Limitele functiilor elementare

Tabelul limitelor functiilor elementare f: X÷Y, x
0
e R, x
0
punct de acumulare al lui X.


Limite Functia

X


Y

· ÷ x
lim f(x)
÷· ÷ x
lim f(x)
0
x x
lim
÷
f(x), x
0
finit
Functia constanta
f(x) = c
R R c c

c
Functia identica pe R :
f(x) = x.
R R · - ·
x
0

Functia polinomiala:
f(x) = a
k
x
k
+a
1 k÷
x
1 k÷
+ … + a
1
x + a
0


R R
· daca a
k
>0
- · daca a
k
<0

- · daca a
k
>0, k impar
· daca a
k
> 0, k par
· daca a
k
< 0, k impar
- · daca a
k
< 0, k par

f(x
0
)
Functia exponentiala
f(x) = a
x
, a > 0, a  1


R

(0, · )
· daca a > 1
0 daca a(0, 1)
0 daca a > 1
· daca a(0, 1)
a
0
x

Functia radical
a) f(x) =
k 2
x , 1  k, kN

b)f(x)=
1 k 2
x
+
, 1  k, kN


a) [0, · )


b) R



a) R


b) R


a) ·


b) ·

a) nu exista


b) - ·

a)
k 2
0
x

b)
1 k 2
0
x
+

Functia logaritmica
f(x) = log
a
x, a > 0, a  1



(0, · )

R
· daca a > 1
- · daca a(0,1)
nu exista
a) x
0
= 0 ¬
0
x x
lim
÷
log
a
x = log
a
x
0

b) x
0
= 0 ¬
0 x
0 x
lim
>
÷
log
a
x = - · daca a > 1

0 x
0 x
lim
>
÷
log
a
x = · daca ae(0,1)


Limite Functia

X


Y

· ÷ x
lim f(x)
÷· ÷ x
lim f(x)
0
x x
lim
÷
f(x), x
0
finit
Functia sinus
f(x) = sin x
R [-1, 1] nu exista nu exista
sin x
0

Functia cosinus
f(x) = cos x
R [-1, 1] nu exista nu exista
cos x
0

Functia tangenta
f(x) = tg x


R-
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
t +
t
k
2

keZ
R nu exista nu exista
a) x
0
= t +
t
k
2
¬
0
x x
lim
÷
tg x = tg x
0

b) x
0
= t +
t
k
2
¬
t +
t
<
t +
t
÷
k
2
x
k
2
x
lim tg x = · ,
t +
t
>
t +
t
÷
k
2
x
k
2
x
lim tg x = - ·
Functia cotangenta
f(x) = ctg x

R- { } t k
keZ
R nu exista nu exista
a) x
0
= t k ¬
0
x x
lim
÷
ctg x = ctg x
0

b) x
0
= t k ¬
t <
t ÷
k x
k x
lim ctg x = - · ,
t >
t ÷
k x
k x
lim ctg x =·
Functia arcsinus
f(x) = arcsin x

[-1, 1]
(
¸
(

¸
t t
÷
2
,
2

nu are sens nu are sens
a) x
0
e(-1, 1) ¬
0
x x
lim
÷
arcsin x = arcsin x
0
;
b) x
0
= -1 ¬
1 x
1 x
lim
÷ >
÷ ÷
arcsin x = -
2
t
;
c) x
0
= 1 ¬
1 x
1 x
lim
<
÷
arcsin x =
2
t
;
Functia arccosinus
f(x) = arccos x
[-1, 1] [0, t ] nu are sens nu are sens
a) x
0
e(-1, 1) ¬
0
x x
lim
÷
arccos x = arccos x
0
;
b) x
0
= -1 ¬
1 x
1 x
lim
÷ >
÷ ÷
arccos x = t ;
c) x
0
= 1 ¬
1 x
1 x
lim
<
÷
arccos x = 0
Functia arctangenta
f(x) = arctg x
R
|
.
|

\
| t t
÷
2
,
2

2
t
-
2
t

0
x x
lim
÷
arctg x = arctg x
0

Functia arccotangenta
f(x) = arcctg x

R
( ) t , 0
0 t
0
x x
lim
÷
arcctg x = arcctg x
0

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