Tsl3109 Ppg Module managing the primary esl classroom | Classroom Management | Reinforcement



1.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 1 focuses on the concept of Classroom Management and the role of teachers and pupils in effective classroom management. It provides teachers with a brief description of classroom management, the function and nature of classrooms, the role of instruction as a central classroom activity, and classroom instructions and management practices. It also looks at teacher and pupil responsibility, accountability, expectation, and consistency in effective classroom management.

1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 1, you will be able to:  outline the concept of classroom management  identify the functions & nature of classroom  explain the role of teaching as a central classroom activity  identify classroom instructions & management practices 1.2 Framework of Topics Introduction to Classroom Management
Concept of Classroom Management Function and Nature of Classrooms Instruction as Central Classroom Activity Classroom Instruction & Management Practices Roles in Effective Classroom Management Responsibility Accountability Expectations Consistency Objectivity




SESSION ONE (6 hours)

1.2.1 The Concept of Classroom Management As teachers it is your professional responsibility to manage your classroom effectively to provide meaningful and fruitful learning experiences to your pupils. What strategies should you possess to be effective and efficient in your classroom? Study the scenario below and suggest how you would manage this class: It is an English language lesson and Amin is copying an exercise from the board while the teacher walks around monitoring the pupils at work. One of his classmates Samy, reaches over and pokes his side. Startled, Amin jumps from his seat and this results in his exercise book getting scribbled. He pushes Samy and a scuffle follows (adapted from Hardin, 2008). An inept teacher, in a disordely, unsafe and hostile classroom environment as above, may not be able to provide favourable instruction and learning experiences to his pupils. The following are research findings on classroom management and instruction:  poor classroom management skills and disruptive pupils were major reasons for teachers to perform badly.  a safe and orderly classroom is essential for academic success.  classroom management is the most important variable for pupil achievement.  planning instructional strategies to facilitate learning and using classroom management techniques effectively is vital for effective instruction. (Marzano and Marzano, 2003)

Hence teachers need to posses effectual classroom management strategies to manage pupil behaviour and at the same time be able to create a safe, orderly and pupil-friendly environment to execute instruction productively (Manning and Bucher 2013).


Albert and Troutman (1986) emphasised that the ability of teachers to provide a conducive environment for learning by cooperatively managing time, space, resources, and pupil roles and behaviours is the essence of classroom management.

In their definition of classroom management Manning & Bucher (2013) included  strategies to provide physical and psychological safety in the classroom;  techniques for changing pupil misbehaviours and instruction self-discipline;  methods of assuring an orderly progression of events during the school day; and  instructional techniques that contribute to pupils’ positive behaviours.

To summarise, the goal of classroom management includes not only a favourable climate that fosters pupils’ learning but also instructional and behaviour modification techniques that inculcate positive behaviour and self-discipline among the pupils.

In other words, the fundamentals of effective classroom management are the methods and strategies used to  provide a safe and conducive classroom environment,  instil self-discipline and prevent disruptive behaviours,  maintain an orderly development of daily activities, and of course  implement instruction successfully.

A positive and productive learning environment is the key to academic success and making sure your pupils feel they are in an environment that allows them to achieve is of utmost importance. It is your responsibility to control the environment and interaction in your classrooms so that time is not lost due to desruptive behaviours.

Keeping pupils focused in order to get the most out of their daily classroom experiences is also an important factor which can be successfully done through the employment of


to be an ideal place for maximizing instruction and learning. The classroom set up should not allow 4 . i. task instrumentality and pleasure. setting rules and procedures for classroom routines. friendly and comfortable environment for them to interact productively with the teachers and among themselves. In managing their classrooms and executing instruction. It has to be a safe.1. the classroom has to provide security and shelter. symbolic identification.1 The Function and Nature of Classrooms The classroom generally functions as a place for the process of instruction and learning to take place. take into consideration the diverse nature of the classroom population and make appropriate decisions to facilitate and maximise pupils’ learning. 1. social and emotional needs. opportunities for social contact. Security and Shelter Although the classroom should be a safe and comfortable place for instruction and learning. as well as organizing and decorating the classroom to create a productive learning climate. make decisions and take actions based on their own attitudes. make decisions and take actions they would be faced with a disorganised classroom. To be an effective classroom manager teachers need to observe positive behaviours. Time lost to disruptive behaviour and the inability to keep the pupils focused on the core processes of learning can result in low achievement. having poor classroom management skills would make teachers less effective instructional leaders as it could be difficult for them to conduct instruction and learning in a chaotic environment. it should not give a feeling of being inviting and soft. intentions. This includes planning and preparing effectual instructional materials and activities. According to Steele (cited in Ellen. 2002).TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM different instructional techniques. the classroom climate has to be conducive to their intellectual. beliefs and values as well as researched educational theories. If teachers are unable to positively recognise options.2. For pupils to be fully engaged in the instructional process. Undeniably. teachers need to recognise options.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM for any form of intrusion and interference. Posters and charts created by the pupils should be displayed on the walls as a source of information and motivation for the pupils. It would be helpful to tell pupils what is expected of them and how to succeed in the class. iii. There should be a bulletin board on the wall where teachers can rotate pictures that reflect the time or subject matter that goes with the instruction units so the pupils can see real pictures of the time. be it pairwork or small group work. Arranging the physical setting for instruction is a logical starting point for classroom management because it is a task that teachers face before school begins. The walls should effectively communicate information about the pupils through their classwork and teachers through the types of information they post on them. Task Instrumentality In terms of task instrumentality. A weekly calendar of assignments and due dates should also be visible. ii. orderly way and arranged accordingly by topic and when it would be used. Teachers will find it easier to plan other aspects of classroom management once teachers know how the physical features of the classroom will be organized. A consistent use of these things will make pupils familiar with them and achieve a sense of security in the classroom. the furniture should be arranged in such a way that it allows pupils to communicate during classroom activities. Pathways should be visible and pupils should have the ease to carry their books and place any unused books in their desks or shelves at the back 5 . Daily routines and procedures should be implemented and posted. iv. and at the same time it should not make available opportunities for privacy. the classroom materials that would be used by the pupils should be made available on bookshelves in a neat. Symbolic Identification The walls of the classroom should be a source of information for the pupils at all times. Social Contact As for social contact.

To be effective. Hence. Instruction activities in the classroom too involve interaction between the teachers and pupils as well as between pupils and pupils. Instruction is the academic process of carrying out activities that induce learning among pupils. values and beliefs. It is through instruction and learning activities too that pupils learn to communicate and develop confidence and self-esteem. Pleasure To make it pleasurable for pupils to be in the classroom. the role of instruction as a central classroom activity is to positively develop pupils and equip them with the knowledge and skills to be able to adjust themselves to society and the environment. act. and positive influence on how they think.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM of the classroom. relationships.1. The foundation of a positive climate is positive interaction between teachers and the pupils and among the pupils. The furniture should be neatly organised and the floors clean to promote a healthy and comfortable learning environment. but educate pupils on social skills. Through these interactions teachers not only impart content knowledge and language skills. teachers need to create a positive learning environment through actions and deeds. v. self-discipline. and feel.2. Effective instruction activities can motivate pupils to learn in ways that make a sustained. substantial. The seating arrangement should allow for ease and clarity of viewing for all aspects of instructional presentations. A positive environment encourages pupils to be excited about their school experience and about learning. the environment should have a pleasant and relaxing atmosphere.2 The Role of Instruction as a Central Classroom Activity The fundamental purpose of classrooms is to provide an environment for the process of instruction and learning. The walls should not be brightly coloured as that would be a source for distraction. 1. 6 .

2013).TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 1. A classroom that is well managed can act as a suitable setting for effective instruction and a well planned lesson which engages pupils in purposeful and meaningful tasks will support good behaviours in the classroom. 2001) Effective classroom instructions thus constitute having:  a wide array of instructional strategies at your disposal. To be able to do so teachers need to make wise choices about the most effective instruction strategies to employ. i. ii. instruction with weak strategies may not work as expected even if the classroom is effectively managed. Conversely. Similarly.3 Classroom Instruction and Management Practices Instruction and classroom management are not two separate entities (Manning & Bucher.  being skillful at identifying and articulating the proper sequence and pacing of your content. Pickering.2. and  making effective use of classroom management techniques to ensure a conducive environment for learning with minimal disruptive behaviours. & Pollock.1. poor classroom management will not be supportive toward instruction even though a wide range of effective instruction strategies are used. Instructional Strategies Teachers need to employ instructional strategies that make the most of class time and keep pupils engaged. Effective Classroom Instructions The primary role of teachers is to plan and deliver instructions effectively and efficiently. This involves:  considering pupils’ attention span when planning instructional activities. 7 . (Marzano. and  being highly skilled in classroom management techniques. which are:  selecting appropriate teaching materials and devise suitable activities to facilitate pupil learning.

will result in pupils finishing before the allotted time. Teachers also need to prepare extra activities for pupils who finish tasks early to keep them actively engaged while the other pupils complete the task.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  alternating teacher-centered activities such as presentation and teacher modeling. Besides these. In addition. teachers need to have a time limit for activities so that they can be carried out successfully. and  familiarising pupils with transition times and procedures between activities like from small group activities to whole group instruction.  Pupils attending to academic tasks cannot at the same time be engaged in disruptive. Sutherland. 2007). & Yell. off-task behaviour. giving an opportunity for mischief.  If teachers are long-winded or the task takes too long to complete. 2003 in Regina & Daniel. focusing on effective instructional strategies can prevent academic and behaviour difficulties and thereby facilitate increased pupil achievement. (Espin. 8 .  Effective instruction minimizes disruptive behaviour through higher rates of academic engagement. pupils may become bored and tune out.  Group tasks or hands-on activities that provide pupils with too much or too little time to finish will hinder pupil learning. 1994.  Excessively long or too short presentation and independent activities will negatively impact the overall effectiveness of the lesson as well as hamper the pupils full understanding of the concept being taught. & Gunter.  Too easy a task. The following are findings of researchers on effective instructional strategies:  Effective teachers have higher rates of positive pupil responses. Alder. especially among poor and minority pupils who tend to lag behind their more affluent peers. and pupil-centered activities like practice sheets and independent reading.

If information and materials are beyond pupils’ current skill level it will frustrate them and they may engage in behaviours that avoid engagement in the lesson (Wehby. Symons. 1995 in Regina & Daniel 2007). Effective instruction is even more critical for at-risk pupils who display poor academic and social outcomes because they have fewer academic skills and require increased instruction in order to accelerate learning (Donovan & Cross. instruction has to be adjusted appropriately (e.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Instruction that is effective in encouraging high rates of academic engagement and on-task behaviour is characterized by the following key features:  Appropriate level of instructional material or task It is particularly important to provide pupils with planned. teachers may remove the instructional or task. in writing and non-verbally. When pupils are provided with materials of appropriate levels of instructional difficulty. books on tape. or the offending pupils from the instructional environment. their on-task behaviour. task completion and comprehension increases (Gickling & Armstrong. Studies show that pupils who are actively engaged and provided with frequent opportunities to respond to academic tasks are less disruptive and demonstrate improved academic skills (Sutherland & Wehby. or small-group instruction) in order to increase successful learning opportunities for them. As such. 1978 in Regina & Daniel 2007). Canale. material Too easy materials may result in pupils engaging in inappropriate behaviours out of boredom and lack of challenge. As a result. but never solely through 9 . more opportunities for practice and review. the instructional environment may be experienced differently by them. Besides. 2001 in Regina & Daniel 2007).g. 2002 in Regina & Daniel 2007). lower reading-level texts.  Feedback Effective instruction provides feedback for both the pupils and the teachers in a variety of ways: through discussion. & Go. sequential instruction. materials and tasks at their appropriate instructional level.

The primary purpose of classroom management is to gain control of the classroom so that pupils’ time in the classroom is optimised for learning. the feedback serves to motivate both pupils and teachers. and  endeavour to discover underlying personal problems (impulsivity. According to Brophy. Most importantly. etc. Teachers should take advantage of a pupil's question or observation. Brophy also cited the following theoretical teacher orientations:  the self-concept/personal adjustment orientated teacher encourages discouraged pupils. lack of awareness.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM testing. control responses. iii.) for symptomatic behaviour.  Teachers’ personal qualities Teachers’ personal qualities are also important for effective instruction. solution-oriented approaches to problems and abstain from short-term.  advocate to long-term. home problems. Effective Classroom Management Practices Although effective instruction can reduce behaviour problems. Having a mastery of the subject and the enthusiasm to impart the knowledge are paramount. it does not fully eliminate them (Emmer & Stough. accessible. Effective teachers are always willing to seize the teachable moment. 2001 in Regina & Daniel 2007). (1983 in Regina & Daniel 2007) a good classroom manager adheres to three principles:  be willing to accept responsibility for classroom control. a sense of humour and having respect for the pupils. or some incident from real life and spin it into their lesson. Pulling all these together is genuine passion for teaching which effective teachers show when they enthusiastically and professionally engage pupils in lessons to help them learn and retain what is taught. Other essential characteristics are being approachable. promoting an active learning situation. Besides principles. builds self-esteem by arranging for and calling attention to success and 10 .

al. pupils may be expected to interact with one another during cooperative learning activities but not during independent work at their seats. Structuring the school and classroom environment To structure a classroom so that it supports positive pupil behaviour teachers need to have forethought and planning. negotiates contracts. iv. and  the behaviouristic teacher offers incentives. calls attention to and reinforces desirable behaviour. including transitions between various classroom activities. Effective classroom structuring requires attention to the following features:  Creating a physical arrangement that eases traffic flow. Effective classroom management requires a comprehensive approach that includes structuring the school and classroom environment.  Ensuring that the nature and quality of pupil interactions is positive by clearly communicating appropriate behaviours for particular classroom activities. actively supervising pupil engagement and implementing classroom rules and routines.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM improving peer relationships. 1983 in Carolyn and Weinstein 2006). minimizes distractions. and provides teachers with good access to pupils in order to respond to their questions and better control behaviour. 11 .  the insight (cognitive) orientated teacher spends time with problem pupils individually. getting to know them personally. teachers have to structure the classroom environment so that it decreases the likelihood of inappropriate pupil behaviour. For example. (Paine et. increases desirable pupil interactions. and sets up pupils for success. attempting to instruct and inform them. To be highly effective.  Making efficient use of classroom time.

To be effective. Rules and routines The use of rules is a powerful. teachers also need to incorporate routines into their efforts to organize the classroom. Guidelines for the construction of classroom rules indentified by educators are as follows:  Rules should be kept to a minimum to allow pupils to remember them. Rules establish the behavioural context of the classroom by specifying what behaviours are expected of pupils. not only at the beginning but also throughout the school year.. & Marchand-Martella. rather than what not to do. thus enabling teachers to attend to other aspects of instruction. what behaviours will be reinforced. Kerr & Nelson.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM v. Emphasize these rules and routines on occasions when increased violations are likely to occur (e. 2006). Routines for turning in homework or engaging in small-group activities allow the classroom to run efficiently with fewer disruptions from pupils. 2003 ) In addition to establishing rules. & Sugai.  Rules should contain language that is simple and appropriate to the developmental level of the pupils and classroom. before school breaks) or if warranted by inappropriate behaviour. Rules stated or worded positively to describe the expected behaviour. can prevent problem behaviour easily (Colvin. and the consequences for inappropriate behaviour. Kame’enui.  Rules should be positively stated.  Rules should be developed for various situations or contexts as needed. (Martella. 1993. This type of instructional approach to social behaviour neutralizes the reactive or extreme approaches to behaviour management that ultimately are ineffective (Colvin et al. teachers need to teach rules and routines systematically.1993 in Carolyn and Weinstein. Nelson.  Rules should be consistent with the schoolwide behaviour plan. 2002 in Carolyn and Weinstein. 12 . 2006)..g. preventive component of classroom organization and management plans.

teachers have to implement such strategies appropriately to manage classwide behaviour. and  behaviour contracts Arranging consequences in order to increase desired behaviour is a critical component of effective classroom organization and management. however. these strategies are effective only if they provide initial reinforcement in close temporal proximity to occurrences of the desired behaviour. Teachers also need to be aware that no single strategy will be effective for every pupil at all times and in all contexts.2 Teachers and Pupil Roles in Effective Classroom Management Teachers and pupils have specific roles in effective classroom management. Effective classroom management requires teachers to be adept at employing multiple strategies and to be skilled at recognizing when current strategies are ineffective and modifications are necessary.  a token economy system. strategies to acknowledge and encourage pupils’ appropriate use of these rules and routines must be incorporated into the classroom management plan. consistency and objectivity. To be effective. 1. expectations. accountability. 13 . also. the behaviour of targeted groups of pupils. This topic will discuss the roles of teachers and pupils in terms of responsibility.2. in which pupils earn rewards for behaviour. they are more effective if they are linked to the classroom rules and expectations. and the behaviour of individual pupils as part of a comprehensive classroom-management plan.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM After classroom rules and routines are established. This include:  specific. contingent praise. Like all behavioural reinforcement.

& Scott’s.2. it is the teacher’s responsibility to enforce compliance with the rules.  taking charge of classroom duties and resposibilities. Teachers need to provide quality instruction which is an engaging and interactive learning experience for pupils. fun and freedom. Another shared responsibility can be creating a discipline solution that would help pupils act more responsibly in the future (Kyle. 2002). and  conduct activities that foster friendship and cooperation among pupils (Glasser & Dotson. This can be done by involving pupils in class matters like  deciding classroom rules and procedures. Kagan.2. and  demonstrating their accomplishments. belonging. Pupils too have an obligation in the development of a quality learning environment. 1989 in Charles. power. Another vital duty is to communicate with parents and administrators of ongoing problems within the classroom before a situation gets out of control. 14 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 1.  making responsible choices regarding the lesson content. A quality educational environment will exist only if all pupils:  obey disciplinary guidelines.1 Responsibility It is the teacher’s responsibility to formulate a classroom management plan to facilitate the development of an effective learning environment.  be fully engaged in classroom activities. 2000 in Charles. It is also the teacher’s responsibility to  manage and control pupil behaviours. This builds an atmosphere of trust and respect that motivates all parties to work together for the benefit of the pupils. 2002). Although teachers and their pupils can share the responsibility of formulating rules and consequences. and  meet all behavioural and academic expectations. and organise classroom activities to meet pupils’ need for survival.  develop positive relationships with pupils.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM For example. 2002). 2009). Checking pupils progress and providing pupils with timely feedback is the key to teacher accountability. Teachers are accountable if teachers hold pupils responsible for their work. Accountability Accountability is a crucial element for the effectiveness of classroom management. 1984 in Larrivee. Ultimately. in cooperative group activities pupils are held individually accountable for the intended learnings (Johnson et al. For example. rather than having the pupils depend on either teachers or their parents to see that their work is completed. 1. in cooperative and collaborative learning environments. and the mistakes they make (Charles. Other responsibilities of pupils are:  to show respect for self and others which can contribute to a quality learning environment and reduce disciplinary distractions. the basis of pupil accountability consists of class rules of behaviour which they must understand and comply.2. thus. To maintain a positive environment in the classroom at all times. which means to pay close attention to fully absorb what the teacher is saying.  not to be tardy as it is disruptive and can negatively impact the academic progress of the class. explaining or teaching. 2006). 15 .2. 2013). Frequent feedback encourages pupils to persevere.2. teachers and pupils have to be accountable for every action or behaviour that does not contribute to that environment. If teachers give pupils work and do not check their work it demonstrates a lack of accountability. the goal of any accountability system is to help pupils develop into independent learners. whereas absence of feedback causes pupils to surmise that their work is not valued (Henley. teacher procedures should give as much responsibility as possible to the pupils themselves. Pupils on the other hand are accountable for their learning and behaviour (Manning & Bucher. each pupil has to contribute for the success of the project. and  to listen actively. Generally.

2. 2008 in Charles et al. Teachers can form inaccurate expectations of their pupils and behave differently to various pupils. be it verbal or non-verbal  paying attention in class and on task  preparing materials they would need for classroom participation  asking permission and procedures for various activities. and that consequence must matter. 2010).3 Expectation Research shows that teacher expectancies on pupils’ behaviour and academic performance can strongly affect the academic achievement of the pupils. (Tsiplakides & Keramida. accountability means that there is an immediate consequence if something is not done or a behaviour is not acceptable. they are accountable to do so. and  not being tardy (Seganti. 1. 2011) In disciplining pupils. pupils tend to conform to teacher erroneous expectations of their behaviour and academic performance. 16 . then the teacher has not made them accountable for their action. This may lead to them behaving just as the teachers have expected. In other words. In the case of a consequence where the pupils have to come for detention class for a wrong doing. In the case of disruptive pupils.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Pupils are accountable for:  communicating appropriately with peers and teachers. If pupils do not take heed of a behavioural consequence.2. including leaving the room when necessary  behaving appropriately toward teacher requests and directions  keeping the classroom clean and orderly  being respectful at all times. they must be made accountable for any behaviour which does not contribute to the desired classroom climate.

 Adopting different questioning techniques based on pupil ability can convey that teachers expect much or little from the pupils. Listed below are some of the ways teachers might convey their expectations and the effects:  Labelling pupils as “less able” based on their characteristics and using differential practices and behaviour can have a negative effect on ttheir personal judgments about teacher capabilities to provide effective instruction. 2010) teachers can in subtle and unintended ways convey their expectancies of their pupils’ behaviour.  Providing praise to low achievers for success in relatively simple tasks. gender. and/or previous academic achievement  An older sibling's performance on a younger sibling's performance (Carolyn and Weinstein. there is a possibility that teachers might pay more attention to the answers of high achievers and wait longer before calling on someone else. giving them more choices in assignments. ethnicity and social class  Pupils’ conduct in the school and classroom conduct  Pupils’ test scores.  Seating the “able” pupils in the front rows and the “less able” pupils in the back rows can convey expectations of “high” and “low” performance.  Providing capable pupils more opportunities to perform publicly on meaningful tasks. and showing them more respect as individuals is showing less care and attention to the less able. 2006) According to Rosenthal and Jacobson (in Tsiplakides & Keramida. while withholding blame for failure can have a negative effect on their pupils’ motivation and self-esteem as they may think that teachers have little confidence in their abilities and expect little from them.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM The following is a summary of the factors and sources that affect the formation of teachers’ expectations:  Teachers’ beliefs about pupils’ ability and intelligence based on their performance  Pupils’ socioeconomic background. 17 . For example.

emphasizes collaboration over competition and can foster the development of a friendly and supportive language community (Shokouli & Zadeh-Dabbagh in Keramida.  Use cooperative learning in small groups to complete projects. 2010). teachers cannot have the same expectations for all pupils and the same delivery of instruction to them all.  Provide effective praise and feedback – the focus should be on the care and effort pupils put into their work and on the knowledge or skills they gain. such as smiling more often to high achievers can also indicate that the not so bright pupils are not important. Peer-cooperation can raise expectations. materials and rates. Differential treatment can either create or sustain differences in pupil performance which would probably not exist if pupils were treated more equitably. The following are suggestions on how teachers can promote the communication of positive expectations:  Create a classroom culture in which language errors are seen as a normal part of the language acquisition process. Fostering the belief that mistakes are opportunities for learning should be given priority (Dornyei. purposeful communication. Teachers should rather focus on the problems created when differential treatment is given to pupils.  Creating a warmer socioemotional climate for brighter pupils. 2004). Do not encourage pupils to compare themselves with others (Brophy. As pupils have different ability levels and require different instructional approaches.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Interacting differently with high achievers tells the low achievers that they are not significant. and interaction with authentic texts. 2010 ). 2001). (Tsiplakides & Keramida. Tsiplakides & 18 . Cooperative learning. promotes peer-cooperation. because it involves all pupils.

and do not marginalize low achievers.  Avoid using the following as they can promote the communication of low expectations .rarely expressing personal interest in low achievers. or avoiding eye contact with them. staying farther away physically.not supplying answers impatiently to children of lesser ability depriving them of opportunity to think and answer (Covington.  Communicate expectancies for success by forming groups with pupils from all levels of language performance. Moreover.  Use portfolio assessment because this approach focuses attention on quality rather than just grades. 1998) . For example. By contrast.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Provide criticism that helps pupils realize how they could do better rather than criticizing pupils themselves or using personal criticism.g. are willing to listen to and value their opinions and feelings. Brophy (2004) posits that teachers need to show their pupils that they care for them and are committed to their progress.calling on low-achieving pupils less often to answer questions. . and put priority on collaboration. 1996) . 2000).smiling less often to weak pupils.providing fewer clues to low achievers when they cannot answer questions. This can be done by .making social comparisons between pupils in front of the classroom. teachers tend to ask weak pupils questions which are at the lowest level (e.giving equally academically challenging tasks and using the same questioning strategies for all pupils (Alderman. rather than competition among pupils. 19 (Levin and Nolan. teachers should not be influenced by pupil performance when providing criticism. questions of knowledge).g. . questions requiring an analysis or drawing a conclusion). and can encourage pupils to self-improve over time. Research has revealed that teachers are more prone to critisizing low-achieving pupils for a wrong answer than high-achieving pupils (Good & Brophy. . and . 2004). In addition. they usually provide high achievers with opportunities to answer higher level questions (e.

Pintrich.  Finally. procedures and routines are kept consistent as they will become familiar to them. ethnicity. pupils have expectations of teachers in the classroom. Consistency One of the most important traits that teachers need to have to be effective is consistency. As for academic work. 2008). They will also expect teachers to be consistent in implementing the rules and procedures without any form of injustice or partiality.4. Teachers’ expectancies of pupils’ behaviour should be communicated from the very beginning of the year through rules and procedures of how they should behave in class and the consequences of breaking the rules.2.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Develop a positive classroom climate by not forming differential expectations for pupils based on qualities such as gender. 20 . colleagues. reassess your expectations from time to time as pupils’ performance or behaviour may change in the course of the school year. information from other teachers or even the family’s reputation (Good and Brophy. and Meece. or parents’ background (Schunk.2. 2000). Teachers have to make the policy and then be consistent about applying it throughout the entire duration of the semester or year. Lack of consistency on the teacher’s part will promote a sense of uncertainty among pupils and this often leads to a higher incidence of disruptive behaviour. And above all pupils will expect teachers to treat all pupils alike and provide equal opportunities to experience learning. Similarly. Just like teachers. First of all they will expect teachers to deliver instruction effectively and efficiently by taking into considerations all the variables such as pupils’ needs. motivation and the diverse nature of pupils. Pupils will perform at their best if the rules. 1. teachers should avoid forming expectations based on such factors as record files. interest. pupils need to meet requirements and deadlines for which there will be consequences and incentives. ability.

1999). What ever the level of the pupils are. Pupils will react negatively if teachers are unfair and show partiality to some pupils over others (Campbell.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Establishing consistent rules. Failing which teachers will be faced with the task of judging whether one pupil’s reason for an infringement is better and more acceptable than another’s. pupils must be treated all the same (Campbell. The less time that pupils have to be off-task and the fewer discipline problems. make sure the punishment fits the crime. If pupils need to be punished. Teachers have to be consistent when making deals with pupils over awarding credit points or deducting marks for late submission of work irrespective of the characteristics of the pupils. 1999) although it is quite difficult to enforce as pupils might experience genuine problems. the more likely teachers will be able to have quality classroom management. teachers should continue to be consistent and wait till the end of the semester or year before they make any changes. organized and positive classroom. All violations of the rule should be treated the same (Campbell. Teachers should not make any acceptance to any rules what ever the situation. Worse still if pupils are allowed to get away with breaking the rules as that will teach them that rules and regulations do not matter and can always be broken without consequence. Being consistent will protect teachers from such situations and allow teachers to focus on other instructional matters. procedures and routines can facilitate classroom management and pupil achievement. Behavioural and academic consequences too should be consistently applied to be accepted favourably by pupils. they might as well reconsider the policy because there surely will be another pupil who just does not fit the circumstances for which the policy was designed. 21 . In cases where teachers need to make an allowance for one case. Whether they are academically strong or academically weak. being consistent with rewards for good behaviour and punishment for bad behaviour will help teachers run a dynamic. 1999). If teacher policy does not work as intended.

and  no prejudice whatsoever. objectivity in classroom management is essential for teachers if they want to effectively manage their classroom and successfully deliver instruction.5 Objectivity Teachers have the professional responsibility to practice effective classroom management and instruction which includes:  managing pupil behaviour. 4.2.  establishing safe classrooms. In addition. In other words. Explain briefly the factors that teachers would consider to plan and deliver instructions effectively and efficiently. procedures and routines to develop selfdiscipline and reduce disruptions during the teaching and learning process. Discuss briefly the concept of effective classroom management. 2. Exercise 1 1.  fairness at all times. 22 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 1.2. Explain briefly the factors that make classroom management effective. In doing all these teachers need to have specific goals so that teachers do not falter or change policy as situation gets difficult for them to control or make decisions. teachers have to establish rules. 3. Discuss briefly the role of instuction as a central classroom activity. It is vital that in implementing the policy there should be  neutrality. and  providing learning experiences for a diverse pupil population in an orderly and pupilfriendly manner.

Discuss characteristics of:   effective classroom instructions effective management practices 2. Discuss the roles of teachers and pupils in effective classroom management. Tutorial 1. “The primary purpose of classroom management is to gain control of the classroom so that pupils’ time in the classroom is optimised for learning”.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Exercise 2 1. 2. Discuss how different roles played by teachers and pupils would lead to effective classroom management. Discuss how teachers would gain control of teachersr classroom to optimise the pupils’ time for learning. 23 .

 Discuss theories of Democratic Teaching.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 2.2 Framework of Topics Classroom Management Approaches Authoritarian Behaviour Modification Group Processes/ . Socio-psychological Instructional Management Socio-cultural Theories and Models Building Foundation Assertive Tactics Democratic Teaching Instructional Management Congruent Communication 24 . theories and models of classroom management. theories and models of classroom management. theories and models.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 2 focuses on Classroom Management approaches.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TOPIC 2 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: APPROACHES. THEORIES AND MODELS 2.  Explain the Authoritarian Classroom Management and Behaviour Modification.  Explain group process / Socio. theories of Instructional Management and theories of Congruent Communication.  Understand and discuss Building the Foundation and Theories of Assertive Tactics. 2. 2. Instructional classroom management and Socio-cultural approaches. teachers will be able to:  Outline and explain different approaches.psychological. It provides teachers with explanations and discussions of the different approaches.



SESSION TWO (6 hours)

2.2.1 Approaches Before exploring the various approaches, theories and models of classroom management it would be useful to understand the difference between the key concepts ‘approaches’, ‘theories’ and ‘models’.

An approach is a set of correlative assumptions or beliefs based on theoretical principles on dealing with instructional behaviour, pupil behaviour, classroom environment and the ‘degree of teacher-pupil control’ (Balson, 1982) in setting rules and procedures for effective classroom management (Manning and Bucher, 2013). In other words, approaches describe what a teacher assumes to be the most appropriate way to manage a classroom.

Theories on the other hand are underlying principles that provide the foundation for classroom management approaches and strategies. Theories influence the phylosophy of teachers’ classroom management strategies which focus on psychological aspects of human behaviour and the interactions between pupils and teachers (Hardin, 2008). Theories underlying classroom management approaches and strategies are based on studies conducted on human behaviour, specific human needs and motives, and skills that teachers need to identify problems and student needs in order to change the class environment and instructional practices to improve student behaviour.

Models which are based on approaches and theories, consists of specific strategies and techniques used to manage instructional behaviour and student behaviour in the classroom (Manning and Bucher, 2013). There can be a number of models for each classroom management approach. For example the Canters’ Assertive and Skinner’s Behaviour Modification models can be classified as models under the authoritarian approaches. The Kounin and Jones models are examples of the Socio-psychological approach whilst the


Inner Discipline and Discipline without stress are examples of Socio-cultural approaches. For a brief overview of the different approaches of classroom management refer to Appendix 1. Authoritarian classroom management (Power Types and Power Bases) Teachers who adopt the authoritarian approach to classroom management have full responsibility for regulating the classroom. They devise and enforce specific rules to control pupil behaviour in the classroom. They are entirely in power and deal forcefully and quickly with misbehaviour making the authoritarian approach models of classroom management power systems. The common authoritarian models of classroom management are: i. Skinner’s behaviour modification model In this model teachers shape pupil behaviour through systematic reinforcement including rewards and negative reinforcements. (Manning and Bucher, 2013) ii. Jones’ positive classroom discipline Frederic Jones’ ‘positive classroom discipline” model emphasises the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers behaviour in getting pupils to get involved in the learning process. Those advocating to this model manage their classrooms by providing engaging lessons, helping pupils with work problems and giving incentives to promote responsibility. They set clear limits and organise their classroom effectively (Hardin, 2008; Charles, 2002; Manning and Bucher, 2013) iii. Canters’ assertive discipline Lee and Marlene Canter believe that teachers and pupils have rights in the classroom. They expect teachers to be assertive, to set clear rules of behaviour and expectations, and enforce them calmly through a discipline hierarchy of consequences. Teachers have to communicate needs and requirements to pupils clearly and firmly, and respond with

appropriate actions. They are to get pupils to fully comply to rules without violating the interest of the pupils (Hardin, 2008; Charles, 2002; Manning and Bucher, 2013)


The following are some of the possible limits and control enforced by authoritarians:  Pupils are assigned to seats where they have to sit during the lessons and usually for the whole term.  Pupils are to be often quiet in the classroom and cannot interrupt the teachers.  Pupils do very little verbal exchange and discussion and consequently do not get the chance to adopt and practice communication skills.  Pupils are rarely given permission to leave the class (hall passes) and their excused absences are seldom accepted.  Pupils have to obey the rules without any question or face the consequences.  Pupils are not taken on trips or other out of classroom events as these are considered as distractions to the learning process.  P upils hardly initiate any activity in the classroom.  Pupils are not motivated or encouraged to set personal goals. Behaviour modification The behaviour modification approach is based on the ideas and work of Skinner. The basis of this approach are the assumptions that pupils will change their behaviour in order to get desired rewards (Larrivee, 2009). Teachers who adopt this approach believe that pupil behaviour can be changed by altering the consequences that follow their actions and behaviours. They use reinforcement principles systematically to change some aspect of educational practice or pupil behaviour. Generally pupils can receive three types of consequences for their actions: positive and negative reinforcement to maintain or increase the occurance of a desired behaviour; and punishments to discourage them from inappropriate actions.   Positive reinforcement for desired behaviours include rewards such as praises, grades, stickers and tokens. Negative reinforcement include giving pupils extra weekend homework, denying visits or their seating arrangements changed.


Group processes are significant in developing interpersonal skills.1. A peer group is a collection of interdependent.Punishment II involves stricter actions of removing or withholding a desired or anticipated positive stimulus. 2. as long as the paired individuals have reciprocal influence through communication and mental contact. In classrooms as few as two people can form groups. When the teacher engages the whole class in a learning activity common to all. These tokens can then be periodically exchanged for a desired activity or reward. interacting individuals with reciprocal influence over one another. . and among pupils. intrapersonal skills. . can eliminate or decrease undesired pupil behaviours provided they are appropriately used. constitute the group processes of the classroom.3 Group processes in the classroom / A Social-Psychological View ESL classrooms are social settings: teaching and learning occur through social interaction between teachers and pupils. a "miniature society". The interactions and relationships between teachers and pupils. as they work side by side. isolation or a trip to the headmaster’s office. social competence and empathy which are essential for real life situations.Punishment I which involves undesirable stimulus such as a private reprimand. For inappropriate behaviours. The use of tokens is a reinforcement system whereby pupils earn tokens for their academic performance and positive classroom behaviours. The teacher and pupils 28 . then everyone forms into a single group. or as Thelen (1981) wrote. The effectiveness of group processes can be affected by peer-group relationships. is given to pupils who commit undesirable actions. pupils can lose free time or be excluded from some fun activities as watching movies or using the computer for a specific period of time.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  There are two levels of punishments which are labelled as Punishment I and Punishment II. Both punishment I and II.2.

29 . powerlessness. Inability to satisfy these goals will lead to negative conditions of loneliness and rejection. Many subgroups in the class affect how the larger classroom society works as how individuals relate to and interact with one another formally and informally. The group processes in the ESL classroom will contribute to higher learner achievement if the social climate is positive and how teachers manage their teaching and learning effectively. bodily gestures. seating patterns. incompetence. From the social-psychological perspective. Climate can be measured by observing physical movements. Therefore groups are not simply people in proximity. Classroom Climate ESL classroom climate refers to the emotional tones associated with pupils' interactions. Hence. pupils need to achieve the social motives of affiliation. Hence over a period of time.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM of one class can be a whole group or from time to time many subgroups. i. this will result in high self-esteem in pupils and their positive attitudes toward school. as well as to pupils' self-concept and their motivational satisfactions and frustrations. The next section will describe the elements of positive classroom climate and characteristics of effective teachers. which share and work toward a common goal. and alienation. teachers and aides. In effect. As members of a social group. achievement and power in order for them to feel comfortable and secure. and ESL teaching and learning. pupils of a class form a miniature society with peers. these informal relationships with peers increase in power and concentration .1). pupil’s self-concept is formed by the peer group influence which can be either threatening or supportive. their attitudinal reactions to the class. and instances of verbal interaction (Table 2. but an entity. As members of the miniature society they are interdependent and interact with one another striving for common goals.

Although each of these six properties of climate can be important by itself.  communication is honest.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Table 2.  classroom norms are supportive in maximising pupils’ ESL competency. regardless of the learning activity? Are pupils working together cooperatively? A positive climate exists when the following properties are present:  leadership occurs as power-with rather than power-over.  high levels of friendship are present among classmates. showing the class feels safe? Are pupils reluctant to ask the teacher questions? How do pupils relate to one another? Are they quiet. In other words how each property is integrated with one another will shape a general climate of an ESL classroom.1: Classroom Climate Indicators Do pupils stand close or far away from the teacher? Are pupils at ease or tense? How frequently is affective support communicated by smiles. or do they remain the same. open and transactional. winks. positive climate is an ensemble of all of them. or pats on the back? Do pupils move quietly with measured steps to their desks. or do they walk easily and laugh spontaneously? How often do pupils put a peer down or say something nice to one another? Do pupils harass or bully other pupils? How often does fighting erupt? How often does peacemaking occur? Are sessions run primarily by the teacher or do pupils also take the lead? Do seating patterns shift from time to time. and  conflict is dealt with constructively and peacefully. 30 . or do they stroll freely and easily.  expectations are high for the performance of others and oneself. and formal. distant.

Autocratically lead groups had high quality work output. but urged group members to decide among alternative ways of working. Democratic leaders specified group goals.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM ii. competition. Effective Teachers In general. Groups with laissez-faire leaders performed worst overall. Pupils of democratic teachers accomplish both a great deal of excellent academic work. In contrast. By using transactional communication whereby pupils and teachers reciprocate in trying to understand one another. democratic. democratic teachers help build a climate that is participatory. Autocratic teachers use one-way communication in persuading pupils to accept learning goals and procedures as well as rules for classroom behaviour. Attributes of democratic teachers who are effective transactional communicators are receptiveness 31 . and laissez faire. and resentment. dependency. permitting youth to work as they pleased. observed effects on youth of three leadership styles: autocratic. Laissez-faire leaders abdicated authority. Classroom research has shown that although autocratic teachers can get pupils to accomplish high amounts of academic work. democratic teachers use two-way communication often to encourage pupils to participate in making decisions for themselves and in establishing group agreements for classroom procedures. relaxed. Autocratic leaders made all decisions about group goals and work procedures. personal. such unilateral direction giving is often an ineffective way of transmitting information. and supportive. 2007).  Leadership styles Lippitt and White. but low morale. they also create conformity. and establish positive social climates.  Effective Communication Effective communication is the key in understanding differences between autocratic and democratic teachers. with guidance from Lewin (Mills. effective teachers display the following characteristics to create a positive climate in the ESL classroom as described in the next section. Groups with democratic leaders performed best with high quality work output and high morale.

In particular. they seek to control behavioural disturbances with general. and obtain feedback from colleagues about how they are behaving toward particular pupils.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM to pupils' ideas. searching for ways to be aggressive toward teachers and peers. Teachers' expectations for how each pupil might behave are particularly important because they affect how teachers behave toward that pupil. Teachers should also use diverse information sources to understand what makes their pupils behave as they do. both of which interfere with their academic performance. openness.  Levels of friendship Such participatory teachers understand that friendships in the classroom peer group cannot be separated from teaching and learning. and by assigning them to work cooperatively with popular classmates. respect for pupils' feelings. Teachers with friendly classes see to it that they talk and attend to every pupil rather than focusing on a few. and a caring attitude. By watching their teacher interact with the class. Pupils who view themselves as disliked or ignored by their peers often have difficulty in performing up to their academic potential. teachers should reflect on their expectations and attributions toward girls and boys. pupils of different social classes and ethnic 32 . As outcasts they might seek revenge. Thus. warmth. an egalitarian attitude. pupils learn who gets left out and who gets encouragement and praise. a sense of humor. Teachers can help rejected pupils obtain peer support by giving them an extra amount of encouragement and praise in front of their peers. They experience anxiety and reduced self-esteem. sensitivity to outcasts. and often reward pupils with specific statements for helpful and successful behaviour. friendly feelings are integral to instructional transactions between teachers and pupils and among pupils. teachers should engage in introspection and reflection to diagnose their expectations.  High expectations In tandem to positive climate are the expectations that teacher and pupil hold for one another. group-oriented statements.

and their skills in managing conflict. concepts. When a competitive spirit exists. goals. tactics for establishing pupil group agreements. they are not the same as rules. For teachers to build and maintain successful classrooms with high pupil achievement and positive social climate. Teachers should strive to help pupils create formal group agreements to transform preferred rules into pupil norms. Pupil norms frequently are in opposition to teachers' goals. natural and inevitable in all groups. and can become counter productive to individual pupil development. or keeps another activity from occurring.  Managing conflict Conflict. With cooperative norms pupils believe they will obtain their self-interest when other pupils also achieve theirs. or interpersonal relationships. interferes. so that pupils will feel that it is in their self-interest to cooperate with their peers. In the competitive classroom. Teachers should strive. In particular. 33 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM groups. on the hand are regulations created by administrators or teachers to govern pupils' behaviour which are not neccessarily group norms. they should attend to their leadership style. a pupil succeeds only when others lose. cooperative peer-group norms enhance pupil self-concept and language learning more than do norms in support of competition. particularly when pupils are pitted against each other to obtain scarce rewards. therefore. communication skills. Teachers should deliberately seek new information about pupil strengths in order to free themselves of stereotypes. Conflicts arise in classrooms over incompatible procedures. to build a spirit of teamwork and cooperation in their classes. friendliness and warmth. Although norms guide pupils' and the teacher's behaviour.  Classroom norms Classroom norms form when most pupils hold the same expectations and attitudes about appropriate classroom behaviours. exists when one activity blocks. expectations and stereotypes of pupils. The norms of cooperation and competition affect the management of conflict differently. interpersonal conflict will arise frequently between pupils. Rules.

2002). i. Withitness is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times. They were totally aware of everything in the classroom environment. nothing is missed. “Withit” teachers respond immediately to pupil misbehavio ur and know who started what. The Kounin Model In a comprehensive comparison of effective and ineffective classroom managers. pupils are motivated to attend class. A major component of withitness is scanning the class frequently. The primary difference was in the things the successful managers did that tended to prevent classroom problems. The assumption is that pupils will not engage in disruptive behaviour when well-planned and well-implemented lessons engage pupils in the learning process with activities that meet their interests. Kounin concluded that some teachers are better classroom managers because of their skill in four areas: “withitness.4 Instructional classroom management Teachers who use the instructional approach to classroom management prevent most management problems by actively engaging pupils in high-interest lessons geared to meet their interests.2. Let’s now look at two models of classroom management that focus on the principles of the instructional approach.1. and manage their own behaviour. and abilities. “Withit” teachers don’t make timing errors (waiting too long before intervening) or target errors (blaming the wrong person and letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for 34 . positively participate in activities.” overlapping activities.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 2. Jacob Kounin (1970) in Marzano et al (2003) found that teachers handle classroom problems differently. they kept pupils actively engaged. establishing eye contact with individual pupils. Thus. and abilities. group focusing. and they conducted wellplanned lessons with smooth transitions. needs. and having eyes in the back your head. needs. and movement management (Charles. The premise that forms the basis for the instructional approach to classroom management is that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems. Kounin (1970) and Jones (1979) in Moore & Hansen (2012) advocate the instructional approach to classroom management.

good body language. Frederick Jones (1979) in Moore (2005). Body language is a set of physical mannerisms that tend to get 35 . incentive systems. for example.g. and what to do when finished with assigned seatwork. Moreover. the ability to make smooth lesson transitions.. Effective classroom managers are also skilled at overlapping. procedures for getting supplies and materials. involved the skillful use of body language. Jones contends. The Jones Model Based upon over 10 years of researching classroom difficulties. these limits should include the formation of rules of behaviour. keep an appropriate pace.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM misbehaviour). as well as descriptions of appropriate work behaviour. instruction on what to do when stuck on seatwork. “Withit” teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the instigator is in a problem situation. Ninety percent of discipline and keeping pupils on task. while also helping other pupils with their seatwork. They keep pupils alert by holding their attention. and involve all pupils in a lesson. it is the ability to monitor the whole class at all times. It involves keeping a small group on task. effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while tending to something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity to another. Finally. ii. Limit setting is the establishment of classroom boundaries for appropriate behaviour. According to Jones. talking and walking around the room). Overlapping means handling two or more activities or groups at the same time. and giving help efficiently. Essentially. by holding them accountable. found that teachers lose 50% or more of their instructional time through pupils’ time-wasting (e. Jones contends that this wasted instructional time can be reclaimed when teachers correctly implement four strategies: limit setting. and by involving all pupils in the lesson. Kounin notes that successful classroom management also depends on movement management and group focus—that is.

g. body position (body orientation toward pupil).2. If a large stopwatch is not available. For example. free time. Jones contends that incentive systems also can be used effectively to keep pupils on task and to get them to complete their work. using body language.4 Socio-cultural In Malaysia. such as time on the computer. When such problems do develop. Jones recommends that this time be cut to no more than 20 seconds per pupil.. and free reading.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM pupils back to work. Jones adds. His research revealed that teachers on the average spend 4 minutes helping individual pupils who are having difficulty with seatwork. and Curran. can serve as motivational rewards for desired behaviours. a back-up system. so the whole class can see. Jones found that giving help efficiently is related to time on task. with a large stopwatch placed at the front of the room. such as in-class isolation or removal from the room. 2. Setting limits. Managing a classroom is challenging because. Indeed. as Jones suggests. Jones suggests. and tone of voice. a standard amount of time (e. the use of peer pressure represents a quite effective motivator. one minute) can be deducted for each instance of misbehaviour. is needed. time can be deducted from the class-preferred activity time when an individual pupil misbehaves. and giving help efficiently will not eliminate all behaviour problems. Doing so allows more pupils to be helped and reduces the tendency for pupils to work only when the teacher is standing near them. implementing an incentive system. he suggests that preferred activities. Tomlinson-Clarke. Finally. facial expressions. 2004) 36 . “definitions and expectations of appropriate behaviour are culturally influenced. and conflicts are likely to occur when teachers and pupils come from different cultural backgrounds (Weinstein. Furthermore.1. The deduction of time can be recorded. use of educational games. A multicultural setting is a common scene prevalent in ESL classroom. the most effective of which are physical proximity to pupils. a classroom consists of different pupils of a different ethnic background and social setting. direct eye contact.

 A teacher should commit to building a caring classroom. Exercise 1. Weinstein et. 2.  A teacher should know his/her pupils' cultural backgrounds. Compare and contrast the Canters’ assertive model and the behaviour modification model. economic. Multicultural competence can develop a culturally responsive pedagogy in the Malaysian ESL classroom. 37 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM The goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which pupils behave appropriately. and political context in which the class is situated. Explain ‘whithitness’ in Kounin’s model. 3.  A teacher should be able and willing to use culturally appropriate management strategies. 4. and the need for teacher training in cultural awareness is now broadly recognized. Explain the five expectations of teachers in the socio-cultural approach.  A teacher should understand the broader social. al (2004) outline the following five expectations that teachers should have:  A teacher should recognize his/her own ethnocentrism and biases. Concepts such as culturally responsive pedagogy or culturally responsive literacy have been explored in academic literature since the 1990s. but out of a sense of personal responsibility. primarily in the context of primary and secondary education. not out of fear of punishment or desire for reward. These competencies are shaped by a number of theories and models that will be discussed in the next section. Briefly discuss the consequences of actions in the Behaviour Modification approach.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM SESSION THREE AND FOUR (6 hours) 2. Glasser and Gordon) Building the foundation by Skinner. The reinforcers may be teacher praise. who misbehave.  Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape pupils' behaviour in desired directions. by what happens to the individual immediately afterward. a. or even such tangible items as stickers or appropriate vouchers. Skinner himself never proposed a model of school discipline.2 Theories and Models 2.1 Building the Foundation (Skinner. Glasser and Gordon will provide teachers an understanding of the key concepts of a variety of classroom management theorists that will help teachers develop their own philosophy and techniques of classroom management. 38 .2. effective style. or who perform poorly are denied desired rewards or are punished in some way. Key Ideas This model includes new applications of Skinner's basic ideas. i. The following ideas reveal the essence of Skinner's model:  Behaviour is shaped by its consequences. good grades. Pupils who do not follow the procedures.2. Other writers have taken his ideas on learning and adapted them to controlling the behaviour of pupils in schools.  Behaviour is also weakened by punishment.2. The Skinner’s Model of Shaping Desired Behaviour Human behaviour can be shaped along desired lines by means of the systematic application of reinforcement. No one model will provide all the answers that ESL teachers need to manage a classroom effectively but the knowledge of these theories will allow effective teachers to build a management style that combines proactive and reactive elements and that combines ESL instruction and classroom management into a unique.  Behaviour becomes weaker if not followed by reinforcement.

it is best maintained through intermittent reinforcement. and tangible reinforcers such as prizes and printed awards. provided only occasionally. one that can be easily modified and implemented with pupils of all ages and backgrounds. “nice going” etc. and special symbols. 39 . the teacher rewards the pupil. constant reinforcement produces the best result. the teacher either ignores the act or punishes the pupil.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  In the early stages of learning. facial expressions. . activity reinforcers such as free time and collaborating with a friend. and facial expressions.The teacher observes the pupil perform an undesired act. Types of reinforcers that are commonly used in schools fall into four categories:  Social . and gestures. checks.  Behaviour modification is applied in two ways: . happy faces. gestures.  Behaviour modification successfully uses various types of reinforcers. pat.Social reinforcers consist of verbal comments.  Once learning has reached the desired level.  Graphic . graphic reinforcers such as marks and stars. thumbs up (non verbal) or verbal comment from the teacher. They may enter them on charts or use a paper punch to make holes in cards kept by the pupils. “excellent”. One of the key tenets the model are the use of reinforcers. They may attach stars or stickers that are commercially available in large quantities and varieties. for example . then praises a pupil who is behaving misbehaving pupil becomes less likely than before to repeat the act. Reinforcers The Skinner’s model can be a powerful model for classroom teachers. They include social reinforcers such as verbal comments. correctly. the pupil tends to repeat the act.The teacher observes the pupil perform an undesired act. Many pupils work diligently just to get a smile. “awesome”. the ii. Teachers make these marks with felt pens and rubber stamps.Graphic reinforcers include marks of various kinds such as numerals.

choosing the song. raisins.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Activity . They are widely used with pupils who have special behaviour problems. For younger pupils (Year 1-3) sitting near the teacher. caring for the pet. Kamal’s class. Application The Skinner’s model can be applied in a classroom situation.Activity reinforcers include those activities that pupils prefer to do in school. However. he can hardly get Zack to participate in class activities. going to an assembly  Tangible Tangible reinforcers are real objects that pupils can earn as rewards for desired behaviour and are more powerful for some pupils than other types of reinforcers. in Mr. free reading. these are the possible ways to deal with the situation:  Catch Zack being good (doing anything that is appropriate). is quite docile. He doesn't seem to care. 40 . pencils. Any activity can be used as a reinforcer if pupils prefer it to another. The following is an example to illustrate the model in a primary classroom. like a bump on a log. Reward him whenever he participates or works. having extra recess time. He rarely completes an assignment. Kamal’s best efforts. sharing a pet or toy is are examples of activities to reinforce academic excellence. He never disrupts class and does little socializing with other pupils. decorating the classroom. badges. Many primary teachers use tangible reinforcers regularly. putting forth virtually no effort. iii. He is simply there. crayons. Examples of inexpensive reinforcers are: popcorn. despite Mr. Classroom scenario Zack. Activities for older pupils (Year 4-6) are such as playing a game. chalk. Based on the scenario above. etc. felt pens.

whether it is good or bad. or other tangible objects to reinforce and shape Zack's improvement. i. use points.  Reasonable consequences should always follow pupil behaviour. b. 41 . Thus. If praise is ineffective. they must be guided toward reality whereby the onus is on pupils. They can control their own behaviour. Listed below are some of key iideas of Glasser. Identify a reward that is exceptionally attractive to him. They choose to act the way they do. fun and freedom. Praise Zack whenever he follows the rule. Outline what he must do in order to earn the reward.  Good choices produce good behaviour. Bad choices produce bad behaviour.  Teachers must always try to help pupils make good choices.  Teachers who truly care about their pupils accept no excuses for bad behaviour. The first is to provide a classroom environment and curriculum which motivate pupils and reduce inappropriate behaviour by meeting pupils' basic needs for belonging. The second focus is on helping pupils make appropriate behavioural choices that lead ultimately to personal success.  Set up a contract with Zack. power. Key Ideas Often.  Classroom meetings are effective vehicles for attending to matters concerning class rules.  Pupils are rational beings. Share the contract with Zack's parents to enlist their support. teachers need to help pupils learn to make good behavioural choices so they can become responsible individuals able to satisfy their needs in the real world. Class rules are essential and they must be enforced. Reinforce every improvement Zack makes. The Glasser’s Model of Choice Theory Glasser's work in the field of school discipline has two main aims. tokens.  Consider stronger reinforcers.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Reiterate the class rules regarding class work. behaviour and discipline.

Bad behaviour results from bad choices. pupils are capable of understanding what is generally regarded as acceptable school behaviour and can choose to behave in acceptable ways. Teachers’ Responsibilities The essence of discipline then. Glasser firmly believes that teachers have greater responsibility to maintain good discipline. there’s a reason for her to be aggressive". He simply says that humans have rational minds and can make rational choices. "Ling was an abused child. or. "What can you expect. The teacher refuses to accept excuses for bad behaviour. is always kept in 42 . If bad behaviour gets them what they want then they will make bad choices. their responsibility for their own behaviour. behaviour. One often hears comments such as.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Glasser's views about discipline were simple but powerful:    Behaviour is a matter of choice. The teacher encourages them to acknowledge their behaviour and evaluate introspectively on their behaviour. in order to make good choices. the following are some of the teacher's responsibilities in helping pupils making good choices as described below. Good behaviour results from good choices. the teacher always directs the pupil's attention to alternative. pupils must see the results of these choices as desirable. This is where the teacher can be influential in helping pupils become aware that they choose their own actions. According to Glasser. Instead. However. ii.  Emphasise pupil responsibility Since good behaviour comes from good choices and since pupils ultimately must live with the choices they make. more acceptable. Even though both teachers and pupils have important roles to play in maintaining effective discipline. According to Glasser. Glasser neither denies that such conditions exist nor that they influence behaviour. Psychologists and educators often delve into pupils' backgrounds for underlying causes of misbehaviour. Aznil comes from a broken home". lies in helping pupils to make good choices. A teacher's duty is to help pupils make good choices.

Glasser uses this "no excuse" dictum in two areas. Rules must reinforce the basic idea that pupils are in school to study. the teacher must never accept excuses for the pupil's failing to live up to that commitment. today because he has trouble at home. indeed. Age." The second area in which teachers should accept no excuses concerns pupil commitment.  Establish rules that lead to success Rules which leads towards personal and group achievement should be established by teachers and pupils together. Discussions in which this responsibility is explored and clarified occur in classroom meetings. but that does not make it acceptable. Those conditions may. These meetings occur as regular parts of the curriculum. It is okay if he yells and hits. teachers must accept no excuses. and other realities of the pupils should be taken into consideration when formulating rules. ability. Pupils sit in a circle with the teacher and discuss matters that concern the class. Once a pupil has decided on a course of good behaviour and has made a commitment to it. The following is an example based on Glasser to illustrate how to help pupils make value judgement. cause bad behaviour. The first has to do with conditions outside the school.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM the forefront. teachers should help them make value judgements about it. 43 .  Accept no excuses For discipline to be successful. The teacher must never say "we can excuse Jamal's behaviour.  Call for value judgment When pupils exhibit inappropriate behaviour. What goes on there does not excuse bad behaviour in school.

Teachers should not manipulate events that stop pupils from experiencing unpleasant consequences.  Be persistent Caring teachers work towards one goal . intentionally. doing something repeatedly. while making sure that it is right. if pupil cannot think of any.  Carry out continual review. For Glasser. Commitment means consistency.getting pupils to commit themselves to desirable courses of behaviour. They must always help pupils make choices and make value judgments about their bad choices. 2011). To convey this idea and to instill it in pupils. These consequences will be desirable if good behaviour is chosen compared to poor behaviour.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Teacher : What are you doing? (asked in unthreatening tone of voice.)  Invoke reasonable consequences. teachers themselves must be consistent. Their experience of pleasant and unpleasant consequences will help pupils to choose the right behaviour and take charge of their own lives. Glasser advocates three types of classroom meetings: 44 . teacher suggests appropriate alternatives and lets pupil choose.) Pupil : I’m waiting for a bright idea to appear. (Will usually give an honest answer if not threatened. Glasser stresses that reasonable consequences must follow whatever behaviour the pupil chooses. Teacher : What could you do that would help? Pupil : Why not brainstorm with your friends? (Names better behaviour. curriculum matters or pupils’ concerns (Gartrell. the classroom meeting is central to the implementation of a good system of discipline. This ‘magic circle’ facilitates pupils in identifying problems and working towards solution for behaviour issues.) Teacher : Is that helping you or the class? Pupil : No.

and . Discussions in classroom meetings focus on two things: . Based on the scenario above. Glasser would suggest the following. 45 . and freedom. is quite docile.  Accept no excuses from Latif for not beginning and completing his work. fun. and . He doesn't seem to care. putting forth virtually no effort.  Continually press Latif to make value judgments about his choice of behaviour. Eng talk with Latif so as to accomplish the following:  Make sure Latif understands his work responsibilities as a pupil in the class.open ended meetings are when real life problems are worked out. First that Mr. power.  Never give up on Latif. Classroom scenario Latif. Eng talk directly with Latif about this matter and make necessary changes for him if possible. Latif rarely completes an assignment. a pupil in Mr. He is simply there.seeking solutions to the problem.social problem solving whereby conflicts are discussed .and that his choice brings with it either desirable or undesirable consequences.to work or not .educational diagnostic whereby educational ideas are addressed.  Make sure Latif understands that he can choose his behaviour . Eng thinks carefully about the classroom and the programme to try to determine whether they contain obstacles that prevent Latif from meeting his needs for belonging. Glasser would have Mr.  Help Latif identify some alternative behaviours from which he can choose. But despite Mr. He would have Mr. iii.  Make sure that when Latif shows improvement. Eng's best efforts.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM .identifying the problem. Application The following is an example to illustrate Glasser’s model applied in a primary classroom. If no changes seem warranted. Eng’s class. He never disrupts class and does little socializing with other pupils. he receives consequences that are very attractive to him.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM c.“no-lose conflict resolution” and “values collisions” in resolving a conflict. “the other owns the problem”.messages that tell another person how you feel about their behaviour. “confrontative I-messages”. “I own the problem”. teachers can plot pupil’s behaviour into a diagram called “Behaviour Window”.blaming statements Confrontative "I" Messages -messages that attempt to influence another to stop the unacceptable behaviour. such as.a visual device of Gordon's used to determine if there is a problem and who owns it. Gordon rejects traditional models of reward and punishment because they are based upon an assertion of power and foster no intrinsic motivation. i. Gordon’s Model The central tenet of Gordon’s approach to classroom management is the importance of developing meaning and mutually beneficial relationships.   Problem Ownership .   Shifting Gears -changing from Confrontative to a listening posture Win-Lose conflict resolution -ends the dispute temporarily with a winner and a loser.    "I" messages . There are several types of authority.individual troubled by a problem is said to "own" the problem. “no problem area”. Using a simple frame of reference for “problem ownership”. Some of the key concepts and teachings in Gordon’s model are:  Authority -a condition that can be used to exert influence or control over others. 2013). Behaviour Window . “shifting gears” . 46 . Key Ideas Gordon (1974) outlined a number of ideas that could be implemented in an ESL classroom in managing pupils’ behaviour towards achieving effective teaching and learning process. Gordon’s model is a graphical tool used to identify who owns the problem when someone’s behaviour causes a problem or inconvenience. Instead Gordon focuses on how pupil’s conflicts can be resolved in a way that will improve their relationships with their teacher and peers (Manning & Bucher. i.e. "You" messages . which helps teachers to use appropriate communication skills. “active listening”..

Application In applying the model Gordon proposes a six step problem solving process in managing conflict (Manning & Bucher. He tends to be playful and diverts his group members’ attention by being hilarious.words or actions that invites folks to talk about what is on their minds Active Listening -carefully listening and demonstrating understanding of what another person is saying  Values Collisions. Classroom scenario Hakimi is unable to concentrate on his task while working with his peers on Social Studies task.is anything a person believes will make the quality of life better or very concrete like food or money ii. Applying the six steps approach the following are the possible ways to deal with the the above situation:  Approach the problem by asking the pupil neutral open questions to gain information about why the pupil cannot concentrate on the task. 47 . Listen attentively to the response to build trust and communication.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM    No-Lose conflict resolution .everyone wins Door openers . 2013) which are:  defining a problem  generating possible solutions  evaluating the solutions  deciding which soluiton is the best  determining how to implement the decision  assessing how well the solution solved the problem’s The following is an example to illustrate Gordon’s model in a primary classroom.

modelling.  Ask Hakimi to choose the best way to stay focused.  After implementing the way that Hakimi had decided on. • Both teachers and pupils have rights to feel comfortable. No pupil should prevent you from teaching. trusting relationships with their pupils and teach appropriate classroom behaviour (via direct instruction. • Teachers create an optimal learning environment. More than being a director.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Ask the Hakimi for suggestions on ways to help pupils to stay focus on their task. teacher-in-charge classroom environment.2 Theories of Assertive Tactics: Lee & Marlene Canter’s Assertive discipline is a structured. Key Ideas The key ideas of Assertive Discipline are: • Rewards and punishments are effective. as opposed to aggressively or non assertively. Assertive teachers listen carefully to what their pupils have to say. and rewarding) to those who don't show it at present. practicing. yet warm in interaction. 2. speak politely to them. i. supportive of the youngsters. or keep another pupil from learning. systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized. Canter (2010) believe that teachers have the right to determine what is best for pupils. 48 . To accomplish this goal. and respectful in tone and mannerisms when addressing misbehaviour. teachers must react assertively. and to expect compliance. assertive teachers build positive.describing.  From the different ways that Hakimi had suggested ask him list down the strengths and weaknesses. reviewing. and treat everyone fairly (not necessarily equally). Pupil compliance is imperative in creating and maintaining an effective and efficient learning environment.2.  Work on details on how the chosen way could be implemented. assess whether it works for him or not.2. encouraging. They are demanding.

Group rewards are also used. that event is held. Pupils write their names on the cut up pieces of paper and drop them into a container for a daily prize drawing. there is a reason to improve. These will be administered if the pupil continues to misbehave. teachers should:  Dismiss the thought that there is any acceptable reason for misbehaviour (Biologically based misbehaviour may be an exception).  Decide which rules you wish to implement in your classroom. 49 . a special event is held. In order to use Assertive Discipline. each of which is more punitive or restrictive than the previous one. Some assertive teachers write a letter of the alphabet on the board for each period/ activity of good group behaviour.  Determine positive consequences for appropriate behaviour. Choose three to six negative consequences (a "discipline hierarchy"). not nonassertive or hostile. Even if a pupil is having a bad day. When the jar is full. • Teachers are assertive.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM • Teachers apply rules and enforce consequences consistently without bias or discrimination. A marble might be dropped into a jar for each predetermined interval that the class as a whole has been attentive and respectful. • Teachers use “discipline hierarchy” which informs pupils of consequences of misbehaviour and how it dealt with based on the level of severity. For example. you might also include gift vouchers that are given to pupils for proper behaviour. Others might receive notes of praise to be shown to their parents. along with verbal praise. Pupils might get a gift voucher have a chance to redeem a gift from the local supermarket. When the letters spell "Pizza Party" (or some other activity). Devise four or five rules that are specific and easily understood by your pupils.  Determine negative consequences for noncompliance (You will be providing a consequence every time a pupil misbehaves).

the sequential list of penalties is implemented. but then be sure to tell the pupil what he/she should be doing.Communicate your displeasure with a pupil's misbehaviour. If directions are not followed at that point. consider: "Syihan.2. A pupil who misbehaves. Be sure to add emphasis to your directions by using eye contact. This quick action will encourage the pupils to display the desired behaviour more often. For example. .  Have the pupils write the rules and take them home to be signed by the parents/ guardians and returned. Check for understanding. hand gestures. Explain why rules are needed. Review the rules periodically throughout the year in order to reiterate important points and consolidate the rules. 2.2. please put the pencil down on the desk and pass your paper forward. and the pupil's name. on the other hand. . A well-adjusted pupil will conform to the requirements of the group by making valuable contributions. List the rules on the board along with the positive and negative consequences. Be aware that some pupils may need to be reinforced quietly or non-verbally to prevent embarrassment in front of peers. Do not be sidetracked by the pupil's excuses. Often pupils continue to display inappropriate behaviour when they have been told to discontinue it because they do not know what they should be doing.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Conduct a meeting to inform the pupils of the rules. Attach a message explaining the rules and requesting their help.  Become skilled in the use of other assertive discipline techniques: .3 Theories of Democratic Teaching Essentially. you can reinforce the pupil for compliance or punish the pupil for non compliance. Now that you have given a direction. Continue to repeat your command (maximum of three times) until the pupil follows your directions. every action of the pupil is grounded in the idea that he is seeking his place in the group.Recognize and quickly respond to appropriate behaviour.Learn to use the "broken record" technique. will defy the needs of 50 ." Notice that the teacher told the pupil what to do.

Provide a teaching environment that supports pupils’ sense of belonging. or displaying inadequacy. revenge. Whichever of the above mentioned goals he chooses to employ. Reflection/Usefulness ESL classes allow pupils to work in small groups and as a large group to support social group belonging. The main arguments. Provide pupils with logical consequences to “mistaken goals” to support responsibility and avoid punishment. Three types of teachers: autocratic. and production. process rather than focusing on the final product by itself.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM the group situation in order to maintain social status. the pupil believes that this is the only way he/ she can function within the group dynamic successfully. Praise supports completion. 2006).2. Avoid power struggles and encourage pupils who display inadequacy.2: Main arguments. strategies and usefulness of Democratic Teaching. rather than praising them for their completion. Social groups can take place in criticism.(harsh boss). Encouragement supports the process. strategies and usefulness of theories of democratic teaching are described in Table 2. Dreikurs states that "his goal may occasionally vary with the circumstances: he may act to attract attention at one moment. aesthetics. Logical consequences produce better results than punishment. his main purpose will be social acceptance. Come up with a set of classroom rules as a group. 1968 in Kohn. Constructive behaviour occurs out of their heightened sense of social interest. 51 . Main Argument/Tenets Classrooms are democratic with apprppriate teaching styles. Strategies/Techniques Provide lessons with social interest in mind. and democratic (support internal motivation and responsibility). Regardless if the pupil is welladjusted or is misbehaving. and assert his power or seek revenge at another" (Dreikurs. In group critiques. Encourage pupils who seem discouraged in the process of a product. power seeking. Table 2. Pupils who do not feel a sense of belonging will resort to: attention gaining. Allow time for each of these. ask about Encourage pupils rather than praise them. permissive (uninvolved and no expectations). Mutual respect motivates pupils to behave constructively. Support responsibility through freedom of choices in lesson plans.

Ask pupils their input before planning lessons – what interests them/ what do they want to learn/ Provide pupils with enjoyable and challenging lessons. strategies and usefulness of Instructional Management Main Argument/Tenets There is a difference between well managed and ill-run classrooms and this termed as instructional management. get to know the pupils on a personal level. Ask pupils questions to ensure that they are not experiencing Pupils may experience satiation when they have been overexposed to a certain topic or strategy. Give lessons multiple times and reflect on your instructional management during teaching.4 Theories of Instructional Management: Jacob Kounin Kounin’s theory on classroom management and discipline (Kounin in Everston. Momentum keeps the pupils engaged and on track with their material. Teachers can ask pupils what challenges them the most and what they want to learn.3: Main arguments. Strategies/Techniques Withitness—scan constantly.2.3. there will be chaos. Teachers can implement Kounin’s theory as suggested in Table 2. Lesson presentation should be smooth to keep pupils engaged. Keep momentum by keeping the pupils engaged in language activity at all times. 52 . Enjoyable and challenging lessons go hand in hand with ESL classes. .2. what challenging techniques do they want to learn? satiation. keep moving through the classroom. 1996) is important because without some idea on how to control the pupils in an ESL classroom. The most important aspect of teaching pupils is classroom management and teachers cannot successfully teach a language class if they are not in control. withitness is very important because teacher is constantly scanning the classroom and observing whether pupils are using English language while communicating with their friends. Do not allow for dead time during transitions.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 2. Table 2. Reflection/Usefulness In an ESL classroom. make notes of repeated behaviours. Group work is a great time to move throughout the classroom and make sure that everyone is on task and understands the material. “Withitness” means the teacher knows what is going on at all times in the classroom.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 2. Ginott promotes the use of congruent messages and to respect students as they are for effective classroom management (Charles. According to Ginott. but not the personality or character of the pupil. and  invite rather than demand pupil cooperation.2. arguing. It is believed that the teacher is a decisive element in the classroom.2.  accept and acknowledge pupils without labeling. Congruent communication can be achieved when teachers:  promote self-discipline for both teachers and pupils. Instead.  demonstrate their best behaviours. teachers should resort to use “appreciative praise” as it shows appreciation for what the pupil has done and the effort taken. both teachers and pupils should interact appropriately to maintain positive classroom behaviour.5 Theories of Congruent Communication: Haim Ginott Haim Ginott believes that effective classroom management depends a lot on the way in which the teacher interacts with students. Congruent communication is open. and without sarcasm. 1999). 2007) about a situation that involves a pupil.  believe “the essence of discipline is finding effective alternatives to discipline”. or belittling the individual. These messages are used to guide pupils away from inappropriate behaviour. on the other hand should behave properly according to classroom norms and accept responsibility for their behaviour. Pupils. It sends “sane messages” (Tauber. who can shape students in anyway depending on the teacher’s behaviour.  avoid saying “you” and “I” messages to pupils. Teachers should avoid using “evaluative praise” as it is destructive to the pupils’ character. 53 . harmonious with pupils’ feelings about themselves and their situations. disputing.  avoid evaluative praise and use appreciative praise instead.

5. In groups. As an ESL teacher. Jonathan attempts to answer a question that you posed during your ESL lesson but his answer was wrong. write an “I” message that you would like to convey to Hakimi. briefly discuss how you would apply ‘withiness’ in your primary classroom. 4. Briefly discuss how you would use the four types of reinforcers in your ESL classroom. 2. With reference to the classroom scenario on Page 47. Simulate a situation in a classroom where the three theories / approaches could be applied. simulate a situation in a classroom where the three approaches (authoritarian. Glasser stressed that rules should be established by teachers and pupils together. 3.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Exercise 1 1. theories and models would lead to effective classroom management. applying Canter’s “discipline hierarchy” briefly describe how you would handle the situation. 54 . Tutorial 1. 2. group process and socio-psychological) could be applied. Taking into account “democratic teaching” tenets how would you provide feedback to his response. Shamim has been playing truant during your ESL lesson for four times. Discuss how the studied approaches. 3. Give an example on how you would apply it in your ESL classroom and lead towards personal and group achievement of your pupils. 6.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TOPIC 3 MANAGING RESOURCES AND FACILITIES: RULES. 3. It provides suggestions and strategies in creating a more organized classroom as well as creating a comfortable and conducive environment in the classroom.  outline and explain the conventions and routines for organising instructional time. expectations and procedures in managing resources and facilities in a classroom.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 3 focusses on the rules.  outline and explain the effective social cultural environment for effective lessons. 3. EXPECTATIONS AND PROCEDURES 3. you will be able to:  outline and explain the effective physical classroom management for effective lessons.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Managing Resources and Facilities Physical Classroom Environment Social Cultural Environment Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time Classwork/ Homework Physical Space Safe Environment Positive Environment Begining & Ending the Day /Period Transitions Instructional Resources Monitoring Managing Learner Location & Grouping Feedback 55 .1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 3.

However.1 Physical Classroom Environment Classroom resources should be managed effectively to accommodate and conduct a variety of educational activities. you have to think of the pupils’ movement during the different instructional activities conducted in the classroom.2. By organising the physical environment as proposed by Charles and Senter (2005) in their six facets of the physical environment you can make the most of your classroom.1. Resource and facilities management is crucial in creating a conducive physical environment to enable effective teaching and learning. However. clean. A safe. crowded classrooms and insufficient storage space. Floor Space In deciding how to utilise your classroom floor space. teachers should consider all areas of the classroom when organizing the physical environment. regardless of their teaching styles. comfortable and attractive classroom can stimulate learning and help build an efficient classroom community. 56 . especially when faced with old buildings. 3.2. Teachers have different ideas on their ideal classroom and the way they organise and arrange their classroom might be influenced by their different styles of teaching.1 Organising Physical Space i. This would affect the pupils’ seating arrangements and the layout of the furniture in the classroom. The following section will give you insights on how to optimize resources and facilities in the classroom.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM CONTENT SESSION FIVE 3. setting up the physical environment of your classrooms can be quite daunting.

For ease of movement aisles and gaps in seating should be maintained. they feel honoured and proud. Seating Seating arrangement normally depends on how you conduct your lessons. When pupils are taught in small groups. and shelves for a small collection or personal books. You must be able to oversee everyone in the class and the pupils are aware of that too. iii.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM ii. but the distance between you and the farthest pupil should be minimized as possible. Work and activity areas A classroom sometimes is too congested with pupils’ desks and chairs and this will affect the work and activity areas in the classroom. often near a small board. However. the table must be clean so it can be a good example for pupils. Your table is also one important area in the classroom. The table should also be positioned so it oversees the entire class. Designating marks or coloured squares on the carpet is a common method of arrangement. It must represent your authority and position so whenever a pupil is called to come and see you there. Ideally. Primary pupils may come together on a carpet in front of the class for wholegroup instruction. you may want to use it to set up for a quiet reading corner. When pupils are taught as a group they should be seated as near to you as possible. you do not need so much of the activity areas because most of the class activities are done on the pupils’ a ssigned seats. The area can also be made attractive by having an attractive file cabinet. they may be called to special areas where extra chairs are kept or to which they bring their own chairs. First of all. facing a chalkboard or whiteboard. 57 . You may sit with them on the carpet or in a chair. the floor arrangement will keep you in fairly close proximity to pupils working at their desks. If there is extra space.

scissors. 3. crayons. construction papers. These include video and audio CDs and tapes.2. It also can be used to display pupils’ work . Bulletin boards tend to be used mostly for decorations and rarely for instruction. Pupil supplies include such things as writing paper. Wall Space Classroom walls offer excellent instructional possibilities. Shelf space Textbooks. It provides recognition of pupils’ achievements which builds their self-esteem and is highly motivating. reference books and other special materials can be stored or displayed on shelves. toys and other materials. Personal set of cleaning materials is can also be kept in the classroom closet and these includes brooms. cleanser. paints. Chalkboards or whiteboards are normally placed to face the pupils. games. glue. audiovisual equipments. paper towels and rags. pencils. puppets. In short. puzzles. dust cloths. assignments and also for explanations and demonstrations.1. Cupboard This is the best place for you to keep pupil supplies.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM iv. worksheet. Special materials to motivate and extend pupils’ experiences can also be kept on shelves in most classrooms. Pupils can learn from each other and at the same time instil their sense of ownership in the classroom. ESL specific equipment.2 Locating Instructional Space i. They are routinely used to post daily information. ii. the stuff must be properly arranged and easily accessible. Whatever it is. a cupboard is a place where you can store any teaching and learning materials or anything that is related to the classroom materials or pupils’ worksheets or supplies. 58 . rulers and pens.

Physically safe Violence and bullying cases in schools are factors that can cause unsafe environments in schools where pupils can be physically harmed by their peers or other pupils in the school. ii.2.2 Social Cultural Environment 3. Psychologically pupils would feel safe if they know that teachers are sensitive about their cultural diversity. one that reflects warmth. You should always bear in mind that it is important for them to build a warm.2. supportive and challenging classroom climate that will ensure effective social emotional teaching and learning. i.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 3. Pupils are said to be physically safe if they are not harmed physically either by their peers or teachers. caring.1 Safe Environment Malaysia is a multi racial country and the pupils’ diversity is obviously displayed in the classroom. This should be avoided because teachers should always be seen as warm and caring individuals who will protect their pupils as they will protect their own 59 . Your pupils will feel safe because culturally. Fraser and O’Brien (1985) suggest that teachers may safely proceed on the premise that classrooms function best when they provide a positive and structured climate. and these cultural diversities in the classroom is something that you need to be aware of since it has an impact on your classroom management. They do not have to explain about their ‘misbehaviours’ and this will create a very peaceful state of mind among them and emotionally they would feel safe knowing that the classroom is a place that does not practice discrimination and has high tolerance towards the cultural diversity. support and pleasant circumstances with very low levels of fear. These different ethnic groups that practise different norms and beliefs. Sometimes teachers want to take the law into their own hands by punishing the pupils physically.2. different ethnic group have different customs or practice which do not comply with their own customs or practice. Psychologically safe Teachers are said to be able to create a safe environment when their pupils do not feel threatened mentally or physically.

helping pupils to develop social competencies. .  Working with teachers In school. 60 . . and . mentoring and responsiveness to pupils needs. Instead. . warmth. pupils and parents (Manning and Bucher.nurturing role models who show supports. non threatening way for pupils to report school crime. iii. However. 2013). Strategies In Promoting a Safe School No one person or group can bear the responsibility for creating and maintaining safe classrooms. . teachers play vital role in promoting a safe environment in school by : . problem-prevention skills and coping skills. most likely learning will not be able to take place naturally and effectively.monitoring pupils’ academic progress. it is often controversial because some parents and teachers do not want pupils placed in awkward situations.creating a buddy system in the classroom in which current pupils help the new arrivals.  Working with pupils You can provide opportunities for pupils to assume responsibility for safer schools by: . Once you have broken the trust that the pupils have in them. others and work and avoids negative labelling and tracking.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM children.emphasizing pro-social attitudes and values about self.establishing pupils tip lines which provide anonymous. behaviour and attitudes on a regular basis.getting the pupils involved in a class project together such as a classroom beautification campaign. a collaborative effort must be made that includes teachers.

Encouraging them to communicate with teachers and making special effort to know their children’s friends and children’s activities at and away from school.2.Ability to compliment genuinely – It is evident that most people like to receive compliments and they react positively toward individuals who compliment them. both of which are essential to a participative environment that promotes school learning.Ability to listen . . .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Working with parents and community members You can also enlist the help of parents to promote safe classrooms by: .Friendliness – is a trait that is admired everywhere and a skill that can be learned bysmiling. 2005) 61 .2. . People with positive attitudes believe that all problems can be solved and deal with problems rather than complaining about them.Familiarising with the school safe school policy as well as an individual teacher’s safe classroom policy. 3. faultfinding or backbiting behaviours known to undermine positive climates.2 Creating Positive Environment It is your responsibility to establish and maintain a positive psychosocial environment. though pupils can help in this effort. speaking in a considerate way. and enhance the quality of communication by bringing out a genuine exchange of ideas. there are many factors that contribute and significantly influence the psychosocial environment of the classroom and one of them is human relations skills.Maintaining a positive attitude – we show it by looking at the bright side of things and avoiding complaining. indicates that the other’s observations are valued. These skills are as follows: . According to Charles and Senter (2005). asking how they are.  Human relations skills Good human relations enable people to interact pleasantly and productively. using names. (Charles and Senter. .it shows genuine interest in the other person. inquiring about family and work. Others tend to respond to us in the same way.

these principles govern classroom operation and become the written and unwritten code that allows a classroom to work. cited in Maning et.  Remaining calm and using body language to set limits. Whether the teachers refers to them as rules. Some have routines and procedures for everything. According to Karen (1999). Responsibilities. “ Perhaps the most important item under classroom operation is rules. Conventions and routines are a vital part of efficient classroom operations. al. developmental levels or diversity of pupils. and routines (Karen. 1999. Rights. His key concepts are shown below:  Developing classroom structures.3 Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time Conventions and routines are a vital part of efficient classroom operations. have less discipline problems. expectations or responsibilities. procedures.2. Standards or Consequences. Procedures. Jones. Teachers using procedures are able to manage time better. Nevertheless all these terms refer to organising classroom instructional time. and are able to complete more curriculum. Expectations. 1968 in Manning & Buchers. rights. Jones (2007). including rules. procedures and physical arrangements. suggested specific teacher strategies and recognized the importance of instructional effectiveness in classroom management.  Teaching pupils cooperation and responsibility  Providing backup systems 62 . 2013). procedures and routines create a smooth running classroom that is beneficial for all students. Some researchers and writers term them as rules.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 3. 1987 & Dreikurs. (2013) developed his Positive Classroom Management Theory to help teachers address an array of pupil behaviour regardless of the grade levels. Classroom rules. Some researchers and writers term them as Rules.” Fredric Jones (Jones 1987a). from using the restroom to how to enter the room.

There is a bin for each bell/block. here are some suggestions for organising instructional time in the classroom. These are only suggestions not the only ultimate approach. they demonstrate effective instruction and provide a collaborative learning community where teachers and pupils work towards common goals. They will write down the date and the objective(s) for the day. While they are doing the quick-write. there is a paper header procedure. 2013) called for democratic teaching and classroom management procedures. acting as democratic rather than autocratic or permissive teachers. a multifaceted model of classroom management. Then.The teachers will have large collection bins on the counters.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Dreikurs (in Manning and Bucher. The pupils must write their name. 3. date. and then immediately get out their notebooks. Teachers are expected to organise their instructional time in accordance to physical environment of the classroom. especially those who believe in developing supportive classrooms In Democratic Teaching and Management. the pupils come in. One side will be for homework. Adopt and adapt according to the theoritical concepts and framework discussed. using logical consequences rather than punishment. His early work has had significant influence on educators and classroom management theorists. and understand the difference between praise and encouragement. school policies and ethos. For any papers that pupils hand in to the teachers. hand in their homework. On the upper left margin. This process takes up the first 5 minutes of class. four aspects stand out: identifying and addressing mistaken goals of misbehaviour. and bell/block on the upper right margin of the paper. Then the teachers will have volunteers share their ideas. Each bin is divided down the center with a divider. they must write the title of the assignment. There is a procedure for turning in assignments. Dreikurs believed that when teachers act in a democratic fashion.3. the teachers will be taking down attendance.2. Based on the the theoritical concepts and framework mentioned above. and the 63 . they will copy down the “Food For Thought” quotation of the day and do a quick-write on what they think the quote means.1 Begining and Ending the Day or Period At the beginning of the class period.

Homework is deposited in the homework side as soon as the pupils come into the classroom at the beginning of class. they go and drop their work into the class work site. Next. The teachers shuffle the cards. Following which they will tell them how they will be evaluated (whether the assignment will be collected or not. they will give a time limit. handing one to each pupil. They are directly given to the teachers when the pupil is finished. Then they name a suite and the pupil who is holding that suite goes to one corner of the room. get the hall pass and leave. each pupil makes his own bathroom card (a large neon yellow index card) with his name on it. they will hand out the assignment. Then. The large. 64 . they will ask if there are any questions. however. bright cards helps the teachers to keep track of who is gone. The direction-giving procedure First the teachers will tell the pupils what the assignment is. Finally. Tests are NOT dropped into the bin. if the teachers are assigning 4 groups of 5. After a pupils finishes a class assignment. For example. and walk around. The procedure for assigning groups is: The teachers use a deck of cards. The pupils cue by raising their hand.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM other side will be for in-class work. The bathroom procedure At the beginning of the year. There is a premade hall/bathroom pass by the door. and keeps it in his English notebooks. It contains the same number of face cards for each suite to match the number of pupils he/she wants in a group. If so. holding their bathroom pass. ii. whether the teachers will discuss it or not afterwards). they put their card on their desk. When the teachers acknowledges by noddinghis/her head. Then they will tell them to repeat the assignment back to the teachers (Give & Get). they will answer them. they would have 5 face cards from each suite (different shapes or colours). The teachers repeat this until everyone is in a group. Only one pupil at a time can leave to use the bathroom. i. If this is a group assignment. then they will place them into groups and then hand out the assignment.

and the date it is due. One or the other will copy down the homework for the day. the date it was assigned. The teachers can check the homework the following day but does not grade it since asssistance is usually given in the lower grades. They will put this in a file cabinet folder. The routine should be supervised and led by the teachers so that it is done efficiently and helps pupils “settle 65 . “5 minutes”. Homework Folder Procedure Each month. and then will say “STOP. “1 minute”.3 Transitions i. someone in the group should also be keeping track of the time. The teachers assign this role to two pupils so that the job still gets done if one is absent.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM iii.3. pupils have one assignment a day that takes approximately twenty to thirty minutes. Pupils who do not hand in homework in a timely fashion make it up in the classroom and make up missed homework during free time in the room. the teachers will give two pupils in each bell/block the role of being the homework keeper. 3. Absent pupils can go to the homework folder to get homework assignments that they have missed. They will also include any handouts that supplemented the lesson. Transitions Into and Out of the Room  Beginning the School Day Teachers should establish a routine to open each class day. Pupils receive a weekly homework sheet with a list of assignments. Time limit procedure The teachers use a countdown timer on PowerPoint. and that will be helpful for homework. Homework policy Pupils write homework in a composition book every day.2.3.2. 3. It flashes re d at “10 minutes”. It is the pupils’ responsibility to bring their composition book to and from school everyday.2 Classwork/Homework i. ii.” If the pupils are in groups. Unless certain circumstances arise.

physical education. music. Some suggestions for teachers to begin the day:- . A common technique used is to have the pupils line up after appropriate materials have been put away. particularly after recess or lunch time. with the quietest table or row lining up first. .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM in” to the classroom.They may read or rest with their heads on their desk.riddle for the day . pencil sharpener or drinking water may do so.  Leaving the room Pupils will leave the room en masse at several times during the day: at recess and for lunch.  Returning to the classroom Frequently teachers establish a procedure for this transition. .other items of interest Not only does this routine establish a whole-class focus.date and birthdays .a discussion of the day’s lunch menu.Pupils are to enter the room quietly and take their seats. computer lab or perhaps some other instructions.the pledge of allegiance . sink. 66 . it also gives pupils a chance to get some of their chatter out of the way before beginning academic content activities. . . The routine need not be elaborate or time consuming.Pupils who need to use bathroom.discussion of school events or . Teachers should decide what behaviours are appropriate in line. one at atime at each area.

materials to go home are ready and pupils leave on time. Monitor pupils so that “wind down” time doestn’t become “wind up” time. Teachers might permit quiet social talk as they settle in and get ready for the next lesson. then more challenging work or enrichment is appropriate. wasting time and distracting other pupils. If teachers have pupils who leave early to ride a bus.  Between Activities Movement between activities is more difficult to manage when pupils complete or start them at varying times. Identifying the reason for excessive wandering or out-of-seat behaviour can be helpful in remedying it. Less supervision of movement is possible and pupils may begin to wander around frequently. do only the essentials with them and complete the rest of the routine after they leave.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM When pupils return from an out-of-room activity that has left them noisy or unusually “chatty”. or if they are excited when returning from recess.  Ending the day A routine is needed at the end of the day to ensure that pupils’ desks and work areas are cleared off. Planning ahead for the end of the day guards against hurried closings. The teacher is frequently working with one or a few pupils at a time. Other important end-of-day tasks include briefly reviewing important things learned that day. 67 . lost papers and a feeling of confusion and chaos. Pupil movement should be regulated by procedures that make clear when and for what purpose pupils may move around. converse with other pupils or be out of their seats. the transition activity should give the time to wind down before starting academic work. If pupils have completed their work satisfactorily and have nothing to do. foreshadowing coming events and checking materials that will be taken home.

Class consequences  Non-verbal warning (stern look. iii.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 3. have an approved movie day.  The improvement of the situation in which practice takes place (Carr and Kemmis.4 Monitoring Monitoring is to heighten class teachers’ awareness of what is actually occuring in the dayto-day organization and management of their own classrooms and allow opportunities for considering :  The improvement of practice  The improvement of understanding of practice by practitioners.  Pupils put pencils down when done with an assignment. positioning.2.1986) i.  At the end of an unit.  Class chooses between two activities to do that day.  Turning lights on and off to get attention.3.  Points towards their overall grade.  Play the radio (appropriate music). Class incentives  Homework passes. 68 .  Free Time at the end of class (PAT time). Class cues  Saying “Ladies and Gentlemen” or boys and girls to get attention. cue)  Verbal Warning  Pupil-Teacher meeting  Phone call home/Detention  Referral/ Meeting with the Headmaster/HEP ii.  Pupils raise hands holding bathroom card to signal.  Put index finger to mouth to tell students to be quiet.

6 Managing Pupil Location and Grouping Ideally classrooms should be arranged so that the pupils are in a “U” shape.2.2. where the desks on the sides are diagonal.” Written feedback on papers offers so much more to a learner than comments such as ‘Vague’. and every pupil can see the board. Teachers can offer feedback in:  oral comments  written comments  suggestions during guided practice  question and answer suggestions on homework and in-class assignments  progress reports and  notes home to parents Feedback must be specific.3.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 3. ‘Awkard’ and ‘Do over!’ 3. Also. however briefly makes pupils feel valued. One way of treating pupils with dignity and respect is to expect them to do well. Some examples of feedback statements are: “This is good. clear and must provide the pupil with the opportunity to act on it. Teacher feedback and actions can demonstrate this confidence in pupils or undermine pupils’ effort. The teachers’s desk is at the back of the room so that he/she can see all of the pupils. With this arrangement. If you add an example it will be excellent!” “Good start on that description of the main character! Can you add two more adjectives?” “You have compared two characters.3. the teachers can see every pupil.5 Feedback Feedback. High expectations are important to pupil acheivement. facing the board. now add some contrast. this set-up allows for ease of putting 69 . This set up puts the focus on the center of the room where the teachers will be teaching.

front. There is plenty of room to walk in.of and behind desks. cooperatively developed rules. Classroom management theories and organising instructional time are based on the idea of developing classrooms providing a climate of respect.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM them into groups or partners. 70 . Teachers can also use other means of pupil location and grouping according to their needs. as well as room to walk behind rows. logical consequences and a focus on the rights and welfare of both teachers and pupils. a democratic environment.

4. 71 . 3. 2. How can a teacher create the right ambience in the classroom that would create a conducive environment for teaching and learning to take place? 3. What are your considerations when setting up your classroom at the begining of the year? 2. 5. monitoring and feedbacks help create effective classroom sessions. Tutorial 1. Discuss how good management of pupil grouping helps ESL pupils improve their English proficiency. Discuss how effective communication skills would lead to effective lessons. Discuss how classwork / homework. How can the supportive approaches to classroom management and organiising instructional time be used to help “calm down and tame the pupils”? 4. 1. Discuss the impact of personal characteristics of good and bad communicators to young ESL pupils. Devise two types of pupil location and grouping for story-telling sessions and role play. Discuss ways to manage verbal and non-verbal communications in a primary ESL classroom.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Exercise 1 Discuss the questions below. 6. 7. Discuss how effective physical classroom environment and social cultural environment would contribute to effective lessons. Discuss how effective use of different types of verbal and non-verbal communication skills would lead to effective classroom management.

2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Communication Skills for Classroom Management Communication Skills Skills for Effective Communication Personal Characteristics of Good Communicators Verbal and Non-verbal Communication Managing Verbal and Non-verbal Communication 72 . skills for effective communication. It focuses on communication skills. and managing verbal and nonverbal communication in an ESL classroom. teachers will be able to:  Identify different effective communication skills for classroom management. Personal characteristics of good communicators.  Identify different effective communication skills for classroom management. verbal and non-verbal communication.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TOPIC 4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 4.  Identify personal charateristics of good communicators.  Differentiate verbal and Non-verbal communication skills.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 4.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 4 introduces teachers to communication skills for classroom management. 4.  Identify and manage different verbal and Non-verbal communication skills effectively. 4.

A person is said to have good communication skills when he/she is able to convey the message intelligibly so that the other person understands it. It is the means by which teachers motivate. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.1 Communication Skills “Communication is the act or process of transmitting information about ideas. attitudes. One has to know the intention of the sender. You can achieve this by choosing your words carefully and selecting ones that correctly represent your thoughts and feelings in a non-judgmental way. Effective communication is one in which the conversation made by the sender and the receiver is interactive. thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. inform.2 Effective communication An effective communication is one in which the receiver understands the sender's message and is capable of conveying it to other people. Effective communication is clear in content and respectful of the other person.2. encourage. When it comes to teaching. build relationships.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM CONTENT SESSION SIX (6 hours) 4.2. 73 . feelings and information. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. meet needs and otherwise stir the eductional pot (Jones. guide. 4. emotions. communication is the vehicle that moves education forward. or objective behaviour” Mirriam Webster Dictionary 2010 Communication requires a sender. 2000). a message. It is a process of interchanging thoughts. although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication. and a recipient.

necessary to maintain high concentration levels in order to communicate in a proper manner. Proceeding further without listening correctly is even more dangerous. Remove from your speech and body language triggers that suggest you mean something different from what you are saying. 74 . They are capable of responding precisely since the whole thing is understood quickly. It is therefore. i.2. Effective listening skills Effective listening skills is as important as speaking in the communication process. first check your feelings and the message you want to communicate.2. It can be irritating for a speaker to repeat his words again and again. Good listeners do not have to spend much time in understanding what the other person has to say. or it may involve emotionally heavy topics that are likely to set off negative reactions in the person listening. Communication can include non-threatening sharing of information. ii. Staying focussed Staying focused while communicating is very important. Concentrating hard should help in catching the speaker's views and responding to them with ease. careful listening is therefore. Feedback offered by good listeners reduces the effort of speakers to elaborate on points to be communicated. It is not far-fetched to say that good and effective communication contributes more to the quality of teaching and also effective classroom management than does any other skill.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Effective communication is key to maintaining good personal relationships. Before you begin speaking with a significant other on a difficult subject. as important as proper speaking.1 Skills for Effective Communication The list of communication skills presented below. should be helpful in interacting with people in an effective manner. 4.

If the arms are kept crossed and shoulders placed in a hunched position. Listening to the speaker patiently and then keeping forth your views should be the right thing to do. it suggests that the person is not interested in communicating. Any kind of ambiguity can lead to confusion. Once again. The attempt should not be that of winning over an argument but. iv. understanding the subject being discussed. vi. It is one of the important elements in the list of interpersonal skills. Body language Body language should be given as much importance as verbal communication. Being polite You should not use harsh language even if you find the speaker's views conflicting with that of yours. Attitude Attitude of the speaker also holds great importance in the communication process. v. Merely pronouncing the words clearly is not enough. Looking away from the speaker or not just concentrating properly would exhibit your poor communication skills. v. patience is the key to handle such type of situations. An open stance indicates that a person is interested in communicating. Disagreeing or displaying your disapproval about a certain conflict in a polite manner is always possible. Speaking clearly Speaking clearly is an important thing to keep in mind. The listener should be able to understand your views/thoughts clearly. 75 . Making eye contact Making eye contact while speaking and listening is a way to assure the speaker that you are following the communication process interestedly.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM iii.

2. 4. teachers in a school may have conflicting views. However. Keeping an open mind Keeping an open mind helps in understanding the thoughts of others without getting into conflict-mode. Objective analysis of a particular statement helps in preventing arguments and carrying on with the communication process. This approach helps in culling the errors one-by-one and thereby.3 Personal Characteristics of A Good Communicator All the skills in the world will not help you communicate effectively if you are not interested in other people and in the world around you.  always sends suitable non-verbal messages that supports his words as he knows that what is communicated non-verbally can be more meaningful than words. and thereby. expressing them tacitly/creatively should keep them from using a negative tone while presenting their viewpoints. We often make mistakes while speaking and listening (not concentrating enough). both the thinking plane of the audience and speaker should be the same. A good communicator:  remembers pupils’ names. improving the communication process (http://www. respond in a wrong way. Keeping your head and staying patient is the key to maintaining the communication process hurdle-free. greets them in a friendly manner and speaks to them with courtesy and respect. You should think about how you would like people to treat you and then treat them in the same way.com). For the communication process to be fruitful. There are instances when you need to repeat your statement or message to the listeners without getting irritated.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM vii. Making your communication process creative is possible with a little bit of effort. You should always learn from the mistakes you have made in the past. 76 . For example. Explaining a particular concept to an audience requires you to be aware of the level of understanding of listeners.ehow.


 focuses on the person with whom he is speaking making the person feel very important, which enhances the effectiveness of the communication.  listens effectively as listening is an effective way to show interest in another person. Effective listening involves not just remaining silent, but nodding one’s head in agreement, making little response noises, using prompters like “interesting'' or “tell me more,'' or asking pertinent questions to show one is paying attention. Open-ended questions that requires longer answers encourage the other person to talk.  masters the rules of etiquette and good manners to be positive and polite as these are vital for effective interpersonal relationships.  usually reads great books to develop his communication skills. He is also interested in learning the proper way to speak well because he believes in the saying “Speech is a mirror of the soul. As a man speaks, so is he“.

4.2.4 How Effective Communication Skills Help Build Good ESL Lessons Having effective communication skills will make teachers non-judgemental towards their pupils; thus treating them with respect. Psychologically the pupils will feel appreciated, which will help develop their self-confidence and self-esteem as well as enhance their class performance. Teachers too will improve their self-confidence and ability to conduct good lessons. Hence effective communication skills: i. Promote Pupils’ Self Esteem Pupils will feel that their thoughts or ideas are appreciated when teachers listen to their opinions. This increases their self esteem and confidence. Confident pupils are less likely to second guess their answers on tests, and self-assured pupils are more likely to speak up in class. Class participation leads to increased learning for the entire class. ii. Build Teachers’ Self-Confidence Communicating effectively also boosts teachers’ self-confidence over time which in turn helps them to effectively deal with pupils. Consequently, they will be able to deliver their lessons efficiently and motivate as well as inspire their pupils to excel in their studies.


iii. Prevent Misunderstandings Communicating and expressing effectively can minimize the risk of misunderstanding among pupils. Teachers will be able to deliver their lesson in the best possible way so that teaching and learning takes place in the classroom. They will use various communication strategies to ensure that the lesson is well understood and the pupils achieve the learning outcome for that day.

iv. Improve Class Performance Teachers who practise effective communication will notice an improvement in the overall class performance. Teachers can gauge the effectiveness of a lesson through their pupils’ feedback. By asking questions, teachers can determine if their pupils were able to retain the imparted information. Since there will be less room for misunderstanding to occur in the class, the pupils will learn better and this will contribute to better class performance. (http://www.ehow.com/facts)

4.2.5 Managing Verbal Communication in the Classroom Throughout the school day, teachers will be communicating with the pupils and most of the time the communication can be divided into various purposes such as to inform, to instruct, to relate, to control and to motivate. i. Informing Pupils and Conducting Instruction Teachers inform pupils most of the time and this is done regularly. Normally after a teacher has informed the pupils, he will continue checking the pupils ’ understanding by asking questions or repeating himself.

ii. Conducting Instruction Teachers use most of their communication skills in deliivering a lesson to gain the pupil attention, provide motivation, give directions, explain cncepts and procedures, pose questions, provide feedback, reteach by providing corrective instruction and second chances and redirect inappropriate behaviour.


iii. Gaining Attention Frequently attention is gained by making statement such as: “Everyone listen ! “ “Simon says, listen! “ “Freeze!” ( for a hyper active class.)

Often non-verbal signals are used such as:  Knock on the table  Rhythmic hand clap  Raising hand/s

Pupils should be taught to respond immediately to these words or signals. It is very important for teachers to gain their pupils’ full attention before they start a new lesson.

iv. Providing Motivation Teachers provide motivation and encouragement as they engage their pupils in lessons. Teachers should realize that teaching does not just mean imparting knowledge, but it is also a process of nurturing one’s personal growth. Whatever the teacher says to the pupils has a great impact on them. Compare the folowing statements by teacher A and B: A: “There you go. I know you can do it!” B: “Why are you so slow! This is such an easy question. Don’t tell me you cannot do it!” Obviously teacher A is able to motivate and boost the pupils’ self esteem, while Teacher B would definitely kill the pupils’ interest and motivation. The mot ivation that Teacher A gives is known as intrinsic motivation: motivation that ‘moves’ the pupils from inside. They want to learn because they are motivated to learn. Teachers can also provide motivation with statements such as: “Boys and girls, this is a contest lesson to see if you can set a new record for youself or for the class.” “There is a surprise hidden somewhere in the lesson, watch for it.”

synthesis and evaluation.” “I think something is bothering you. A good question might be asked to encourage pupils’ participation. Questions also force pupils to use various leve l of thoughts. Therefore in giving instructions a teacher should :  be clear. Providing Supportive and Corrective Feedback Giving comments and feedback are common practice in classroom activities. Giving Directions Giving good directions is essential for good classroom management which can help to evade problems. analysis. How can you correct here. “This is some of the best work I’ve seen you do. Benjamin Bloom (1956) listed six levels in a hierachy of thinking: memory comprehension. v. For example when a teacher wants to boost one’s self esteem or to provide corrective feedbacks.  model what he means and if necessary show examples. comments should be private if they single out a pupil. he can give out these comments. and  check to make sure pupils understand iv. Posing Questions Questions keep pupils focussed and active. How can I help?” 80 ." “You’ve made a mistake here. however the main issues here is how supportive your comments are and also how effective your feedbacks are.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM v.  short and precise. application.  Private (Individual focus) In general. This comments can be given either publicly or privately depending on the manner of the comments and the teacher’s reasons for providing the comments.

Right or wrong. tone of voice. Pupils can normally put back on course through redirection such as the following: “Ah Seng”. Below are some of the comments that can be made publicly. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep. Most of us spend about 75 percent of our waking hours communicating our knowledge. Redirecting Inappropriate Behaviour Sometimes. However. the receiver of the communication tends to base the intentions of the sender on the non.” 4. thoughts. Let me explain that part again before I continue with the lesson. and ideas to others. the flow of communication is hindered. “This is some of the best work we’ve done. body posture and motions.” “I know you are tired.6 Non-Verbal Communication Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another.” “It seems that many of you are mking the same mistakes.verbal cues he receives. 81 . I’ll help you.2. pupils do not act appropriately in the class. If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous. In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously. most of us fail to realize that a great deal of our communication is of a non-verbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. and positioning within groups. (Just say the pupils’ name quietly) “You need to be finished in five minutes. eye contact.” vi. There are many factors that contribute to these behaviours but whatever the reasons are a teacher needs to be aware of this inapproprite behaviour immediately. but let’s see if we can finish this.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Public (Group Focus) Comments can also be given out publicly when a teacher wants to give reminders or procedures which are appropriate to the entire class.

If the pupils show a true awareness to non-verbal cues. growth. To create a harmonious and effective teaching and learning environment. 4.2. honest. Non-verbal cues. This situation may occur in a very ideal situation where you have a class of very motivated and well behaved pupils. Using nonverbal communication may save a lot of the teachers’ energy and at the same time the flow of the teaching process will be smoother and more efficient.7 Managing Non-Verbal Communication in the Classsroom In an effective classroom. the class will have a better chance to succeed. achievement. provide him with one means to do so. and confronting unit. when interpreted correctly. 82 . and recognition may be met in effective teams. Some personal needs such as approval. creative and resourceful teachers may use various means and strategies in their teaching and one of it may involve nonverbal communication. but nothing is perfect in this world.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Knowledge of non-verbal communication is important managers who serve as leaders of organizational "teams. one would see that the teacher is able to conduct his or her lesson peacefully and properly where pupils listen attentively to their teacher and at the same time participate and interact positively. Most of the time teachers will be facing pupils with various background and various attitudes in the classroom. The extent to which these needs are met is closely related to how perceptive the teacher and the pupils are to non-verbal communication in themselves and in others on the team." for at least two reasons:  To function effectively as a teacher or the manager must interact with the pupils successfully.  The teachers project attitudes and feelings through non-verbal communication. for it will be an open.

can communicate friendliness and cooperation. verbal cues provide 7 percent of the meaning of the message. your facial epression will determine whether your message will not just be understood by your pupils but appreciated at the same time (Healy.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM i. This avoids the unnecessary use of the voice to deal with the localized and relatively routine problems. vocal cues 38 percent. the smile. Proficient classroom managers often rely heavily on their eyes as basic tools for keeping a class orderly and attentive. The lower face. ii. 83 . The lower face also can reveal happiness or surprise. Facial Expressions Facial expressions usually communicate emotions. A teacher who delivers his lesson accompanied by the right facial expression will display his own enthusiasm and sincerity that would be appreciated by his observant pupils. It elicits a feeling of trust. Reserchers believe. Researchers have discovered that certain facial areas reveal our emotional state better than others. This means that. Eyes rolled upward are associated with fatigue. as the receiver of a message. The expressions tell the attitudes of the communicator. and forehead can also reveal anger. brows. and even surprise. In many instances the simplest and most effective corrective move is for the teacher to make solid eye contact with the pupils. Downward glances are generally associated with modesty. 1999). thereby avoiding a potential distraction for pupils who are busy working. For example. you can rely heavily on the facial expressions of the sender because his expressions are a better indicator of the meaning behind the message than his words. The direct stare of the sender of the message conveys candour and openness. The teacher generally maintains eye contact longer than the pupils. Eye Contact Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. At the same time as the sender of the message. and facial expressions 55 percent. for example. the eyes tend to reveal happiness or sadness.

at the same time maintain orderly and productive classrooms. However. Cueing / Gesturing Cueing may involve consistent gestures that may suggest or indicate the teachers’ intentions or instructions. By pointing emphatically to a pupil’s seat . and with a younger class. Paralanguage Is the content of your message contradicted by the attitude with which you are communicating it? Researchers have found that the tone.” On a different occasion. For example. please. but as a complement to the message. quality of voice. Most good classroom managers have cultivated their sign language to the point where they are able to save themselves and their pupils a lot of unnecessary verbalization. it must be done deliberately and dramatically for example by pausing in the middle of your sentence. Pausing In the middle of a lesson. There are many other creative gestures that a teacher can use in the class so he or she will not repeat herself all the time. pitch. and quality of your voice on the interpretation of your message by the receiver. a teacher might raise her hand as a cue for pupils to volunteer to answer a question. when pupils start talking and disrupting the class. v. a teacher can just stop and pause.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM iii. and rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the content of the message. Pausing can be a very effective move in getting the pupils’ attention. not just as the conveyor of the message. pitch. A teacher might also hold a book in the air to accompany a request that the class take it out too. a finger to the lips serves as a reminder to pupils that the present activities requires silence. iv. As a communicator you should be sensitive to the influence of tone. At the same time your body should be paused too with your arms folded and accompanied by a look that demand something from the pupils such as “I’m 84 . a teacher may effectively signal “Sit down. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is important.

Instead of yelling their names and interrupting your own lesson. 1999). Discuss the importance of giving comments and feedbacks to pupils. What problems may arise if one’s communication is not effective? 5. there will always be some pupils who are not paying attention or simply ignoring you by chit-chatting with their friends.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM waiting” or “Let me have your attention now”. Exercise 1 1. Why? 2. you can walk around the class and move deliberately in the direction of the misbehaving pupil/s. You should be prepared to wait several seconds or longer for everyone to focus their attention on you. 85 primary ESL . Teachers can lean over the pupils and give them the kind of facial expression and penetrating eye contact that would definitely send the message such as “Pay attention!” (Healy. Discuss ways to manage verbal and non-verbal communications in a classroom. Discuss how effective use of different types of verbal and non-verbal communication skills would lead to effective classroom management. your physical presence is sufficient to check the pupils’ misbehaviour without the need for verbal intervention. Describe a situation where you would use non verbal communications to check pupils’ misbehaviour. 6. 2. In these instances. Moving In During a lesson. Communiction skills are very important and they are even more important to teachers. Tutorial Questions 1. vi.

teachers will be able to:  Recognize and identify different patterns of behaviour.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPIC Observing and Recognizing Patterns of Behaviour Disruptive Behaviour Violent Behaviour Non-Violent Behaviour Effects of disruptive behaviours on ESL classroom Reasons for disruptive behaviour Managing disruptive behaviour Non-Disruptive Behaviour 86 . This topic ends with discussions on ways to manage disruptive behaviours in classrooms.  Compare and contrast between disruptive and non-disruptive behaviours. 5.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 5.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TOPIC 5 OBSERVING AND RECOGNIZING PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR 5.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 5 focuses on patterns of behaviour in a classroom. 5. It also discusses the effects of and reasons for disruptive behaviours in a classroom from social and psychological perspectives.  Explain ways to manage the different patterns of behaviour. It discusses the general concept of behaviour and misbehaviour highlighting the two types of misbehaviour namely disruptive and non-disruptive behaviour as well as patterns of behaviour for each type.

He also claims that behaviour is context -specific and may be communicated or displayed through a combination of attitudes. behaviour is shaped by one’s values. teachers need knowledge on recognizing patterns of pupils’ behaviour and skill on managing pupil behaviour to ensure the teaching-learning process is effectively delivered i. In other words. In a normal size classroom in Malaysia. Hence. Charles (2002) defines behaviour as ‘ everything people do.2.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM CONTENT SESSION SEVEN (3 hours) 5. it may be expressed verbally and non-verbally. it seems rather challenging for pupils with different characteristics and personalities to sit through a class period and share the same environment without causing any disruptions.2). Other than being context-specific and situational. interacting and socializing with one another during teaching-learning activities. usually there are 30 to 40 pupils who have different individual needs.1 Patterns of Observable Behaviour Classrooms are complex social sytems in which teachers and pupils interact in a variety of ways across contexts. it is also challenging for teachers to create effective learning environments and at the same time to recognize individual emotional needs and deal with behavioural problems. In such situation. it explains why some pupils may behave in one way at school and another way at home. As behaviour cannot be separated from the context and situation in which it occurs. right or wrong. first we need to define the concept ‘behaviour’. Definition of Behaviour In order to understand behavioural problem and how they affect pupils’ engagement in the learning process. The multiple dynamics of a classroom can be a challenge for any teachers. expectations of significant others as well as society. Similarly. productive or wasteful’ (p. values as well as individual ways of behaving. good or bad. 87 . Pupils’ relationships with teachers. words and actions. helpful or useless.

parents and school community shape their interactions and responses to the situation or environment. then the problem owner is the pupil. talking out of turn and shouting out are some examples of misbehaviour. or geographical location 88 . But if a pupil’s behaviour affect others in the classroom and causes difficulties for the teachers (pupils become inattentive and lesson is disrupted).’ In addition. Manning & Bucher (2013. According to Charles (2002).6) summarize general descriptions of misbehaviour as follows:  behaviour problems challenge all teachers.2002) regards misbehaviour as ‘ a specific action of the child seen by the adult as producing an undesirable consequence for the adult ‘ (p. regardless of the school. then the problem owner is the teacher. running about the class. the ways a pupil responds to situations or environments reflect his/her behaviour.90). it is difficult in arriving at a definition which all can agree and interpret consistently. Gordon ( in Charles.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM peers. If a pupil’s behaviour does not bother anyone else in the classroom. Hence. Inappropriate behaviour. is also referred to as ‘misbehaviour’. He uses the concept ‘problem ownership’ to explain the extent of the effects of pupil behaviour in a classroom from non-disruptive to disruptive. since the teacher is the problem owner. in this context of discussion. misbehaviour is regarded as behaviour that is inappropriate in a situation or setting and that it occurs and done willfully or intentionally. In this case. grade level. Understanding Misbehaviour While the concept of behaviour is fairly straightforward and explicit. she has to take corrective actions to overcome the problem. Hence. p. interfering with the work of other children. ii. Fighting. the concept of misbehaviour is indistinct and implicit. It involves a high degree of subjectivity as different teachers place different interpretations on what is appropriate and inappropriate behaviour according to many factors such as their personal teaching philosophies and personalities. This suggests that behaviour is social in nature and its social norms determine what is considered appropriate and inappropriate behaviour.


 Behaviour problem differ in frequency and intensity, yet thay are similar in type. Although some schools do not experience any violence, all schools have some pupils who generally goof off and disturb others.  Behaviour problems disturb teachers and pupils, negatively affect the teaching and learning process, and ultimately hinder academic achievement.

iii. Types of Misbehaviour Since behaviour is shaped by individual’s values, expectations, nature of relationships with others and is context-specific, the frequency and intensity of misbehaviours are considered ‘unique’ to each individual and in each setting (Mannin g & Bucher, 2013). Misbehaviours can range from relatively minor off-tasks behaviours to more serious acts of violence. It is imperative for teachers to be able to identify, analyse and classify pupils’ behavioural pattern before planning for intervention strategies.

Meyers (2003) classifies pupil misbehaviour into two types, namely overt and covert. Overt misbehaviours are more open and observable such as pupils talking during lesson, kicking others, damage properties, etc. Covert misbehaviours are more passive such as sleeping during lesson, arriving late to class, acting bored and disengaged.

Charles (2002; p.3) on the other hand, classifies misbehaviour into five types according to degree of seriousness. The relative seriousness of the five types of misbehaviour is in descending order.  Aggression: physical and verbal attacks on teachers, pupils, or property.  Immorality: acts contrary to accepted morality, such as cheating, lying and stealing.  Defiance of authority: refusal to do as the teachers requests.  Class disruptions: talking loudly, calling out, walking the room, clowning, tossing things.  Goofing off: fooling around, out of seat, not doing assigned tasks, dawdling, daydreaming.



The first two (aggression and immorality) are considered more serious compared to the last three (defiance of authority, class disruptions and goofing off) and of which are more prevalent in classrooms. Although the last three are much less serious, they have detrimental effects on teachers’s ability to teach effectively and pupils’ learning.

Behavioural problems that disrupt a lesson is identified as disruptive behaviour. On the contrary, behavioural problems that do not disrupt a lesson is regarded as non-disruptive behaviour.

5.2.2 Disruptive Behaviour It is important to differentiate between disruptive classroom behaviour from non-disruptive classroom behaviour. Being able to correctly identify and distinguish these two types of misbehaviours will help teachers to employ appropriate strategies for intervention. Levin & Nolan (1991;p.24) define disruptive behaviour as having the following characteristics:  Interferes with the teaching act;  Interferes with the rights of others to learn;  Psychologically and physically unsafe; and  Destroys property.

To help teachers recognize and gain a better understanding of the nature of disruptive behaviours in a classroom, analyse the following behavioural problems according to the characteristics of disruptive behaviour described above (Table 5.1).
Table 5.1: Recognizing disruptive behaviours (adapted from Nolan & Levin,1991) Descriptions of behavioural problem (Misbehaviour) 1. A pupil continually calls out while the teachers is explaining material Disruptive behaviour because the behaviour.....  interferes with the teaching act  interferes with the rights of others to learn (i.e the whole class)  destroys school property

2. A pupil quietly scratches his name into his desk.



3. A pupil quietly passes notes to his neighbour

 interferes with the teaching act  interferes with the rights of others to learn (i.e his neighbour)

4. A pupil continually teases and harasses his classmates

 interferes with teaching act  interferes with the rights of others to learn  is psychologically and physically unsafe (intimidating others and evoke anger)

5. Making faces at others when the teachers is not looking.

 Interferes with the right of others to learn  Is psychologically and physically unsafe (evoke anger)  Is psychologically and physically unsafe

6. A pupil doesn’t wear safety goggles while welding in industrial arts class.

Other patterns of disruptive behaviour which have the same characteristics include:  wanders about classroom  fidgets in seat  shows disrespect for other people’s property  refuses to follow instructions  talks when teacher talks  threatens other pupils or teacher  throws objects in class

While ability to merely recognize disruptive behaviours in classrooms can provide useful information about pupil behaviour in general, it is still inadequate because teachers also need to be able to identify specifically types of disruptive behaviours, namely violent and non-violent. This is especially important when developing strategies for prevention and intervention because “ crime (violent) and routine classroom misbehaviour (non-violent) are inherently different problems that require different solutions “ ( Levin & Nolan, 1991; p.29).


in particular.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 5. school violence is just about pupils who committed crime but today school violence is multifaceted incorporating aspects of victimization. Historically. Hence. another person. therefore. to act responsibly so that schools remain safe. aggression. (WHO Global Consultation on Violence and Health. lately episodes of violence and aggression are increasing in educational settings instilling fear in both the teachers and the children. Unfortunately. a group or community  A high likelihood to cause death. comprise many dimensions. hostility. schools should be safe places where children can grow and learn. Violent Behaviour Effective teaching and learning can take place only in a harmonious learning environment.bullying. Based on research findings. World Health Organization (WHO) describes a person with violent behaviour as having the following features:  Intentional use of force or power  Threatens against. psychological harm. patterns of violencerelated behaviour or warning signs of violence include:  High tendency to be argumentative with adults  Explosive temper tantrums  Verbal and physical aggression  Deliberately damage and destroy school property  Physical and Mental Bullying 92 . sexual assault and criminal activity (Manning & Bucher. maldevelopment and deprivation.1. 2013). attempts to harm or does harm oneself. These behaviour patterns which are also considered as warning signs of potential violent acts inform school administration and teachers.1.1996) Pupils who have the propensity for violence to self and others usually exhibit violencerelated behaviour patterns. Violent behaviours.2. The occurence of violence in schools if not addressed promptly will destroy the fabric of learning and the growth as well as the development of children.

2013.2 Non-Violent Behaviour Both violent and non-violent disruptive behaviour have an adverse effect on the quality of teaching and learning as well as learning environment. On the other hand. non-violent disruptive behaviour does not lead to psychological harm to others and crime or cause death. physical.2. Hence. Manning & Butcher. the person who commit the violent acts (Chisholm & Ward.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Alcohol and/or drug use  Took something from others by force  Vulgarly insulted someone  Threw things at someone else  Brought weapons to school  Annoyed teachers and other pupils in the classroom  Intolerance for differences  Low tolerance for frustration (Basch.1. 5.2004). Nevertheless. calling out. managing non-violent disruptive behaviour is different from managing violent behaviour. unlike violent disruptive behaviour. Finger tapping on desk. and spiritual well being of pupils who are not only victims of violence but also perpetrators. Managing non-violent behaviour is within the responsible of teachers and school (sometimes parents). pupils who display non-violent disruptive behaviour have a high tendency to exhibit violent behaviour if pre-emptive actions are not taken to defuse the inappropriate act from escalating and spreading. Holtappels. walking 93 . that is. However. talking loudly. 2011. 2000) Research on the impact of violence in the schools has confirmed that violence-related behaviour has created an enormous threat to the emotional. managing violent behaviour involves not only school administration and parents but aslo outside law enforcement agencies (police) and outside professional assistance (non-government organizations) ( Levin & Nolan. 1991).

3 Effects of Disruptive Behaviours on ESL Classroom A classroom is a physical context in which a wide range of teaching and learning experiences takes place. 2002. Levin & Nolan. Dealing with frequent disruptive behaviours every day erodes teaching and learning time in ESL classrooms.2. ii. in effect. their motivation to teach is replaced by ‘ who cares’ and ‘get even’ attitude resulting in teache r-pupil power struggles (Levin & Nolan. tossing things may not only interfere with the teaching acts and the rights of others to learn but can escalate into intervention. will build up tension. anxiety and hostility between the teachers and disruptive pupils which subsequently will lead to more disruptive problems. clowning. 1991). undermines quality classroom climate. violence and aggression if there is no 5. disruptive behaviour interferes with pupil academic learning time . Thus perpetuating a vicious cycle. it will have an adverse effect on pupils and teachers in terms of : i.2013. To make matters worse.1991). Manning & Bucher. Moreover. When pupils begin to feel that their own safety is threatened their ability to focus on the lesson and pay attention 94 .1. As such the ultimate success of pupils will be heavily dependent upon the success that is facilitated in classrooms. Teaching and Learning environment As mentioned earlier. This. Hence. if teachers themselves have a low tolerance for frustration. Pupils’ Psychological safety Continued occurences of violent behaviours and aggressions instil fear in pupils. This atmosphere is not conducive to the provisons of a safe environment. as teachers begin to deal with more behavioural problems their motivation to teach and assist pupils in learning English will deteriorate. Charles. where majority of their time is spent (Moyles. which in turn affect quality of instructions.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM the room. builds trauma and increases teacher’s dissatisfaction with teaching. 2009. if the classroom is characterized by disruptive behaviours.

school and home. some of which reside within the individual pupil. Evidence from research suggests some continuity and consistency as well as change in behaviour during child development. 95 . Future behaviours Childhood is the foundation period of life where attitudes. if teachers ignore repeated behavioural problems in her class. habits and patterns of behaviour are established and moulded. while others are related to conditions within environment in society. all behaviour including unacceptable behaviour occurs because it is reinforced. In terms of social learning. Behavioural problems are usually caused by a mixture of interacting factors. Thus a child who is seen as a disruptive child in primary school may or may not be a disruptive child in secondary school. 2004).4 Reasons for Disruptive Behaviour Pupils misbehave for a variety of reasons and knowing the underlying cause of a pupil’s misbehaviour helps the teacher to determine which intervention strategies may or may not be successful.1. How a child is moulded during this crucial period will determine his ability to adjust to life as he grows older (Cooper. contributing to low academic achievement. From the perspective of behaviourists. iii.2. they will decide not to attend school or school activities. implying that behaviour problems appear to be just a phase in development. When this fear escalates and reaches a high enough level.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM to schoolwork will be greatly affected. This is because pupils who are exposed to frequent acts of problem behaviour tend to use these acts as socially acceptable models of behaviour. 5. So. other pupils who observe their teachers not taking actions against the disruptive pupil will imitate the unacceptable behaviour in future. They will even lose their confidence in their teachers’ ability to protect them from peer victimization. there is a strong tendency that the unacceptable behaviour will reoccur in future.

They misbehave under the mistaken believe that the socially unacceptable behaviour will result in the recognition they seek (Levin & Nolan. 96 . worthwhile and valued.2002. In a case of pupils who have experienced repeated failures in school subjects. p71). Evidence from research has shown that a learning climate which strongly highlights social comparison (e. effort and failure may be a serious threat to self-worth. ‘pupils need to feel that they belong in the classroom’ which suggests pupils must perceive themselves to be important. They develop hatred and seek revenge against teachers who they believed to be responsible for the experience of failures and for making failures public. Pupils with insubstantial or low academic self-esteem may seem to be reluctant to invest much effort in academic tasks. Some pupils misbehave because they want recognition and acceptance. A combination of both. Their fear of failure and the potential damage this can have on their self-esteem makes them choose to dawdle and potter around disturbing others in class instead of staying on-task. such social comparison reminds them of their own shortcomings and incompetence. and therefore leads to frustration.g. Individual  Self-Perception of academic competence According to Bandura (1986). Disruptive behaviours such as attention-seeking.  Social Recognition According to Albert’s principal teaching (in Charles. a personal belief in self-efficacy influences how much effort an individual will invest and how long she or he will persevere when facing the obstacles and even failures.1991). This may in turn lead to aggressive behaviour towards the teachers. power-seeking and revenge-seeking are common misbehaviour exhibited by pupils who seek recognition and acknowledgement from others.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM i. comparing one’s ability with another pupil or class) is likely to create anxieties among pupils. and threaten their self-confidence.

When power-seeking pupils fail to control their environment and see themselves as losing the intended recogniton they seek. Society Social problems such as drugs. repeated exposure to harassment or physical violence on television contributes to an acceptance of violence as a way of solving interpersonal conflicts and desensitizes children to violence or harassment. hence making them feel important and belong in the classroom as others acknowledged their presence. A diverse body of research demonstrates that for many children. and on television can have significant effect on children’s view of the world and the ir psycho-social development behaviour. and to make others in the class notice them. rape. attitudes and values about social interaction at ages between 3 and 11 years and it is claimed that during these formative years. This is because children develop behaviour patterns.2003). internet. crime. they usually react negatively against the reprimands and confront the teacher openly. child abuse and teenage pregnancy which are consistently reported in newspapers. engagement and exposure to inappropriate behaviours can create distorted views of society and the acceptability of certain behaviours (Cyntia. Revenge-seeking pupils vent their anger and frustration by hurting. They seek power to challenge teacher’s authority through misbehaviour believe ‘I can do what I want to do and nobody can make me do anything I don’t want to do’. road rage. ignore. These power-seeking pupils argue. they become the center of teacher’s and pupil’s attention. 97 . if these pupils do not get the attention they seek or a teacher reprimands them for disrupting a lesson. ii. they become vengeful. disturbing and harrassing others as well as damaging class furniture. They learn that when they misbehave. However. become stubborn and become disobedient to show that they are in control of the situation (ibid). They behave in this way to seek teacher’s attention. some continually ask for teacher’s approval or assistance during lessons.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Attention-seeking pupils ask irrelevant questions.

The rejection factor can escalate their already diminished sense of belonging. disruptive behaviour will be less likely to occur. iv. they tend to be inconsiderate or less empathetic. When pupils are not engaged in classroom. 98 . hence reducing off-task behaviours in class. Adopting teaching strategies that appeal to pupils’ learning style.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM When children are desensitized to violence. they are less likely to benefit from instruction and more likely to disrupt the teacher or other pupils. In many cases. They are more likely to imitate what they observe from media when they find themselves in a situation with some degree of similarity such as a situation of conflict. interest and need s will engage pupils to learning and keep pupils on task throughout the lesson.  Lack of sense of belonging Pupils who exhibit behavioural problems are more likely to be rejected by peers. Physio-Psychological Needs  Motivation School’s failure to meet pupils’ physiological needs has also been cited as one of the factors that contribute to disruptive behaviour. pupils display disruptive behaviour in classroom as a reaction to poor teaching or a de-motivating environment. From the perspective of Maslow’s hierachy of individual needs. When learning is effectively facilitated and pupils are able to successfully demonstrate understanding of new knowledge and skills which they have learned in class. Moreover. iii. If pupils are engaged in interesting academic activities. pupil motivation can significantly influence the learning environment. This positive feelings about themselves will lead to the development of self-esteem and self-respect which subsequently will further motivate pupils to learn and stay focus on the lesson. they feel positive about themselves and are motivated to learn. School Environment Meaningful learning will take place when the learning environment facilitates pupils to engage fully with the range of opportunities available to them.

Home environment has great influence on children’s psychological and moral development. Fear and resentment repressed over a long period may lead to hostility. say things they have heard. Since violent behaviour is usually persistent. academic connectedness with school.8) point out ‘ when pupils see violent and aggressive behaviours at home . Home Environment Children learn from seeing. they might begin to consider such behaviours as acceptable methods of dealing with problems”. Child. p. Homes that could be considered abusive where parents were hostile to the child and handed out angry physical punishment tend to develop patterns of 99 . feeling unsafe at school and lower emotional well-being . Initial and minor violent act begins within the parent-child bond or within the parent-parent bond. copy things they have seen and learn actions and attitudes from others. Being a victim of any form of violent acts or harassment can also affect pupils’ achievement. thus perpetuating a viscious cycle. withdrawn and insecure which may result in development of fear and resentment. They may feel isolated. Manning & Bucher (2013. This can encourage initiation or maintenance of anti social behaviour. v.  Physical and psychological safety Schools which have high rates of behavioural problems does not only threaten the physical and psychological safety of pupils but also influence pupils who observe it to act in similar harmful ways. which in turn influences the behaviour of the child.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM pupils who are rejected by peer group will often form bonds with others with similar behavioural problems to form their own ‘peer group’ or ‘gang’. the aggresive behaviour has time to develop and become enduring.rearing practices engaged in within the family also have a direct influence on the pupils’ behaviour in school.

5 Managing Disruptive Behaviour Fundamental to the understanding of behaviour problems is recognition that there is no one method or strategy to manage disruptive behaviour. it is important for teachers to consider causes for the disruptive behaviours before selecting and adopting strategies to prevent the behavioural problems from escalating. 5. Based on insights from theories and research on effective behaviour management.1. 100 . Increasing pupils’ on-task behaviour in the classroom will enable teachers to maximise learning time. By varying the types of activities during a lesson according to the developmental level of pupils and ensuring the duration of the learning activities match pupil attention spans will increase pupils’ engagement in the learning tasks. In other words. what is learned at home will influence what the pupil would do in school. It is thus important for schools and teachers to have an accurate picture of the nature and prevalence of behaviour that interfere with teaching and learning. Engage pupils academically and socially Engagement in the classroom includes behaviours that are important for learning (attending to instructions and completing seatwork) and social behaviours that facilitate learning (following classroom rules. working cooperatively with other pupils). Once the disruptive behaviour has been identified and clarified. they are less likely to actively involve in the learning process and more likely to disrupt other pupils or the teacher. suggested strategies to prevent and manage disruptive behaviours include: i. There is a tendency for the child to use the same aggressive behaviour patterns with his peers in school. When pupils are not engaged in the classroom either academically or socially.2. thus minimise disruptive behaviours.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM aggressive and violent behaviour.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM ii. Verbal Recognition Some pupils display an abnormally strong need for attention from a teacher. Disruptive behaviours are less likely to occur as their accountability for completing a definite task in a given time motivates them to engage in the learning activities. what they will do during the present lesson including the activities or tasks for the lesson in order to achieve the set learning goals/ objectives. They are out of their seat most of the time or ask irrelevant questions. the rationale for each rule and procedure. Develop an acknowledgement system An effective way to focus pupil attention on desired behaviour 101 is to set a good acknowledgement system. Set and maintain clear and concise classroom rules and procedures Teachers are advised to keep classroom rules simple and to state rules in terms of what pupils should do than what pupils should not do. When the learning goals or objectives are clearly communicated. teachers need to teach and demonstrate the class rules and procedures consistently and fairly so that they fully accept the logical consequences in which they will be imposed if they violate any of the rules or procedures. Teacher can subtly ignore their attention-seeking behaviour by praising all other pupils for in-seat behaviour. Set clearly defined learning goals/objectives Setting clearly defined goals for each lesson communicates pupils’ accountability and responsibility for learning. iv. To ensure that pupils understand what is expected from them. pupils will direct their focus and commitment toward achieving the goals. create norms for classrom behaviour and communicate thoughts and concerns for the learning environment. teachers can tell pupils what they did during the previous class. iii. At the beginning of a lesson. The purpose is to set reasonable limits for behaviour. Praise and give encouragement to the ‘attention-seeking‘ pupil when he/she demonstrates appropriate behaviour. Acknowledgements are positive verbal statements such as “ . v.

Develop weekly progress report Similar to acknowledgement system. Do a perception check Sometimes pupils can be disruptive simply by displaying nonverbal behaviours aimed at the the teacher that communicate disapproval. Teacher can do a perception check either by describing the behaviour in neutral. “ Can you tell me what was going on?”). it is time to deal with them. Progress report can be a simple checklist item that a teacher can use to monitor targeted pupil disruptive behaviour at the end of the week. first to line up. If these behaviours are one-time reactions. A point is given each time the pupil behaves appropriately or has improved his/her behaviour. school supplies. such as making faces or rolling their eyes. tehy are probably best ignored.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Thanks for helping me distribute the papers”. extra timefor recess. “Thanks for behaving good today”. 102 . “ Ali. stamps) and intangible items ( a note to parents. developing a progress report works especially well with pupils who exhibit frequent and consistent patterns of disruptive behaviour. vii. Acknowledgement system may also involve predefined rewards awarded to individual pupilss for selected target behaviour. I noticed that you were rolling your eyes just now’) or by asking for feedback ( e. the teacher communicates curiosity rather than accusation which will make the pupils become aware of their inappropriate behaviours. objective terms (e. but if they persist and annoyed. class leader for the day). Rewards can be in the form of tokens or merit points and pupils can trade points or tokens for a variety of tangible (stickers.g. vi.g. Acknowledgements such as these are crucial if teachers wish to establish a positive classroom environment. Here. The points collected can be exchanged for rewards at a later time. This can be a form of passive aggresive behaviour intended to challenge the teacher.

1991). Apart from showing them that the teacher care for them. doodling and looking out the window  spend a lot of time looking through own things. repetitive. persistent and spread they may become disruptive ( Charles. Communicate how the pupil’s disruptive behaviour affects the lesson and o ther pupils. desk. Avoid negat ive statements ( ‘You always give me headaches. The communication should only focus on the pupil’s behaviour.2. You can’t sit still for a second and you can’t stop talking”).TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM viii. Levin & Nolan. etc  say they are getting to the task or are working on something but they are not. Examples of non-disruptive behaviours are pupils who:  refuse to turn in homework  are not prepared for class  are daydreaming.2 Non-Disruptive Behaviour Non-disruptive behaviours are minor irritants and merely motivational problems but if these behaviours are prolonged.  quietly draw pictures on a piece of paper while lesson is being presented  talk during a transition between activities 103 . 5. teacher must make sure that it is done in a non-threatening and non-judgemental manner. instead start off by pointing out the positive attributes of the pupil. Pupil-teacher conference Communicating with pupils who displayed disruptive behaviour either before or after class can be a powerful strategy to curb disruptive behaviours. book . it also communicates teach er’s expectations. The teacher can ask the pupil to change and then develop a plan of action including a progress report to monitor the changes in his/her behaviour. 2002. When communicating with the pupil to find out why he/she is misbehaving.

How are these patterns similar to or different from pupils in teachersr classroom? 3. 2. Compare and contrast the differences and similarities between disruptive and nondisruptive behaviour. 104 . Identify ways how pupils’ misbehave and how to handle them positively. Exercise 1 1. Study the scenario below and suggest ways to manage the behavioural problem. monitor and maintain positive behaviours in an ESL classroom. Scenario A Year 3 pupil is a “drummer” and drums with his fingers on everything–the walls walking down the hallway. Discuss the different patterns of misbehaviour. His drumming on his desk during independent work time is becoming increasing annoying to other pupils. or threaten and intimidate others or damage school property. on his desk. 2. Reflect on past experiences on how teachers handled disruptive behaviours in an ESL classroom. Discuss effective ways to recognize different patterns of behaviour. However. They are minor irritants as long as they are brief in duration. 3. 4. teachers need to employ effective motivational strategies to work with these pupils individually in order to protect the class’s rights to learn in a safe learning environment.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM These behaviours generally do not interfere with other pupils’ learning and teaching acts. Discuss ways on how to develop. on other people etc. Tutorial 1.

Maintain Productive Behaviours Motivation Encouragement Criticism 105 . Monitoring and Maintaining Productive Pupil Behaviour Productive Behaviour Patterns of Productive Behaviour of Develop. monitor and maintain productive behaviour.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 6 focuses on ways to develop.  Differentiate between motivation.  Identify the productive behaviours of pupils.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of Topic 6.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TOPIC 6 DEVELOPING. It also provides teachers with suggestions on ways a teachers can develop and monitor productive behaviour of pupils in a classroom. MONITORING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCTIVE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR 6. 6. pupils will be able to:  Develop. monitor and maintain productive pupils’ behaviours. encouragement and criticism. Monitor. encouragement and criticism as well as ways to motivate and encourage pupils.  Explain ways to motivate and encourage 6.2 TOPIC FRAMEWORK Developing. It also discusses concepts of and differences between motivation. It defines the concept of productive behaviour and discusses patterns of productive behaviour both for individual and group behaviour.

g. Productive behaviours are influenced by many contextual factors including interpersonal interactions and relationships with teachers and peers. tend to shape and define classroom-specific social 106 . modeled behaviour) that facilitate learning. the ways pupils interact with peers and teachers as well as with the demands of the classrooms.g. encouraging productive behaviours can have extended effects in the classroom and for individual pupil. teachers have clear ideas about the behaviour and attitude of their pupils which they like to see in classrooms. As behaviours are learned and are influenced by situation in which it occurs. In other words. cooperative. moral values.1 Productive Pupil Behaviour Generally. This suggests that. Their positive actions are prompted by empathy. respect for others. She described productive behaviours as positive actions where the outcomes (e. and a sense of personal responsibility. a positive classroom environment enriches the teaching and learning experience for teachers and pupils. compliant).2. teachers can help those pupils who regularly misbehave develop productive and responsibe behaviours by altering some aspects of the classroom situation. Productive pupil behaviours do not only make the job of teaching less stressful. Interactions with teachers and peers can provide pupils directly with resources (information. prevention of problem behaviours involves the establishment of classroom environment that promotes and maintains productive pupil behaviours Desirable or productive pupil behaviour. One of the positive effects is positive ecological and psychological classroom environment. positive classroom environment) benefit others in the classroom. As discussed in earlier topic.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM CONTENT SESSION EIGHT (6 hours) 6. according to Wentzel (2002). advice. However. Pupils exhibiting productive behaviours frequently display normative or socially competent behaviour (e. can be defined in terms of the absence of negative or disruptive actions. but also enable teachers to focus on their teaching and ultimately increase pupils’ academic success.

follow the flow of lesson iii. they will develop positive image about themselves and will become more engaged in learning tasks.2 Patterns of Productive Behaviour Pupils are most likely to display productive behaviour and are socially competent when they believe they can achieve the goals inherent in the demands of classroom life and their own personal goals. These characterics can serve as a guide to identify productive behaviours in pupils. as having three characteristics. Performance outcomes such as getting good grades and completing homework. In addition. According to self-determination theory. Socially integrative characteristics such as sharing.which in turn can enhance intellectual development (Wentzel. pupils have a psychological need to relate to other people . these goals should be accomplished in ways that lead to other positive outcomes for the pupils. being helpful to others and being responsive to rules. 6. 1998). Based on research related to teachers’ perception of pupil productive behaviour in a classroom (Corrie. Damon & Phelps.2. ii. both for individual and group behaviour. There are views that suggest pupils are competent and productive when they are able to achieve goals that are valued by themselves and their teachers. For instance. 2002. positive interactions with peers can enhance the development of a range of intellectual skills such as problem-solving and decision making . doing seat work. Wentzel. The three characteristics are: i. When pupils have positive interpersonal interaction involvement with peers or with the teachers.1989).TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM competence for pupils to function in positive and productive ways. This. pupils who as an individual displays productive behaviour in classroom will also exhibit productive behaviours when she/he is working with others or in groups. teachers perceive productive behaviours. Motivational qualities such as hardworking. 107 . in turn will influence their behaviours. 2011. Usually.

Morgan. 2008. 2000) 108 .. the examples of patterns of pupil productive behaviour as listed below in Table 6. Wentzel.1 include productive behaviours prevalent for individual and working in groups: Table 6.S.1: Productive Behaviour Descriptions of productive behaviour 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Understand how the system in classroom works Get along well. courteous and tactful when talking with others Comply with the classroom rules Conform to the social norms and culture of the class community Behave well when follow teachers’s instructions Consistently stay on tasks Respect others in group/class Always pay attention in class Responsible Complete homework/task Turn in quality work Stay in seat Resilient Take initiative/ Proactive Treat class property with care Ask permission in responsible manner Use time wisely Cooperative Give and accept compliments Respect diversity of others Allow opportunities for other group members to participate Sharing and helping others solve learning/social problems Respect group leaderSupport team win and loseIndividual / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Group / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / (Corrie.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Hence. 2011.

 Resolve minor inattention and disruptions before they become major problems. praise and encouragement when pupils demonstrate productive behaviour. In this way pupils will have less time to talk. “How can I better capture pupils’ interest and excitement? Are my pupils bored?”  are following expectations. Pupils must clearly understand their interdependence in accomplishing the task. making regular eye contact with pupils and demonstrating teacher ‘Whit-it-ness’  Minimise delays in teaching-learning activities and provide work that reduces frustration. make sure the desired behaviours are explicitly described and reinforced on a regular basis. Monitor and Maintain Productive Behaviours Monitoring and maintaining productive classroom behaviour for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. that is. Classrooms where pupils engaging in learning are classrooms where teachers:  Plan lessons that highlight “productive time”. Effective use of contingent praise will reinforce and increase a variety of productive pupil behaviours and academic skills. Include pupils in creating the rules . acknowledge other requests for assistance and handle disruptions promptly by scanning the classroom for misbehaviours regularly. Besides consolidating and building new understanding. and otherwise use time unproductively. walk around the classroom. rather than just engaged time.  Modify or adapt instructional strategies when necessary to meet individual needs of pupils. As rules create clear behaviour expectations.  Create positive interdependendence by designing a group task where participation of every member is necessary to its completion. Use positive classroom rules. has a chance to contribute and responsible for the task assigned.2. Ask.  Encourage exchange of ideas by providing groups a considerable face-to-face interaction. 109 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 6. which involves tasks designed to keep pupils busy and quiet. face-to face interaction allows everyone in the group be prepared. A teacher can monitor the rest of the class.3 Develop. time spent on lessons adapted to pupils’ needs and interests.  Give rewards.

Severs. an environment conducive to pupil productive behaviour should be promoted and maintained in order to sustain pupil productive behaviour. members of the group should be aware that each individual will receive a grade and that each is a participant in the evaluation process.2. interests and attitudes which can be positive and negative in their effects.D.  Teach social competency skills in order to develop ability to maintain peer relationships and exhibit pro-social behaviour in classroom and school.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM  Create and provide accountability system which provides feedback to the individual pupil as well as to the group.4 Motivation Motivation is an inner drive that arouses pupils. develop thinking and problem solving skills.. monitoring and sustaining productive behaviour does not only reduce behaviour problems in a classroom. steers them in particular directions. 2001)  Developing.or tasks and causes them to be persisitent in trying to achieve the goals or completing the task successfully (Lenin & Nolan. 6.  Teach and practice interpersonal and small group skills to develop ability to resolve conflict in a constructive manner and communicate effectively. A pupil’s motivation is influenced by a number of beliefs. and monitor learning progress. Therefore. goals. 2006. (Henry. & Riddoch. Consistently and clearly inform pupils of intended learning objectives. but can also lead to higher pupil achievement.  Create meaningful tasks which support cooperative learning. teach them expected learning strategies.  Teach metacognitive strategies to help each member become self-regulated pupils. A challenging problem solving group task accompanied by scaffoldings will encourage pupils to rely on one another. 2003. Damon & Phelps. 110 .1991).

teachers need to realize that the presence of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is always not mutually exclusive. there is a tendency that once these rewards are no longer available or considerably diminished. There are cases where pupils may be both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated. However. They pursue an academic task on their own initiative without having to be coerced and regularly evaluate their own progress using their own criteria. 111 . Extrinsic motivation.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM A pupil who is positively motivated would always pay attention to the lesson. on the other hand. they pay attention to teachers. This is to say. There are two types of motivation. they begin working on task immediately and volunteer to answer questions. direct her/his energy to the learning tasks and believe she/he has the ability and confidence to succeed. Pupils who are extrinsically motivated rely solely on tangible rewards and desirable results for their work or effort such as receiving good grades or special privileges in the classroom. deals with behaviour performed to receive some extrinsic rewards or recognition. 2008) have indicated that intrinsic motivation can promote pupil learning and achievement better than extrinsic motivation. Since they rely primarily on rewards. Task participation is its own reward. pupils will show little inclination to continue the academic task or activity. involve actively in the lesson. Schunk et al. a. Intrinsic motivation deals with behaviour performed for its own sake in order to experience satisfaction. Thus. 2000. namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Ways to motivate pupils It is easy to tell when pupils are motivated to learn and stay on task. have little confidence or expectation of succeeding in the task and have low interest in the lesson. a pupil who is not motivated or lacking in motivation would aim to only do enough to avoid failure. Previous studies (Hidi & Harackiewicz. intrinsically motivated pupils work on academic tasks because they find them enjoyable and interesting. They do not rely on explicit rewards or recognition. In contrast.

. iii. storytelling and amazing facts. Novelty can occur when pupils experience something new.Relate teaching and learning materials to pupil interest in life outside school. group work.  Encourage success by teaching pupils study skills. ii. Pupil Needs  Create activities that provide ample opportunities for pupils to meet some of their basic human needs such as sense of belonging and self-esteem through group work and pair work. Adapted from Nolan & Levin (1991). Variety of topics and activities can maximize different pupils with different learning styles. Pupil Interest . language games. Success  Create success for pupils by designing activies that are manageable within the time duration given and according to pupils’ ability level.video viewing.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM it is important that teachers have a good understanding of the strategies that can be used to motivate pupils. Teachers can actively manipulate many of the environmental and contextual variables to increase pupil motivation. Variety and Novelty  Ensure variety in topics and activities when teaching as this can encourage mastery learning.  Ensure pupils experience success by making learning goals or objectives clear and teaching content of the lesson clearly in small steps. 112 learning opportunities for .Design variety of activities which pupil enjoy such as simulation. some of the variables which teachers can actively manipulate to motivate and encourage pupils are: i. games to avoid boredom. unusual or unexpected. iv.  Design variety in classroom activities that can promote novelty and will capture pupils’ attention such as simulation.

Feedback  Give specific feedback to pupils soon after or at the time of performance or presentation. and instills faith and confidence” (Adler. 6. gets one to evaluate his/her own performance.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM v.g. it inspires them with confidence. allows pupils to to become aware of their own strengths and stimulates motivation from within them (intrinsic motivation). These feedbacks allow pupils to keep track of their own progress over time. In context of classroom . It is a a process that focuses on the individual’s potential and ability in order to enhance self -esteem . pupils tend to be relaxed and not serious about learning. 509). The feedback must focus on pupils’ performance ( assignment. not on pupils’ personal attributes.” I’m really proud of you. A neutral tone is non-stimulating while an extreme negative feeling tone is threatening and can lead to tension overload. You used many descriptive words to describe your vacation”). It focuses on what the pupils do.1946. vi. vii. Tension  Create a moderate amount of tension to enhance motivation and increase pupil learning. Feeling Tone  Create and establish a moderately positive atmosphere where the climate is friendly and pleasant but focused on the learning task at hand. When a teacher uses encouragement (e. p.5 Encouragement Encouragement. is “a comment which shows acceptance. “ I like reading your essay.2. highlighting their capabilities. contibutions 113 and efforts. When there is no tension in the learning situation. emphasizes effort and improvement. appreciates contributions.self-confidence and selfworth. Your effort really seems to have paid off”. “I noticed you put a lot of effort into this assignment”. An extremely positive feeling tone or climate can direct pupil attention away from the learning task. test score and pupil work).

i. destructive criticism focuses on individual’s inadequencies and personhood which can erode his/her self-esteem (Baron. Considerations when using encouragement There are many ways and techniques of using encouragement in classroom management.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM management. They highlight considerations a teacher has to take when planning to use encouragement in a classroom such as:  value pupils as they are  use words that build the pupil’s self-esteem  plan for experiences that create success  demonstarte genuineness to pupils  demonstrate non-verbal acceptance through touch  recognize pupils’ effort  avoid emphasis on liabilities  show appreciation for pupils’ cooperation 6. limitations and focuses on past wrongdoings are called destructive criticism. 1988). encouragement is a more psychologically healthy approach to stimulating positive behaviour.2. Kelly & Chick (1982) propose Adlerian approach to using encouragement in helping pupils to accept their own basic worth as a given and to stimulate pupils to evaluate the value of their own behaviour as well as take greater responsibility for their own actions. This implies that the comments can be presented in a positive or negative tone. and self-efficacy 114 . Unlike encouragement which shows acceptance and focuses on individual’s potentials and abilities. Comments that highlights individual shortcomings.6 Criticism Criticism is the act of making comment about someone’s performance or behaviour.

wheather or not the comments made about their work or performance are destructive or constructive criticism depends on their sociocognitive maturity and understanding (Cutting & Dunn. You plan to organize a group work activity for your English lesson. children who are better at understanding others will be more able to rationalize teacher criticism and understand that criticism of school work is constructive and is intended to promote learning and improvement. How do teachers know when pupils are motivated? 5. when the comment acts as a catalyst for growth and change. exposes individual to alternative options which leads to reassessment of task performance. Pupil motivation is an essential element necessary for quality education. 3. Discuss. Compare the differences between motivation. Constructive criticism is intended to help individuals recognize or interpret ways to improve past performance or future attempts. then this type of criticism is called positive or constructive criticism (ibid). 2002). A well developed social cognition may help children to deal with criticism.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM However. This is to say. List some examples of expected productive behaviours you wish to have in your class. Give reasons. Exercise 1 1. 115 . What are the considerations you would take to promote productive group behaviour. For young children. 4. Children with mature sociocognitive understanding are able to ‘read’ and correctly interpret what their teacher says may take criticism more seriously than children who are less able to interpret their teacher’s comments. encouragement and criticism.

116 . 3. Find and present successful cases of good motivation strategies on young ESL pupils. Discuss the effects of good and poor motivating strategies on young ESL pupils. Discuss ways on how to develop. 2.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Tutorial 1. monitor and maintain productive behaviours of young ESL pupils.

2 Framework of Topics Developing a Personal Classroom Management Plan Reflection Sessions Expectations Consequences Approaches. theoretical approaches of classroom management.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TOPIC 7 DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN 1. procedures. 7. expectations. It provides teachers with brief descriptions on teacher reflection.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 7. teachers will be able to:  Outline and develop a personal Classroom Management Plan (CMP)  Identify and differentiate different approaches.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 7 focuses on developing a personal classroom management plan.  Outline the expectations of teachers and pupils in the management of an ESL classroom  Identify the rules. Theories and Models Rules and Procedures Communication Skills 117 . rules and consequences. consequences and procedures in developing a Personal CMP  Identify and explain the effective communication skills in preparing a good Personal CMP 7. and communication skills. theories and models in Personal CMP  Explain how to do reflective sessions in managing an ESL classroom.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM CONTENT SESSION NINE AND TEN (6 hours) 7.2. realistic and filled with meaningful content and insights. The plan structures teachers teaching and pupils learning. ideas the teachers have read in textbooks and professional journals. and supporting teacher and pupil autonomy and promotes a sense of community.” Indeed such classrooms exists because teachers have a plan to make them happen and are prepared to carry out the plan and meet that goal.1 Reflective Sessions Evertson et al. how their pupils learn and how the classroom works. Smoothly running classroom where pupils are highly involved in learning activities and that are free from desruption and chronic misbehaviour do not happen accidently. they integrate classroom management theory and practice into how they teach. ideas from education courses. a teacher’s Personal CMP style must become an extension of the teacher’s personality and philoso phies combined with the chemistry of the pupils in the classroom. Ultimately. When teachers develop a Personal CMP (Appendix 4 . 118 . distractions and disruptions. emphasizing teachers’ strengths and supporting weaknesses. Teachers can maintain their plan easily throughout the year as it supports who they are and what they want to be in the classroom. experience and skills and includes their own ideas and practices they have observed in effective classrooms. The Personal CMP maximizes instructional and learning time and minimizes interruptions. The Personal CMP must be personal. The Personal CMP places this theory and practice into a structure where teachers can implement in a classroom. and ideas colleagues have shared. instruction and teacher behaviour interact to create a productive and positive learning environment.8). Classroom management. (1989) “Good classroom management doesn’t just happen. The Personal CMP reflects teachers’ personality.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Reflection is an important part of the practice of teaching and essential in pulling together the teacher’s personality and philosophies as well as classroom experiences to devise an effective personal CMP. event. situations and experiences. Reflective recall comprises four-steps which are ‘Stop. teachers need to assess their own as well as pupil’s classroom performance and behaviour. In the next step they recall lessons. situation or experience with a fellow teacher or friend. suggests that teachers must think about their long term goals and reflect on whether these goals are animated in their classrooms. The evaluation aspects of reflection provide teachers with an opportunity to get in touch with their teaching selves. changing or eliminating ideas or linking the components and ideas to each other consequently enhancing their classroom instruction and classroom management skills. teachers must physically stop everything to spend time reflecting on a lesson. Their answers to the questionnaire will make them reflect on their own practice and subsequently assist them in planning and implementing their own Personal Classroom Management Plan (Bosch. According to her. problem or classroom management. refers to reflective recall as the method designed for reflection and revising the Classroom Management Plan (CMP). events.1). analyse their teaching goals and classroom management. thought and insight to impact how they and the classroom work. 119 . analyzing and evaluating how they work and how the classroom works. K (1999). To be and remain effective. 1999). classroom management or behavioural problem. Reflecting is a critique of a teaching lesson. Reflection Questionnaire To help teachers think and promote further understanding of their teaching self they can use a reflection questionnaire (Figure 7. Bosch. In the first step. In the final step teachers revise their strategies by adding. situation. Recall. In the review step. they think about the recalled information and connect it to the CMP. Teachers may want to reflect on this information alone or discuss the lesson. reflective recall is a method that lets teachers use time. Review and Revise’. i. 1999). Kohn (1996 in Bosch. learning activity.


REFLECTION QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What does the term classroom management mean to you? Reflect on your philosophy of education. Write five “I believe” statements about teaching.



List your strengths. Think about both personal strengths and talents. Circle that particularly apply to classroom teaching.


Ask several family members and friends to tell teachers what they like best about you, and list their responses below. Note responses similar to yours.


List your weaknesses. Circle those the CMP may need to support.


List the most important qualities you wish to foster in your pupils.


How do you introduce yourself to the class? Complete a concept map on “What is Good Teaching?”



Write a brief paragraph on how you make a difference in the lives of your pupils.

10. Find and copy a favorite qoute, poem or story that conveys an understanding of your teaching self.

Figure 7.1: Reflective Questionnaire


Approaches, Theories and Models

Before teachers can make any classroom management plan for their classroom, it is vital for teachers to be aware of the principles and consequences of decisions and strategies they wish to implement. A good understanding of the different approaches, theories and models of classroom management and “...consideration of teachers’ own beliefs of pupil’s


development” (Edwards and Watts, 2004) will help teachers make the right decisions and select strategies that will work for their situation. At this point, it would be useful to have an overview of the different approaches, theories and models of classroom management (Appendix 1).

From the overview, classroom management theories, approaches and models differ in terms of pupil self-regulation to the degree of teachers’ control over their pupils. These differences can be categorised as ‘teacher-directed approach, collaborative approach and pupil-directed approach’ as shown in Table 7.1 (Balson, 1982).

Table 7.1: Categories of Approaches Relative Power Teachers’ Control Mixed Discipline Models Behaviour Modification Assertive Discipline Democratic Discipline Choice Theory Positive Behaviour Leadership Teacher-directed Approach Collaborative Approach Theoretical Bases Teachers Effectiveness Training Responsible Thinking Process Pain Pupil-directed Approach Pupil’s Autonomy Teacher-Directed Approach i. Theory Teacher-directed theory believes that human behaviours can be promoted or reinforced by the environment, so that children’s behaviours can be changed under the influence of environment conditions, such as rewards, encouragements, consequences and

punishments. Therefore, teachers give pupils little autonomy because they do not believe that pupils are able to self-monitor or self-regulate adequately. Hence, teachers should adjust the external conditions to achieve expected behaviours only (Martin and Pear, 2007).


ii. Model Demonstration in practice One of the famous discipline models based on the teachers-directed theory is Canter’s assertive discipline model, which gives teachers a system to set up their expectations and rules, avoid negative behaviours by negative consequences and reinforce preferred behaviours through rewards or encouragements. There are a few steps to apply assertive discipline model to classroom management problems. Establishing positive pupil-teachers relationships is the first step. Teachers need to establish good relationship with pupils based on mutual trust and respect in order to make sure their expectations are met. Hence, teachers could attend pupils’ activities, such as sports events and drama plays and so on, and praise their achievements in these activities to promote a better relationship. The next step is to clarify rules and expectations. Rules in class are mostly based on teachers’s needs, and they need to be clearly specified and explained. A short list of rules is preferable rather than long one since it is easier for pupils to understand, remember and follow. The following step is to track misbehaviours, which is to make sure their demands are met after they clarified their rules and expectations. Through the step, pupils would know that their behaviours are monitored and examined. All following rewards and consequences are provided based on the observation as well. (Edwards and Watts, 2004) The three steps above is the basis of the assertive discipline model. Next is to use consequences to enforce boundaries. With advance preparation, the discipline hierarchy could be set up to differentiate severity of misbehaviours. Consequences or punishments could become more and more serious when pupils continue to misbehave. Besides negative consequences, positive consequences also need to be applied to encourage desirable behaviours. Frequently supplying negative consequences will increase the tense and depression in classroom, while praise, rewards and encouragements will ease the tense and depression. However, the Canters claimed that rewards can not replace

In other words. (Charles. if teachers could offer appropriate guidance.social-problem-solving meetings. belonging. Theory Collaborative theory assumes that children’s behaviours are influenced from both inner and outer factors. 2004). therefore. fun and freedom.2 Collaborative Approach i. so that they are able to achieve responsible self-determination. establishing strong parent support is very important. and the purpose of their behaviours is always to satisfy some needs. The behaviours that the class finds 123 . Teachers. power. A successful teachersparent communication could also show parents that teachers are really interested in helping their kids (Edwards and Watts. Model demonstration in practice William Glasser’s Choice Theory model is based on the collaborative theory. Social-problem-solving meetings are focused on class.2. they do not deprive others to satisfy theirs. teachers have to teach pupils how to be responsible and allow them to gain more selfcontrol over their behaviours. Glasser suggested three types of classroom meetings to prevent discipline problem . 2002) In practice. It explains why and how all human beings behave and that all behaviours are driven by five basic needs: survival. need to teach pupils how to control their behaviour in a way that they can satisfy their needs. choice theory includes significant prevention components.2. Parents play a vital role in helping teachers maintain good classroom discipline.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM punishments. ii. and meanwhile. 7. open-ended meetings and educational diagnosis meetings. Pupils would like to control their own life to meet their needs. The last but not the least. It encourages pupils to solve discipline problems from class expectations. and a balance between positive and negative consequences are needed in the assertive discipline system.

Teachers should offer quality teaching and activate pupils’ genuine motivation by locating their needs and interests. 7. Pupils are also welcomed to contribute on the rule formulations. since the “blueprint” of their future is already in them. 2013) suggested that teachers’ intervention should not be punitive. but make logic sense to pupils.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM unacceptable are listed through collective discussions. pupils are encouraged to accept and consider these consequences as reasonable outcomes for contravening rules rather than pure punishments. pupils would feel more obligations to the class issues.3 Pupil-Directed Approach i. improvement and repetition could achieve a better work quality and protect their self-esteem as well. Encouraging pupils to go through a process of self-evaluation. Educational diagnosis meetings are for pupils to evaluate their academic achievements and find out the blind side of their knowledge. Here. pupils gain a chance to make decisions to create their own classroom circumstance based on sufficient information which is provided by teachers. and the classroom rules would make more sense to them as it also contains their own determinations. Glasser (in Manning and Bucher. Although negative consequences would be applied when the classroom rules are breached.2. Pupils would grow up naturally and teachers’ role in this process is to promote their self -growth by providing conditions. Open-ended meetings are used to support regular curriculum. 124 . consequently. It is a way to maximum satisfaction in class.2. it encourages pupils input on the class operations in order to promote a more enjoyable and productive learning environment. Theory The pupil-directed theory believes that children are capable for complete rational selfregulations. Also. When class rules are broken. in which pupils could ask questions relevant to their learning circumstance.

first of all. which believes that pupils will make correct decisions and solve problems with the assistance from parents and teachers. teachers own the problem. no one owns the problem. as teachers. facial expressions and door openers could show teachers’ positive attitude and promote the conversation. the problem ownership has to be located. Furthermore. analyzing. Besides. When teachers own the problem. Besides. teachers need to shift gears from an assertive position to a listening position to reach an acceptable solution by considering the pupil’s needs and feeling. In addition. they need a way to release the distressful feelings and emotions. which is based on good communication. if a conflict occurs in the classroom. In contrast. 1989 in Manings and Bucher. sending pupil a confrontive I-message to clarify the problem. the pupil owns the problem. warning. Applying the teachers effectiveness training model to solve discipline problems. the punitive punishment would cause aggression in children. preaching. so that. just listening to their problems will help a lot. When a pupil responses the I-message in a resisting way. (Gordon. non-adversarial manner. which exhibits a posture of willingness to help the pupil. punishments are not going to stop pupils’ contrary to regulations. they should deal with pupils’ misbehaviours in a positive. its effect and teachers’ feeling is also a method to gain the pupil’s cooperation and support. 2013) The teachers effectiveness training model is relied on good connection between teachers and pupils.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM ii. if pupil’s behaviour causes no problem for either teachers or the pupil. Some body movements. When pupils own the problem. If pupil’s behaviour causes problems for the pupil only. teachers may minimize or eliminate the behaviour problems by modifying the physical or psychological environment. Model Demonstration in practice A well-known model of the theory is the teachers effectiveness training model. teachers should avoid expressions such as giving order. if pupil’s behaviour causes problems for teachers or other pupils. 125 . Usually. trying to find a no-lose method of conflict resolution is much better than a win-lose one.

which will block the communication road between teachers and pupil. 2004) Table 7. Firstly. Then. and they are required to behave more responsibly. efficient and harmonious classroom. (Edwards and Watts. since these expressions will restrain pupil’s willingness of talking.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM lecturing and criticizing. rules of the class should be set up by both teachers and pupil through discussions. rebellion or revenge  Underlying the causes of discipline problems  Difficult for pupils to experience true sense of autonomy if the outside influences are too strong  Difficult for teachers to show respectful behaviour if pupils keep challenging them  Time consuming  Time consuming  Not applicable in emergency or dangerous situations  Over reliance on pupil’s willingness Assertive Discipline (Teachers-directed) Choice Theory (Collaborative)  Developing effective teachers-pupil relationship  Promotion of self-autonomy and selfdetermination to meet pupil’s need  High-lighting the teachers’s need  Promotion of honest communication  Encouraging self-discipline  Forming good teachers-pupil relationship Teachers Effectiveness Training (Pupildirected) 126 .are listed in Table 7. choice theory and the teachers’ effectiveness training model .assertive discipline model. Besides. teachers need to share the power and decision making with pupils to manage the class with the anticipation of pupils. which is much like the way to obtain no-lose conflict resolution. in which the advantages and disadvantages of each approaches would be located as well. Discussion The strengths and limitations of the example models . There are also some explicit strategies regarding the prevention of discipline problems. iii. preventing I-message could be used to modify the possible misbehaviours later and receive desirable future support and cooperation from the pupils.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Models/Theory Discipline Model Advantages  Simple for application  Focus on teachers’s desire  Parents and administrators are involved in discipline process Disadvantages  Inhibition of pupil’s self-regulation  Punishments may cause consequences such as embarrassing. in order to achieve a safe.2 below. Consequently pupils will have more confidence and self-esteem in the class.

Pupils’ socioeconomic background.3 Expectations Research has explored the complex factors and the many potential sources that affect the formation of teacher expectations. so that strategies of collaborative theory are trying to balance both of their needs. ii. Alderman (2004) provides a useful summary of the major sources of the expectations that teachers hold for their pupils based on research by Alvidrez & Weinstein (1999) and Baron. The collaborative theory believes that pupil’s self-regulation must be guided by teachers. Teachers’ beliefs about pupils’ ability and their beliefs about intelligence Alderman (2004: 174) explains that when teachers consider intelligence as a fixed pupil characteristic. race. 1983: 327). but impair teachers’ interventions. The pupil-directed theory believes pupil’s self-regulation. Tom & Cooper (1985). they are more likely to label pupils as “smart or dumb and teach them according to the label”. so the strategies emphasize on the teachers’ desire and neglect pupil’s needs. The teachersdirected theory does not believe that pupils are able to self-regulate.2. For example. 7. so its strategies highlight the pupil’s willingness. 2002:54). and social class “were related to teacher expectancies” (Dusek and Joseph. gender and ethnicity. in practice. 127 . i. classroom conduct. factors such as the age group of pupils and school learning environment could be considered to find a suitable classroom management plan. Dusek and Joseph conducted a meta-analysis of research on teacher expectancies and concluded that pupil characteristics such as pupil's conduct in the school. Hence. Weinstein argues that “one contributor to teacher judgments of ability is pupil performance” (Weinstein.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM The three approaches are essentially different in the cognition of pupils.

In addition. graduation.  Expecting less academic work from pupils who are low-acheiving. The anxiety created by the often unreasonable expectations and demands of today’s classroom.  Asking pupils who are low-acheiving only easy questions. Pupils’ test scores. The pressure to conform to a picture of the perfect teacher lies at the root of much selfinduced stress.  Waiting less time for pupils who are low-acheiving than for pupils who are high- acheiving to answer questions before giving the anser or going to another pupil. and college attendance expectancies for females than for males and for middle-socio economic status (SES) than low-SES pupils which can be similar to ESL primary school teachers’ expectations of their pupils. The teachers’ own assumptions about a problem. van Matre et al (2000) suggest that teachers held higher grade. 1983) has found that in the early elementary school years an older sibling's performance may influence teachers’ expectancies (either positive or negative) for a younger sibling's performance. Sometimes teachers fail to discriminate between the actual expectation of teaching and their own self-imposed expecations. or a pupil perceived as a problem. dedication and commitment can result in unreasonable and virtually unattainable expectations.  Accepting and using fewer ideas of pupils who are low-acheiving. a teachers’s own dissatisfaction with self. Idealism. 2002). and/or previous academic achievement Rivers (1980) quoted in (Dusek and Joseph. can drive behaviour in unproductive directions.  Calling on pupils who are low acheiving less often. adds to the feelings of helplessness. The following are differing ways teachers treat and respond to pupils who are low-acheiving versus pupils who are high-achieving (Good and Brophy. The teacher’s own thoughts and feelings undermine more effective 128 .  Giving pupils who are low-acheiving the correct answer rather that offering clues or repharising the questions.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM iii.  Making fewer efforts to improve the performance of pupils who are low-acheiving.

stress or conflict. The following I – should statements represent some commonly held teaching myths. procedures and consequences will help teachers to meet these expectations.  Cope with all situations without anxiety.  Catastrophic Thinking I messed up again. Puven doesn’t like me. I can’t do anything right.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM behaviour. it is important for teachers to plan ways to achieve their behavioural expectations of their pupils. uncertainty or chaos. I’ll never trust him again. My Headmaster let me down. so none of the teachers here likes me. 129 .  Run my classroom so that there is no confusion. I should  Like and care for all pupils  Have no preferences or prejudices  Be consistent in my actions with pupils  Remain calm and collected at all times  Hide my true feelins and place pupils’ feelings above mine. Determining. (Larrivee 2009). Such limiting beliefs are expressed in self-verbalizations. Teachers should learn to replace negative thought patterns with affirming ones. Why even try? It won’t do any good – she’s a hopeless case.  Be able to solve all problems. Having realised the various sources that affect the formation of teachers’ expectations. teaching and reinforcing over time appropriate rules. Two especially destructive ways of thinking about problems and issues are:  All-or-None Thinking Mr.

is a critical up-front investment of a teacher’s time and energy. a snake slithering in the classroom or a strong wind and heavy rain causing havoc. 130 . the fire alarm could ring. Rules should be in positive statements and not in negative statements. Listen when someone else is talking. Examples to avoid No disrespectful comments. Pupils should be able to understand the behavioural expectation. Always use appropriate conduct. prevent pupil misbehaviour and create a sense of order and consequences in the classroom. These pieces of classroom management plan help to promote appropriate pupil behaviour. At any moment. Class time is for class activities. procedures and explanation of them. pupils do not know when they can go to the washroom. Rules need to be stated clearly.3: Guidelines on Crafting Classroom Rules Characteristics 1. Rationale Positive rules explain what pupils should be doing. Follow the teacher’s direction. or how the person in front of the room will treat them all year. These and a host of other distractions and dangers create a lot of potential areas for confusion and rather unsafe feelings for pupils. a child could have a seizure. someone could start a fight. Rule. On the first day of school. No toys or games in class. Come to class prepared with all required materials. Every pupil will demostrate habits of a responsible pupil.2. teaching them to pupils and outlining the benefits of working within them.3 when crafting classroom rules (Gimbert. (Avoid vague rules unless intended to be discuss extensively with pupils). tell pupils how the teachers expects them to behave. Teachers can adopt the guidelines in Table 7. 2. if they will be punished for leaving their seats. Negative stated rules simply tell pupils what to avoid and challenge pupils to find inappropriate behaviours that fall outside the scope of the rule. a senior assistant could ask teachers to step out into the hall during the lesson. Table 7. the overhead light could blow. Examples to follow Respect your classmates in your words and actions. Determining rules and procedures. 2010). the intercom could blare with announcements. No talking out of turn.4 Rules and Procedures Classrooms are unpredictable places.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 7.

and they have the power to choose the resulting “effect”. Bring homework. the teacher will want to take into account what characteristics make some consequences more effective than others. When there are fewer rules. Effective consequences flow logically and naturally from the pupil’s 131 . the degree of consequences should increase gradually.2. to anticipate consequences and to give up immediate gratification to receive a long term goal. No profanity. Rules should be few. few and at the same time clear to pupils is not easy. they are more accurately viewed as part of the structure that makes rules work.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 3. No leaving the room without permission. Gimbert (2010) posits that selfdiscipline involves the capacities to regulate oneself. Keeping rules short. Fewer rules are easier for pupils to remember and for teachers to enforce. Be on tim. First. food or drink in class. 7. The pupil can choose to follow the rule or break the rule and incur the negative consequences. To ensure their expectations are fair and realistic. is one of the many ways teachers can empower their pupils and help them develop self-discipline. Just a few rules will avoid the sense that the teacher is trying to control a pupil’s every movement. norebook and pen/pencil to class everyday. Helping pupils realize this cause and effect relationship. This is one of the most important behavioural skills teachers can teach their pupils.5 Consequences While consequences are often framed as something used only after a rule has failed. so as to give pupils adequate warning before imposing a more severe penalty. No gum. In order to establish such rules and procedures teachers have to make sure each rule is broad enough to cover more than one specific behavioural expectation and yet not too explicit. each rule will seem more important. teachers need to determine the kind of classroom environment they want to establish and also consider the age and maturity of the pupils. Rules such as Class time is for class activities or Follow the teacher’s directions. In establishing consequences. Address many behaviours in one rule. what would happen if he/she were to break a rule or does not comply with the procedure. A pupil needs to know up-front. book.

not the pupil and his/her behavioural history. Finally. When they repeat the misbehaviour.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM behaviour. (Logical) If three pupils interrupt the teacher during a class period. Rationale This sends the message that pupils have potential to behave and simply need to understand and choose to follow the expectation. Phone call home 2. Examples to avoid 1. Sent to office or 1. they all receive mild warning. Table 2. progressing from less severe to more severe as misbehaviour is reapeated. who had a history of not raising his/her hand. When a pupil is disrespectful to a group member during group work.4 illustrates the characteristics of effective consequences (Gimbert. Examples to follow 1. Logical consequences are structured learning opportunities arranged to teach appropriate behaviour. as pupils are allowed to experience the outcome of their poor choices or behaviour. effective consequences keep the pupil’s dignity intact. (Natural) When a pupil misbehaves during rehearsal for an activity. he/she will have to sit out of the rehearsal until the next day. Parent conference 3. Warning 2. Written plan for improvement 4. In school detention Consequences should be natural and/or logical Natural consequences follow from the event or situation. the second gets a harsh warning and the third pupil. (neither logical or natural Consequences should maintain the dignity of the pupil. highlighting the rationale of the rule. gets detention after school because the teacher is so so “fed up” by that time. he/she is allowed to remain in the group but is held in from recess. Mild Warning 2. he receives a mild warning and is asked to walk instead at the end of the line. Severe clause: Sent to Headmaster If a pupil runs to be the first in line.4: Characteristics of Effective Consequences Characteristics Consequences should be gradual. they choose the more severe consequences. Short detention after class or school 3. he/she receives a mild warning and is told that if the poor behaviour continues. Guardian contact 5. Consequences should be consistent from pupil to pupil and delivery of consequences should always address the particular behaviour in question. 2010) Table 7. If three pupils interrupt the teacher during a class period. the first gets ignored. 132 .

it should be culturally and developmentally appropriate. they might respond to comments about bringing shame to the family if they are successful on the test (Weinstein et al. However. 2007). Sarcasm is inappropriate and jokes should never be made at the expense of individual pupils (Bondy et al. Explain briefly the effective communication skills that you would consider in preparing your own Personal CMP? 133 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 7. Directives should be straighforward.. Discuss the Collaborative Approach in Personal Classroom Management and its effectiveness in your own school. 3.). pupils from working class families are often used to direct orders (Work on your exercises now) rather than polite requests (Please begin to work on your assignment) or indirect requests (Would you like to begin your work. List an array of potential consequences and discuss how to implement them in the classroom. however. Both verbal and non verbal communication strategies of teachers should reflect the cultures of pupils. Humor can be used to lighten situations.6 Communication Skills Effective communication help teachers to show that they care about pupils and want them to succeed.2.. 2013 Exercises 1 1. To communicate clear expectations.. Teachers should use familiar words and expressions and refer to things that the pupils are interested ini. 2.. For example. the tone should be firm.. you won’t pass the test) may not work with some cultural groups. Stressing logical consequences (if you don’t study. Teachers should use communication patterns that are familiar to different cultural groups.

4. Discuss strategies to develop a Personal Classroom Management Plan. Discuss what would you need to consider when preparing a Personal Classroom Management Plan. 134 . 3.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Tutorial 1. Discuss characteristics of a good Personal Classroom Management Plan. 2. Prepare a Personal Classroom Management Plan and share with friends.

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Westport. Educational Administration Abstracts. F. Classroom management: Sound theory and effective practice .org. R. In Denmark. Classroom management: Sound theory and effective practice. What it is and how to do it (eighth edition). Retrieved 25 Jan 2013 from www. Tomlinson-Clarke. Boston. Tauber.. (1981). Thelen. L. research. (2007). T. 202-209.14.R. J. (2007). Pintrich.43-48. Violence: a public health priority. Tauber. (2003). Upper Saddle River. & Meece. A. H. Journal of Educational Psychology. and applications (3rd ed. Toward a conception of culturally responsive classroom management.). 90. Motivation in education: Theory. 62. 4. Englewood Cliffs. Tsiplakides. Severs. WHO Global Consultation on Violence and Health (1996). Weinstein. Inc.P. A. (October 01.. 39.. M.B: Croom Helm. & Curran.K. School Science Review. G. NJ: Prentice-Hall. & Keramida. MA : Springer Science & Business Media. C.. 2004). P. 141 . (2010). S. A system to boost personal achievement and esteem. H.L. R. The classroom society: The construction of educational experience . The role of parents.) Wentzel. Inc. teachers and peers. Westport. 85(311). D. Social support and adjustment in middle school. (2000). (2008). R.ccsenet. L. T.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Schunk. NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Conn: Praeger Publishers. p. Violence in Schools : Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. The Relationship between Teachers Expectations and Pupil Achievement in the Teaching of English as A Foreign Language. Conn: Praeger Publishers.

F. Pupil behaviour is goal directed and all pupils want to belong. Teachers and school meet pupil needs in order for them to flourish. Pupils misbehave out of mistaken goals. 2. 4. preventive strategies and incorporate a no-lose approach to conflict. Pioneers in Classroom Management Theorists 1. Teachers assists pupil self-discipline by focusing on the situation not the pupil and view pupils as capable of making good decisions. Thomas Gordon Lee and Marlene Canter William Glasser Teachers effectiveness training Assertive discipline Choice theory and quality school Liberal 7. smoothness of lesson delivery) to influence pupil behaviour. Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg B. Disciple is best achieved through pupil self-control. Quality teachers instruction assists in meeting these needs. Teachers encourage pupil involvement and responsible behaviour. Skinner Jacob Kounin Models Classroom haviour and classroom discipline Behaviour modification Instructional management Congruent communication Democratic teaching Approaches Authoritative/ democratic Authoritarian Authoritative/ democratic Democratic Main Assumptions Pupils in groups behave differently to individuals. Rudolph Dreikurs Democratic 6. Democratic 142 . Teachers shape pupil behaviour through systematic reinforcement including rewards and negative reinforcements.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 1 The following table shows a comparison of early influential writers and contemporary models in classroom management. teachers support pupil self-control and offer ‘in the moment’ help to change behaviour. Teachers prevent misbehaviours through awareness in the classroom and by using effective lesson management techniques (pupil movement. group awareness.Teachers use ‘I’ messages in influencing pupil behaviour. Teachers promote pupil self-discipline in a democratic classroom where pupils and teachers make decisions on how the class will work. Haim Ginott 5. Teachers use logical consequences and encouragement instead of praise. 3. Teachers encourage pupil autonomy through dignity and awareness of pupils’ feeling about situations and themselves. and should never use punishment. Authoritarian 8. The teachers and pupils have rights in the classroom. Clear rules of behaviour and expectations are written and enforced through a discipline hierarchy of cosequences.

classroom organisation. Linda Albert Models Cooperative discipline Approaches Democratic Main Assumptions Discipline is best achieved through cooperation. Pupil behaviour is viewed as an opportunity for learning. It is based on a belief that pupils will make good decisions. The classroom is structured to allow opportunities for responsibility.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Contemporary Models in Classroom Management Theorists 1. helping pupils with work problems and incentives to promote responsibility. Authoritative/ democratic 143 . where pupils feel connected and belong. Teachers planning and organisation are essential and pupil behaviour is the result of poor teachers classroom management. Barbara Coloroso Inner discipline Democratic 3. teachers provides learning communities that are built on trust. Pupils assist in the development of a code of conduct. Harry and Rosemary Wong Spencer Kagan. 5. Teachers provide a classroom where pupils come to view themselves as capable and able to have control in teachersr lives. as if on the same side (win-win) to solve problems and continually reaffirm self management and proactive life skills. Teachers and pupils work cooperatively to solve problems in the class. Jerome Freiberg Democratic 6. Teachers maintain pupils involvement in learning through effective and efficient teachers behaviours such as engaging lessoins. Effective instruction and increasing pupil achievement are important in taking pupils from being ‘tourists’ to citizens. As a part of school-wide approach. Jane Nelson and Lynn Lolt Frederic Jones Positive discipline Positive classroom discipline Cosistency management and cooperative discipline Pragmatic Classroom Management Win-win discipline Authoritative/ democratic Authoritarian 4. are worth the effort and have the capacity to take positive charge of teachersr lives. Pupils take on leadership roles and responsibility in developing self-discipline. Teachers work with pupils. Teachers work to instil an inner sense of control in pupils. Teachers need to have clear classroom procedures that are taught to pupils in the first weeks of school in order to teach effectively. cooperation and consistency of message across the school. 2. Class meetings are key to class relationship building. Patricia Kyle and Sally Scott Authoritarian 7. The classroom climate is built on mutual respect and cooperation. Teachers need to establish a classroom that is safe. setting clear limits. Misbehaviour is seen as a starting point in helping pupils develop self-responsibility.

9 Beyond discipline Democratic 10 Marvin Marshall Discipline without stress Authoritative/d emocratic 11 Ronald Morrish Real discipline Autocratic 12 Forest Gathercoal Carolyn Evertson and Alene Harris Judicious discipline Classroom organisation and management program (comp) Authoritative/d emocratic Authoritative/d emocratic 13 144 . In these communities pupils and teachers develop respectful relationships and collectively solve problems (class meetings). Teachers respect pupil interest in instruction and costructing learning that movespupils to deeper levels of thinking. Teachers train pupils so that they can work successfully in society. Teachers model the values promoted in the classroom. Schools are set within society and therefore we need to educate pupils to live in a democratic society. The teachers organises the classroom for effective instruction and learning opportunities. offer choices and develop self-reflection as a step towards changing behaviour. to comply with adult authority. Teachers are positive. Richard Curwin and Allen Mendler Alfie Kohn Discipline with dignity Democratic Teachers maintain a positive learning environment that supports pupil dignity and gives a sense of hope to those pupils struggling with school.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM 8. Teachers focus on pupil responsibility and empower pupils to make choices about behaviour. Pupils are more likely to behave when given responsibility. Teachers work to develop classrooms as learning communities. Pupils need to be taught right from wrong.The organisation includes teaching rules and procedures from day one of the school year and developing pupil accountability for behaviour and learning. The focus is on pupil rights and responsibilities and in developing ethical behaviour as reflected in society’s laws. to begin to make choices about behaviour. The classroom is viewed as a social and communicative setting suited to pupil-centred instruction. Teachers consider individual situations rater than relying on a rigid hierarchy of consequences and provide choices for pupils. and when developmentally ready. Pupils are taught a framework for behaving appropriately. Teachers provide guidance and support for pupils to behave responsibily.

When a pupil is disrespectful to a group member during group work. he/she will have to sit out of the rehearsal until the next day. Natural consequences follow from the event or situation. When they repeat the misbehaviour. (Gimbert. he/she is allowed to remain in the group but is held in from recess. Rationale This sends the message that pupils have potential to behave and simply need to understand and choose to follow the expectation. highlighting the rationale of the rule. Consequences should be consistent from pupil to pupil and delivery of consequences should always address the particular behaviour in question. (neither logical or natural Consequences should maintain the dignity of the pupil. Logical consequences are structured learning opportunities arranged to teach appropriate behaviour. progressing from less severe to more severe as misbehaviour is reapeated. Severe clause: Sent to Headmaster Examples to Avoid 1. (Logical) If three pupils interrupt the teachers during a class period. the first gets ignored. Written plan for improvement 4. as pupils are allowed to experience the outcome of their poor choices or behaviour. (Natural) When a pupil misbehaves during rehearsal for an activity. Examples to folow 1. they choose the more severe consequences. Sent to office or 1. who had a history of not raising his/her hand. Parent conference 3. not the pupil and his/her behavioural history. the second gets a harsh warning and the third pupil.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 2 The following table highlights the characteristics of effective consequences. If three pupils interrupt the teachers during a class period. they all receive mild warning. he/she receives a mild warning and is told that if the poor behaviour continues. gets detention after school because the teachers is so so “fed up” by that time. Phone call home 2. 145 . Guardian contact 5. he receives a mild warning and is asked to walk instead at the end of the line. 2010) Characteristics Consequences should be gradual. Short detention after class or school 3. In school detention Consequences should be natural and/or logical If a pupil runs to be the first in line. Warming 2. Mild Warning 2.

(Avoid rules that are vague unless teachers intend to discuss the rule extensively with pupils).TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 3 The following table gives examples of rules that do and do not meet these guidelines. 3. Each rule appears more important when there are fewer of them. (Gimbert. 2. No toys or games in class. Address many behaviours in one rule. Finally. No disrespectful comments. No gum. Every pupil will demostrate habits of a responsible pupil. Always use appropriate conduct. food or drink in class. book. No leaving the room without permission. Rationale Positive rules explain what pupils should be doing. Pupils should be able to understand the behavioural expectation Examples to follow Examples to avoid Respect teachersr classmates in teachersr words and actions. Rules need to be stated clearly. Fewer rules are also easier for pupils to remember and for teachers to enforce. norebook and pen/pencil to class everyday. Listen when someone else is talking. Class time is for class activities. having just a few rules avoids the sense that the teachers is trying to control a pupil’s every movement. Bring homework. 146 . Rules should be few. Come to class prepared with all required materials. Negative stated rules simply tell pupils what to avoid and challenge pupils to find inappropriate behaviours that fall outside the scope of the rule. Be on tim. Rules such as Class time is for class activities or Follow the teachers’s directions. No talking out of turn. No profanity. Avoid rules framed as negative statements. 2010) Characteristics 1. Follow the teachers’s direction. Rules should be in the form of positive statement.

2.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 4 CLASSROOM ORGANISATION My Personal Classroom Management Plan Teaching Goal : Classroom Organisation Classroom Environment Draw or describe room arrangement Sketch bulletin board ideas Class Motto Classroom Operation Rules 1. 3. 147 . 5. 4.

4. 5.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 5 My Personal Classroom Management Plan Routine and procedures Consequences 1. Incentives Cues 148 . 2. 3.

When a pupil gives an incorrect answer Pupil self-evaluation opportunities 149 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 6 My Personal Classroom Management Plan Instruction Lessons Instructional Strategies Individual Instructional Strategies Questioning Strategies Examples of questions Respo nses to pupils When a pupil gives a correct answer. When a pupil gives a partially correct answer.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 7 My Personal Classroom Management Plan Effective Teaching Practices Building positive relationships Between teachers and pupils Among classmates With parents Strategies to develop pupil social skills Strategies to develop pupil problem-solving and decision-making skilss Strategies to develop pupil self-control Preventive discipline strategies Classroom technology plan ASSESSMENT Grading Plan Recording grades in the grade book 150 .

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM Appendix 8 My Personal Classroom Management Plan Homework policy Progress Report Pupil opportunities to impacr grades Extra credit Rewrites Drop a grade Special assignment Collection of points to be factored into the final grade REFLECTION 151 .

A Linguistics Indiana University. UK  Ass.(Hons) TESL University of Nottingham.my KELULUSAN  PHD Ed.Ed. UK  Sijil Perguruan TESOL MPK Ipoh PENGALAMAN KERJA  Pensyarah dalam bidang TESOL  15 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah rendah  5 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah  11 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG 152 .TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM PANEL PENULIS MODUL PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU MOD PENDIDIKAN JARAK JAUH (PENDIDIKAN RENDAH) NAMA MUHAMAD RAJA ABDULLAH Pensyarah TESOL mdrajaendran2011@gmail. USA  B. Blomington.A.com KELULUSAN  M. USA PENGALAMAN KERJA  5 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah  19 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG PUVENESWAREN A/L KARUPPIAH Pensyarah TESOL eswaranpu@yahoo.com KELULUSAN: KELAYAKAN  M.com.Ed.Ed.(Hons) TESOL Universiti of Leeds. (Educational Management & Administration). Universiti Sains Malaysia  M. Diploma in TESOL Sheffield City Polytechnic/ Trinity College London  Sijil Perguruan TESOL MPKNPKT PENGALAMAN KERJA  14 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah rendah  6 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah  13 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG DR SITI ROHANI BT.ESL Universiti Malaya  B. Blomington. English Indiana University. Universiti Sains Malaysia  B. MOHD ZAIN Pensyarah TESOL sitizain07@yahoo.

UK  Sijil Perguruan Khas MPIK KL  Sijil Perguruan TESL MP PENGALAMAN KERJA  22 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah menengah  4 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG AHMAD KAMAL BIN ABDUL GHANI Pensyarah TESOL ringo2901@yahoo.A. Ed.Ed.my KELULUSAN  M.(Hons) TESOL University of Lancaster.net. TESL (Hons) UPSI  KDPK TESOL MP Kinta  Sijil Perguruan TESOL MP Ipoh PENGALAMAN KERJA  14 tahun sebagai guru di sekolah rendah/ menengah  7 tahun sebagai pensyarah di IPG 153 .com KELULUSAN  M. (Educational Technology) Universiti Sains Malaysia  B.TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM TARSAME SINGH A/L MASA SINGH Pensyarah TESOL tarsame@tm.Ed.Linguistics Universiti Malaya  B.

TSL3109 MANAGING THE PRIMARY ESL CLASSROOM IKON Rehat Perbincangan Bahan Bacaan Buku Rujukan Latihan Membuat Nota Senarai Semakan Layari Internet Panduan Pengguna Mengumpul Maklumat Tutorial Memikir Tamat NOTA: SILA GUNAKAN IKON-IKON Di ATAS BAGI TUJUAN / MAKSUD SEPERTI YANG DINYATAKAN. 154 .

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