# Power System Protection S.A.

Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection
Zone 1 Setting

Power System Protection
S.A.Soman
Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment

Setting of Distance Relays

Summary

Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting 1 2 Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary 3 4 5 6 Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment 7 Summary .A.

Back up protection should operate if and only if corresponding primary relay fails. Distance relays are provided with multiple zones of protection to meet the stringent selectivity and sensitivity requirements. The primary protection should be fast and without any intentional time delay. Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .A.Soman Zones of Protection Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting A distance relay has to perform the dual task of primary and back up protection.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.

Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.

There is no intentional time delay. It is set to cover 80% of the line length. It is because of the difﬁculty in distinguishing between faults which are close to bus B. Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Zone 1 of Protection Zone 1 provides the fastest protection.A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S. Operating time can be of the order of 1 cycle.

A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting 1 2 Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary 3 4 5 6 Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment 7 Summary .

It results in errors in measurement of apparent impedance. Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Working of numerical algorithms is prone to errors because of Model limitation of transmission line.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Zone 1 does not cover the entire length because of the following Limited accuracy of CT and PT because of Partial or complete saturation of CT during fault.A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S. This makes it difﬁcult to determine fault location at the boundary accurately. Transients accompanied with the fault. Summary .

Thus.A. . IBF ZR = xZl + ZF + ZF IAF Summary There are infeed and outfeed effects associated with working of distance relays.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment With only local measurements and a small time window. The impedance seen by the relay for fault F will depend upon the current contribution from the remote end. it is difﬁcult to determine fault impedance accurately.

IBF = IAB + IED Summary .Infeed and Outfeed Effects Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Consider relay R1 for a fault F.

VR 1 = IAB Z1 + xZl 2 IBC VR 1 IAB = Z1 + xZl 2 + xZl 2 IED IAB Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment If there is an equivalent generator source at E. This is known as infeed effect.A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S. Thus relay R1 perceives fault to farther away from its actual location. then it feeds the fault current. Thus IAB and IED are in phase. If there is an equivalent load at bus E.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Hence. relay perceives fault to be at a point closer than its actual location. Summary .

2ZP . If ZP + 1. It is set up to operate with a time delay of 2CTI. Zone 2 is set to 120% of primary line impedance. Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Setting of Zone 3 It is set to cover the longest remote line.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.5ZB > 1. then zone 2 is set to reach 50% of shortest back up line. Else if the shortest back up line is too short then Z2 is set to 1.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Setting of Zone 2 Zone 2 protection is delayed by coordination time interval.2ZP . It also provides back up protection to a part of the adjacent line. Summary .A. where ZP and ZB are the positive sequence impedance of primary and the shortest back up line.

A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .

It is not possible to avoid this overlap problem when the shortest line to be backed up is too short. Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .A. Both R1 and R3 will compete to clear the fault. In such situations. then it can overlap with Z2 of relay R3 .Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 If the reach of Z2 of relay R1 is extended too much.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S. pilot relaying can be used to improve speed. In order to avoid this situation Z2 of relay R1 has to be further slowed down by CTI. This will further delay the fault clearing time in 20% region of primary line.

A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .

A. ZR = |Vi |2 |Vi |2 = 2 (Pij + jQij ) 2 Pij − jQij Pij + Qij Summary .Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Load Encroachment Problem Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment The apparent impedance seen by the relay R for the steady state positive sequence model of a transmission line is given by.

Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary . Then the relay will pick up and trip the circuit after its time dial setting requirements are met and the relay is said to trip on load encroachment. these effects will reduce the apparent impedance seen by the relay to a small value to fall within Z2 or Z3 characteristic. During peak load conditions.A.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting The following conclusions can be derived from the equation: Quadrant of ZR in the R-X plane correspond to the quadrant of apparent power Sij in Pij − Qij plane. The apparent impedance seen by the relay is inversely proportional to the apparent power ﬂowing on the line. The apparent impedance seen by the relay is proportional to square of the magnitude of bus voltage.

Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting 1 2 Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary 3 4 5 6 Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment 7 Summary .

In order to prevent tripping on load encroachment.Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Solution for Load Encroachment Loads have large power factor and hence Zapp R ratio. Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .A. relay characteristics are modiﬁed by excluding an area in R-X plane corresponding to high power factor. with large X But faults are more or less reactive in nature and X R ratio is high.

A.Soman Zones of Protection Zone 1 Protection Zone 1 Setting Summary Setting of distance relays for zone 1 protection Zone 2 and zone 3 setting Infeed and outfeed effects Overlaping problem Load encroachment problem and its solution Infeed and Outfeed Effects Zone 2 and Zone 3 Setting Overlap Problem for Zone 2 Problem of Load Encroachment Solution for Load Encroachment Summary .Setting of Distance Relays Power System Protection S.