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MODLES OF POLICY ANALYSIS

TOPICS TO BE COVERED

DEFINING MODELS AND POLICY ANALYSIS APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGY OVERALL VIEW OF DIFFERENT MODELS

DEFINITIONS
APPROACH APPROACHES ARE BROAD PATHWAYS TO UNDERSTAND A THEME OR SUBJECT

IT IS A SCHOLARLY STARTEGY OR MODE OF ANALYSIS WHICH PROVIDES A SET OF INTELLECTUAL TOOLS FOR THE STUDY AND UMDERSTANDING OF POLITICAL PHENOMENON

DEFINITIONS
APPROACH IT MAY IN ITSELF CONSTITUTE A MAJOR BODY OF THOERY OR IT MAY TAKE THE FORM OF A SIMULATION MODEL THE OBJECTIVE OF AN APPROACH IS TO GIVE ORDER TO A DIVERSE RANGE OF POLITICAL PHENOMENON BY FITTING WITHIN A LIMITED SET OF CONCEPTS

DEFINITIONS
MODELS MODEL IS A WORKING INTELLECTUAL CONSTRUCT BY WHICH SOCIAL OR PHYSICAL SITUATIONS, REAL OR HYPOTHETICAL, CAN BE REPRESENTED THE MENTAL IMAGE OF WORLD AROUND YOU WHICH YOU CARRY IN YOUR HEAD IS MODEL. A MENTAL IMAGE IS MODEL A MODEL IS SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTAION OF SOME ASPECT OF REAL WORLD

DEFINITIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS

POLICY ANALYSIS IS A SYSTEMATIC AND DATA BASED ALTERNATIVE TO INTUTIVE JUDGEMENTS ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF POLICY AND POLICY OPTIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS AS THE THINKING MANS RESPONSE TO DEMANDS

DEFINITIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS IT INVOLVES : 1. A PRIMARY CONCERN WITH EXPLANATION RATHER THAN PRECRIPTION 2. A RIGOROUS SEARH FOR THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC POLICIES 3. AN EFFORT TO DEVELOP AND TEST GENERAL PROPOSITIONS ABOUT THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC POLICY AND TO ACULUMATE RELAIBLE RESEARCH FINDINGS OF GENERAL RELEVANCE

DEFINITIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS IT PROVIDES ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS THAT ARE DESINATIVE ( WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF POLICIES ?) , EVALUATIVE ( OF WHAT VALUE ARE POLICIES ?) AND ADVOCATIVE ( WHAT POLICIES SHOULD BE ADOPTED ?) POLICY ANALYSIS CONSISTS OF NOT ONLY EXAMINING AND BRINGING IMPROVEMENTS IN FORMULATING POLICIES BUT ALSO THE EVALUATION OF THE CHOICES AND OUTCOMES OF THE POLICIES

DEFINITIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS POLICY ANALYSIS AS THE KNOWLEDGE OF PROCESSES BY WHICH POLICY IS FORMULATED, IMPLEMENTED, AND EVALUATED ; STRATEGIES OF OPTIMISATION AND SELECTION OF ALTERNATIVES ; AND DISTINCT ATTRIBUTES OF POLICY REALTIVE TO SPECIFIC FUNCTIONAL AREAS POLICY ANALYSIS IS CONCERNED WITH FACTS, VALUES, AND ACTIONS . IT IS IMPIRICAL AS WELL AS NORMATIVE

DEFINITIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS HAS TO ANSWER THESE THREE QUESTIONS : VALUES WHOSE ATTAINMENT IS THE MAIN TESTOF A WHETHER A PROBLEM HAS BEEN RESOLVED FACTS WHOSE PRESENCE MAY LIMIT OR ENHANCE THE ATTAINMENT OF VALUES ACTIONS WHOSEADOPTION MAY RESULT IN ATTAINMENT OF VALUES AND RESLOLUTION OF PROBLEMS

APPROACHES TO POLICY ANALYSIS


THREE GENERAL APPROACHES 1. Analycentric approach : It focuses on individual problems and solutions ; its scope is micro-scale and its outcome is of technical nature. Its aim is to identify the most effective and efficient solution in technical and economic terms 2. Policy process approach : Its focus is political process and stakeholders ; scope is meso scale and outcome is of political nature 3.Meta-policy approach : It is a system and context approach ; scope macro-scale and outcome is of structural nature

METHODOLOGY
It includes : Qualitative methods Quantitative methods Case studies Survey research Statistical analysis Model building One common methodology to define the problem and evaluation criteria ; identify all alternatives ; evaluate them ; and come out with best policy

MODELS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS


MODELS TRY TO : SIMPLIFY AND CLARIFY OUR THINKING ABOUT POLITICS AND PUBLIC POLICY IDENTIFY IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF POLICY PROBLEMS HELP US TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER BY FOCUSSING ON ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF POLITICAL LIFE DIRECT OUR EFFORTS TO UNDERSATND PUBLIC POLICY BETTER BY SUGGESTING WHAT IS IMPORATNT AND WHAT IS UNIMPORATNT SUGGEST EXPLANATIONS FOR PUBLIC POLICY AND PREDICT ITS CONSEQUENCES

MODELS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS


DIFFERENT MODELS INSTITUTIONAL MODEL PROCESS MODEL RATIONAL MODEL INCREMENTAL MODEL GROUP MODEL ELITE MODEL PUBLIC CHOICE MODEL GAME THOERY MODEL

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


INSTITUTIONAL MODEL POLICY AS INSTITUTIONAL OUTPUT THIS APPROACH DID NOT DEVOTE MUCH ATTENTION TO THE LINKAGES BETWEEN STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS AND CONTENT OF PUBLIC POLICY IT WAS ASSUMED THAT CHANGES IN STRUCTURE WILL EFFECT POLICY CONTENTS THE REALITY IS THAT BOTH STRUCTURE AND POLICY ARE LARGELY DETERMINED BY SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FORCES

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


PROCESS MODEL IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES SETTING AGENDA FORMULATION OF POLICY PROPOSALS LEGITIMISATION OF POLICY IMPLEMENTAION EVALUATION THIS MODEL CRTICISED FOR BEING LINEAR AND SIMPLISTIC. IN REAL WORLD STAGES OF POLICY PROCESS MAY OVERLAP OR NEVER HAPPEN

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


RATIONAL MODEL RATIONAL POLICY AIMS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM SOCIAL GAIN POLICIES RESULTING IN GAINS TO THE SOCIETY THAT EXCEED COST BY THE GREATEST AMOUNT POLICY IS RATIONAL WHEN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VALUE IT ACHIEVES AND THE VALUE IT SACRIFICES IS POSITIVE AND GREATER THAN ANY POLICY ALTERNATIVE

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


RATIONAL MODEL
RATIONALISM INVOLVES THE CALCULATION OF ALL SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC VALUES SACRIFICED OR ACHIEVED NOT THAT CAN BE MEASURED IN MONETRY TERMS THIS REQUIRES THAT POLICY MAKER MUST KNOW : ALL THE SOCIETYS VALUE PREFERENCES AND THEIR RELATIVE WEIGHTS ALL POLICY ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE ALL THE CONSEQUENCES OF EACH ALTERNATIVE CALCULATE THE RATIO OF BENEFITS TO COST FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE SELECT THE MOST EFFICIENT POLICY ALTERNATIVE

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


BARRIERS TO RATIONAL MODEL
1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

NO SOCIAL BENEFITS ARE USUALLY AGREED BUT ONLY BENEFITS TO SPECIFIC GROUPS MANY CONFLICTING COSTS AND BENEFITS CANNOT BE COMAPRED OR WIEGHTED POLICYMAKERS ARE NOT MOTIVATED TO MAKE DECISIONS ON THE BASIS OF SOCIETAL GOALS POLICY MAKERS ARE NOT MOTIVATED TO MAXIMISE NET SOCIAL GAINS BUT MERELY TO SATISFY DEMANDS OF PROGRESS LARGE INVESTMENTS IN EXISITING POLICIES PREVENT THEM TO SEARCH ALTERNATIVES INNUMERABLE BARRIERS IN COLLECTING INFORMATION

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


BARRIERS TO RATIONAL MODEL
7. PREDICTIVE CAPACITIES OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES ARE LIMITED MAKING IT DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND FULL BENEFITS OR COST OF POLICY ALTERNATIVES 8. UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF ALTERNATIVES COMPELS POLICY MAKERS TO STICK CLOSELY TO PREVIOUS POLICIES 9. SEGEMENTALISED NATURE OF POLICYMAKING IN LARGE BUREAUCRACIES MAKE COCORDINATION AND INFORMATION OF RELEVANT INPUTS VERY DIFFICULT

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


RATIONAL MODEL SO MANY BARRIERS IN RATIONAL DECISION MAKING, IT RARELY TAKES PLACE IN GOVERNENMENT MODEL REMAINS IMPORTANT FOR ANALYTIC PURPOSE AND IT ASSISTS IN POSING RIGHT QUESTIONS

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


INCREMENTAL MODEL UNDER THIS MODEL POLICY IS CONTINUATION OF PREVOIUS POLICY WITH MINIMUM CHANGES EXISITING PROGRAMMES, POLICIES AND EXPENDITURES ARE CONSIDERED ARE AS BASE POLICY MAKERS ACCEPT THE LEGITIMACY OF PREVIOUS POLICIES BECAUSE OF THE UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEW POLICIES

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


GROUP MODEL UNDER THIS MODEL,INTERACTION AMONG GROUPS IS REGARDED AS CENTRAL FACT OF POLICY MAKING

PUBLIC POLICY AT ANY GIVEN TIME IS THE EQUILIBRIUM REACHED IN GROUP STRUGGLE
GROUP MODELREGARDS ALL MEANINGFUL, POLITICAL ACTIVITY IN TERMS OF GROUP STRUGGLE

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


ELITE MODEL PUBLIC POLICIES VIEWED AS PREFERENCES AND VALUES OF GOVERNING ELITE

POLICIES FLOW DOWN-WARD FROM ELITESTO MASSES; THEY DONT ARISE FROM MASS DEMANDS

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


PUBLIC CHOICE MODEL THIS MODEL ASSUMES THAT ALL POLITICAL ACTORS , VOTERS, TAXPAYERS, LEGISLATURES, BUREAUCRATS, PARTIES ETC. SEEK TO MAXIMISE THEIR PERSONAL BENEFITS IN POLITICS AS IN MARKET PLACE INDIVIDUALS COME TOGETHER IN POLITICS FOR THEIR MUTUAL BENEFIT, JUST AS THEY COME TOGETHER IN MARKET PLACE

MODELS OF POLICY ANALYSIS


GAME THEORY MODEL

IT IS STUDY OF RATIONAL DECISIONS IN SITUATIONS IN WHICH TWO OR MOREPARTICIPANTS HAVE CHOICES TO MAKE AND OUTCOME DEPENDS ON THE CHOICES MADE BY EACH GAME THEORY IS AN ABSTRACT AND DEDUCTIVE MODEL OF POLICY MAKING IT DOES NOT DESCRIBE HOW PEOPLE ACTUALLY MAKE DECISIONS BUT RATHER HOW THEY SHOULD GO ABOUT MAKING DECISIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS IF THEY ARE RATIONAL

USEFULNESS OF MODELS

ORDER AND SIMPLIFY REALITY IDENTIFY WHAT IS SIGNIFICANT BE CONGRUENT WITH REALITY PROVIDE MEANIGFUL COMMUNICATION DIRECT ENQUIRY AND RESEARCH SUGGEST EXPLANATIONS

CONCLUSION
MODELS ARE NOT COMPETITIVE ; ANY ONE OF THEM COULD NOT BE JUDGED BEST EACH ONE PROVIDES A SEPARATE FOCUS AND EACH CAN HELP TO UNDERSTAND DIFFERENT THINGS ABOUT PUBLIC POLICY MOST POLICIES ARE COMBINATION OF RATIONAL PLANNING, INCREMENTALISM, INTEREST GROUP ACTIVITY, ELITE PREFERENCE, GAME PLAYING, PUBLIC CHOICES,AND INSTITUTIONAL PREFERENCES