high temperature. Record information relating to the adequacy of the machine to perform its intended functions.
the power source and follow through each power train. Analyze operating records such as frequency of scheduled and unscheduled downtime and reason for each shutdown when preparing the new lubrication schedule. . Determine time required to perform specific lubrication functions and number of workers required to perform the job. including type and amount of lubricant used and frequency of application. increased equipment reliability. Establish lubrication schedules and routings to minimize travel time and interference with production operations. amount of lubricant. Analyze each piece of equipment to determine if the present lubrication system is adequate and if the lubrication points or central reservoirs are readily accessible. 10. 2. New equipment lubrication specifications are to be determined prior to installation of the equipment. 6. Typical tests for gear reducer lubricants include : 2. and lubrication schedule. replaced. and/or fortified with additives. Determine the sampling frequencies for each component. Establish a check-off or feedback procedure to indicate that the scheduled lubrication was accomplished with the proper lubricant. 7. Place tags at each fill point that calls out lubricant to be used. 3. monitor and track wear and lubricant quality to detect problems caused by adhesion. Determine if it is the best lubricant for the specific application commensurate with the proposed lubricant product reduction program and improved performance requirements. and/or reduced energy costs. 5. 4. 3. that is. 9. bearings. Record and report the amount and type of lubricant consumed in each area and on major pieces of equipment. Investigate opportunities to replace inadequate systems. identifying couplings. friction. Select the plant equipment to be included in the analysis program. Design the testing packages to meet the selected objectives. and corrosion before there is major component damage and to determine when lubricant should be filtered. Equipment selection is usually based on the importance of the equipment to continuity of plant operations. Establish the objectives of the analysis program. 8. and wear surfaces. 4. Establishment of Lubrication Schedules and Improvements in Selection and Application of Lubricants 1. reducers. Review current lubrication schedules. Lubricant Analysis 1. and malfunctioning automatic systems with state-of-the-art automatic systems that can be justified through reduced labor. manual systems.
monitor and track wear and lubricant quality to detect problems caused by adhesion. 1. 6. and additive metals Total solids percentage volume—contamination leaks or environmental conditions Viscosity—fluidity of the lubricant Infrared analysis—oxidation/nitration (general lube degradation) Neutralization number—reserve alkalinity (Total base number [TBN])or total acidity (Total acid number [TAN]) 5. and reporting schedules. Note: A close liaison should be maintained between the lubricant analysis program and other predictive maintenance activities. Design the testing packages to meet the selected objectives. 5. Determine the cost of the analysis program. Select the plant equipment to be included in the analysis program. Develop procedures and lines of communication to report results and to initiate actions dictated by the test results. contaminate metals. 6. Typical tests for gear reducer lubricants Include Wear particle analysis—wear metals. 8. and corrosion before there is major component damage and to determine when lubricant should be filtered. Establish sampling. Lubrication Analysis 2. b. 4. 10. that is. friction. 3. 7. . contaminate metals. Determine the cost of the analysis program. Select a lubricant testing laboratory that can accurately test the parameters chosen and report the results in a comprehensive manner on a timely basis.Wear particle analysis—wear metals. testing. Establish a program review schedule. 9. Equipment selection is usually based on the importance of the equipment to continuity of plant operations. Establish the objectives of the analysis program. Develop the sampling procedures and modify equipment as necessary to extract representative samples while the equipment is in operation. and additive metals Total solids percentage volume—contamination leaks or environmental conditions Viscosity—fluidity of the lubricant Infrared analysis—oxidation/nitration (general lube degradation) Neutralization number—reserve alkalinity (Total base number [TBN]) or total acidity (Total acid number [TAN]) Select a lubricant testing laboratory that can accurately test the parameters chosen and report the results in a comprehensive manner on a timely basis. replaced. Determine the sampling frequencies for each component. and/or fortified with additives.
References Asseff.D6439-99.W. and F. 8. Note: A close liaison should be maintained between the lubricant analysis program and other predictive maintenance activities. S. and reporting schedules. and J.S. 9.. Lubrication Fundamentals. Rein. 1978. Troyer. Proving Ground. Fairmont Press. 2nd Edition. OctoberDecember 1973.. The Lubrizol Corporation. Pirro. No. 1988.. Develop procedures and lines of communication to report results and to initiate actions dictated by the test results. Establish sampling. Villforth. Fitch.7. Lubricating Grease Guide.A. and Purification of Steam. M. Marcel Dekker. Bloch. 1999. 2001. LUBRICATION. P. Lubrication Manual. Inc. Flushing.. LUBRICATION. 1st Edition. Practical Lubrication for Industrial Facilities. (Ed). vol. D. Oil Analysis Basics. National Lubricating Grease Institute. testing. U. 10.P. Army Corps of Engineers. 1981... R. D. Gas and Hydroelectric Turbine Lubrication Systems. Lubricant Fundamentals.M. H.A. Noria Corporation. Ehrlich. Establish a program review schedule. Lubrication Theory and Practice. 2001. Kansas City. Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids. ASTM Standard No.. Missouri.J. 59. Standard Guide for Cleaning. Develop the sampling procedures and modify equipment as necessary to extract representative samples while the equipment is in operation. Viscosity-I. 64.S. A. Exxon Corporation. 1984. Wessol.. POWERTRANSMISSIO 3 . 1. 2000 Conoco Inc. Fein. Engineering Manual 1110-21424. vol.
1.1 Classifytypesof drivemechanismsbeltdrive. students should be able to:1. Implementcoupledshaftalignment orvariable-speed drives POWERTRANSMISSION INTRODUCTION Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to performing useful work.Power is defined formally as units of energy per unit time. Understandchain drive. Describegear in powertransmissionsystem. 2. Said (PMM) Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this chapter.transmission gears. chain drives and arm connectors.1 Describethedrivemechanismintheprocessoftransformingpower from one pointtotheother. 5. 3. Belt Drive A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. belt drives.Nor HishamBin Suhadi (PIS) Abdul Rashid Bin Talib (PMK) Arman Bin Md. Mechanical power may be transmitted directly using a component such as driveshaft. Describethedrivemechanismintheprocessoftransformingpower fromone pointtotheother. 3. Definebeltdrives inpower transmissionsystem 4. chaindrive and gear drive i. . 3.
ii. Chain Drive
Chain passing over a pair of sprocket, with the teeth of the sprocket meshing with the holes in the links of the chain.Drive chains are most often made of metalwell-made chains may prove stronger than belts.
A gear is a rotatingmachine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. The most common situation gears are meshing each other. However a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed parts. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. When two
gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. 3.2 Describegear in powertransmissionsystem. 3.2.1 Listapplicationofgear. i. Transmission Two or more gears working in tandem are called atransmission and produce a mechanical advantagethrough a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear, refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term is used to describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain any gears, as in a continuously variable transmission. ii. Direction Geared devices can change the speed, magnitude, and direction of a power source. A system called a rack and pinion, when circular motion is changed into linear motion. If the pinion rotates in a fixed position and non-rotating toothed part the rack moves in a linear motion, therebyproducing translation. Adjacent gears on a gear train rotate in opposite directions. Notice that if the driver rotates clockwise then the follower rotates anticlockwise. iii. Couplings A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both. By careful selection, installation and maintenance of couplings, substantial savings can be made in reduced maintenance costs and downtime.
3.2.2 Classifytypes ofgearsandtheir characteristics basedonit‘sfunction.
External vs internal gears
Internal gear An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal.
Spur gear Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with the teeth projecting radially, and although they are not straight-sided in form, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel shafts. iii. Helical
and in this configuration the gears are sometimes known as "skew gears". helical gears are used with the helix angle of one having the negative of the helix angle of the other. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear. The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds 25 m/s. teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width causing stress and noise. the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high speeds. this is the most common orientation. a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the opposite side. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. Helical gears can be meshed in parallel or crossed orientations. causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. whereas in the parallel configuration there is a line contact. The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth. such a pair might also be referred to as having a right-handed helix and a . the gears must have the same pressure angle and normal pitch. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem. or where noise abatement is important. often addressed with additives in the lubricant. In the latter. and a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other. Quite commonly.Helical gears Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears. however. the helix angle and handedness can be different. The crossed configuration is less mechanically sound because there is only a point contact between the gears. this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. iv. each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel. large power transmission. the shafts are non-parallel. Skew gears For a 'crossed' or 'skew' configuration. Since the gear is curved. but are set at an angle. The relationship between the two shafts is actually defined by the helix angle(s) of the two shafts and the handedness. In spur gears. which needs to be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings. With parallel helical gears.
v. the shafts are parallel. In an unstable orientation. there exist two possible arrangements for the oppositelyoriented helical gears or gear faces. the helix angles are of the same hand because they must add to 90 degrees. or herringbone gears. For both possible rotational directions. by having two sets of teeth that are set in a V shape. so a stable configuration becomes unstable. since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction resulting in a net axial force of zero. the unstable arrangement will generate a net force that may lead to disassembly of the gear train. double helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to their more complicated shape. If the gears become misaligned in the axial direction. Where the sum or the difference (as described in the equations above) is not zero the shafts are crossed.left-handed helix of equal angles. In both arrangements. while the stable arrangement generates a net corrective force. If the direction of rotation is reversed. In a stable orientation. and the other is unstable. overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by "single" helical gears. Double helical Double helical gears Double helical gears. However. the direction of the axial thrusts is also reversed. . and vice versa. both axial forces are directed away from the center of the gear. the total (or net) axial force on each gear is zero when the gears are aligned correctly. For shafts crossed at right angles. Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings. One arrangement is stable. This arrangement cancels out the net axial thrust. A double helical gear can be thought of as two mirrored helical gears joined together. The two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle between shafts is zero – that is. This arrangement can remove the need for thrust bearings. the helical gear faces are oriented so that each axial force is directed toward the center of the gear.
p.vi. Bevel Bevel Gear A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. When two bevel gears mesh. or. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point. Straight bevel gears are generally used only at speeds below 5 m/s (1000 ft/min). The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. vii. but not angled. Spiral bevels Spiral bevel gears The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with spur gears. 1000 r. Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears. Spiral bevel gear teeth are curved along the tooth's length and set at an angle. . their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. or they may be cut in a variety of other shapes. Spiral bevel gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears do to spur gears.m. forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. Zerol bevel gears have teeth which are curved along their length. analogously to the way helical gear teeth are set at an angle compared to spur gear teeth. for small gears.
contact between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth. ix. with the result that gear ratios of 60:1 and higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears. This style of gear is most commonly found driving mechanical differentials. which are normally straight cut bevel gears. although crown gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur gears. The pitch surfaces appear conical but. in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown. to compensate for the offset shaft.viii. Also. Depending on which side the shaft is offset to. Crown Crown gear Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the plane of the wheel. are in fact hyperboloids of revolution. in motor vehicle axles. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks. relative to the angling of the teeth. . Hypoid gears are almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90 degrees. A crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear. Hypoid Hypoid gear Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect. the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral bevel pinion.
If this occurs. and it is these attributes which give it screw like qualities. Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear. is given. or worm wheel. A worm gear is usually meshed with a spur gear or a helical gear. . if not. Worm Worm gear 4-start worm and wheel Worm gears resemble screws. to have more than one tooth. Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque. helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than 10:1 while wormand-gear sets vary from 10:1 to 500:1. which is called the gear.x. a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start. it is a 'helical gear'. but its helix angle is usually somewhat large (close to 90 degrees) and its body is usually fairly long in the axial direction. which is equal to 90 degrees minus the helix angle. it is a 'worm'. the lead angle. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. low speed gear ratio. Instead. A worm may have as few as one tooth. For example. The helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. A disadvantage is the potential for considerable sliding action. superficially. wheel. but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm. If that tooth persists for several turns around the helix. leading to low efficiency. the worm will appear. The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single thread or single start.
While a regular gear is optimized to transmit torque to another engaged member with minimum noise and wear and maximum efficiency. the gear's teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth. Common applications include textile machines. because the force component circumferential to the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction. If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical gear only a single point of contact will be achieved. following the long-established practice for screw threads xi. An example is the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments. Rack and pinion . it may or may not succeed. which can be used to advantage. axle displacement oscillations and more. as for instance when it is desired to set the position of a mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position. Particularly if the lead angle is small. Non-circular Non-circular gears Non-circular gears are designed for special purposes. However. This is done by making both concave and joining them at a saddle point. Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self locking.In a worm-and-gear set. the worm can always drive the gear. a non-circular gear's main objective might be ratio variations. xii. If medium to high power transmission is desired. the tooth shape of the gear is modified to achieve more intimate contact by making both gears partially envelop each other. potentiometers and continuously variable transmissions. if the gear attempts to drive the worm. this is called a conedrive or "Double enveloping" Worm gears can be right or left-handed.
and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii are then derived from that. where. Epicyclic Epicyclic gearing In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns. xiv. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s). the tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack (infinite radius). Examples are sun and planet gearing (see below) and mechanical differentials. for instance. the rack moves in a straight line. xiii. Sun and planet . The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway.Rack and pinion gearing A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry.
It was famously used by James Watt on his early steam engines in order to get around the patent on the crank. compactness and high gear ratios. including lack of backlash. the planet red. the sun is yellow.Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting reciprocating motion into rotary motion in steam engines. the reciprocating arm is blue. In the illustration. Harmonic drive Harmonic drive gearing A harmonic drive is a specialized gearing mechanism often used in industrial motion control. the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is grey. xvi. robotics and aerospace for its advantages over traditional gearing systems. xv. Cage gear .
Gear components are mounted with a backlash capability similar to other mechanical gearings. Magnetic gear All cogs of each gear component of magnetic gears act as a constant magnet with periodic alternation of opposite magnetic poles on mating surfaces. much as the bars on a round bird cage or lantern. giving increased reliability without noise. xvii. In a pair of gears backlash is the amount of clearance between the meshing tooth. It became popular in turret clocks where dirty working conditions were most commonplace. not used as the driver. Lantern gears are more efficient than solid pinions. Domestic American clock movements often used them. parallel to the axle and arranged in a circle around it. Long Island A cage gear. . Sometimes used in clocks. 3.2. such gears work without touching. and dirt can fall through the rods rather than becoming trapped and increasing wear. The lantern pinion was not initially favoured by conservative clock makers. also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion has cylindrical rods for teeth. At low load. Backlash unavoidable for nearly all reversing mechanical components that are coupled but could be minimized. The assembly is held together by disks at either end into which the tooth rods and axle are set.3Identify gearmeshingandbacklash.Cage gear in Pantigo Windmill. the lantern pinion should always be driven by a gearwheel.
BACKLASH Check the backlash of a gear drives using filler gauge. GEAR TOOTH WEAR Check for tooth surface deterioration and tooth breakage by visual inspection. it could also means something is wrong. The coupling can then transmits bending moments back into gear drives. The routine inspection includes of. velocity or acceleration) change with time above a given limit. The tooth flanks and outer diameter of the external gear are crowned to allow for angular displacement between the two gears. • • • • • Gears are also used to connect two nominally coaxial shafts.2. f.5Identifygearmaintenancepracticesuchasdailyroutine inspection. LUBRICATION In order for a gear drive to operate at all time. If the vibration parameters (amplitude. b. Purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while. This joint allows for minor misalignments such as installation errors and changes in shaft alignment due to operating conditions. dial test indicator or sheet materials. The tooth contact will indicate the proper gears mesh of a gear drives to rotate smoothly. gear pairs serves as a coupling. it must be supply with an adequate lubricant. e.2. c. d. VIBRATIONS In order for a gear drive to operate satisfactory. it must run within safe vibration limits.2. Gears As A Coupling. 3. Each joint consists of a 1:1 gear ratio internal/external gear pair. Check the oil level or grease and change if necessary. ALIGNMENT If the alignment of a gear drives to the connected load is not made carefully the coupling may fail.4 Explain coupling concept into gear system.6 Assembleanddisassembleafewtypesofgearsa practical. a.3. When power transmission occurs between two or more pairs of gears drive and driven. TOOTH CONTACT The most satisfactory way of checking tooth contact is to apply a very thin coating of engineers marking blue or other marking medium.As an examples componentscanbeuseisassemblyspurgearexercise or assemblyspur wheel /wormgear . 3.
Assemble correctly mechanical component base on service manual maintenancebygroup. NAME: REGISTERATIONNO: PROGRAMME SESSION: . ATTACHMENT 1.station.(P5) 2. LAB SHEET FOR STUDENT: POLITEKNIK IBRAHIMSULTANFACULTYOFMECHANICALENGINEE RING DIPLOMA INMECHANICALENGINEERING REPORT JJ615 MECHANICALCOMPONENTS & MAINTENANCE (GEAR DRIVES) CLO: 1. Organize properly maintenance procedure base on standard operation procedure.(A4) 1.
3 Practice safety procedures correctly in the working workshop according to the workshop safety regulation to create a secure practical team work (A3).2 Organizeproperlymaintenanceprocedurebaseonstandardoperation procedure.2 Assembleanddisassembleagear drives system as a practical.1 Gear Station 3.2 Hand Tools 3. (P4) 1.4 Lubricant 3.As an examplescomponentcanbe use is gear station unit. 2. 3.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of this workshop.PRACTICAL DATE LECTURER PREPAREDBY: SUBMITTED DATE RUBRICS LearningDomain (LD1)Knowledge Tools 5@3@1/5 (x4) Procedure/Sketches 5@3@1/5 (x5) 5@3@1/ 5(x5) 5@3@1/ 5(x3) NOR HISHAM BIN SUHADI Maintenance Procedure CHECKEDBY: Discussion/Conclusion (HEADOFDEPARTMENT/HEADOFPROGRAM ME) Neatness/Teamwork/cooperation 5@3@1/ 5(x3) TOTALMARKS /100 x 30% = TITLE : ASSEMBLE AND DISASEMBLE OF GEAR DRIVE SYSTEM 1.0 APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT 3.3 Power Tools 3.4 Solvent 3. students should be able to : 1.0 OBJECTIVES 2.5 Air Compressor 4.1 Assemblecorrectlymechanicalcomponent base onservicemanualmaintenance by group.0 SAFETY AND HEALTH .1 Producemaintenanceprocedure for a gear drives drives. (A4) 1. 2.
and direction of a power source. refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear.0 TOOLS: NO TOOLS DESCRIPTION TOOLS USAGE 7. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. the term gear. which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque.0 DIASSEMBLE AND ASSEMBLE PROCEDURES: . 5. open-toed shoes. Know the appropriate emergency response procedures. sandals or shoes made of woven material. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced. 4. such as bicycles and cars. however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part. called a rack. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. Do not wear high-heeled shoes.1 Always know the hazards associated with the equipment/materials that are being utilized in the workshop. magnitude.0 INTRODUCTION A gear is a rotatingmachine part having cut teeth. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear.2 Always wear appropriate protective clothing and equipment. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios. 4.4 Be familiar with the location of emergency equipment such as fire alarm and fire extinguisher. or cogs.3 Confine long hair and loose clothing. The term is used to describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete. 4. 4. thereby producing translation instead of rotation. Geared devices can change the speed. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. as in first gear. 6.It is the individual’s responsibility to practice the following general safety guidelines at all times and keep your workspace reasonably tidy.
0 COMPLETE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE FOR A GEAR DRIVES 9. PRACTICLE RUBRIC RUBRIC FOR COMBINE GEAR DRIVE SYSTEM PRACTICLE Generic Student Attributes (GSA) / Learning Domain (LD) Skills / Aspects Excellent Very Good Good Fair Unsatisfactory 5 4 3 2 1 .0 DISCUSION / CONCLUSION 1. ETC 8.NO 1 EXPLANATION FIGURES/SKETCHES 2 3 4 .
Unable to use tools for shafts and gears alignment. Able to use tools for shafts and gears alignment. Able to use tools for shafts and gears alignment. 3. Able to use various types of hand tools and power tools with the proper function of the tools to assemble and disassemble belt drive system. Able to select / choose the tool for shafts and gears alignment. LD 2 / Practical Skills Gear Drives B) Assemble and disassemble of gear drive system Able to use various types of hand tools and power tools with the proper function of the tools to assemble and disassemble belt drive system.A) Demonstrate the proper use of various types of hand tool and power tools.7Developmaintenanceprocedure for a gear drive system. Able to select / choose various types of hand tool and power tools to assemble and disassemble belt drive system. Unable to use various types of hand tools and power tools with the proper function of the tools to assemble and disassemble of belt drive system.2. Unable to use various types of hand tools and power tools with the proper function of the tools. Able to use various types of hand tools and power tools with the proper function of the tools. . Able to select/choose various types of hand tools and power tools. c) Alignment of gear drive. Able to use various types of hand tools and power tools with the proper function of the tools.
Figure 3. or the belt may be crossed. . the belt can either drive the pulleys in the same direction.1: Belt Drive 3. Transmit power is achieved by specially designed belts and pulleys.3. In a two pulley system. so that the direction of the shafts is opposite. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler. used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts. to efficiently transmit power. One or both of the pulleys are powered to moving the belt. or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys.1 List of Belt Drives Applications Transmit Power A combination of mechanical components to change the speed or torque of mechanical energy.Belt Drives in Power Transmission A belt is a looped strip of flexible material. They may be used as a source of motion.
Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials Figure 3.2: Power transmission using belt drive Conveyor.3.Figure 3.2 5 Types Of Belt Drives . A conveyor system is mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another.3: Conveyor Industries using these applications are: • • • • • • • • • Automotive Blenders Converting Conveyors Farming Feeder Drives Food Processing Electrical generators Robotics • • • • • • • • Medical Mixers Movie Animation Office Machines Packaging Electrical generators Power Transmission Distributors Material Handling 3.
They provide the best combination of traction. with the result that the belt cannot slip off. 3. or when (soft) O-ring type belts are used. 2. This gives a thinner belt for the same drive surface. Optimal speed range is 1000–7000 ft/min. load of the bearings. Today some are made of rubber or polymers. The added flexibility offers an improved efficiency. and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal (hence the name "V"). a metallic connector (in the case of hollow plastic). The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave). and long service life. gluing or welding (in the case of polyurethane). Round belts . Multi-groove belts or polygroove belt . It is now the basic belt for power transmission. either by a staple. Flat belts were traditionally made of leather or fabric. Early sewing machines utilized a leather belt. It can deliver high power at high speeds (500 hp at 10. Flat belts . round belts are for use in relatively low torque situations only and may be purchased in various lengths or cut to length and joined. in cases of wide belts and large pulleys. 4.(also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage and alignment problem.used to transfer power from the engine's flywheel. although often wider. It can deliver high power at high speeds (500 hp at 10.is made up of usually 5 or 6 "V" shapes alongside each other. to great effect.000 ft/min). as less energy is wasted in the internal friction of continually .000 ft/min). in cases of wide belts and large pulleys. They are generally endless. Round grooves are only suitable for idler pulleys that guide the belt. thus increasing friction.Table 3. thus it is more flexible. The V-groove transmits torque through a wedging action. Vee belts .Round belts are a circular cross section belt designed to run in a pulley with a 60 degree Vgroove.1: Types of Belt Drives 1. Nevertheless. joined either by a metal staple or glued. speed of movement.
notch. Ribbed belt .bending the belt. long life. and reduced vibration.5-15 millimetres or 100-4000 micrometres) strip of plastic and occasionally rubber. printers. stability and homogeneity of the drive tension. lawn mowers. When correctly tensioned. 7. Its single-piece structure is reported to offer an even distribution of tension across the width of the pulley where the belt is in contact. high-speed uses. allowing high efficiency (up to 98%) and long life. or synchronous belts) . tape recorders. In practice this gain of efficiency causes a reduced heating effect on the belt and a cooler-running belt lasts longer in service. These belts have teeth that fit into a matching toothed pulley. serpentine drives (possibility to drive off the back of the belt). a power range up to 600 kW.000 ft/min. and are often used to transfer direct motion for indexing or timing purposes. a high speed ratio. Toothed belts (also known as timing. and other lightduty operations. fitness bikes. food mixers. * choose 5 types only 3.3. These are seen in business machines. The ribbed belt may be fitted on various applications: compressors.is a power transmission belt featuring lengthwise grooves. They can bear up to 200 hp (150 kW) at speeds of 16.though often grouped with flat belts. They can run over pulleys on the ungrooved back of the belt. Film belts . washing machines. cog. 5. run at constant speed. etc.are positive transfer belts and can track relative movement.3 Belt tension and misalignment of belt drives . they have no slippage. It operates from contact between the ribs of the belt and the grooves in the pulley. They are generally intended for low-power (10 hp or 7 kW). 6. agricultural machinery. they are actually a different kind. They consist of a very thin belt (0.
• Belt tension is determined by measuring the force to deflect the belt a given distance per inch of pulley.4: belt tensioner Misalignment Belt drive misalignment exists when the driver and driven sheaves are not properly aligned. or a combination of both. Angular misalignment occurs when the faces of the sheaves do not form a straight line. speed. Figure: 3. 3. • Timing belts need only adequate tension to keep the belt in contact with the pulley. the sheaves may be in angular alignment.4 Check list drive belt maintenance There are several things need to be addressed before performing maintenance is charged which is: . but their position on the shaft creates a parallel offset. and pulley diameters.5: misalignment Parallel misalignment. Figure 3. With parallel misalignment.3. Angular misalignment. size.Belt tension • The ideal belt is that of the lowest tension which does not slip in high loads. Misalignment can take either the form of angular or parallel (offset) misalignment. • Belt tensions should also be adjusted to belt type.
Replace as needed. lncrease back idler to acceptable diameter. 2. 2.Worn pulley grooves 4.Severe shock load 1. 1. Replace as needed. Inspect static conductive grounding system (if used) and replace components as needed. 3. 2. probable cause and solution PREMATURE BELT FAILURE SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSE 1. Check and correct alignment. Redesign using Drive Design Manual 2.Under-designed drive SOLUTION 1. Provide adequate guard or drive protection. Check drive for centre distance movement during operation. 1. Inspect sheaves or sprockets for wear. inspect and clean. 3. Follow installation procedure.Contre distance movement 1.Under-designed drive 2. Restart drive. 1. Place all machine components in safe position.2: Table of symptoms. Remove guard.Pulley misalignment Edge cord failure 2.Damaged tensile member Belt fail to carry load (slip).Belt rolled or prised onto pulley 3. Replace if worn.Pulleys too small 2. Inspect belt for wear. 4. Redesign to accommodate shock load. 4. Reinstall belt guard. Broken belt 2. alignment. Look and listen for anything unusual. Check for groove wear. replace with larger pulleys.Damaged tensile member Belt delamination or under cord separation 1. Table 3. lock and tag control box. Use drive take up when installing. motor mounts and take up rails. Check and design. Always shut off power.object falling into drive 4. Redesign using Drive Design Manual. Follow correct installation procedure.Back idler too small . Recheck pulley alignment. Inspect other drive components such as bearings. Check belt tension and adjust as needed. shafts. damage.no visible reason 3.
4.Worn pulleys 3. 3. Replace pulleys.Hot drive environment 1. Worn pulleys 3. 1. Under-designed drive 4. Clean pulleys. 2. 3. 3. Wear on belt bottom corners Wear on belt bottom corners Under cord cracking 4.lncorrect belt 1. Replace with correct belt size. Use correct belt/pulley match. 1.Worm pulleys 1. grease or chemical contamination.Deberis in pulleys 1. Redesign using drive Design Manual 4. Do not coil belt too tightly.lmproper storage 1. Use larger diameter back idler. Retension. 1. Avoid heat and direct sunlight.Wear on belt top surface Wear on belt top corner 1.Belt-to-pulley fit incorrect 2. 2.Belt slip 3.Back idler too small SOLUTION 1.Belt slip Burn or hardening on bottom or sidewall 2.Belt-to-pulley fit incorrect (belt too small for groove) 1. SEVERE OR ABNORMAL BELT WEAR SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSE 1. Eliminate sources of oil. Use correct belt-to-pulley combination.Belt slip Wear on belt bottom corners 2. Replace idler. Do not use belt dressing. Use correct belt-to-pulley combination.Retension until slipping stops 2.Improve ventilation to drive 1.Misalignment 3. 2.Pulley diameter too small 2. 3.Rubbing against guard 2. Replace pulleys. Shaft movement Extensive hardening of belt exterior Belt surface flaking. 1. Check for centre distance changes 1. Replace or repair guard. Retension until slipping stops.ldler malfunction 1. 2. Use larger diameter pulleys. sticky or swollen 1. Realign pulleys. Replace pulleys. 1. 4.Oil or chemical contamination BANDED (JOINED)BELT PROBLEMS . kink or bend. Replace pulleys. 2.Belt bottoming on pulley groove 2.Worn pulleys 4.
Worn pulleys SOLUTION 1. Retension. Install matched belt set. Mismatched set 3. 2. Check machine Slapping noise Rubbing sound Grinding sound Guard interference Damaged bearings 1. 4. Replace. Realign drive. 2. Loose drive components . improper groove spacing 1. Tie-band separation Top of tie-band frayed. 2. 1.Worn pulleys 3. Clean pulleys. 3.Incorrect belt Unusually loud drive 2. Misalignment SOLUTION 1. Use correct belt tooth profile for sprockets on synchronous drive. Interference with guard 2. Under tensioned BELT NOISE AND UNUSUAL VIBRATITION SYMPTOMS Squeal or "chirp" PROBABLE CAUSE 1. align and lubricate 1. Check structure and brackets for adequate strength. Retension. Replace pulleys. replace or redesign guard. 2. paint or dirt from grooves. 1. Use correct belt crosssection in pulley.Clean belts and pulleys 1. 3. Poor machine or equipment design 3. 1. 2.Loose belts 2. Repair' or replace back idler.Incorrect belt 2. worn or damaged comes off drive One or more ribs run outside of pulley 2. Replace pulley. Repair. Use standard groove pulleys 1. 2. and remove rust.Belt slip 2. Debris in pulleys Excessive vibration in drive system 1. Clean grooves. Unusually loud drive23Use correct belt size. Pulley out of round 4. Contamination 1. improve shielding.Debris in pulleys 1. Retension. 3.Misalignment 2.SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSE 1. Check guard. Back idler malfunction or damaged 1. Realign pulleys so all belts share load equally 1. 2. Replace pulleys. Use single belts to prevent debris from being trapped in grooves.
Broken tensile member or cord damaged 4. Mismatched belt set . Use allowance specified in Drive Design Manual.components and guards. install properly. Clean pulleys. motor pads. install properly Multiple belts stretch unequally 2. Redesign drive. Incorrectly placed flat idler pulley 7. Shield grooves and drive. 5. Replace pulleys. 3. Damaged tensile member 6. Realign pulleys. 4. 7. Grossly overloaded or stretch evenly under-designed drive 3.Misaligned drive SOLUTION 1.Shock loading or vibration 2. Replace with new set of matched belts. 2. proper maintenance and proper installation. 4. Worn pulley grooves SOLUTION 1. Broken tensile members V-BELT TURN OVER OR JUMP OFF SHEAVE SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSE 1. Carefully place flat idler on slack side of drive as close as possible to driver pulleys. Debris in pulleys 3. 2. Use correct installation and belt storage procedure. Replace all belts. 3. Install matched belt set 1. 2. Check takeup. Do not mix old and new belts lnvolves single or multiple belts 5. or where all belts 2.Replace belt. WIBELT STRETCHESBEYOND PROBLEM WITH SHEAVES. 3. Check drive design. Mismatched belt set 1. 6. adequate design strength.Insufficient takeup allowance Single belt. motor mounts. BELT STRETCHES BEYOND TAKE UP SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSE 1. Realign and retension drive. Misaligned pulleys Worn pulley grooves 4. Foreign material in grooves 3. brackets and framework for stability. bushings.
. Check for centre distance stability and vibration dampening. The three basic applications of chain drive are: 1. Bicycle chains may have a master link. 3.4. slippage can occur.4 Chain Drive in Power Transmission 3. but are classified as lift or leaf chains.1 General A chain drive uses a sprocket and chain to drive machinery much like the belt drive. Chains are also used in forklifts using hydraulic rams as a pulley to raise and lower the carriage. Chainsawcutting chains superficially resemble roller chains but are more closely related to leaf chains. generating less noise than a gear drive as used in very high performance engines. since the belt drive uses friction to drive machinery. pulling or carrying. these chains are not considered roller chains. However.2 TYPES OF CHAIN DRIVE 1. A simple example of a chain drive is the sprocket and chain on a bicycle or motorcycle. chains are used as devices to synchronizing movements such as valve timing in automobiles or raising loads on an overhead chain hoist 3. roller chains would drive the camshaft(s) off the crankshaft. They are driven by projecting drive links which also serve to locate the chain onto the bar. Roller chains are used in low.8. In automobile engines. 5. or may require a chain tool for removal and installation.to mid-speed drives at around 600 to 800 feet per minute 2. A bicycle chain is a form of roller chain. however.Converting Motion. Timing or Synchronizing. 4.4. pushing. Poor drive design 8.Transmitting Power. A similar but larger and thus stronger chain is used on most motorcycles 3. chains are used to convey materials by sliding. 2. and more durable than timing belts. 3. The chain drive is a positive or direct drive and does not allow slippage. chains and sprockets are used as flexible gearing to transmit torque from one rotating shaft to another.
Silent Chains are used for the camshaft drive of the mid. or are made by welding a bar stock hub to a hot-rolled plate sprocket. If required. hubs or other devices . . Sprockets Sprockets types. as well as in other high-speed applications. countersunk. Type A sprockets sometimes called plate sprockets. Transfer-case drive in four-wheel-drive vehicle. They can be welded hub construction or machined from gray iron castings.The primary drive between the engine and transmission. Type B sprockets have a hub on one side only. have no hubs and are used for mounting on flanges.to large-size engines. The three bacis sprockets types are identified by their hub arrangement. Holes sizes and bolt circle for which jigs are available are indicated in the thye D sprocket . or tapped holes. Small and medium size sprockets are usually furnised in type B and are turned from bar stock or forgings. They are made from bar stock or hot-rolled plate in either solid or split construction with plain.6. large diameter type B sprockets can be furnished.
complete with keyseats and set screw.Type C sprockets are normally machined from gray iron castings. with hub projections equidistant from the centerline of the sprockets. Multiple width sprockets have a row of theeth to engage each strand of chain.They are stocked with mandrel bores for remaining to suit specification. . Large diameter sprockets are furnised in type C.Mandrel bore sprockets are made in broad range of sizesfor single and multiple strand chain. With this hub arrangement the line of action due to chain pull reacts through the center of the hub. but can be cast steel or welded hub construction. Finished bore sprockets are available for most widely used single strand chain.Type C sprockets have hubs on both sides. These ready to use sprockets are made in type B only and are stocked in a range of popular bores . Offset hubs can be furnished. That is smaller diameter sprockets are reguarly furnished as type B and the larger sizes as type C. proving stability and assuring an even distribution of stress on shafts and key. They are made in the same types as single width sprockets.
Type D double duty sprockets offer convenience and economy when occasional drive ratio change are necessary. .Taper lock sprockets are ideal where a positive. They have a special split hub and rim construction design for bolting the sprocket halves securely together. Bushing are stocked in with bore increment. They consists of a Type A plate sprocket bolted to a gray iron hub . They are available in a wide range of sizes for single and double strand chains. Type C split sprockets are used to facillate the installation or replacement of sprockets locate where accessibility is difficuilt. full compression grip on the shaft is desired. complete with key seat. Special purpose sprockets.
Double pitch sprockets Standard rollers. double duty sprockets have two teeth per chain pitch. automatically increasing sprocket life. They consists of a modified Type sprocket mounted on a gray iron hub and connected by a shear pin. During each revolution only half the teeth function effectively. Engaged by every other tooth. Double duty sprockets with even number of teeth may be manually advance one tooth periodically to increase sprocket life. Sprockets with odd numbers of teeth will allow any given tooth to engage only on every other revolution.Shear pin sprockets are used to protect chain Drives and machinery from damage overloads. Carrier rollers . Many stock sizes are available. Series C-2000 chains have rollers of the same diameters and widths as American Standard Roller chains of one half the conveyor chain pitch. Martin stock C-2000 series sprockets are furnished double duty only.
Simple precautions are sometimes forgotten. 2. If chain case lubrication is used the drive must be positioned correctly for chain clearance and the oil spray pipe adjusted properly. All altered double pitch sprockets requiring all way will be furnished with key way on center of tooth unless otherwise specified. During the start – up of the drive .The chain should articute freely. proper chain tension .4. Make sure that parts are not damaged or bent and that sprockets and shafts operate freely. 3. but they are essentialAll parts of the drive must be rigidly and securely mounted so that vibration cannot work them loose. To obtain maximum chain and sprocket life accurate alignment. A drive is easy to install provided that precautions common to sound judgement and good workmanship are followed. Each sprocket tooth meshes with these chains.The chain must be clean and free from grit and dirt before it is installed. and good lubrication are required. 1. 3. Double sprockets cannot made for double pitch chain with Carrier Rollers. make certain that all parts work smoothly and lubrication is being properly applied to the chain.3 Installation.more so on a high speed drive than on a low speed drive. Poor installation eventually becomes evident in the resulting reduction of chain life. Korosene is highly effective cleaning agent. .The drive must have adequate clearance .Sprockets for the C-2000 series chain can roller are cut with space cutters or standard halve for the American Standard Roller chain of the same diameter. For drives of 31 teeth or more we recommend using Standard sprockets with series C2000 series chain.
2. Place screws in threaded engagement with sprocket and free in bushing holes. Select the sprocket and bushing required and slide the bushing into the sprocket. Parallel alignment of the shaft should be made with a vernier caliper. Set screw must be tightened securely in the sprocket hub to hold key in position and to guard against any lateral movement in the sprocket motors. Mount the sprockets on their respectively shaft and align shafts horizontally with a machine‘s level. bearingetc. To Install. . Slip assembled sprocket and bushing on shaft. Sprocket tooth engagement:. Be sure that all holes match up. or a feeler bar and the distance between shafts on both sides of the sprocket should be equal. 1.a straight edge or a taut wire may be applied to the machined surface of the sprocket to assist in this alignment . should then be bolted securely in place so that full alignment can be maintained during the operation of the drive.Shaft and sprocket Alignment.
3. This wedges the bushing between the shaft and sprocket assuring the fit that is as tight as a shrunk fit. Using one of them as a jackscrew. To removed 1. . insert in hole threaded on bushing so that it engages the bushing and is free of the hub. Removed the screws completely . Tighten the jackscrew. Tighten screws to force tapered bushing into the taper-bored hub .
To check for sprocket wear is easier. Scored teeth or teeth with their tips worn off are also signs of wear. The examples of teeth damage can be easily by making sure that the chain is in good condition and by ensuring that the sprockets are in line as well as being made of hardened steel. the charts in this booklet will explain what corrections must take place to prevent the trouble from happening again.2. Normal wear may also cause some tooth damage but it is usually all over type of wear and not limited to just one side or one edge of the sprocket tooth. As the jackscrew is tightened . most can be seen by eye. but to be sure the wisest way is to try a new chain in the teeth and see how much wear has taken place by the clearance that is found between the teeth and the rollers or in between the side plates and the side of the sprocket wall. Checking sprockets for wear. the sprocket will become disengaged from the bushing and the complete assembly may be easily slipped of the shaft. .
4.4 CHAIN DRIVE MAINTENANCE .3.
Conversely. link plate fatigue and chain failure can result. the sprockets may be misaligned. Check Chain Wear Measure the chain wear elongation and if elongation exceeds functional limits or is greater than 3% (. the sprocket teeth are excessively worn and the sprocket should be replaced.36 inches in one foot) replace the entire chain.Check lubrication On slow speed drives. check oil level and add oil if needed. check each orifice to be sure it is clear and is directing oil onto the chain properly. Interference can cause abnormal and potentially destructive wear on the chain or the interfering part. Do not continue to run a chain worn beyond 3% elongation because the chain will not engage the sprockets properly and it may damage the sprockets. If the edges of the chain link plates impact against a rigid part. A FIRE MAY RESULT. do not run a worn chain on new sprockets as it will cause the new sprockets to wear rapidly. where manual lubrication is used. Check Chain Tension Check chain tension and adjust as needed to maintain the proper sag in the slack span. remove two pitches and reconnect the chain. Check Sprocket Tooth Wear Check for roughness or binding when the chain engages or disengages from the sprocket. If elongation exceeds the available adjustment. 2. With bath or pump lubrication. If these conditions are present. If drip lubrication is used. Realign the sprockets as outlined in the installation instructions to prevent further abnormal chain and sprocket wear. check for adequate oil flow and proper application to the chain. Change oil after the first 100 hours of operation and each 500 hours thereafter. Do not run new chain on worn sprockets as it will cause the new chain to wear rapidly. Check for and eliminate any buildup of debris or foreign material between the chain and sprockets. Check for Drive Interference Check for interference between the drive and other parts of the equipment. Check oil for contamination and change oil if needed. be sure the lubrication schedule is being followed. clean the chain with kerosene and relubricate it. If the chain is covered with dirt and debris. If there is any. Do not connect a new section of chain to a worn chain because it may run rough and damage the drive.1. 3. If pump lubrication is used. WARNING! NEVER USE GASOLINE OR OTHER FLAMMABLE SOLVENTS TO CLEAN A CHAIN. correct it immediately. 5. Check Sprocket Alignment If there is noticeable wear on the inside surface of the chain roller link plates. . 6. 4. Inspect the sprocket teeth for reduced tooth section and hooked tooth tips.
REPLACE THE ENTIRE CHAIN.5 COUPLED SHAFT ALIGNMENT 3. parallax error while reading the values. it is recommended to use manufacturer's alignment target values to set up the machine train to a defined non-zero alignment.1 Fundamentals of shaft alignment • • • • • • • • • A shaft is a rotating member. In all likelihood. due to the fact that later when the machine is at operation temperature the alignment condition is perfect Tools to measure shaft axis alignment condition Requirements of good shaft alignment • • • • • • VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES CONTINUOS VARIABLE TRANSMISSION • A transmission that can change steplessly through an infinite number of effective gear . 3. it is very convenient to use laser shaft alignment technique to perform the alignment task within highest accuracy. it should have no projecting parts.A RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNT OF DEBRIS IN THE SPROCKET ROLL SEAT CAN CAUSE TENSILE LOADS GREAT ENOUGH TO BREAK THE CHAIN IF FORCED THROUGH THE DRIVE. If any of these conditions are found. Check for Failure Inspect the chain for cracked. broken or deformed parts. it should transmit the full power from one shaft to other without losses. it should be easy to connect or disconnect attached components. usually of circular cross section used to transmit torque and rotation. it is recommended to take care of bracket sag.5. to connect other components Types Of Misalignment Parallel / Off-Set Misalignment Angular Misalignment Combination Misalignment it is possible to measure the alignment with dial gauges or feeler gages using various mechanical setups. it is required to align the machine better. even though portions of the chain appear to be in good condition. 7. it is the goal to minimize the remaining misalignment in running operation to maximize power transmission and to maximize machine runtime (coupling and bearing and sealing lifetime). it does allow some misalignment between the two adjacent shaft rotation axis. the entire chain has been damaged. the laser shaft alignment tool can help to show the required moves at the feet positions.
Organize properly maintenance procedure base on standard operation procedure.(A4) 2. Variable-diameter pulley (VDP) or Reeves drive Toroidal or roller-based CVT (Extroid CVT ) Magnetic CVT or mCVT Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT) Ratcheting CVT Hydrostatic CVTs Cone CVTs Radial roller CVT Planetary CVT Types Of CVT • • • • • • • • • LAB SHEET REPORT JJ615 MECHANICALCOMPONENTS & MAINTENANCE CLO: 1. Assemble correctly mechanical component base on service manual maintenancebygroup. • The flexibility of a CVT allows the input shaft to maintain a constant angular velocity over a range of output velocities. NAME: REGISTERATIONNO: PROGRAMME PRACTICAL DATE LECTURER PREPAREDBY: SESSION: SUBMITTED DATE RUBRICS LearningDomain (LD1)Knowledge .ratios between maximum and minimum values.(P5) 2.
3 Confine long hair and loose clothing.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of this workshop. chain drives and belt drives.6 Air Compressor 4. (P4) 1.3 Power Tools 3. 4.0 SAFETY AND HEALTH It is the individual’s responsibility to practice the following general safety guidelines at all times and keep your workspace reasonably tidy.0 OBJECTIVES 2.0 APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT 3. open-toed shoes.3 Always wear appropriate protective clothing and equipment. 2. Do not wear high-heeled shoes.4 Solvent 3.2 Hand Tools 3.4 Lubricant 3. 7. students should be able to : 1.1 Assemblecorrectlymechanicalcomponent base onservicemanualmaintenance by group. 4.1 Always know the hazards associated with the equipment/materials that are being utilized in the workshop.2 Organizeproperlymaintenanceprocedurebaseonstandardoperation procedure. sandals .1 Chain Drive system 3.1 Demonstratetheuseof thereversedialindicatormethodsto correct shaft misalignment. 6.(A4) 1.Asanexamples apparatuscanbeusearegear assemblyforcombined drivesandalignment of drives.2 Assembleanddisassembleofmechanicaldrivesystemasa practical.Introduction NOR HISHAM BIN SUHADI 5@3@1/5 (x4) 5@3@1/5 (x5) 5@3@1/ 5(x5) 5@3@1/ 5(x3) 5@3@1/ 5(x3) Procedure/Tools Maintenance Procedure CHECKEDBY: Discussion/Conclusion Neatness/Teamwork (HEADOFDEPARTMENT/HEADOFPR OGRAMME) TOTALMARKS /100 x 30% = TITLE : CHAIN DRIVES 5.3 Practice safety procedures correctly in the working workshop according to the workshop safety regulation to create a secure practical team work (A3). 4.
Static strength b. the power is conveyed by a roller chain. Slope at bearings and shaft supported elements c. Reliability Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another.4 Be familiar with the location of emergency equipment such as fire alarm and fire extinguisher. Most often. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress. . whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. or oscillation of elements such as gears. Shafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress. pulleys. sprockets. usually of circular cross section used to transmit torque and rotation. Sometimes the power is output by simply rotating the chain.Deflection and rigidity a. The designing of shaft must be studied from the following point of view: 1. fatigue strength c. 4. which can be used to lift or drag objects. 10. Though drive chains are often simple oval loops. Know the appropriate emergency response procedures. to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle. known as the drive chain or transmission chain. Torsional deflection b. with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain. The gear is turned. passing over a sprocket gear.0 INTRODUCTION A shaft is a rotating member. a second gear is placed and the power is recovered by attaching shafts or hubs to this gear. equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load.or shoes made of woven material. It is also used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles. Shear deflection due to transverse loading of short shafts 2. It provides the axis of rotation.Stress and strength a. and this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system. flywheels and the like and controls the geometry of their motion. In other situations.
By varying the diameter of the input and output gears with respect to each other.0 NO 1 ASSEMBLE AND DISASSEMBLE PROCEDURES EXPLANATION FIGURES/SKETCHES TOOLS 2 3 ETC 7.0 DISCUSION / CONCLUSION .they can also go around corners by placing more than two gears along the chain. gears that do not put power into the system or transmit it out are generally known as idlerwheels.0 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE FOR CHAIN DRIVE : 8. the gear ratio can be altered. 11.
1) axial bearing are design to withstand axial thrust Radial bearings are designed to withstand radial load Combination of both .0 BEARING 4.1 Application of bearings • • • • A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion between moving parts to only the desired motion. the motions allowed.1. students should be able to:1.1 Bearing Concepts 4. Understandfriction. Understandbearingconcepts. or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts.1. 2. it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. The design of the bearing may provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis or. temperature andlubrication. 4. 4 KamalBin Haron (PSA) Zulkhairi BinKhairudin(PSA) 4. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation. 3.BEARING Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this chapter. Understandbearingdamage. Bearing are used to support rotating shaft and are classified according to the direction of the main load. (see figure 4. Describe mountinganddismountingofbearing.
1 • • • 4. i. iii.2 A bearing is constituted by an inner and an outer ring. axial and combination loads. Ball bearings Roller bearings.1. Rolling elements can be spheres (ball bearing) or cylinders (cylinder roller bearings).The following are the three basic types of rolling element bearings.1. ii. Between them a series of rolling element is found Something a fourth element (cage) is present to keep the rolling elements in their position. Rolling Element Bearings Rolling element bearing also called an antifriction bearing because the created by this bearing is rolling friction rather than sliding friction creared by the plain bearings. Needle Bearings. Rolling friction is always less than sliding friction. Needle bearings are used only for radial or axial loads.Figure 4.The rolling element bearing is a cylinder containing a moving inner ring of stell balls or rollers. Rolling element bearings have balls or roller for increase efficiency. Types of bearing and characteristic of bearings The bearings are classified broadly into two (2) categories based on the type of contact they have between the rotating and the stationary member a. . Different designs of ball and roller bearings can handle radial.
1. Plain bearing can categorized into three classes : i.The terms journal and sleeve are often used interchangeably :sleeve refers to the general configuration.Plain bearing may also be thrust bearings or thrust washers. iii. Class I Bearing systems are lubricated from an outside sources Class II Bearing systems have internal lubrication . Plain bearings are sometimes referred to as journal or sleeve bearings. and journal refer to the part of the shaft in contact with the bearings. Figure 4. Plain bearings are typically cylindrical shape bearings designed to carry radial loads. PTFE ( Teflon) or plastic bearings that require no lubricant ii.1. Sliding / Journal / Plain Bearings A plain bearing is any bearing using a sliding action rather than a rolling action.21 Journal Bearing . It may or may not be lubricated. Class III Bearing systems have graphite .2 Needle bearing b.Figure 4.
Rolling element bearing Is also called an antifriction bearing because the created by this bearing is rolling friction rather than sliding friction creared by the plain bearings.05-0. but some slack is normally present Low to very high Low to very high depends upon application and lubrication Widely used.Table 4.The inner lining. packed grease. Depending upon the application.125) Good.22 : Two main categories based on the type of contact Type Description Friction Stiffness Speed Life Notes Plain/journal/sliding bearing Cylindrical sleeve that support a rotating or sliding shaft . suffers from stiction in some applications. PTFE has coefficient of friction ~0.1. Depends on materials and construction. but some slack is usually present Moderate to high (often requires cooling) Moderate to high (depends on lubrication. called the bushing.35. preload and misalignment can increase friction to as much as 0. is usually made of a metal softer then that‘s of the shaft so that any wear occurs in the replaceable bushing and not in the shaft. often requires maintenance) Used for higher moment loads than plain bearings with lower friction .The rolling element bearing is a cylinder containing a moving inner ring of stell balls or rollers. provided wear is low. lifetime can be higher or lower than rolling element bearings. depending upon fillers added Good. Rolling coefficient of friction with steel can be ~0.005 (adding resistance due to seals. relatively high friction.
Example for bearing Part Number . Generally speaking . or four row of roller . Some of these basic types available in many variation : for instance. Single row deep – groove ball bearings a generally available in nine different external configuration. Details are given in manufacturer catalog or by contacting the manufacturer directly.1.3 Nomenclature of Bearing Rolling bearings include radial and thrust bearing for radial and axial load. but it should be not that‘s all types of rolling bearing are available in many design variants thus may vary greatly in internal design depending on the manufacturer. outside diameter and width diameter in that order. The other basic type do not come in large number of configuration. but can also be imperial. ball bearing a recommended for light to moderate load: roller bearing a recommended for heavy load .3 : Bearing Sizes Each bearing has an inside diameter. Example : Code number of rooling bearing Bearing Sizes d = Inside diameter D = Outside diameter B/T = Width diameter Figure 4. respectively.4. each bearing shows its principal dimensions. and some bearing types which a design for combine radial and axial loads. two.1. It is not within the scope of thus handbook to describe all the various design of rolling bearing use in machinery but rather to alert maintenance personel to their existence . cylindrical roller bearing may be obtain with one. Most bearings are metric in size. Taper roller bearing can some in more than 20 different configuration . There is nine basic bearings. On our site.
is about five times the calculated basic rating life. Be sure to include loads of .4 Bearing Service Life Basic life or L10 as defined in ISO and ABMA standards is the life that 90% of a sufficiently large group of apparently identical bearings can be expected to reach or exceed.4. This rating. The so called specification life is generally a requisite L10 basic rating life and reflects a manufacturer's requirement based on experience with similar applications. The basic dynamic load rating covers dynamically stressed bearings that rotate under load. defined in ISO 281. slowly oscillate. or remain stationary under load over certain periods. Service life is the life of a bearing under actual operating conditions before it fails or needs to be replaced for whatever reason.1.1. 4. The median or average life.1 Calculating Loads Engineers typically employ rolling-contact fatigue models that compare bearing load ratings to applied dynamic and static loads as they impact service life and reliability. sometimes called Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). Dynamic loads should include a representative duty cycle or spectrum of load conditions and any peak loads. The basic static load rating applies to bearings that rotate at speeds less than 10 rpm.4. is the bearing load that results in a basic rating life or L10 of 1 million revolutions.
extremely short duration (shock) because they may plastically deform contact surfaces and compromise bearing integrity. The basic rating life is associated with 90% reliability of bearings built by modern manufacturing methods from high-quality materials and operated under normal conditions. calculate an equivalent dynamic bearing load from: P = XFr + YFa where P = equivalent dynamic bearing load. lb.4. it may be more convenient to express the basic rating life in operating hours: L10h = (1. Fr = actual radial bearing load. Basic catalog or simplified calculations typically ignore elastic deformations in the bearing.000. P = equivalent dynamic bearing load. Conversely. axial load influences P only when the ratio Fa ⁄ Fr exceeds a certain limiting value. rpm Predicted bearing life is a statistical quantity in that it refers to a bearing population and a given degree of reliability. and p = 10/3 for roller bearings) For bearings run at constant speed. lb. For thrust ball bearings and other types that carry pure axial loads. 4. lb. Fa = actual axial bearing load. lb. in some documented cases by nearly a factor of five. When the resultant of radial and axial loads is constant in magnitude and direction. or axially and centrically on a thrust bearing. lb. the equation simplifies to P = Fa.2 Rating Life Equations The equation from ISO 281 or the American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA) Standards 9 and 11 figures basic. For single-row radial bearings. nonadjusted rating life by: L10 = (C ⁄ P)p in millions of revolutions where C = basic dynamic load rating. or machine frame.000/60)nL10 where n = rotational speed. Such calculations may assume loads are constant in magnitude and direction and act radially on a radial bearing. Be sure to consult manufacturer catalogs for axial-radial thrust bearings because designs can vary widely. even light axial loads are significant for double-row radial bearings. X = radial load factor for the bearing.1. provided the load acts centrically. housing. and Y = axial load factor for the bearing. The above equation also applies to spherical thrust bearings and other thrust types that handle both axial and radial loads. . In practice. predicted life may deviate significantly from actual service life. Oftentimes. p = life-equation exponent ( p = 3 for ball bearings. as well as moments produced in the bearing by shaft deflection. bearings in actual service see simultaneous radial and axial loads.
circulating oil.1. along with the ratio of the bearing fatigue load limit to the bearing equivalent load limit.0 for 90% reliability). and lubrication operating conditions as defined in ISO 4406.2 : Operating Regimes 4. wear. where field failures can result from root causes other than bearing fatigue.Protect bearing against all but very small foreign particles and help retain lubrication. mounting damage. The latest version expands coverage to include bearing material fatigue stress limits. corrosion. determine a ISO. Standard ISO 281 has developed in step with these advances to predict service life more accurately.Shields Close-fitting but nonrubbing thin washer.5Shield and Seal Bearings Self lubricating bearings must have seals or shields to keep oil or grease in.1. . Figure 4. and the lubrication condition. and oil bath.Service life represents bearing life in real-world conditions. and a factor for solid contamination effects on bearing life when using various lubrication systems such as grease. bearing size. This contamination factor. Examples of root causes include contamination. high loads and poor lubricant conditions raise bearing life sensitivity to contamination. Conversely. poor lubrication. Finding a ISO involves the use of a contamination factor that considers the lubrication system type. misalignment. In general. On going advances in bearing technology and manufacturing processes continue to extend bearing life and reduce sensitivity to severe operating conditions. The equation calculates modified rating life at n% reliability Lnm in millions of revolutions at constant speed by: Lnm= a1aISOL10 where a1 = life-adjustment factor for reliability (1. and a ISO = manufacturer life modification factor according to ISO 281.4. and protection against contamination. or faulty sealing systems. better lubricant conditions and lower equivalent loads lessen bearing life sensitivity to contamination levels. cleanliness class.
2.2.1: Frictional component and influencing factor Frictional component Rolling friction Sliding friction of rolling elements Sliding friction of cage Fluid friction (flow resistance) Influencing factor Magnitude of load Magnitude and direction of load Speed and lubrication conditions. tilting and skewing resulting from installation.2 Temperature rise Almost all friction loss in a bearing is transformed into heat within the bearing itself and causes the temperature of the bearing to rise. load.2. Although the dynamic friction coefficient for rolling bearings varies with the type of bearings. Due to the large number of influencing factors. lubrication.1) .2.1 Friction One of the main functions required of a bearing is thatit must have low friction. especially starting friction.2.2. temperature and lubrication 4. and other factors. actual frictional torques and frictional power may deviate significantly from the calculated values. (see table 4.1. speed. Bearing operating temperature is determined by the equilibrium or balance between the amount of heat generated by the bearing and the amount of heat conducted away from the bearing. such as dynamics in speed and load.4.2 Relation between operating temperature with bearing friction 4.2 Friction .2. Table 4.1 Friction in Bearing Systems The friction in a rolling bearing is made up of several components. quantity and operating viscosity of lubricant Type and preload of seal Seal friction 4. 4. the approximate friction coefficients for various bearing types are listed in Table 10. In most cases the temperature rises sharply during initial . Under normal operating conditions rolling bearings have a much smaller friction coefficient than the slide bearings.2. running-in condition Type and speed Type. for normal operating conditions.
Bearings may also be packed with other materials. a good maintenance program might lubricate the bearings frequently but never clean them.3 Splash lubrication Some machines contain a pool of lubricant in the bottom. 4. Bearing life is often much better when the bearing is kept clean and well-lubricated. or crank rods that can swing down into the pool as the device operates. Some small internal combustion engines . or rubber gasket (also called a gland) that covers the inside and outside edges of the bearing race to keep the grease from escaping.2. Historically. 4. insufficient internal clearance. If the temperature continues to rise and does not become constant. while the crank rods slap at the surface of the oil. splashing it randomly on the interior surfaces of the engine. viscous adhesion draws oil up the ring and onto the shaft. and may require adjustment to minimise the effects of wear. The grease is held in place by a plastic. Most bearings in high cycle operations need periodic lubrication and cleaning.2. Cleaning is of little use because cleaning is expensive. also known as packing.3 Principle of bearing lubrication Many bearings require periodic maintenance to prevent premature failure.3.3. it must be assumed that there is some improper function. the wheels on railroad cars used sleeve bearings packed with waste or loose scraps cotton or wool fiber soaked in oil. The time it takes to reach this stable state depends on the amount of heat produced. Possible causes of abnormal temperature include bearing misalignment (due to moment load or incorrect installation). excessive preload. Thus. many applications make good maintenance difficult. too much or too little lubricant. leather. which is pushed into the gaps between the bearing surfaces. although some such as fluid or magnetic bearings may require little maintenance. Check the mechanical equipment. where the oil migrates into the bearing to lubricate it. For example bearings in the conveyor of a rock crusher are exposed continually to hard abrasive particles. Excess oil is flung off and collects in the pool again. The ring hangs down into a chamber containing lubricating oil. yet the bearing is contaminated again as soon as the conveyor resumes operation. then later used solid pads of cotton. remove and inspect the bear 4. However.1 Packing Some bearings use a thick grease for lubrication.3. amount of lubricant and method of lubrication.2.2 Ring oiler Bearings can be lubricated by a metal ring that rides loosely on the central rotating shaft of the bearing. heat capacity/diffusion of the shaft and bearing housing. with gears partially immersed in the liquid. 4. The spinning wheels fling oil into the air around them.operation.2. then increases slowly until it reaches a stable condition and then remains constant. and if necessary. As the bearing rotates. or heat produced from sealed units.
Pressure oiling is commonly used in large and complex internal combustion engines in parts of the engine where directly splashed oil cannot reach. and tapered roller bearings have separable races and should be considered for applications requiring frequent inspections and removal of the bearings. if a bearing is to be discarded. To ease removal and avoid damage to the bearing. using specialized tools and techniques. Individual installations may require mechanical. needle roller bearings.4 Pressure lubrication For high speed and high power machines.3. the ease and methods required for these bearing procedures should be a bearing selection consideration. Since bearings with interference fits can be easily damaged during removal. cooling.specifically contain special plastic flinger wheels which randomly scatter oil around the interior of the mechanism. etc.2. 4.3. Of course. Premature bearing failures are caused by poor fitting. the proper tools and methods need to be employed. Professional fitting. Bearing mounting and removal is simplified by the use of bearings that have separable races. care needs to be taken during removal. methods such as torch cutting can be used for bearing removal. precautions to prevent damage during removal should be taken. If application requirements call for periodic inspections that require mounting and dismounting of the bearings. The procedures covered are concerned with the proper methods and tools to accomplish installation of pressed fitted bearing rings. \ Tools/Equipments Uses . hydraulic and manual jaw pullers. and the excess can be collected for filtration. If the bearing is to be reused or checked for causes of damage.1 Mounting and dismounting equipments and tools. Reliability variety of bearing installation and removal tools. 4. Mounting and installation of a bearing depends on the type and its fitting practice. and possibly reuse. is another positive step towards achieving maximum machine uptime. a fresh supply of lubricant can be continuously supplied to the bearing and all other contact surfaces.3 Mounting and dismounting of bearing. In these applications. a loss of lubricant can result in rapid bearing heating and damage due to friction. Even though some of the tools and procedures used for mounting a non-separable bearing are the same as those used for separable bearings. High speed turbochargers also typically require a pressurized oil system to cool the bearings and keep them from burning up due to the heat from the turbine. Also in dirty environments the oil can become contaminated with dust or debris that increases friction. 4. heat or hydraulic application methods for correct and efficient mounting. bearing heaters. Bearings such as cylindrical roller bearings. usually using brute force. the methods covered here are specifically for non-separable bearings. such as up into overhead valve assemblies. and being unaware of the availability of the correct mounting tools and methods.
Mounting Hot Plate Bearing Heater Mounting and Dismounting Thread Hydraulic Nut Mounting and Dismounting Air-driven hydraulic pumps Dismounting Standard Jaw Pullers Dismounting Induction Heaters .
The calibration of this equipment is also very important and is performed to an excellent standard. roundness and form analyzer Waviness on the bearing components can cause high vibration levels in most applications. load capacity.3. Because low noise and vibration of bearings is becoming more important.3.2 Measuring equipment for bearing installation.4. local defects in the rings and balls or by dirt particles in the bearing. with electronics and mechanics combined to perfection ii.2.2. Waviness testers allow analysis of the waviness on the components and thus give the production engineer a powerful tool to improve the production process. While basic requirements on a bearing like stiffness. Figure 4. .3. 4.2 Noise and vibration tester A noisy application might be caused by wavy bearing components. Air-bearing spindle with run out better than 0. As the amplitude of these waves is as small as some nanometers.3.1: Waviness. High tech analysis and measurement such as frequency analysis (FFT) and further advanced analysis pinpoints faults.02 µm and velocity-proportional evaluation gives you direct indication of the waviness level of the component iii. Rotational measuring system with top concentricity precision. roundness and form analyzer 4. i. there is a high demand on the measuring accuracy and resolution. Spectral masks help to optimize the bearing performance in the particular application. you can understand the importance of measuring accuracy and resolution.1 Waviness. low noise and vibration are becoming even more important.2. speed limit and service life play a critical role in applications.
2.2: Noise and vibration tester 4. Primarily for rotation symmetric components. nature of the illumination . Figure 4. resulting in high demands on the measuring machine capability and time pressure when resetting measuring equipment.white light.2.matrix camera. . In optical systems.2. industrial optical inspection equipment from SKF keeps costs to a minimum while maximizing your application. laser light. with minimized resetting times and closed loop post process features. such as balls.3. reduce costs and give you flexibility. ii. line camera." That appearance is dependent on three factors: i. properties of the sensors . condition of the object .3: Dimension measuring machines 4.Figure 4.4. etc. etc.4. single photo-detector. rings and bearings. roughness.4. coloured light.2.4 Optical inspection SKF provides products and solutions for a wide variety of optical measurement and optical inspection applications related to bearing manufacture. the following basic physical principle is involved: "The appearance of the product is different to what we have decided to be acceptable. the resetting time of the measuring machines already bottlenecks the process where there is still a need for thousands of master parts. full in-line production control. rollers. As documented on high precision automation technology.colour. iii. In many cases.3 Dimension measuring machines Stricter process requirements cause tighter tolerances and higher output. etc.
6 Gauges for bearing mounting When checking features such as tapered seatings. or complies with certain quality requirements to retain their usability. . The various NDT techniques include: i. it is necessary to accurately measure the roller set bore or outside diameter. iii. These gauges are also useful for other applications. ultrasonic inspection Eddy current testing magnetic particle inspection resonant inspection Figure 4.2.4. To precisely adjust the radial internal clearance or preload when mounting cylindrical roller bearings with tapered bores. ii.2. roller set bores or outside diameters of cylindrical roller bearings. conventional measuring methods and instruments are not always suitable.4: Optical inspection 4.2. Measurements can be made quickly and accurately. the taper gauges can be used for a range of diameters.Figure 4. iv. This gauge is specially designed to meet the measuring needs of cylindrical roller bearings with a tapered bore.5 Non destructive testing The thorough inspection of components is a way to check that each component is defect free.4.2.4. Ring gauges can be used to check the most common tapered seatings.4. While a ring gauge can be used only to check a tapered seating for a particular bearing size.5: Non destructive testing 4.
With only a few exceptions.3.Figure 4.4.1 Description of Internal Clearances Bearing internal clearance is described as being either radial or axial and is the total distance that either the inner or outer ring can be moved in the radial or axial direction while the other ring is held stationary.3 Concept of adjusting clearance during installation.3. Operating clearance is defined as the effective clearance with the additional effect of elastic deformations from application loading. the clearance value between the rows is an axial measurement. 4. the original clearance is reduced due to contraction or expansion of the rings and is called the residual clearance or mounted clearance. Matched pairs of angular contact ball bearings are specified in terms of axial internal clearance. Successful bearing performance depends on having the appropriate ―operating clearance‖ to avoid premature bearing damage and reduced fatigue life. when two single row tapered roller bearings are setup opposing each other. Also. This initial clearance value is what is provided in the bearing at the time of shipment. . bearing internal clearance is normally discussed in terms of radial clearance.6: Gauges for bearing mounting 4. Effective clearance is the residual clearance after taking into account changes from temperature differentials within the bearing.2. Selecting the correct bearing internal clearance and determining whether preload is needed for a particular application is critical to obtaining the desired bearing performance.3. After the bearing is fitted on a shaft and into housing. Clearance prior to mounting is generally referred to as the original clearance.
other components and not the least injury to persons.2 Installation using heating Installation by using heating means based on the induction and it is used in medium and large bearings. there are other operating conditions to consider in addition to knowing which ring will be rotating when trying to determine the proper fits to use. The operating conditions that should be considered when determining bearing ring fits are the following: i.3. shaft and other components. which the classic method of assembly would have been rather problematic. Load magnitude iii. With proper installation of bearing significantly extended for the life of which is a positive impact on maintenance costs. which mounts bearings. Incorrect adaption for the assembly can cause excessive wear and the early damage.1 Mechanical Installation Mechanical or cold mounting is suitable for small to medium-sized bearings. The method is not only useful for bearings.1: Radial Clearance and Axial Clearance 4.2 Fit Selection Considerations As previously pointed out. Finish of mating surface vi. Despite the size and weight bearing requires very little effort which is required for installation. Proper installations of bearing such as a substantial impact shorten its lifecycle.4 Mounting and dismounting methods classification. Principle of the hydraulic assembly technique consists of injecting the thin layer of oil between the bearings and shaft.3. 4.3. while providing a safe working environment without significant risk injury to employees. but also in other mechanical components. 4. Due to the size of force are larger bearings very difficult to push the shaft or casing. 4.3.3. Shaft and housing material & section thickness vii.3. .3. there is minimal risk of damage bearing.Figure 4. In assembly with heated bearing to a temperature that is 80 to 90 ° C above the temperature of the shaft. Effect on bearing internal clearances v.3 Installation using hydraulic In this method.3. which greatly reduces friction and allows the bearing assembly with the minimum necessary force. Incorrect installation can cause damages to the bearing and an early failure. By increasing the size of bearings also increase the force required for assembly of the bearing. Temperature effects iv. Mounting design and fixed and float considerations viii. To avoid the above mentioned problems it is very important to select appropriate method and proper manner bearing assembly.4.4. Use appropriate tools to prevent damage to bearings.4. Load characteristics ii. Bearing type and size 4. Pre-heating of the bearing or casing before installation is extremely simplified.
126.96.36.199 Mechanical removal Mechanical removal is suitable for small to medium-sized bearings. Use appropriate tools to prevent damages to bearings, other components and not the least injury to persons. There are several types of downloads, allowing the dismantling of all types of bearings under all conditions: i. mechanical Downloads ii. hydraulic Downloads iii. Downloads for blind casings 188.8.131.52 Dismounting with the Heat Dismantling with the heat is mainly suitable for bearings with close fitting. The use of mechanical downloads could damage the shaft or bearing rings in this case, it requires more power. By using special heaters there are significantly easier to dismantle and reduce the chance of damage to components and body injury. The heaters for dismantling are basically divided into: i. heated rings ii. induction heaters
184.108.40.206 Dismantling by Oil Injection Oil injection is a common choice for major dismantling of bearings and other components. Allows disassembly with a substantially lower power and significantly reduce of possibility of damaging bearing, shaft and grounding. The basic principle of the method is injecting oil down the certain viscosity between two surfaces, while between them the pressure generated oil film and differentiate them. This method can reduce the necessary force to dismantle the casing up to 90%.
4.4 Analyze bearing damage. When a bearing is used under ideal conditions, it should meet or exceed its predicted service life and will eventually be damaged by rolling fatigue. Damage from rolling fatigue can occur prematurely if operating conditions are severe or the wrong bearing was selected for the application. However, as indicated by the following statements, the majority of premature bearing failures are caused by improper lubrication, bearing mounting and handling issues. If damage is found on a bearing during inspection, it is important to document the bearing‘s operation history properly to identify the causes, even if the damage is very small. Also, it is essential to examine not only the bearing but also the shaft, housing and lubricant. 4.4.1 Bearing damage and failure symptoms. Since there are many different failure modes and damage bearings will exhibit, the following pages will review these and cover possible causes and preventive measures that
can be taken. 220.127.116.11 Flaking Flaking is damage where material is removed in flakes from a surface layer of the bearing raceways or rolling elements due to rolling fatigue. This failure mode is generally attributed to the approaching end of bearing service life. However, if flaking occurs at early stages of bearing service life, it is necessary to determine causes and adopt preventive measures.
Figure 18.104.22.168: Flaking 22.214.171.124 Cracking, Chipping Usually referred to as spalling is a fracture of the running surfaces and subsequent removal of small discrete particles of material.
Figure 126.96.36.199: Cracking, Chipping 188.8.131.52 Brinelling, Nicks Brinelling is a small surface indentation generated either on the raceway through plastic deformation at the contact point between the raceway and rolling elements, or on the rolling surfaces from insertion of foreign matter, when heavy load is applied while the bearing is stationary or rotating at a low rotation speed. Nicks are those indentations produced directly by rough handling as hammering.
Figure 184.108.40.206: Brinelling, Nicks
220.127.116.11 Pear Skin, Discoloration Pear skin is damage in which minute Brinell marks cover the entire rolling surface, caused by contamination. This is characterized by loss of luster and a rolling surface that is rough in appearance. In extreme cases, it is accompanied by discoloration due to heat generation. This phenomenon is also commonly called frosting. Discoloration is damage in which the surface color changes because of staining or heat generation during rotation. Color change caused by rust and corrosion is generally separate from this phenomenon.
Figure 18.104.22.168: Pear Skin, Discoloration
22.214.171.124 Scratch & Scuffing Scratches are relatively shallow marks generated by sliding contact, in the same direction as the sliding. This is not accompanied by apparent melting of material. Scuffing refers to surface marks, which are partially melted due to higher contact pressure and therefore a greater heat effect. Generally, scuffing may be regarded as an advanced case of scratches.
Figure 126.96.36.199: Scratch & Scuffing 188.8.131.52 Smearing Smearing is damage in which clusters of minute seizures cover the rolling contact surface. Since smearing is caused by high temperature due to friction, the surface of the material usually melts partially; and the smeared surfaces appear very rough in many cases.
Figure 184.108.40.206: Smearing
1.4. Corrosion Rust is a film of oxides. Since fretting on the raceways often appears similar to brinelling. Corrosion 4. Corrosion is damage in which a metal surface is eroded by acid or alkali solutions through a chemical reaction (electrochemical reaction such as chemical combination and battery formation).7: Rust.4.4. and cage riding lands. It is characterized by rust-colored wear particles.1.9: Fretting .7 Rust.4.4.8: Wear 4.1. It often occurs when sulfur or chloride contained in the lubricant additives is dissolved at high temperature. Figure 4.8 Wear Normally. it is sometimes called ―false brinelling‖.1. wear caused by foreign material and corrosion can affect not only sliding surfaces but also rolling surfaces. Fretting damage on the rotating ring is usually a clear indication of an improper fit.9 Fretting Fretting occurs to bearings which are subject to vibration while in a stationary condition or which are exposed to slight axial movements.4. or hydroxides. or carbonates formed on a metal surface due to chemical reaction.1. However.1. Figure 4. Figure 4. cage pockets. It can also occur when water becomes entrapped in the lubricant. wear on bearings is observed on sliding contact surfaces such as roller end faces and rib faces.4. resulting in oxidation.
as even minor misalignment can cause cage breakage. .2 Observations for preventive maintenance. external pressure and contact with other parts can easily produce dents and distortion.12 Seizure Seizure is damage caused by excessive heating in bearings.4.11 Creeping Creeping is a phenomenon in which bearing rings move relative to the shaft or housing during operation. Figure 4. which may reduce the accuracy of the cage itself and may prevent the smooth movement of rolling elements. these are aggravated and become chipped and cracked.220.127.116.11 Cage Damage Since cages are made of low hardness materials.4. Figure 4. In some cases. if cage damage is observed.10: Cage Damage 18.104.22.168.4.12: Seizure 4.11: Creeping 4.1. Figure 4. Large chipping and cracks are often accompanied by deformation. Also.4.1.4. the bearing raceways should be examined for misalignment.1.
2.2: Cracking.1 Flaking Table 4.2 Cracking. Chipping .1: Flaking 4.4. Chipping Table 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.
Nicks 4.3 Brinelling.4. Discoloration Table4.4.4 Pear Skin.4: Pear Skin.4. Discoloration 4. Nicks Table 4.3: Brinelling.188.8.131.52.2.4 Scratch & Scuffing .2.4.4.
Table4. Corrosion Table 4.2.7 Wear .5 Smearing Table 4.6 Rust.4.4.6: Rust.4.4.4: Scratch & Scuffing 184.108.40.206.2. Corrosion 4.5: Smearing 220.127.116.11.
9: Creeping 18.104.22.168.2.4.Table 4.7: Wear 4.8: Fretting 4.8 Fretting Table 22.214.171.124.4.4.10 Cage Damage .9 Creeping Table 4.4.2.
vii.11: Seizure 4.4. If the bearing must be reomved from the shaft by pulling on the outer ring.Table 4. and any sealing devices need to be inspected for damage and wear and then documented on the inspection sheet. viii. . vi. ix. Create a sheet for documenting bearing and application inspection observations which should include pertinent photos.2. iv.3 Bearing maintenance procedure.11 Seizure Table 4. step 5 showm in the ‗bearing removal methods‘ section of this book should be followed. ii. a final noise and temperature check should be performed and recorded. locknuts. A sample of new unused bearing lubricant should also be collected. Prior to bearing removal and inspection. Lubricant samples should be taken from bearings and surrounding areas including housing and seals. For properly identifying the cause of bearing damage in an application.4. the following procedure and investigation is recommended: i.2. v. mark position of the balls on the inner ring so that the damage that is caused during disassembly can be identified and not mistakenly attributed to an assembly problem. The machine components surrounding the bearings such as backing shoulders.2. roundness and taper.10: Cage Damage 4. Review service and maintenance records and any other previous data from bearing monitoring equipment.4.4. The shaft and housing should be measured for bore and OD sizes. iii. When the bearing is removed from the equipment.
xiii. The general condition of the bearing should be noted and recorded. 1. xiv. References . do not clean the lubricant from the bearing. with specific attention to the condition of the rolling elements and raceways. New York. Riccardo Manzini. Question 1. xii. Identify FOUR (4) common causes for bearing failure. a preservative oil should be applied to the bearing prior to repackaging and shipment. all markings and part numbers should be recorded. 2. Identify THREE (3) thermal methods and THREE (3) mechanical methods of mounting bearings. xi. After the bearing has been removed and cleaned.x. Alberto Regattieri (2010) Maintenance For Industrial Systems. If a bearing is to be returned to the manufacturer for analysis. If further analysis of the bearing damage is required or a metallurgical check may be needed. Springer Dordrecht Heildelberg London. ISBN978-1-84882-574-1 .
b. i. Can be actuated or operated manually. b. d.Mohamed Hamdan Bin Mohamad Ibrahim (PUO) Zaini Bin Ashaari (PMM) Hajah Norbaya Binti Mhd Simin (POLISAS) 5 Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this chapter.2 Types of clutches: a. The function of a clutch is to engage or disengage a machine (or machine component) without starting or stopping the driver. c. automotive industry). pneumatically or hydraulically. smooth engagement and disengagement under full speed. Develop clutches and brakes maintenance procedure 5.1 Function of a clutch and brakes. Brakes are actually clutches with one side locked down so when the clutch/brake engages the rotating shaft stops. Mechanical Electrical Hydraulic Mechanical clutches Friction Clutches Widely used in industry (i.CLUTCHES AND BRAKES Engr. 2.1. Slower. Overload protection by limiting the maximum torque loads. a. Prevention of accidental machine reversal. students should be able to:1. Quick engagement and disengagement. .1 Clutches and brakes principle.e. 5. Describe clutches and brakes principle. c. Different types of clutches can also provide the following: a. 5.1.
- Use a lined metal of fibrous metal mounted between two steel plates as a means of transferring motion between two mechanical components. Jaw Clutches Usually used on slow speed applications. - Torque Limiting Clutches Used on any number of different pieces of equipment or also used with roller chain type coupling. During operation. To accomplish this overrunning action. Can also function as couplings or can be mounted directly to V-belt. - . two common type of mechanism are used rollers and sprags. Tooth Clutches Used pneumatic of hydraulic actuating cylinder to operate. Centrifugal clutches become positively engaged at no time during operation. Prevent overspeeding of the drive by allowing free rotation of the drive component. Motion for engaging and disengaging the clutch is accomplished with a shifting arm. Rollers running on flat surface inside round housing while sprags positioned between two circular surfaces. iv. - v. ii. The shifting arm are usually has the fulcrum or pivot point located at one end of the arm with the operating handle located at the other end. vi. Transferring of motion occur when the separate plates are bought into contact with each other. Frequently used on machine where the driving motor or media requires protection. In operation. centrifugal clutches start from a disengaged or at rest position. The driven portion of a friction clutch is frequently supported by bearings on the driving hub. In operation. Overrunning Clutches Also known as one-way clutches. Designed to permit rotation of the driving force in the forward direction only. sprags are wedged between the inner and outer hubs. The mating surface of a tooth clutch is constructed with notches or serrations. the notched surfaces contact each other motion is transmitted from the driving to the driven halves of the clutch. Sprags are irregular or can shaped pieces. The travel of the friction plates is very small compared to the jaw clutches. The driven half of the clutch is always engaged during startup and only slip when overloaded. Centrifugal Clutches Friction type centrifugal clutches are commonly found in applications where it is desirable to have either no load starting or protection against overload. - iii.
When the two parts are de-energized. even though the motor the motor may be running. The driven half of a fluid coupling is actuated by the hydraulic fluid. When an electric current is introduced into the magnet or coil. a magnetic field is set up causing the armature and the coil to draw together. . Note: The pressure plate assembly and clutch disk remain on the flywheel when you remove the engine.1. Electric Clutches Used where intermittent motion is required especially to start and stop the drive motor on short time cycles. c. Also used to provide a smooth flow of power to the driven side of a machine. Dissemble clutch and brake Remove the engine from the car. The driving half (pump/impeller) and driven half (turbine) will rotate at the same speed during operation. i. i. no contact or action takes place between them. A magnet or coil is mounted on a driven component or machine while an armature plate is mounted on the driving motor or shaft. The clutch release (throw-out) bearing and related parts stay in the transmission. - Hydraulic Clutches Fluid Clutches Widely used in industry because of their ability to start under heavy loads and absorb shock loads.b.3 Assemble and dissemble clutch and brake a. (Also known as fluid coupling). This action then couples the two halves electrically and physically causing them to rotate as one piece. - 5.
vii. removing each bolt one at a time. Clean the friction surface on the flywheel and inspect it for wear. regardless of the surface appearance). Caution: DO NOT use oil or grease on these surfaces or on the clutch disk lining. If the bearing is unserviceable. Light glazing can be removed with medium grit emery cloth. Never wash the bearing in solvent since this will remove the factory-installed lubricant. If the old pressure plate is to be reused. replace it. Hold the pressure plate securely and completely. Work in a criss-cross pattern until all spring pressure is relieved. If the pressure plate is defective in any way. iii. or if it has been making noise. which should be under tension. and other obvious defects.ii. Caution: The pressure plate is under a great deal of spring pressure. viii. If you work your way around the plate. v. Then remove the bolts. scribe or paint alignment marks on the pressure plate and the flywheel to ensure proper realignment of the pressure plate during reassembly. . replace per the procedure. Alternating brigt and dull areas indicate a warped plate. If it feels gritty when you turn it. And clean your hands before handling the parts. grooves. replace it. clean the flywheel and pressure plate friction surfaces with lacquer thinner or acetone. Inspect the clutch release (throw-out) bearing. it will warp. heat checking. If you will be reinstalling the engine you removed. then loosen the pressure plate-to-flywheel bolts by turning each bolt only a little at a time. does not rattle. Shake the pressure plate assembly and verify that the diaphragm spring. Inspect the diaphragm spring fingers for excessive wear and make sure they are not distorted. A machine shop can machine the surface flat and smooth (highly recommended. vi. iv. cracks. followed by the pressure plate and the clutch disc.
i.ix. Inspect the lining on the clutch disk for wear. replace it. And clean your hands before handling the parts. rotate around). Verify that the clutch disk slides freely on the drive shaft splines without excessive radial play. Caution: DO NOT use oil or grease on these surfaces or on the clutch disk lining. broken springs and other obvious damage. simply pull the tool out. Note: As mentioned above. Lubricate the splines in the disk hub and the splines on the input shaft with graphite or molybdenum disu lfide powder (Rob's last replacement clutch plate came with a tiny tube of special "spline" grease to be smeared sparingly on the splines). remove the flywheel at this point and replace the clutch after the flywheel has been reinstalled. After you are finished. xii. it's a good idea to check it for run out. so if in doubt the condition. Instead of eyeballing to see if the clutch is centered. Carefully inspect the splines inside the hub of the clutch disk and the splines on the transmission input shaft. x. Note: Clutch Pilot Tool . replace it with a new one. Reassemble: Install the flywheel. Position the clutch disk and pressure plate against the flywheel with the clutch held in place with an alignment tool (the best alignment tool is an old input shaft. If the clutch disk is in any way unserviceable. clean.Using the clutch alignment tool can take a lot of the headache out of installing an engine. The tool will keep the clutch disc centered so the engine goes onto the transmission easier. b. distortion. but if the splines on the input shaft are damaged. There should be at least 2mm of friction material remaining above the rivet heads. simply install the clutch alignment tool into clutch disc. They must not be broken or distorted. you'll have to replace the input shaft as well. ordinarily the clutch disk is routinely replaced. xi. Note: You're probably replacing the clutch disk anyway. or there is a commerciallyavailable inexpensive one made of plastic). If you're planning to re-use the old clutch disk. Check the clutch disk for loose rivets. if removed. Clean the flywheel and pressure plate friction surfaces with lacquer thinner or acetone. and tighten the pressure plate (a turn per bolt. iii. Note: If you are replacing the main oil seal. and save for the next time you need it! Note: Lacking a centering tool. ii. you can just get down to flywheel . cracks.
2. torque them first to about 10 ft-lbs and finally to 18 ft-lbs. After all the bolts are snug. xiii. xii. . xi. Loosely install all of the mounting bolts. then install the pressure plate. With the clutch disc on the alignment tool. Make sure that the alignment tool extends through the splined hub and into the needle bearing in the gland nut. Adjust the clutch pedal free play in accordance with our Clutch Cable Adjustment Procedure. install the tool into the end of the crankshaft. Improper adjustment of clutch or brake: The clutch or brake may not be fully engaging. vi.height and "eyeball" it. Wiggle the tool up -down and/or side-to-side as needed to bottom the tool into the gland nut. ix. install the clutch disk with the damper springs towards the transaxle. If you're reusing the old pressure plate. iv. symptoms and record observations for preventive maintenance i. Tighten them "crosswise".2 Clutches and brakes maintenance procedure 5. v. Make SURE the clutch disk is installed properly (most replacement clutch plates will be marked "flywheel side" or something similar. Tighten them "crosswise". back and forth across the plate to prevent distorting the cover. After all the bolts are snug. Install a clutch alignment tool into the center of the clutch disc you intend to use. The worst that can happen if it's not exactly centered is that the last inch or so of engine installation might take a little more shoving. vii. Center the clutch disk by ensuring the alignment tool extends through the splined hub and into the needle bearing in the gla nd nut. Loosely start the six mounting bolts in the flywheel. Follow the manufacturer‘s adjustment procedures. Reinstall the engine in accordance with our Engine Installation Procedure. Make sure that the clutch disc is against the flywheel. If not marked. Be sure to lubricate the bore of the release bearing and the outer surface of the central guide sleeve with high-temperature grease. make sure the marks you made on the pressure plate and the flywheel are matched up. and apply multipurpose grease to the contact areas of the forks on the release shaft. viii. back and forth across the plate to prevent distorting the cover. 5. torque them first to about 10 ft-lbs and finally to 18 ft-lbs. x. Install the clutch release bearing if removed.1 Checklist clutches and brakes maintenance. Wiggle the tool up-down and/or side-to-side as needed to bottom the tool into the gland nut.
With any type of clutch or brake. . vi. If not. Components should be checked regularly for adjustment and wear. Less slippage means less heat. Worn out friction components: Check the components to see if they are within tolerances. Clutches and brakes should be kept clean and free from debris whenever possible. Shortening the slipping time during start-up can also reduce heat. thus cooling equipment. iv. Check lubrication. and relubricate if required. Check the machine to determine if the increased load is temporary or permanent. Replace them if necessary. Engaging clutches under the lightest possible start-up loads is always recommended. Too much torque: This may be because an increased load exceeds design capacity or because of poor initial selection of a clutch or brake. the following are generally recommended: i. v. Clean or replace the parts as necessary. should be done on a periodic. ii. The clutch or brake should always be the correct size for the application. regular schedule. v. iii. but make sure that engagement is not so sudden that severe shock loads are created in the machine.ii. if required. iii. Lubrication. Heat dissipation should always be adequate to ensure long life and low maintenance. Repairing or servicing a machine may reduce torque to acceptable levels. Worn linkage or parts used in engaging clutch or brake: Sometimes adjustment is adequate to compensate for wear. these cases of excessive heat can be solved only by changing to a clutch or brake with greater heat-dissipation ability. Oil or contaminant on friction surfaces: Clean or replace the surfaces. the clutch or brake should be replaced with one designed for the increased torque loads required. High-frequency cycling or high-inertia loads: Generally. iv. Sometimes a fan or blower may be used to increase air flow. Check for obstruction and corrosion on moving parts.
marine services. iv. Today.1 List application of pumps. Liquid is allowed to flow into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid is forced out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. piston. This principle applies to all types of Positive Displacement Pumps whether the pump is a rotary lobe. Understandcompressor concepts. 6 Abd. Positive displacement v.1.HafiBin Ismail (PKB) Aravinthan a/l Yelumalai (PMZA) Mohammad ZainalAkmal Bin Ismail (POLISAS) 6. Early applications includes the use of the windmill or watermill to pump water. etc. air conditioning systems. Irrigation pumps lift water from an existing source.VALVESAND COMPRESSOR Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this chapter. chemical movement. 2. etc. The key requirement in pump selection and design of pump systems for typical irrigation installations is that there is a correspondence between the requirements of the irrigation system and the maximum operating efficiency of the pump 6. gear within a gear.0 PUMPS. Pumps are used in irrigation systems to impart a head to the water so it may be distributed to different locations on the farm and used effectively in application systems.VALVESANDCOMPRESSOR 6. There are three main classifications of Positive Displacement Pumps 6. Classify types of pumps based on it’s principle.1 Understand pumps concepts. Understand valve concepts 3. Pumps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes. They have to overcome friction losses during transport of the water and provide pressure for sprinkler and drip irrigation Irrigation pumps are mechanical devices which use energy from electrical or combustion motors to increase the potential and (or) kinetic energy of the irrigation water. students should be able to:1. Rotor dynamic i. flood control.1.2 . sewage movement. Understandpumpsconcepts. refrigeration (usually called a compressor). such as surface or groundwater to a higher level.PUMPS. diaphragm. A Positive Displacement Pump has an expanding cavity on the suction side of the pump and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. gasoline supply. the pump is used for irrigation. progressing cavity. screw. water supply.
The most common types of rotor dynamic pumps are centrifugal (radial). There are three main classifications of rotodynamic pumps c. The purpose of the pump is to convert this energy into pressure energy of the fluid to be used in the associated piping system. mixed flow. .3 Assembleanddisassemblepumpasapractical. Remove the fan by means of a screwdriver. Radial Flow (Centrifugal Pumps) d. propeller. Mixed Flow (Screw )Pumps e. Disassembly pump 1. Kinetic energy is then converted into usable pressure energy in the discharge collector. Centrifugal pumps use bladed impellers with essentially radial outlet to transfer rotational mechanical energy to the fluid primarily by increasing the fluid kinetic energy (angular momentum) and also increasing potential energy (static pressure). Rotary Positive Displacement Pump b. Reciprocating Positive Displacement Rotor dynamic pumps are kinetic machines in which energy is continuously imparted to the pumped fluid by means of a rotating impeller. Axial Flow (Propeller) Pumps 6.Asaexamplescomponentscanbeuseiscentrifug al pump.1. or rotor. 2. and axial flow pumps.a. Unloose the screws of fan cover and remove it. ii. These pumps are based on bladed impellors which rotate within the fluid to impart a tangential acceleration to the fluid and a consequent increase in the energy of the fluid.
Remove the plugs from the pump casing 4. . Remove the motor holder. 5.3. Using a bench vice lock the pump from the motor shaft then release the preload screws as shown in the picture.
1. Such premature failure or breakdown causes immense hardship to the consumers and staff. The shortcomings in maintenance can also result in increase in hydraulic and power losses and low efficiency. and premature failure of the equipment. Importance of preventive maintenance. and avoidable increase in repair cost.6. therefore. symptoms and record observations for preventive maintenance. Inefficient running of the pump increases burden of power cost.4 Developed check list pumps maintenance. Pump Maintenance Concept Poor maintenance can cause undue wear and tear of fast moving parts. . need not be overstressed.
temperature. starter. power failure). quarterly. v. The schedule shall also include inspections and tests to be performed at appropriate interval or periodicity. tripping or fault. Frequency. • Check stuffing box. Readings of vacuum and pressure gauges. Timings when the pumps are started operated and stopped during 24 hours. iv. ix. which should cover the following items. Leakage from stuffing box or mechanical seal v. Current drawn by each pump-motor set and total current drawn at the installation. cable etc. Oil leakage from bearings iv. Bearing temperature for pump and motor.e. switch gear. etc. or operation hours. switch-gears. i. Any specific problem or event in the pumping installation or pumping system (burst in pipeline. starter. • Check coupling bushes/rubber spider. Flow meter reading. Motor winding temperature. Changes in vacuum gauge and pressure gauge readings viii. Changes in voltage vi. gland etc Monthly Maintenance . daily. Overheating of motor. vi. Check List Pump Maintenance. viii. iii. Water level in intake/sump. The maintenance schedule also needs to be reviewed and revised in the light of experience and analysis of failures and breakdown at the pumping station. ix. monthly. motor and other accessories. cable etc. Voltage in all three phases. The preventive maintenance schedule shall detail the maintenance to be carried out at regular intervals i. site and environment conditions i.e. humidity. Symptoms and Record Observation For Preventive Maintenance (a) Routine observations of irregularities The pump operator should be watchful and should take appropriate action on any irregularity noticed in the operation of the pumps. annually etc. characteristics of the equipment. ii. Sparks or leakage current in motor. x. i. iii. dust condition. Abrupt changes in bearing temperature. Changes in sound of running pump and motor ii. Changes in current vii. (b) Record of operations and observations A log book should be maintained to record the hourly observations. vii. Pump Maintenance Procedure Daily Maintenance • Clean the pump.Appropriate maintenance schedule and procedure need to be prescribed for all electrical and mechanical equipment based on manufacturers’ recommendations. half yearly. Particular attention should be paid to following irregularities.
Common valve type in usage. check gland packing and replace if necessary. Tighten the foundation bolts and holding down bolts of pump and motor mounting on base plate or frame. Check condition of bearing oil and replace or top up if necessary.2 Understand valve concept.2.2 Classify types of valves. iv. Check free movement of the gland of the stuffing box. Check vibration level with instruments if available. liquids.1 Ball valve . 6. ii. Clean oil lubricated bearings and replenish with fresh oil. Quarterly Maintenance i. Check alignment of the pump and the drive. and both pump and motor shafts shall be pushed to either side to eliminate effect of end play in bearings. closing.1 Application of valves Gas system Crude oil industry Refinery plant 6.2. the condition of the grease should be checked and replaced/replenished to the correct quantity. 6. Ball valve Butterfly valve Gate valve Globe valve Figure 6. Clean and apply oil to the gland bolts. other instruments and appurtenances in the pump house. v. iii. ii. A fully packed housing will overheat the bearing and will result in reduction of life of the bearing. otherwise by observation. fluidized solids) by opening. Inspect the mechanical seal for wear and replacement if necessary. The pump and motor shall be decoupled while correcting alignment.i. An anti-friction bearing should have its housing so packed with grease that the void space in the bearing housing should be between one third to half. A valve is a device regulates directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases. Clean flow indicator. If bearings are grease lubricated. iii.2. iv.
.2.Figure 6.3 Gate valve Figure 6. since a 90° turn offers complete shut-off angle. and ideal for quick shut-off.4.2.2. for on/off control without pressure drop. compared to multiple turns required on most manual valves.Globe Valve Valves can be categorized into the following basic types: Ball valve.2 Butterfly valve Figure 6.
This allows fluid to pass through the valve. Characteristic of valve. . good for regulating flow. mainly for on/off control. or an integral metal seat with an O-ring inserted around the edge of the disk.2. a mechanically fastened resilient liner. for flow regulation in large pipe diameters.2. a butterfly valve can be used for throttling flow through the valve. Ball Valve Ball valves are devices use a ball to stop and start the flow of fluid. the disk face is across the pipe and blocks the flow. Gate valve.4. with low pressure drop.5 Butterfly valve function. The butterfly valve (figure 6. the ball rotates to a point where part or the entire hole machined through the ball is in line with the valve-body inlet and outlet. Globe valve. Therefore. the flow stops. Figure 6. While the design does not permit exact flow-control capabilities. these valves have the lowest pressure drop of all the conventional types. When the valve is closed. Ball rotates so that the hole is perpendicular to the flow path. this valve does not induce turbulent flow in the partially closed position.As shown in Figure 13. both the full open and the throttled positions permit almost unrestricted flow. In addition. Most ball valves are quick-acting and require a 90-degree turn of the actuator lever to fully open or close the valve. an insert-type reinforced resilient liner. Butterfly valve. As the valve stem turns to the open position.6) has a disk that rotates about a central shaft or stem. Butterfly valve seat consist of a bonded resilient liner.
2. laminar fluid flow.6. They generally are not suitable because the flow of fluid through a partially open gate can cause extensive damage to the valve. allowing little or no pressure drop through the valve.Gate valve function. When the valve is wide open. Gate valve Gate valves are used straight line. the gate is completely inside the valve bonnet.2. These valves use a wedge-shaped sliding plate in the valve body to stop.Figure 6. throttle. This leaves the flow passage through the valve fully open with no flow restrictions. Gate valves are not suitable for throttling the flow volume unless specifically authorized for this application by the manufacturer. . or permit full flow of fluids through the valve. and minimum restrictions are needed.7.Butterfly valve function. Figure 6.
Simply put. This valve is widely used in day-to-day life such as in the carburettor of a car. This can prevent any damages that can be brought by corrosive reactions. Cleansing sprays made of gas perfectly works for metal parts where gas is the working medium. The edge of the disk and the seat are very accurately machined to provide a tight seal. or any valve for that matter. Gate valve The proper maintenance of a gate valve. The appropriate cleaning agent should be used to avoid reaction of the cleanser with the parts. learn how to maintain your gate valves effectively. Alcohol or water or a mixture of the two can be applied on non-metal parts. is important in ensuring that it will last for many years and work as efficiently as it should. there are manufactured cleansers that are especially formulated for valve parts. Ball Valve There are specific cleaning agents that should be used with the valve parts that are made of plastic. Thinking that it can simply be installed and left alone afterwards is the beginning of the end since the time will definitely come that the valve will either have to be repaired or totally replaced due to lack of maintenance. So. Butterfly Valve Following proper directions and instructions is and will always be a nice thing to do. While type of valve is commonly used in the fully open or fully closed position.Globe valve A disk attached to the valve stem controls flow in a globe valve. This valve is operated similar to that of a ball valve.8 Globe valve function 6. and metal. rubber. proper and constant maintenance of this valve is a must. this is used to regulate the flow which in this case. Figure 6. Due to this high end function. even in installing a butterfly valve inside the house. and then the entrance of air in the car is being decreased or increased through the use of the valve. is the air. It is important for globe valves to be installed with the pressure against the disk face to protect the stem packing from system pressure when the valve is shut.3 Determine valve maintenance concept. if you want to spare yourself a few headaches and several dollars in repair or replacement costs.2.2. Turning the valve stem until the disk is seated closes the valve. it also may be used for throttling. No kidding. However. in the case of a carburettor. These valves are mainly used in controlling a certain object. .
4 Developed check list valve maintenance symptoms and record observation for preventive maintenance._ Maintenance History/MajorRepairsDescription: Control/Shut-OffValve: ValveManufacturer/Model: RatedOperatingPressure: Additionspecificationdata: .2.6. Control/Shut-OffValve.Inspection Form GeneralInformation: DateofSiteVisit: PlantName: Source/sofdata: ValveManufacturer: SizeofValve: SystemPressure(PSI): Control/Shut-OffValveDescription:_ __ SizeofPenstock _Age ofValve: ___ UnitNo.
Valve Operator: Make:_ Additionspecificationdata: Model: _ 4 .
operating conditions.arethererecordsof lubricantapplication? Haveallplantrecords regardingvalverepairs. beenrequested/gathered? 5 . etc.Control/Shut-OffValveCheck List Topic Maintenance&MajorRepairHistory Arethereplantpreventivemaintenanceprocedures for the Control/Shut-off Valve? Aretheyroutinelycarriedout? Yes No N/A Comments/Details Has therebeen anyvalveand/orpenstockrepair? Has theValvebeenrebuilt? Has thevalveoperator beenrebuilt? Ifpartsof valverequire lubrication.
Control/Shut-OffValveCheck List.Continued Topic Equipment ConditionAssessment Whatisconditionof theexteriorofthevalve? Yes No N/A Comments/Details CantheinterioroftheValvebeaccessed? Whatisthe conditionoftheinteriorof thevalve? Whatisthe conditionofthe valveoperator? Aredifferentialpressureindicatorsortransmitterspresent? Aredifferentialpressureindicatorsortransmitters operational? .
doestheinsulationcontainasbestos fiber? . howmanymegawatthours lost(MWHL)havebeenattributedtovalves? Doesthevalvehavepackingleaks? Doesthevalvehaveflange gasketleaks? Isthevalveinsulated? Ifso.Continued Topic Equipment ConditionAssessment-Continued Isthereavalvepositionindicator? Yes No N/A Comments/Details Doesthevalvepositionindicatorfunctioncorrectly? Localand/or remote? Havevalvemalfunctions been notedasthe causeof unit outagesor unitderatings? If so.Control/Shut-OffValveCheck List.
Control/ShutoffValveDataCollectionSheet Topic DataInput .
Symptom and corrective action for ball valve. SYMPTOMS REASON ACTION .
SYMPTOMS REASON ACTION .Symptom and corrective action for butterfly valve.
SYMPTOMS REASON ACTION .Symptom and corrective action for globe valve.
6.3 Compressor Concept Introduction This machine is broadly use in our everyday live where we can find them in our homes and workplaces, and in almost any form of transportation we might use. Compressors serve in refrigeration, engines, chemical processes, gas transmission, manufacturing, and in just about every place where there is a need to move or compress gas. Compressor in general In general compressors are machines that are used to compress air or gas. It also a machine that handling fluid that capable efficiently transferring energy to the fluid medium so that it can be delivered in large quantities at desired pressure condition. The working principles are the same with pump working principle where both can also transfer it through a pipe. It also is mechanical devices which convert the air into energy, this energy can then be used to run machinery and perform various functions. Compression is achieved through the reduction of the volume that the gas (or air) occupies. As a side effect of the minimization of volume, the temperature of air or gas increases. The higher the compression ratio, the higher the temperature tends to rise. 6.3.1 List of Application Compressors are widely used by various types of industries and home appliance that depend on the power of compressed gas or fluid to power manufacturing processes in the industries. List the application of compressor such as:a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n)
Air conditioners for car and home Air pumps Home and industrial refrigeration High pressure car washes Hydraulic compressors for industrial machines Air compressors for industrial manufacturing Chemical/petrochemical plants ethylene plants Gas lift/gas gathering Gas injection/transport LNG facilities Gas to liquids Ammonia plants Power generator
6.3.2 Type of compressor It can be divided into two main categories:i. Dynamic ii. Positive displacement
Centrifugal Rotary Reciprocating
Figure 6.3.1 type of compressor
6.3.3 Principle and Characteristic of Compressor i) Dynamic
This type of compressors uses the phenomenon of velocity to generate energy. It happens by creating high speed energy through a rapidly moving piece. This fast moving piece then propels the basic unit of the air compressor to generate power which is then used for mechanical purposes. The dynamic compressor is characterized by rotating impeller to add velocity and pressure to fluid. Compare to positive displacement type compressor, dynamic compressor are much smaller in size and produce much less vibration. Although the dynamic air compressors are very useful they are not as common as the positive displacement compressors and their use is mostly restricted to various industries and is not used at homes. It is widely used in chemical and petroleum refinery industry for specifies services. They are also used in other industries such
as the iron and steel industry, pipeline booster, and on offshore platforms for reinjection compressors.
a) Centrifugal Compressor
Figure 6.3.2 centrifugal pumps A centrifugal compressor is a ‗‗dynamic‘‘ type of compressor. It has a continuous flow of fluid which receives energy from integral shaft impellers. In a centrifugal compressor the mechanical energy is increased by centrifugal action. The gas enters the suction eye of a high speed rotary element called the impeller which carries radial vanes integrally cast in it. As the impeller rotates, the blades of the impeller force the gas outward from the center the impeller to the outer rim of impeller, the increase in velocity of the gas creates a flow pressure area at the eye of the impeller. The gas at the outer rim of the impeller is forced in to a passage way called a diffuser where the velocity decreases in the pressure of the gas. The maximum pressure rise for centrifugal compressor mostly depends on the rotational speed (rpm) of the impeller and the impeller diameter. But the maximum permissible speed is limited by the strength of the structural materials of the blade and the sonic velocity of fluid and it will leads into limitation for the maximum achievable pressure rise.
p) Does not require special foundations Disadvantages a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) a) b) c) d) Lower efficiency than most positive displacement types for the same flow rate and pressure ratio. the centrifugal compressor's speed level allows direct drive thereby minimizing equipment cost. m) Absence of any pressure pulsation above surge point.Reliable Compact Robust High reliability. k) Flow control is simple. and increasing unit reliability. h) Installation costs are lower due to smaller size i) Low total maintenance costs j) When a turbine is selected as a driver. continuous. eliminating the need for multiple compressors and installed standby capacity. High initial cost Complicated monitoring and control systems High rotational speed require special bearings and sophisticated vibration and clearance monitoring Specialized maintenance considerations . and efficient over a relatively wide flow range. reducing power requirements. f) Less plot area for installation for a given flow rate. g) Machine is small and light weight with respect to its flow rate capacity. The pressure ratio capability per stage is low. l) No lube oil contamination of process gas. Due to recycle not efficient below the surge point. hence mechanical complexity. n) Can reach pressure up to 1200 psi. machine prices are lower for high volume flow rates. especially molecular weight Not effective for low molecular weight gases. o) Completely package for plant or instrument air up through 500 hp. e) For the same operating conditions. Very sensitive to changes in gas properties. tending to require a large number of machine stages.
3. It can be divided into two types which are rotary compressors and reciprocating compressors. These types of compressor are compact. It also generally classified as screw compressor. and require a minimum of operating attention and maintenance. In this type of compressor a certain inlet volume of gas is confined in a given space and subsequently compressed by reducing this confined space or volume. relatively inexpensive. the gas is expelled into discharge piping or vessel system. and lobe and scroll compressor. vane type compressor. At this elevated pressure. a) Rotary Compressor Figure 6. The difference between each type is their rotating device. This compressor gains the pressurizing ability from a spinning component.ii) Positive Displacement Compressor Positive displacement compressors types deliver a fixed volume of air at high pressures condition.3 Rotary Compressor Rotary compressor is a group of positive displacement machines that has a central. The compressor increased the pressure of the gas by trapping it between vanes . spinning rotor and a number of vanes.
4 below: Figure 6.4 Rotary Compressor Gas Compressing Principle The volume can be varied by changing the speed or by bypassing or wasting some of the capacity of the machine. Advantages a) b) c) d) e) Simple design Low to medium initial and maintenance cost Two-stages design provide good efficiencies Easy to install Few moving parts Disadvantages a) b) c) d) High rotational speed Shorter life expectancy than any other designs Single-stage designs have lower efficiency Difficulty with dirty environment . The discharge pressure will can be control with the resistance on the discharge side of the system.3.3.which reduce the volume when the impeller rotates around an axis eccentric to the casing as show in the figure 6.
when the compressing is accomplished using only one side of the piston. Some reciprocating compressors have as many as six stages that can provide a total compression ratio over 300.b) Reciprocating compressor Figure 6. It can be considered as single acting. the compression ratio will determine the maximum allowable discharge-gas temperature. Generally. is another type of common positive displacement compressor. It can be single-stage or multistage compressor.5 Reciprocating Compressor The reciprocating or also called as piston compressor. . It uses the movement of a piston within a cylinder to increase the pressure of the gas from lower pressure level to higher pressure level. Typical compression ratios for the compressor are about 3 per stage in order control the discharge temperatures from 300of to 350°f. or double acting when it is using both sides of the piston. This machine is used when high-pressure head is required at a low flow.3.
the exhaust valve opens and releases high pressure gas fluid. After that the piston continues to move upward and compresses the gas and the pressure will increase.6 above the gas enters the suction manifold into the cylinder cause by the vacuum condition that is created inside the cylinder as the piston moves downward.Figure 6. easy to install Lower initial cost Large range of horsepower Special machines can reach extremely high pressure Two stages models offer the highest efficiency Disadvantages a) b) c) d) e) Higher maintenance cost Many moving parts Potential for vibration problems Foundation may be required depending on size Many are not designed to run at full capacity .6 Reciprocating Compressor Working Principle As shown in the figure 1. So the intake valve closes and trapping the gas fluid inside the cylinder.3. When the piston reaches its bottom position it begins to move upward. Advantages a) b) c) d) e) Simple design. As the piston is reaching near the bottom of the cylinder. The high pressure in the cylinder pushes the piston downward cause by the higher pressure that occurs in the cylinder.
4 CompressorMaintenanceConcept In order to maintain an air compressor system it requires well care of the equipment. and annual procedures.6. reduced energy costs are an important and measurable by product. temperature or vibration increases. Monitoring operating conditions on a daily or shift change base is good practice. Procedures accompanied by the alert symbol (!) Require special precautions as indicated. 6. The benefits of good maintenance far outweigh the costs and efforts involved. and improve plant manufacturing efficiency and product quality Just as with any other type of machinery. Good maintenance can save time. Compressors Failure Symptom and Preventive Maintenance Observation Maintenance Check List Daily inspection A daily inspection takes only a short time. reduce operating costs. () Operating data log Operating parameters recorded and within specifications . and responding promptly to maintain operating reliability and efficiency. and other operating conditions of a smoothly performing compressor. or neglect. compressors are subject to operational changes from environmental conditions.3. semi-annual. It allows the operators to become familiar with a smooth running machine which will lead to early detection of potential problems. a routine maintenance schedule should be developed. discolored oil. and/or fluid leaks are some examples of operational changes that may signal beginning of potential problems. Recognizing any changes in operation and appropriately responding to those changes can prevent undesirable consequences such as unscheduled shutdown and/or the expense of unanticipated repairs.5 Maintenance Check List. sounds. Excellent maintenance is the key to good reliability of a compressed air system. but it will allow the operator to develop a definite sense of the appearance. Any changes can be investigated and be given attention before major problems develop. Proper maintenance requires daily. unusual noises. quarterly. Daily operator inspection checklist Warning: exercise care when in the vicinity of hot surfaces. weekly. wear. pressurized air. To assure the maximum performance and service life of your compressor. paying attention to changes and trends. and high voltages.3. monthly. A plugged condensate drain.
Setpoints recorded Gearcase(high surface temperatures) External surfaces wiped clean No unusual noise or vibrations No oil leaks No water leaks No frayed or worn electrical cables Intercoolers and aftercooler(pressurized air. high surface temperatures) External surfaces wiped clean Condensate drains functioning properly No cooling water leaks No air leaks Lubrication system (high voltages at heater. Bear in mind. and other inspections and/or adjustments. temperatures) External surfaces wiped clean Properly ventilated No erratic or noisy operation No frayed or worn electrical cables Inspected in accordance with manufacturer‘s recommendations Table 6. Some items may require attention more or less frequently as circumstances dictate. lubrication.3.1 Example of Daily Operator Inspection Checklist Scheduled maintenance Table 1-2 below lists suggested intervals for prescribed scheduled maintenance procedures such as those involving filters. however. pump motor) External surfaces wiped clean Proper oil level in oil reservoir Proper oil color No mist from ejector system No oil cooler water leaks No oil leaks No frayed or worn electrical cables Compressor drive motor (inspect visually only—high voltages. replaced if required Bypass valve filter checked (if supplied) . Scheduled maintenance procedures () Weekly: (or after about 150 hours of operation) Inlet air filter elements inspected. replaced if required Oil reservoir venting system filter elements inspected. that these intervals may vary with operating conditions and/or actual hours of machine operation.
Every six months: (or after about 4000 hours of operation) Oil reservoir venting system filter element changed Oil system filter element changed Lubrication system oil tested and changed if required Coolant chemically tested Bypass valve lubricated (if required – check instructions) Inlet guide vane assembly drive screw lubricated Main drive coupling inspected and lubricated. and diffusers cleaned Impellers. cleaned if required Bundle fins inspected. Contact a authorized service representative for those procedures and for professional advice. Oil pump motor lubricated with recommended grease Discharge air check valve inspected Table 6.3.3 below lists the items which require a professional service inspection whenever environmental or operational conditions dictate.2 Example of Scheduled Maintenance Checklist Professional inspection A substantial part of any good preventative maintenance program also involves professional inspection and replacement of common maintenance components after an established interval. Such in-depth inspection is particularly important when an unscheduled and/or long-term shutdown would seriously affect production. inlets. Table 1. cleaned if required Cooler cavities cleaned and inspected Lubrication system Piping connections checked for leaks Oil visually inspected Oil cooler inspected Filters All filter elements inspected Control panel . and diffusers inspected Gearing visually checked Gearing backlash clearances measured Axial pinion float checked Clearances between impellers and inlets checked Intercoolers and aftercooler Bundle tubes inspected. inlets. Drive motor ball bearings lubricated with recommended grease. Service inspection checklist To be performed with a manufacturer authorized representative: () Gearcase Impellers.
CORRECTION Fill lubricant.3 Example of Service Inspection Checklist by Professional Compressors Failure Symptom For compressor itself there are several common failure symptoms that must be pay attention in order to detect the problems. Replace oil filter elements See corrections for high discharge temperature. Plugged oil filter element. Restriction of heat exchanger air flow. . Compressor operating too hot. Review plant/operations/makeup air. Chemically active gases present. • Periodically drain receiver condensate. SYMPTOM CAUSE Sump lubricant low.3. so that correction step can be done to prevent severe damage to occur. Remove restrictions. cause and correction step for each symptom. High Discharge Temperature Faulty thermal by-pass valve. Check location and make sure there is no restriction of cool fresh air. If varnish is present. flush with cleaner. Premature Lubricant Breakdown Improper receiver condensate draining. Rebuild or replace by-pass valve.Inspected for proper operation Control valves Inlet guide vane inspected Bypass valve inspected Discharge air check valve inspected Drive motor Main drive coupling inspected and re-greased Motor inspected in accordance with manufacturer‘s instructions Table 6. Insufficient air circulation at oil cooler. In the table below show the common symptom. Clogged or varnished heat exchanger/oil cooler. Inspect lubricant lines for blocks. Analyze oil and correct inlet air source as needed. Analyze lubricant.
Clean or replace filter. Adjust setting. . Overfilled lubricant sump. Check power supply. Check plant air demand and inspect plant for air leaks. Test and replace oil as needed. Replace and repair as needed. Preventive Maintenance Observation Preventive maintenance is very important in order to maintain the compressor in their best condition. drain lines and valves. • Improperly positioned lubricant return scavenges line. Inspect and replace as needed. reaches the bottom of the separator and isn‘t blocked. • Inspect and clean coolers.Mixing incompatible lubricants. Change separator element. Inlet valve partially closed. Plugged inlet air filter. Incompatible oil in compressor. Frequent Separator Plug-Up / Collapse Minimum pressure valve sticking.Replace lubricant line. • Flush compressor with cleaner. • Plugged scavenge line. Disconnected main switch. Obstructed after cooler.4 Common Failure System. Re-set compressor safety. Listed below is the general preventive maintenance that can be done in order to maintain the compressor to work in their best condition. • Drain. Fix leaks. Replace with proper lubricant. Check inlet valve assembly and rebuild as needed. Drain receiver to proper level . Broken lubricant line High compressor discharge temperature. • Make sure that scavenge line is cut at 45° angle. Close valve. Clean after cooler. Rebuild or replace valve. Leaky service line. Inspect inlet filter and air path. Review and analyze oil. Check switch and verify that power is ON. • Check scavenges line connections.3. Cause and Correction Step . Ruptured intake air path filter. High Power Consumption Excessive Lubricant Consumption Table 6. replace and analyze oil. Excessive air demand. Power failure. checking for voids. Plugged inlet air filter. Decreased Discharge Pressure Service valve open. Lubricant viscosity issues. Plugged air/oil separator Wrong air pressure setting. • Inspect temperature control valve. Failure To Start Safety shut-down tripped. • Inspect auto-drains.
10. Air Intake Weekly. Check for leaks. Examine metal for corrosion and cracks. Check for corrosion and scale buildup and clean or flush as required. Check automatic traps for leaks and proper operation. 7. Repack and reseat valves as required.1. 5. Piping and Valves Annual. 8. Check for leaks and for adequate water flow. Replace filter as required. Annual. Cooling System Weekly. Traps Weekly. Check condition of filter and intake for obstructions. Clean as required. Check flow of water or coolant through compressor and after cooler. Thoroughly clean cooling fins of air-cooled compressors and radiators of water-cooled compressors. Check shaft run out of direct coupled machines with dial indicator and check shaft alignment if run out is excessive. Dryers Annual. Separators Not Scheduled. 9. Frame Annual. Foundation Annual. Dress or tighten v-belts if required. Disassemble and check for internal corrosion and scale buildup. Clean as required. Check piping for corrosion. 2. Compressor Drive Weekly. Check v-belts for signs of wear or aging and replace as needed. Clean and paint if required. Check for accumulation of dirt and lint on cooling fins of air-cooled compressors and radiators or water-cooled compressors. . Examine concrete for cracks and spalling. Annual. chains for looseness. Clean and repaint or replace piping as required. Disassemble and check for corrosion and scale buildup. Tighten coupling bolts and lubricate coupling if required. and shaft couplings for excessive run out or vibration. 3. Clean strainer and check for corrosion or scale buildup. Operate manual drains. Replace dryer elements as required on deliquescent dryers. Check v-belts for slippage. Aftercoolers Not Scheduled. Check operation of refrigerated and desiccant types. 6. 4. Annual.
. Pressure Relief Valves Annual. Look for loose or stuck pointer. Check switch calibration and set points. Unloader Monthly. Repair or replace as required.11. Gauges Weekly. On air receiver tanks. seams. 16. rust or corrosion. The inspection should be performed by a qualified inspector. the system immediately should be taken out of service until the valve can be repaired or a new valve can be installed. Check for adequate lubrication. or mineral buildup. remove and check calibration or replace with new gauge. 12. Receiver Tanks and Other Pressure Vessels Weekly. and fittings. Examine solenoid for deteriorated insulation or loose connections. Make thorough inspection of exterior of the tank. Pressure and Temperature Switches Monthly. Remove gauge and calibrate. paying close attention to joints. 14. If there is any doubt about the accuracy of gauge. 15. Disassemble compressor and inspect condition of all bushings and babbitt-lined bearings. 13. Verify operation and setting. Check antifriction bearing for excessive vibration or noise and schedule replacement as required. Annual. Bearings Weekly. Check setting of temperature switches. Check for leaks on all pressure vessels. If a valve is found to be not functioning properly. Inspect valves and air lines for leaks and valves for proper seating. Check for signs of leaking. Not Scheduled. Biannual. Make any necessary repairs or replace with new gauge if gauge is not repairable. Lap valves if required. open the receiver drain valve and blow down until water is removed from tank. See that pressure switches cut in and out at proper pressures. Annual. 17. Check that compressor is not being loaded until operating speed is reached in starting and that it unloads at the proper pressure. Annual. The setting of a pressure relief valve can only be certified by an accredited repair facility. Pressure Regulating Valves Annual. Check operation of gauge. Check operation and verify that regulating valves are providing correct pressure downstream from valve. The relief valve setting should not be changed by plant personnel. deposits. Perform operational test of relief valve either in service or remove and perform test on test stand.
Keith Mobley (2008). USA. Hanlon P. ―Compressor Handbook” McGraw Hill.S. ―Maintenance Scheduling for Mechanical Equipment” Facilities Instructions. R.K. 7. Moore.Ed.C.” Elsevier ButterworthHeinemann. 5. Glenn K. U. Keith Mobley (2008). Roger Cline.”McGraw-Hill. WI. Denmark. “Maintenance Fundamentals. and ViskaMulyandasari (2011) . R. Volume 4-1A – Revised 2009. R. U. USA. ISBN 0-07-026005-2 4. Department of the Interior. USA. ISBN 978-0-07-154646-1 2.” Industrial Power Air.Ed. Keith Mobley (2004).” Elsevier ButterworthHeinemann. ―Maintenance Engineering Handbook 7th. Colorado. Danfoss Ltd. “Air Compressor Maintenance. ISBN 0-07-026005-2 3. ISBN 978-0-07-154646-1 9. Standards and Techniques. New York. ed. Keith Mobley (2004).REFERENCE 1. Oxford. U. R. Johor Bharu. Muskego. Denver. Oxford. Two Penn Plaza.”McGraw-Hill. “Maintenance Fundamentals. ―Maintenance Engineering Handbook 7th. 8. (2009) ―Field Service Notes (Why Compressors Fail)”..“Compressor Selection and Sizing (Engineering Design Guidelines)” KLM Technology Group. ISBN 0-07-026005-2 .K. L. 6. Bureau of Reclamation. (2001). Ling. A. John Germann and Bill McStraw(2009).
Inc.Eletricity.Brumbach (2003). BenjaminW.EnergyReductionImprovedMaintenance Practices. Marcel Dekker.IndustrialPress. USA KennethE.Johnwiley&Sons..Bannister(1998).Printice-Hall. S.FluidPower andMechanicalSystemforIndustrial maintenance.IndustrialMaintenance.INC. ThomasKissell(1999).MaintenanceEngineeringandManagement. MichaelE.India.Chand(2009).Thomson . USA.Niebel(1995).RajendraRavinda Printeds(Pvt.USA.REFERENCES Main: BenjaminsBlanchard.Pearson Prentice HallNewJersey.KeithMobley(2008).Ltd).NewYork.Maintainablebilityakeytoeffective serviceabilityandmaintenancemanagement. R. USA.ISBN0-13-896473-4.INC. USA.IndustrialMechanicsandMaintenance. LarryChastain(2004). . ISBN 978-0-07-154646-1.DelmarLearning.NewDelhi .Engineering maintenanceManagement.MaintenanceEngineering Handbook(7th)McGraw-Hill.ISBN 0-13-047469-x.ISBN0-8311-3082-2.DineshVerma(1994).Inc.