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sfrucfura/ functions

in music
Pnjssor q' Music Universiy Qf British Columbia


Copyright © l976, 1987by WallaceT. Berry. All rights reserved under Pan Americanand International Copyright Conventions. Published in Canada by General Publishing Company, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in the United Kingdom by Constable andCompany, Ltd. This Dover edition, first published in 1987, is an unabridged and corrected republication of the work originally published by PrenticeHall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,Newjerseyg in1976. Corrections have been made by the author specially for this Dover edition. Manufactured in the United States ofAmerica Dover Publications, Inc., 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, N.Y ll5Ol Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Berry; Wallace. Structural functions in music. Reprint. Originally published: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. : Prentice-Hall, 1976. Withcorrections by the author. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Musical analysis. I. Title. MT6.B465S8 1987 781 86-31912 ISBN 0-486-25384-8 pbk.! Data

fo Maxine

preface to preface to
introduction, 1

the do ver edition, the first edition, xiii



tonality, 27
Introductory notes Introductory comments concerning tonal and linear functions The concept of multileveled function further explored The ideas of primacy and hierarchy among pitch-classes and pitch-class-complexes; generic and particular tonal systems Tonal systemsof compositions: regions and interrelations The concept of a generic tonal system exploredin theory Primary and secondary tonicsand their structural and auxiliary functions; multileveled multiple! tonal-harmonic function; tonic and dominant forms Essential and auxiliary linear functions of pitches and pitchcomplexes, their hierarchic basis often determined by tonal and cadential factors Tonal order as an inflation of harmonic order and succession Tonal fluctuation and techniques of immediate succession by which it is effected Tonal organization as a pattern of relative stability opposed to relative flux Tonal rhythm The questions of tonal intersection, direction, and distance; intervals of fluctuation; high-level chromatic successions and nondiatonic tonics; the interchangeability of modes and the equivalence of parallel tonics Concepts of tonal progression and tonal recession Concepts ofharmonic and melodic progressionand recession; complementarities and counteractions of element-successions VII

viii contents Some examples of quasi-tonal order in melodic and composite functions Melodic curve Some further observations concerningmelodic analysis Some particular issues ofharmonic analysis in later styles Procedures ofanalysis; symbolic representations ofmelodic and harmonic functions and afliliations Gregorian chant, Veni creator spiritus Two preludes from Fischer, Ariadne Musica Bach, Drauf schliess ichmich in deine Hande, from Motet, Komm,Jesu, komm Beethoven, SymphonyNo. 2 in D, Op. 36, fourth movement; representations ofthe tonal system 'andtonal rhythm Wolf, Das verlassene Miigdlein, from Gedichte von Miirike Ravel, Le Martin-Pécheur, from Histoires Naturelles Bartok, String Quartet No. 2, Op. 17, third movement Webern, Four Pieces, Op. 7, for violin and piano, No. l Berg, Four Pieces, Op. 5, for clarinet and piano, No. 4 Summary notes on the universality and significance of the principle of hierarchic tonal order Concluding notes


texture, 184
Introductory notes Textural progression, recession, andvariation as structural factors Types of musical texture; problems of classification and terminology Some further considerations ofterminology and aspects oftexture Texture and style Textural rhythm Qualitative and quantitative values Density and dissonance Interlinear independence and interdependence Imitation, a universal feature of many polyphonic styles; multiple counterpoint The activation of simple textures The complementa.ryand compensatory dispositions oftexture in relation to other element-structures Some textural functions in delineation of form Textural processesin progression toward intensity, in recession toward cadence, and in anticipation of thematic statement

COHIBDIS Texture as space Motivic texture; the provocative effect of unusual textures Levels of analysis and of hierarchy in the textural structure Gesualdo, Or, che ingioia credea viver contento from Madrigals, Book 4! Telemann, Fantasy No. 4 for violin alone, first movement Bach, Denn das Gesetzdes Geistes, from Motet, jew, maineFreude Brahms, Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68, first movement Un poco sostenuto!, introduction Dallapiccola, Goethe-Lieder for soprano and three clarinets No. 1, In tausend Formen! Serialism and texture; texture as a product of chance operations Concluding notes


rhythm and

meter, 301

Introductory notes Fundamental concepts of rhythm Rhythm as activity and motion Rhythmic pattern as motivic The rhythms of element-successions A theoretical approach to the consideration of meter as accent-delineated grouping The concept of meter as, by definition, subject to fluctuation Meter as one manifestation of grouping in music Meter as opposed to the notated bar-line Impulses and their functional differentiations Functions of the cadential conclusive! impulse Criteria of accentuation Further comment concerning diverse impulse functions Levels of metric structure and analysis Metric irregularity: horizontal and vertical noncongruity The problem of preconditioning metric structure and syncopation Stability and flux; metric progression and recession; compensatory and complementary functions in relation to other element-structures Beethoven, Symphony No. 8 in F, Op. 93, first movement Chopin, Prelude in E, Op. 28, No. 9 Webern, Three Pieces, Op.ll, for cello and piano, No. 3; and Five Pieces, Op. 5, for string quartet, fourth movement Some twentieth-century problems in rhythm and meter; recent developments in serialism of durational units-theory and practice Concluding notes

X COI7f6I`lfS APPEND/X ONE editorial notes, 425

APPEND/X TWO translations, 427

index of
index of

musical examples
subjects, names,

and citations,
and terms, 437


preface tothe dover edition

It has been more than a decade since Structural Functions in Music was first

published. Thus, I should perhaps affirm at the outset of this new editionwhich is not a revision-that although my views and particular correlative analytical approaches have undergone certain refinements and redirectionsof formulation evident in a number of publications during the intervening years, thefundamental ideasand methodsexplored in this book remain, for me, validand useful.These includethe important concept of musical structure and significative shaping as in one critical sense! an undulation between tendencies ofprogression andrecession. This books three essays constitute one testimony among many to the deepening preoccupation in the professional community of musictheory with allied andoften parallelquestions about structural unities, organic substance, and modesof expressivelydirected fluctuation in all of musics cofunctioning elements. Since its appearance in 1976,Structural Functions has been a factorin, and has directly stimulated, abundant discussionof various and frequently innovative approaches to studies of the shaped elementsof music. Such proliferating studies-complementary or refutative, and often speculativehave appearedin the form of conference papers,unpublished researchby young professionals, including many student theses, and a substantial stream of published work. Indeed, probing inquiries into musics melodic and harmonic dimensions, texture, rhythm, and other elements continue, as they must, without end. The complexities ofpreliminary and derivative questions about the expressive andintellectually provocative properties of music are such that the theorists quest is assuredly notfor final answers, whose unattainability we know enough to know, but rather for deepened channels of understanding consistent with our responses to music assensitive musicians. I wish in this brief prefatory statement toexpress the hope thatthis book will continue to be a basisfor respondentand pursuant investigations, as one of a growing number of theoretical works treating related issues in disparate ways, yetalways to the end of better understanding ofstructure and effect in music. It is, to be sure, a matter of gratification to me that the general


WALLACE BERRY Wncouveg 1987 .xii preface to the dover edition accessibility of Structural Functions in Music will besignificantly broadened as a result of its republication as aDover paperback.

At the sametime. will be evident to readers who are familiar with traditions. The responsiveness. Such sources and points of departure which include the theoretical works of Schoenbergas well as important literatures embodying and reflecting concepts of hierarchically ordered structural elements! are cited at appropriate stagesin this book. direct antecedents. in music theory. and rhythm-their processive functions and structural configurations-into the analytical discussion of many works and extracts ranging from early modal styles to recent times. simply and in summary. the work in those two areas Chapters 2 and 3! is largely in original formulation.mine. The studies in texture and rhythm have few if any significant. of students in these studies. I have soughtto bring about a presentation of ideas in conformity with certain essential underlying premisesand in the interestof consistentexposition ofa pervasive point of view which is.While assuming the readers understanding of basic principles of -tonal form and analysis. the work can be characterized. this book carries ideas concerning tonality. textural. and into conceptual and analytical systems for the study of these fundamental elements. as an inquiry into tonal. Many of the ideasand approachesset forth in this book have been the bases forgraduate and to some extent undergraduate courses andseminars in music theory in which. I have beenprivileged to explore with inquiring and highly committed student collaborators the lexical. and by which I have been informed and motivated. andrhythmic structures in music. Much important theoretical work that has provided foundation for my thinking about tonality conceived as a principle relevant far beyond the conventions of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries!. at the Universities of Michigan and British Columbia. and in research stemxiii . essentially.preface tothe first edition Major premises and objectiveswhich are the basisfor thesestudies are fully set forth in the Introduction. but more the challenges and initiatives. and with certain recent procedures of inquiry. and conceptual systems and problems of the three areas of concern.methodological. texture.

and Theodore Presser Company. Professors IleneOlken. and that on rhythm and meter the source of others at early and advanced levels of graduate study. even in such tiresome chores as proofreading. for permissions toquote from restricted works. A number of publishers have kindly granted authorization for the reprinting of copyrighted materials. and where we have found composure in memorable natural ambiences. and while these areacknowledged in onpage citations in the text I should also take this opportunity to express my appreciation to all of them. my indebtedness tothe staffs of both is very substantial indeed. and in her everlasting patiencewith my brooding preoccupationsduring such times. Finally. but particularly.. and Bartok . applying them in probing analysis of significant extracts from the four subject works. of Berg. I am grateful to have learned a great deal. sustaining presence. whatever its measure. and Otto Graf. advised me with respect to translations of texts in certain works cited as examples. and Webern. during these past seven years. 1971! brought to impressive refinement theoreticaland practical systems in the realm of texture. hasbeen ofthe greatest benefit tome in the preparationsfor this book and the cultivation of ideas central to its content. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms. and especially toBoosey andHawkes. A seminar on texture proved to be thesource of at least three extensive research studies of which I am aware. and critically. not to mention numerous searching papersof more limited scope. discussion. Schoenberg. John DArms. My colleagues. My wife. of the Music Library at the University of Michigan. During crucial stages in this work the longer periods of its inception and conclusion! I have enjoyed access to the resources andfacilities of the Music Division of the San FranciscoPublic Library and the Music Library of the University of California. And I owe special thanks to Ilene Silverman. who helped me in many ways during the year in which the book was completed. a book like this is quite literally impossible without such permissions. Inc. The dissertation of Dr. as this work has evolvedin many places towhich we have travelled.xiv preface to the first edition ming from them. in her quiet encouragement through pressured times. Anne Hall Texture inthe ViolinConcertos Stravinsky. to whom this book is dedicated. and therebyabout whatI think to bebroadly relevantfactors inthe experience of music. and analysis preliminary to and concurrent with the preparation of this book. some of them engaged in important research at this time. I wish it were possible to list the names of other student contributors. especially aboutJosquin. through much reading. Beethoven. Obviously. and for sharing with me so overtly the exhilaration of achievement. I thank her for a companionate. WALLACE BERRY 1975 . has helped in many ways.

strucfura/ functions in music .


Amajor concern is the consideration of relations between specificformulations and expressive eH`ect in significant works. their actions. and systematic penetration of these two vital factors in musical structure and experience is an undertaking of awesome difficulty. yet. explorative emphasis centers here in theories of rhythm and texture. structural parameters towhich relatively little attention is given in the existing literature of music theory. harmony. it does soin systematic exploration of the elements of structure and their important interrelations. to use Edmund Wilsons haunting words. A large-scale scholarly. To a large extent. it is unlikely that we ever attain full understanding of a particular musical experience.and to illuminate in penetrating analyses of works of many kinds the procedures by which structural elements in nearly all music function expressively. and analytical systems relevant to such particular structural formulations. of being cured of some ache of disorder. methodological. melody. any broad. terminological. philosophical. probing effort toward systems by which rhythmic 1 . so complex are its elements. and interactions. One sets out in a project of this kind in the hope. texture. but becausethey reflect so eloquently the intensity of purpose and commitment to which a writer on serious matters is dedicatedwho seeks to put forth systems ofanalysis and thought by which understanding can be induced. laying out a variety of approaches to the analysisof directed successions of events involving tonality. I cite thesewords not because Ican hopeto have achieved with consistency so elusive anobjective. and rhythm-each of these treated throughout much of its range of potential operations.introduction Outside of simplest genres. relieved of someoppressive burden of uncomprehended events. This book seeks to move toward a better understanding of structure and experience. and a number of concernsare treated in conceptual. analytical. These four studies thusseek togive comprehensive exposition to particular syntactic processes in which music can besaid to have meaning.

by implication. in the somewhatmore pioneering efforts they represent.and in suggesting interpretationswhich can be examined for plausibility and. at times. . The distinction intended is that between two levels of awareness in theexperience of music. At the sametime. Moreover. and melodic systems are examined as parallel shaping factors in musical structure. Thus. static. Although concernswith rhythm and texture are. a needed anduseful stepin the direction of better understanding of theseand related critical factors in the musical experience. susceptibility to empirical verification. That experience can be regardedas thesum of responses attributable to particular musical processes. the many analyses in which theoretical premisesare throughout this book brought into focus are directed to consideration of the vital question: How does musicspeak. of the study of objective data derived in the analysis of structure and experience. howevertentative its conclusions. harmonic. recessive. andwhat is the nature of its language? Or.the action-reaction complex set up whenever there is perception and enhanced when there iscognition! of musical stimuli issuing in contexts in which syntactic relations are cultivated and controlled as the result of disciplined creative acts.syntactic relations in music. can render the expressive communication of musical meaning less mysterious than it is oftenthought and sometimes wistfully hoped! to be. by recurrent reference tointerrelations among element-systems.2 introduction and textural processes can be investigatedconstitutes. fundamentalview of . embraced: a belief in the importance and necessityof logical analysis of the musical experience. insight and innocent reaction. to what specyic irylection. Progressive and recessive intensifying and resolving! processes are seenas basicto musical effect and experience.of central importance in this work. two levels going beyond simple hearing: thecognitive level is regarded as thatinvolving understanding as opposed to that of simpler affective sensory apprehension.r can we be said torespond with understanding and _keling ? The study of particular syntactic techniques and procedures. This distinction isrelated tothat between knowing 'and feeling. I strongly aflirm that belief in logical analysis. or erratic tendencies. related and interactive tonal. a strongly permeative value is. andin the necessity and worth of the pursuit of rational inquiry into the musical experience. tothe extent that it is successful. I see that mode of inquiry as one in which conjectural hypothesisand intuition where intuition is the creative fusion of acquired knowledge and experience! are_ vitalin triggering necessary questionsand answers. In the effort to subject to theoretical expositionand analytical explication a consistent. both kinds offactors are critical in the musical experience. reciprocal and analogical correspondences are indicated in which the actions of individual elements are seen to project expressiveshapes of progressive.

I believe the path from analytical insight to interpretive decisionis oneof considerable complexity. I have had to be content with a restricted number of suggestive references to problems of interpretive decision in the examples towhich this book refers. Nevertheless. the performermust often-perhaps usually-make difficult judgments within a range of plausible solutions for example. " The performer. . especiallytemporal. art forms. andto the listener-participant as well. for his special part. Conclusions drawn from the analytical undertaking do not lead directly and unequivocally to particular interpretive decisions. Englewood Cliffs. those of dynamic changes.. N . while laying important bases fordecision in musical creativity. or timbral differences!. Nonetheless._]. I believe a great deal of understanding of musical process. The business of musical analysisis to consider the nature of functions and expressive #set in the tones and rhythms of which music is made. Indeed. Beyond this general statement one can do little more than affirm with the most positive emphasis that the understanding ofstructure and effect in all musical elements andin their interactions isof very decisive importancein all serious. to be accessible tothe involved layman or amateur. circumscribed fundamental purpose. 2nded. It is a belief proudly affirmed in this book. must fully understand the functional-expressive basisand significance of energizingand subsident elementproeesses which it is his challenge to portray and project. to the extent of its validity. However. A related view holds that many of musics most immediate and compelling strengthsderive from the shaped actions of elements of primitive substance and effect e.introduction 3 indeed. 1986!. whether in performance to underscore bythe slight adjustment oftempo anessential recessive process!. many of the most persuasive factorsin musical effect and function are delineative of shapes andprocesses that can be demonstrated.. professional endeavor in music. must significantly inform the critical evaluation. For now. given necessary theoretical and analytical calculations.in its essential terms. in the interestof achievinga rigidly defined. stylistic understanding. such references occur. Moreover. especially in Chapter 3.g. Surely it is clear that any serious investigationof structure and effect. and interpretation of music. Inc. rather. the belief that logical insights can be had into relations between ltructure and effect underlies all productive aesthetic inquiry. a theoretical system which affords useful commenton the relation of structure to expressive effect will suggest many significant and necessary parallels linking music with other.: Prentice-Hall. relatively simply. the thorough analysisof all the elementsof structure in their confluent and con2See also relevant statements in the Preface tothe authors Form inMusic.

although not exclusively. are counteractive. subordinate to the essential functional tendency.4 introduction tiguous operationsat all relevant hierarchic levels isan issueof sophistication and complexity-and one that must constitute a significant and essential part of the competenceand experienceof the professional musician. actionschanges. thematic! procedures. predominant elementactions of necessity followa course of decline but at the same time others may and often do resist that essential structural tendency. For example. Examples of universal musical processes can be indicated in observations ofthe sort: the music iscoming to a close. or the music is advancing toward a peak of intensity. with something of 'special consequence about to emerge. it follows that where there is not change there is in critical respects immobility. texture. probably more commonly. or. tonal and harmonic succession. In music that is composed asopposed tomusic of random operations or random consequences!.the articulation of units by formal cadential. In an important sense. may result in relatively active cadential process: li92 Essential to this concept is the principle that the sense of motion in music passage from one event or state to another! largely. and by which analogousfeeling is induced. in cases of tentative internal closure. In the first of these instances. or increase in textural density. occur only within limits: to the point of such limits iteration can be . certain prevailing lines of change function toward a particular expressive end while others. In general. directed lines of change. the processof closure. crescendo. at any specified level. Element-actionsmay converge in collaborative. structureis discussed as toits functional and expressive consequences within an intensity curve delineated by groupings and controlled associations ofevents underlying nearly all composed music. events!involving various elements lines of pitch change. even increased textural diversity. or. rhythm and meter. For example. or the music is in a tentative state. and coloration! are so conceived and controlled that they function at hierarchically ordered levels in processes by which intensities develop and decline. From this premise. depends on change within one or more element-successions. in the fixed repetitions of an ostinato pattern at the samepitch level there is motion at only the lowest level of structure-that of profiled configuration within the pattern itself Eventfulness in music demands that iteration without change. this book is concerned with groupingof many kinds and at diverse levels~event-groupings goingbeyond thoseof form. and comparable cognitions.

or even act at all. tedium and tautology result. are expressive ofelement-rhythms and meters which may or may not converge!. pitch successions may in particular instances be in part irrelevant or utterly inapplicable. As to general relative importances of such actions in perception and cognition of functional-expressive effect. Element-actions in music function in certain basic formal processes or activities which can be rather simply stated. that which seeksto determine within which parameters contributive actions occur.introduction 5 intensifying. wherelines ofaction cross fields ofpitch. Of course. Musical structure may be saidto be the punctuated shaping of time and space into lines of growth. Such fundamental classifications of formal process are those of ! introduction-often involving dissonant prolongation as a primary factor of expectant intensity in precarious balance with quiescent. The successions of element-events trace shaped. the limited capacityof pure iteration for intensification is accountable to the rising expectation of inevitabledigression. controlled profiles-a concept arising analogously in the sense oftemporal paths and. and primitive actions as changesin dynamic intensity or textural density have more palpable persuasiveforce than a relatively elusive factor like that of tonal fluctuation. we will make conjecture from time to time~speculating. diflicult to define. 3Presumably. in given instances of suchconcurrent linesof change. not all elements actin commensuratesignificance. But.e. in principle. the questionof relativesignificances of correlative actions in cognitive experience is a difficult issue which this book does not attempt to explore.. while beyond theselimits.For example. but its usual condition is one of directed activity-courses of change-in lines of _growth or decline at various levels. decline. and specific configurations of interrelations among contributive elements-and hence of expressiveeffect conceivable and potential within such formal processes. assumingit is understood that there is an infinite range of possible andpalpable degrees of change. be erratic. conjunct and disjunct. it is clear that the processof digressionfrom and resolution into a primary tonal systemwill have little or no significancein certain styles. of shapes in space. in general.! The punctuation and proportionalization of such linesof changeconstitute animportant aspectof rhythm i. Motion in music may. thus. for example. and stasis hierarchicalbv ordered. A line of decline at one level maybe observed to be subsumed within a broader line of growth at another. that such immediate. . or the action of melodic line in rising and falling. In the analysisof the interactive and hierarchically related! element-actions in expression of particular functional processes the initial question is. rates of change. direct.

ll. Although certain formal processes areby definition associated with particular functional tendencies e. of course. Some aspects of formal technique are characteristic of particular styles and. Symmetry and asymmetry.in general. they are complementary properties. are thus more than simply contradictory principles excluding each other in an absolute manner. ! restatement-often involving variation. for cello andpiano discussed as to metric structure on pp. The present work addresses itself to theoretical discussionand analysis of certain growth-connected and decline-connected! intensity-activity shapes in which functional and expressive lines ofchange arevery commonly conveyed.g. brings to mind a moving. far-near. Indeed. ! transition and development-both normally relatively fluctuant. but again in relatively stable conditions. terse statement by Pousseuron the third of Weberns Three Pieces.music isconstantly involved in both concurrent and contiguous event-relations! in a dialecticin which opposing tendenciesof growth and decline and their correlatives up-down. that of the cadential process with recessive action!. etc. an emptiness within which they may reign calmly in all their abundance. . The primary concern of this book is the analysis of structure apart from formal processas such. . and ! cadence-in an environment of relative decline and deceleration. those most representative of broadly prototypical formal procedures are explored in many existing works. each one limiting and defining the nature of its fellows. determination and indetermination. 397-400 of thisbook!. dense-sparse. and the study of lines of changing intensities yields significant understanding ofparticular compositional techniques by which formal processes are carried out. equality and inequality. and involving complementary or counteractive relations.! are in continual interplay at different hierarchic levels. An excess inone sense These includethe authorsForm in Music. it is through the positioning of well-defined and clearly perceptible units. simple-complex. Formal processes and element-actionsof growth and decline are thus both discretely identifiable and interdependent asaspects of form and structure..6 introduction tentative conditions such as relative textural sparsity and slow tempo. The idea of music as dialecticalb in balance between intensifying and resolving tendencies. Thus an available space is established among the units. Op. rather. .but it cannot fail at the same timeto note that particular functional tendencies are critically allied to essential and universal techniquesof form. particular systems. each conditioning the other and mutually dependent. articulating themselves bymeans of reciprocal effect. cited mrlier. ! statement-normally in a context of 'relativestability. progressive andrecessive lines of change occur variously in diverse formalcontexts. .

of exhaltation. predictability. The Question of Orderin NewMusic. recessive. yet one of beguiling interest and inescapable significance. representingmultiplicity and communication.but implied. a balanced tension which may be realized in an infinitely varied manner! can engender afree order. Henri Pousseur.even whileit cannot be said to have absolute applicability throughout a leveled structure. and that of event-succession involving unchanging degrees ofintensity stasis!. staticat levels beyond that of the motive itselli The concept of musical motion is critically allied to the concept of progressive. individuality and recognition? Pousseur istalking about relations of units. _ This underlying assumption is in somedegree subject to conditionsof probability. that of subsiding intensity to which the term recession is applied!.. Thus. To the extent that motion is a useful concept in musical experience. vital and significant. V. Only a correct proportion. 104-5. and of the cofunctioning. in general.not really explored hereas such. l 966!. relations of such element-units at diverse hierarchic levels of structure. it is noted that true immobility is probably inconceivable at the lowest structural level.the principle of stasis. anyassumed intensity scale orstate within a givenstructural parameter depends in part bothas tokind anddegree on the understanding or intuition of probabilities within the terms of a particularstyle and system. °It is assumed that certain structural conditions generallybut in random contexts only accidentally! are expressive of intensity. of calm. is of practical importance. in Perspectives New qf Musab. system. the remarkable spectrum of expressive possibilitieswithin the range of musical techniques is immediately apparent when one-thinks of further potential relations among units of dwrent but concurrently functional! elements. pp. complementary or counteractive.others of release. for all practical purposes.° Of the latter.of which the mostimportant is that involving changing qualities in contiguous sonorous events. three possibilities: that ofincreasing intensity to which we apply the term progression!. At the same time. To see istructural function in music as it concerns lines of intensity change is to see. yet.introduction 7 or the other leadsto the same pathologicaldisorder. repetition of a motivic unit in which parametric factors by which the motive is characterizedremain unchanging to the extent that this is possible in performance which is not mechanical! is. The musical situation and its experience pose inthis light a challenge of great complexity. even a succession of sound events of equal qualities can be viewed as consisting of attack-decay shapes in each of which it may be reasonable topostulate recession in theory and experience. etc. andfamiliarity within the respondents relation to a particular style. For example. translation by David Behrman. or rhetoric.it may be said to reside in factors ofthree kinds. . Such conditions are evocative of feeling-of anxiety. and static events andevent-complexes.

assome analyses in this book will show. this ofcourse can be viewed.as motion implicit in change within the element of pitchline. and these do not necessarily-in fact are not likely to-correspond with consistency indelineating progressive. or complementary. To the extent that succeedingsound eventsof changing pitches are felt as coursing over an analogical spatial field a broad leap between twopitches isfelt as going farther than a succession linked by a conjunct intervallic relation!. itis bounded by events at its extremities whose connection-a relation reaching across the vacant temporal field-denotes passage as motion of a kind. a value which inheres in significant musical expression ofall times. of melody. consistent directions of increasing or receding intensity.be or seem! arbitrary and erratic too. recessive. Thus it is that lines actively cross or are related diagonally or triangularly in musical texture. the succession ofa sound eventby another qfdW:rent qualiy' or qualitiessay. when element-successions move in parallel. passage through a temporal Held is felt as a kind of motion-a stream of eventfulness whichcourses throughtime. in a sense. Thus. As suggested. suchas onethat consistsof evenly spaced strokes on a drum lacking dynamic or other changes.in its direction and control. A third factor has to do with the illusion of a spatial Held in music delineated by the pitch ambitus inherent in the spectrum of perceptible frequencies. at given levels. Even when a stretch of time is vacant unpunctuated events. this book embracesa concept of motion in music presupposing. at differing rates of ascent or descent in the intensity lineat differing rhythms of element-change. and stasis that of aimless or arbitrary lines of change in some music would constitute a fourth.recession. although its consequenceis likely to be one of relative stasis at given levels!. theyoften do so. or static concurrent lines of change. With reference to all of thesefactors. the events can reasonably be saidto describe motion within that field. in a purely temporal sensea succession of even equal! sound events. within the scope ofthe secondfactor described above. directions. change ismotion. In any real musicalsituation several elements are likely to be active.but it may. Moreover. But obviously it has special significance and is usefully regarded asa distinct factor. functional-expressive elementsuccessions have three conceivable tendencies: progression. . such change in element-actions isnormally traceable in. in music. is felt as moving in time. A secondand far more critical factor of motion in musical experience is that associatedwith successions of sound events having changing qualities. Thus. at given levels. two events of different degrees of loudness! conveys an analogicalimpression of motionof a distance between disparate qualitative states havingbeen traversed. by in as Q !. In any event.8 introduction First. It was earlier stated that directed.

is a highly important and pervasive aspect ofrhythm in music. harmonic. as discrete stages in lines of element-change. textural complexity 7It is by now clear that intensity is regarded as a product of qualitiesiorstates involving usuallymany concurrentlyoperative parameters.conjectural ordemonstrable. to that extent. as areany and all changes in tonal reference. as rhythmic units of one kind. musical structure if form is seen as the thematic-developmental scenario! can be regarded as the coryluence of shaped lines of element-succession which either agree are complementary! in intensity direction or disagree are mutually counteractive. Particular intensifying conditions ofmelodic.Some seem relatively clearly demonstrated in identifiable musical experience. of such qualities. deceleration! expressing intensification and release of further functional significance within the rhythmic parameter. Within the range of musical elementssubject to control within these procedures. Put another way. for example.some are of course of greater relevance to certain styles than others. crescendo. and rhythmic structures arerecurrcntly discussed as a fundamental. increased textural quantity. rhythmic activity. intensity change. We may posit. Thus. Such atentative and preliminary discussiontakes noaccount. or anything within these extremes. harmonic content. Implicit in all of this is the thesis that contiguous sound eventsmanifesting changewithin any parameter and in any degree resultin functionalexpressive effectof.! spectrum of effect. Une thinks of rising pitch. among other musical states commonly associated with increased intensity.The factor of rate of changein element-successions. increasein the overall spatialHeld. which may be gradual or sudden.tonal. increased compression of texture. and dissonance. is suggestive ofmodification in the degree of intensity. shrinking units acceleration!. but the underlying concept of the confluence of functional element-actions as fundamental to musical structure and effect is of crucial significance in all styles. orcompensatory! in direction.1 . however slight. And it has beennoted that confluent actionsoften differ in rates of changein angles of descentor ascent. harmonic succession ofincreasing tonal distance. ofthe degree of incline or decline in the angleof ascent or descent.increased rate of attack. As a matter of fact. Huctuation toward morepenetrating coloration.introduction 9 Within these concepts. continuing concern in this book. . ofcourse. othersare of more conjectural functional significance. their progressive or recessive shortening or lengthening acceleration. as suchintensity can only be defined inthe listing. in one sense. of the question of rates ofchange. temporal segments in music are identifiable. one of the most telling factors in the perception of motion and eventfulness. with profound consequences for expressive effect. textural. the premise is that no change distinguishing contiguous sound events can be neutral with respect tointensity. certain common kinds of element-action having function analogous tothat which is clearly pertinent within the loudsoft . pitch change.

others have the support of traditional acceptance e. In Fig. it can be stated that change ata relatively low level is of inferior structural significance relatively neutral! in contexts ofa higher level-i. and functional-expressive significance would depend on that cognition. metric structure. interpretive The question of ambiguity in particular element-qualities requires distinct. or the forte-piano dialectic!. analytical judgment is commonly one of carefully reasoned..g.. Inambiguous conditions. the cognition of structure must be considered uncertain.of structure. by definition. Thisproblem is treated further. in the total context. But at the circumscribed level short of resolution a-b. and coloration.At the same time.in accord with the necessary conceptof hierarchic levels . While any premature statement in the direction of classification of intensity values within elements of music is inevitably too simple. a number of them will be regarded as having a kind of commonsense logic e. the effect is presumablyintensifying.but not extensively. it can be useful ifread assuggestive only. And since inthe complexity of real music thelikelihood of comprehensive verification. dissonance= intensity!. in a summary way. in Chapter 3. in broader implications.10 introduction and quantity. while others emerge as of more tentative significance. the theory of functional-expressive significancein controlled lines of change within structural element-actions with shaped tendencies to and from points of intensity at different levels has intrinsic importance apart from any specific formulation of connotative valueswithin the intensity-release scale.g. in the following outline.! the modestascent inpitch and minute tonal departure! has identifiable functional-expressive significance which can be felt as important in a leveled structure and experience. complexity = intensity. fixed pitch event. Thus. . as suggested above. Of course. hypothesis and observationwith respect to the connotations of various qualtities in the dialectical intensity-release scale of values. and of very restrictedscope of concern.. the progression to b. in a context in which ambiguity is not a normal state. 0-l specific manifestations of recessive tendency are not indicated but are of course oppositeto the kinds of events characterizedas progressive. A theoretical formulation in which vital factors of musical meaningare attributed to controlled directions of growth and decline in lines of elementchange requires. the pitch succession a-b-a is in a sense. Where apparently ambiguous conditions are understood as ambiguous. atthe level of the total unit. is in a sense neutralsubsidiary to an underlying. Further such assumptions are stated. special consideration. Reasoned premises concerning the functional-expressive connotations of events and kinds of events! and concerning their interrelations and confluent parallel or resistant tendencies andinteractions are indispensable in analysis. or even susceptibility to verification. These ideas are extensively developedin the three studies to follow.e. is uncertain. unchanging.

for example. We have noted that stasis. prolongation e. in relation to tonal "distance" and assumingreferential adherence of primary I. dynamic level. Element Melody. in one sense. Within tonal structure. articulation color.I d coloration. 0-1 is its incompleteness in the listing of parameters of potential action.the analytical judgment of prevalencei. especially when dissonant. is short of the point of tautology intensifying. wider spatial field Tempo. higher registerssharper "focus" of intense registral change. is of course extremely critical. Dissonanceis. active and mobile and must be regarded. chromatic succession and expansion Towardshorter units. or rhythmic "pace" Texture. the line of changes in numbers and interactions of components Increased sonorous weight and penetration strings Timbre. leap expecting closure.eventsinvolving did b . asymmetry and fluctuation. often gradually increasing levels of dissonance. increased density.e..g. chromatic deviation from primary diatonic resource! Away from primarysystem. dissonant. One seriousaspectof the oversimplicity of Fig.being "unnatural" and expecting the intervention of change. at each stage in this book primary attention is given to the fullest possible statement and illustration of . the line of harmonic succession Tonality~ the line of tonal reference Meter. clarity of more frequent accent acceleration!.stressedarticulation choice. Within any associationof partly counteractive confluent elementactions. what tendencydominates and is germane to broad structural efFectand intent.introduction Fig.. the succession of accent-delineatedunits Progressive action: Up.in its discrete significance. and usually counteracted by eventfulness within someopposing parameter. inverted. stasisdoes not necessarilydenote neutrality of intensity: indeed.!. toward instability. Stasis is nonaction. Somepremises respecting intensity valveswithin the spectrum of qualitiespertaining to eachof certainfundamental elements of musicalstructure. within any parameter at any given level. by definition. more percussive.as a distinct factor significantly complicating an apparent condition of tonal immobility. instability of tonal or other felt tendency Away from tonic. to whatever extent this can pertain. complex forms. 0-1. of V! is common as intensifying technique.a line of contiguous pitches Harmony. departure from relational unit norm Acceleration in rate of occurrence at given level Greakr interlineardiversityand conflict. But intensifying stasisof tonal condition almost invariably involves dissonance.

or. and illustration of many techniques of analysis applied to these examples atall stagesof discussion. The concept of progressiveand recessive actions within confluent element-structures suggeststhe useful basic principle that.. dynamic progression and recession in loudness levelsare of unlikely significance in fifteenth-century polyphony. forexample.12 introduction areas of potential functional-expressive action within each broad element classification. analytical effort must be directed to those elements which are functional in the particular style or medium. This is carried out with exhaustive attention to quoted examples. These areonly a few examples of particular relevances of particular actions inparticular styles.the predetermination of pitch-class PC! content in simultaneous aggregates may although it does not necessarily! result in diminished significance in functional-expressive contextual control of. it is a soundbasic premise that the shaping oflines ofelement-change is an all but universal factor in musical function and expression. for example.that the particular mediumof expression significantly conditions the prevalence of certain elements over others. and of purely orsignificantly arbitrary association.dynamic. or particular work in question. andarticulative differences. Of course. too. in solomedia thetimbral spectrum is limited to registral.or of melodic and textural change invocal asopposed toinstrumental polyphony. correlatively. development. the techniques of element-change! differs among stylisticapproaches can be noted.. the associationof tonal distance with intensity would have radically diminished relevance tothe extent that a style isatonal. and to the presentation. in strikingly different applications of the rhythmic factor of tempo change in Baroque asopposed toRomantic styles. Lines of element-change controlledand directed along profiles of appreciably increasing or decreasingintensity are common to all music except that limited literature of very recent time in which concurrences and conHuences of sound events are unforeseen. in different ways significant in the relation between structure and expressive function in some importantdegree inall music in which controlled contextual function is a compositional objective and aesthetic desideratum. in addition tosuch devices as muting or otherpreparations ofthe particular medium -a fundamental distinction ascompared with the broad spectra ofmore heterogeneous media. Techniques ofprogression and recession inlines of change are.With this assumption. and certain elements are applicable across virtually all historical-stylistic boundaries. increased significance in other element-structures. dissonance-consonance values within that parameter and. say.e. in an important °It is clear. in twelve-tone music. or to the exclusion of others. that the manner in which elements are articulated i. notably those of texture and rhythm. . Thus.then. Moreover. Still.

and rhythm. are a principalsubstance offunction and expression inmusic. pertinent to the elements of tonality. V . asto furtherparameters within each ofthese. I.relative ambiguity or in relation to a referential norm! asymmetry of metric relations-any of these can. V.can perhaps usefully be conceived asanalogically of relative distance: the most fundamental as background in an imagined three-dimensional field. two-phrase levelis I-I.I. the phraselevel action structure at the level of the phrase! isI. be conceived as dissonant. anupward leap in the pitch-line. limited referential context. the level of the phrase is the level of those events which delimit the phrase as toits most basic content while more fundamentallevels-extending ultimately to that of the whole-are comprised of eventswhose implicationsreach beyondthat oi. delimiting funda. have experiential validity within all elements of musical structure. for example.mental elementsare in focused exposure-that broadly middle level which is nearer than superior elementfunctions extending into contexts beyond that of rwrence. or spans. a highly active perhaps imitative! texture of competing lines. even a little thought: thus. Or. The idea of referring to identifying! such levelsas to spans fy' context is at times also useful:half of a bipartite form thus can represent that level at which its own inherent. IV. and as increasingly comprehensive events are the objects of attention. IV. lharmony. The clear relevanceof this idea is apparent with. leveled hierarchy by which a tonal system. while the action at the broader.I. In the succession oftwo phrases having harmonic content I. as of other erlement-structures. melody. and in conceiving of various middlegrounds coming into increasingly sharp exposureas detailsblur. particular or .introduction 13 sense. texture.or other. in this case one of two major divisions. The metaphoric conceit of relative focus is helpful in engendering the image of structural depth in this sense. The idea of leve1 also arises in other connections: for example.like other. comparable conditions of instability and expectancy of restoration of simpler states. Inthis sense. More foreground levels are thus identifiable as to more limited temporal units. V . there are dissonances ana' resolutions writhin allqfmusics parameters. Levels ofpitch structure. the phrase. These actions and interac- tions. in focus as one regards the structure at close range. the most immediate as foreground. in this case. asto the abstracted. the comprehensive tonic prolongation. as evocatiive ofintense feeling and subjective involvement in potently absorbing actioms and interactions taking place within the projected medium of sound events. It is my belief that levels ofdepth. providing the basisfor important analytical constructs. the level of the phrase would mean that level at which those events of primary structural basis in the phrase are in exposure-that level whoseprimary events go out of focus in favor of elements of broader significance as one regards broader contexts more basic levels! through events of the relative foreground.

The problem of tonal shift remainsone ofcomplexity and. Other sources of comparable interest are noted in appropriate.. Moreover. foreground! implications. the concept of hierarchic levels in all element-structures arises naturallyand inevitably. can be represented.. butsee Felix Salzer. broad potential implications within the symmetry-asymmetry polarityin metric structure. and a comparable polarity within the realm of texture is that of the homorhythm- 1°Thc concept of 1eveled structure derives preeminently fromthe analytical approaches of Schenker to pitch structures in tonal music. or the multilateral leveling of pitch events asnoted in Chapter l. a conceptual basisfor identifying structural levels in meter as to temporal spans one of which is taken as the referential metric unit! is discussed in Chapter 3. Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music New York: C. coloration. later contexts. Hindemiths concept of step progression is set forth inThe Crajt J Musical Composition New York: Associated Music Publishers. but in at least many instances it proves to be of significant clarification to seethe tonicization of secondary pitch factors asrelevant to particular levels e. Counterpoint in Composition New York: McGraw-Hill. Hence.g. in that respect. The concept of hierarchic levels ofstructure is of great importance.ambiguity. some ofthem cited at appropriatelater stages in this booksee page 113!. those that are more fundamental have broader implications as well. but from thework ofother theorists too-for example." Thus. Boni. meter. Schoenbergs theory ofmonotonality is presented in Structural Functions ij HarmonyLondon: Williams and Norgate. Consider. identifiable levels of structure can be found useful in the theoretical treat- ment of other structural parameters too-for example. 1952! orSalzer and Carl Schachter. but it also has important implications for theoretical treatment of individual structural elements. 1937!. . Ltd. for example.14 introduction generalized. asopposed topurely local effects of subordinate fluctuation within this particular parameter. and it must be seen asapplicable to the functioning of eventswithin any given confluence of action. 1954!.in addition to many other sources in an expanding literature. Book I. that of Hindemith in his concept of step progression or Schoenberg in his importantconcept of monotonality.. at times. Inc. 1969!. A like approach to the discussion of fluctuation as manifestat given. The theory of hierarchic levels is not only of very critical importance in the study and analysis offunctional-expressive effects of element-formulations. Schenkerian approaches have no strict or direct representation in this book. especiallyin matters of classification and terminology. and texture. the difficulty of modulation as it concerns theextent and perceptual significanceof tonal reference tonicization! is greatly attenuated when it becomespossible tospeak oftonal shift having referential significanceat agiven level and not at others. To put it in the light of the above formulations: every individual element-event has immediate local. for example. metric structure at the level of the phrase is that whosemetric unit is the phrase. thoseof the phrase and smaller units! but not to higher levels.

the clear significance ofthe conceptof hierarchic level in the frequently differing implications of harmonic as opposed to tonal events.More diflicult is the fact that the broadest lines of tonal successioncan be seen in many instancesto correspond to to be an augmentation of! those ofrelatively local tonal or harmonic and melodic! successions.e. dark-brilliant.g.. within this necessary approach.. application of the concept of hierarchic level can bring about decisive and critical refinement of a theoretical idea like dissonance: in comparison. the expansive dissonance prolongation that often prepares a stablearea of thematic statement!. long-short. And the coloration of a multimovement work constitutes. Let the reader contemplate briefly some of the element-structures in which the extension ofimplications to the broadeststructural level can most easily be grasped-conceptually and often perceptually. the broadest levelof metric structure in any work of suchmajor formal divisions i.but subordinate! classification.g.Or. slow-fast.g. It thus follows that recessive andprogressive lines of element-change must finally be evaluatedas to level of functional signyicance . the level delineated by a pedal point! and activity at a lower level e.broadly viewed actions ofone classification will be seen commonly to contain lower-level actions ofan opposing or corresponding. In carrying out expositions and analytical illustrations of major . the foreground melodic event in conflict with surrounding pitchfactors! andthat of broader importance e..! In analyses which make up much of the substance ofthis book. Thus. the issueof hierarchic structure is recurrent and of fundamental importance. especially those functioning within element-structures of most immediate and uncomplicated apprehension-within the soft-loud.g. aline of color changein differences involving areas morethan detailsof spectrum! of critical functional-expressive effect.. prolonged pitch event!.introduction 15 polyrhythm dialectic. Similarly. in any multimovement work the succession of primary tempi constitutesa broad line of changewhich is the highest manifestation ofthe tempo-structure. for example. of dissonance function of purely local importance e. with its varying levels of significance. that of fluctuation over a fixed or elaborated.the latter a hierarchically superior extension or amplification of the former. And the underlying concept of hierarchic levels serves to inform and establish certain functional distinctions between elements themselves: note. for example.at broadestlevel. movementsor comparable units! is evident in the proportional differences and interrelations manifestamong such divisions. and comparably apprehensiblelines of change. It seemsto me that there is no reason todoubt the perceptual. We have noted the importance of hierarchy in such qualitative distinctions asthat which observes stasis at one level e. experiential as well as conceptual. significance of these broadest configurations in element-structures..

what is being organized.. he saysof the composer of totally serialized music: In order to avoid the dictations of such ghosts i. an environment is established inwhich all events. in a somewhat ambivalent statement aboutinspiration Einfall! as spontaneous and uncontrolled therefore of random consequences!.important to any composer. those for example of intermovement relations. are surprising. XLVI. in The Musical Quarterly. tradition. training. In any concern with the functional consequences of contextual associations and interrelations." there seemsno doubt that "Extents and Limits ofSerial Techniques. 2 960!. he prefers to set up an impersonal mechanism which will furnish. But it is my assumption thatthese concepts are applicable and apprehensiblethroughout the structuralhierarchy. not music itself. especially where theyconcern musicsmost directand palpable areasof action and interaction. in TheMusical Quarterly. and according to what criterion? Is it not rather a matter of organizing. whether overt or the result of the blind predetermination of musical events.Whether isolated-sonorous qualities canproperly be said to convey meaning. But the surprise which is thus assured isone in which no contextual norm of probability is demonstrable or relevant. recollection. . Meaning in the experience of art is commonlyconsidered to depend on controlled contextual interactions of elements: once two events occur intemporal . 228. each independentbr and on its own terms or at bestaccording to a set of arbitrarily conceived and ultimately quite irrelevant rules of associationIP The affective value which inheres inisolated from contextual relations! sonorous events should notbe overlooked or discountedin any comprehensive view of musical expression and experience. 169. and experience!. XLVI. 12Problems and Issues Facing the Composer Today. Kfenek embraces unpredictability as a premised value underlying total serialism. hence. p. Kfenek correctly notes that it is in fact conditioned by prior understanding and experience.16 introduction categories of element-structure and element-content I have at times been compelled to stop short of discussionand application at broader in a sense simpler! levels. The affective value of surprise. but various facets of music. there arises the issue of randomness.In that light. according to premeditated patterns. . unpredictable situations.Italics added.must derive from a context in which a particular event is not what the percipient is conditioned to expect. p. or whether a kind of meaning inheres in any singleevent or element-complex eliciting affective orother! response. and no events. e.! Roger Sessions asks oftotal serialism: . "This dependson whethermeaning is considered torequire syntacticrelations. 2 960!.

e. Implicit throughout these studies. many percipients testify to the dulling ¢ct of uneventfulness which is the ironic consequence of such action. but it is a relatedquestion because the phenomenon ofuneventfu1 change is in fact characteristicof many products of total serialism. heis left to the limited experience of individual events whose association has no appreciable rationale-events cooccurring in an apparently contradictory situation in which they have noappreciable functional interaction or interrelation but are nevertheless run together.! Where change e.. nullify the effect and perceptionof controlled change.g. and fortheir further role in a largercontext. thepercipient assumes a contextual syntax to be thebasis for their association. The primitive impact of the naked musical event-its intensity. intellectual dimensions.which becomes white beyond a certain speedof rotation. and extreme. a big tutti attack in the orchestra! is normally the expectation it arouses with respect to likely subsequent events. yet of a level and substance surely inadequate to full experience of a temporal art form in cognitive. itsdensity if it is a tone complex!. is the belief that controlled contextual function of element-events is of fundamen/tal value and. and from time to time made explicit in them. of contiguous and concurrent events of diifering qualities within contextual procedures determined by controlled lines ofprogressive andrecessive successions. in effect. even. must be regarded as an aspect of musical effect which is far from adequately understood. the most important aspect of musical experiencederives from the interaction. constant. divorced from syntax. in com- positional intent.introduction 17 phenomenal-perceptual attestation and experience speak persuasively of the affective force implicit in such eventsquite apart from contextual interactions of the kind which are the prevalent concern ofthis book.: and interrelation. Such a concept of meaning is not applicable where event-confluencesare random and arbitrary. of register! is fast. This book includes within its range of musical illustrations several instances ofrandom and highly serialized i. of necessity in musical communication where the respondent is engaged in apprehensions of functionalordered relations as aspects of experience. . its general pitch locus. its timbral quality. serialized beyond the single contiguity. This point is quite independent of whether element-successions in a situation of this kind are. however. random or arbitrary. A subtle factor in this area of critical judgment is the problem of element-change ofa rateand degree so extremeas to. and the like. even though an important aspect ofany meaning in the isolated event say. even of changeitself A useful analogy here isin the rapid spinning of a color wheel. The view that purely superficial sound qualities in individual isolation-or in adventitious association-have a primitive communicative potentialsuggests some kind of noncontextual significance. Toldthat suchfunctional contextual interrelations arebeside the point. At the same time..

On the other hand. by whatever creative gifts andintuitive experience the performer may bring to his participation. in virtually the entire history of the art. and contextual associations in tonal music are determined as to the . contextual interrelation is precluded unless it is accidental. much less a basis by which events are determined.! When a soundevent succeeds another purelyfortuitously. and in historical systems of modality and tonality creative choices as to contextualaffiliations ofrhythmic. In no traditional system are contextual associations adventitious or predetermined in any critical degree: in traditional improvisation. and only with respect to certain structural elements. prevalent parameters. relations.with functional consequences in context.18 introduction element ofpitch! operations in order to provide some exposition of specimen techniques andin order to provide the basisfor.e. or unless preselectionis within a narrow range of planned consequences!. But it is important to concede at the outset 'the bias by which successions of events having no controlled or even foreseen contextual associations. and often contextually directed. and relatively foreground pitch events and event-complexes are of broad and decisive latitude. critically depends. Tonality as a systemthus predeterminesthe content of the particular musical instancein only the most general terms within which expectations are aroused and fulfilled!. andchange which leaps far acrossa spectrumof possibilitiesin rapid succession often tends to nullify the effect and the effectiveness! ofchange. rather than predetermining systemic influences.. in which few if any significant elements are left for determination on the basisof the needs ofcontext! is the most random of all. the considerablebasis for creative choice and the determinants of content in the particular piece. and interactions are regarded as antithetic to systems ofmeaning upon which the musical experience. structure is rigidly planned and specified in crucial. textural. that music in which important decisions are left to the performer is guided. analyticalcomment. and that extreme serialism is merely another systemic basis for controls analogous tothose of modality or tonality-are decisively rejected. The highly serialized piece is thus in a critical sense more random than the overtly random piece in which fundamental decisions areleft to the performer. too. But music in which major elements are prescribed in predetermined serial operations i. in that contextual relations arelittle if at all foreseen. Theissue mightbe characterizedas oneof starting-going-stopping in a given musical structure as opposed to beginning-prog'ressing-recedingending.nor can he be censured forfailure in an aestheticdesideratum and objective hedoes notembrace. Of courseit is recognized thatthe intentionsand creativepurposes of the total serialist may havenothing to do with determined-in-context associations of events. it must bestated that two common protestations-that performer-directed chance music issimply an extension andfurther manifestation of historical improvisatory procedures. It is an interesting fact.

Thetwo determinisms of formula andfortune lead to the same result: the arbitrary way in which such products begin and endand the fortuitous nature of their inner connections ensure that they canat bestbe experienced onlyas surfaces. Norton andCompany.! See tooEdward Conesdiscussion of the problemof what he refersto as synoptic comprehension inthe musical experience Musical Form and Musical Peyizrmance. The serialization of PC content in classical procedures in which rhythms and other element-actions areleft for contextual determination has produced a vital literature. 88-98!. Moreover. 95-96!. Importanttwelve-tone works are cited and discussed in illustration of this books fundamental premises andin documentation of the values it espouses.while calling attention to works and ideas that may by their own persuasion lead him to conclusions very different from those stated in the foregoing commentary.290.with respect to an area ofconcern fraughtwith heavily contentious and controversial issues. Even while an underlying assumption ofthe value of contextual determination is conceded. in critical comment basedupon premises of value likely to be contradictory to thoseunderlying suchworks. Atone pointin thisexcellent essay pp. pp. any predetermination in classical twelve-tone procedures is commonly of PC pitch-class! rather than of specific pitch. may imply a continuumthat often seems to combine thepurely musicalwith the quasi-dramatic. Emphases added.. Leonard Meyer. the absence of a stable stylistic syntax.' To the extent that the composer does not determine or significantly condition or even foresee! the concurrencesand contiguities of events in planned contextualrelations. and Ideas. Music. for example. the presentation ofspecific works and extractsin which this value is called into question will inform the reader of disparate compositional practices. as examples inthis bookdemonstrate. _ _ non-determinedmusic. and patent natural patterning results in a level ofredundancy so low that communicationis virtually precluded. whether the sequence of events is left up to the performeror to pure chance. p. New York: W.introduction 1. even at times with tonal bases. not predetermined.1968. © 1967 byThe University of ChicagoPress.The Arts. archetypal schema. Conemakes the statement that .9 functional-expressive needs of specificcontiguous andconcurrent conditions. It can. all rights reserved. with reference to the concepts of information theory:. melody is preconditioned in only one of its aspects.! . The problem of the apprehension of significances of events whose association in particular contexts is purely or essentially adventitious is sometimes discussed as aproblem of overload in the channel of communication ofinformation. in theory. . so that. isirrelevant to the extent that the contextual confluences of events are arbitrary and uncontrolled.but any effort to do so. W. Emphasis added. audible compositional order. analysis can only describe procedures and show their applications. Inc. It is/irnportant to emphasize that theserialization of some elements in no way precludes the contextual determination of others. attempt to describe expressive-functional consequences of random procedures. .

And it has provedimpossible toextend this book to the point of including a discrete study of structural functions of coloration of timbral differences. for example. again.!. etc. and because ofits comparative accessibility offunction and significance. In the organization of this book. With the understanding that this book is about music. although there are many parenthetical references to these factors in connection with central issues of concern and treatment. it seems wellto make a point of the fact that one vital aspectof coloration. often goes very far indeed in accounting for the nature of musical experience andmeaning.g. tonal rhythm!. althoughsummary. In view of this. especiallythat of texture. it will be acknowledged that there is a methodological advantage and common didactic purpose in individuating at provisional stages identifiable and classifiableelement-actions forsingular emphasisand for explication of conceptual and practical ideas relating to each such element-structure in turn. If its attention in these chapters is not equal to its importance. that expressed in dynamic levels. On the other hand. or in the obvious relation of texture and harmony. but there are many sources. a very important manifestation of the conceptual unity and interdependence of this entire range of studies canbe noted in the conscious effort to treat in anabfsis certain recurrent examples from chapter to chapter. and to refer asoften aspossible toassociated events involving cofunctioning elements otherthan thoseof immediate concern. treatment at various stages. in the books concept of rhythm as including the rhythms of all element-changes e. The most important ofthese having broad applicabilityis George Perle.. of orchestration. none of whose structural elements often assumes inde- pendent manifestation. especially thoseof texture and rhythm. 3rd ed. But overlapping concernsare explicit. reflecting a variety of approaches and points of view. the treatment of quasi-serial cellular associations ofpitch and PC complexes islimited. Serial Composition and Atonality: AnIntroduction to the Musicof Schoenberg. . Berg. it is true that the treatment of discrete elements in individual chapters imposes somewhat arbitrary lines of distinction. to which the reader can refer in these connections. 1972!. it is largely because itsfunction is direct and obvious. and in many other instances and connections. the reader is referred to supplementary resources. andWebern. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Moreover. each chapter cites examples of substantial scope treated in full at least asto operationsof the particular element under primary consideration.20 introduction This books discussions ofstructure and analysis in harmonic and melodic successions are less extensive than one might wish. and it has seemed important to concentrate heavilyon problemsof structurenot widely treated in the existing theoretical literature. To some examples an effort is made to apply comprehensive. and the treatment of this aspect of structure centers primarily in complexes having tonal or quasi-tonal significance.

ATreasug of Earbv Music New York: W..Historical Anthology of Music. Again. Analyses of musical extractsand pieces take manyforms in these studies._]. and that breadth of technique of application is altogether intentional. Starr and Devine. or because of restrictions of copyright. Notational problems are a primary reason for the lack of attention to electronic music-not only the problem of the accessibilityof scores. Rinehart andWinston. .. and must be shown to be.: Prentice-Hall. Music Scores Omnibus Englewood CliH`s. or are in some sense apparentlytrailblazing. Whatis ofinterest isthe discoveryof relations pertaining between structure and expressive effect in all music that is strong andinteresting.but the absence ofany generally intelligible mode of graphic representation of specific elements of structure. published anthologies. On the other hand. While there are within the range of twentieth-century practice some illustrations of new techniques.. applicable to an ample samplingof works representing a great breadth of chronology. N. force. W. one can only plead the limitations of space. Implicit in that initial undertaking was the challenging assumption that a thesis ofbroad importance in the structure of music had to be. and stylistic disparity.introduction 21 The procedure by which a basic. to electronic music. referenceis often to music readily available in widely circulated. Anthology _hr Musical Anabsis. 1972!. I "These includeBurkhart. usually this is becauseof necessary reference to lengthy excerpts whose quotation has proved impractical. Eighteenth-Centugw Imitative Counterpoint Music : far Anabrsis Englewood Cliffs. within a context of vastly expanded resources notyet well understood in perceptual and cognitive implications. the restlessassertion of novelty often finds its outlet in mere notational appearances. In fact. It is somehow aparticular mark of the present time that musicians tend to devote disproportionateattention to works that constitute manifestoes. in the particular element of concern. Davison and Apel. Inc. 1958!. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.1949!. this book would be highly untrue to itself if it conveyed animpression of special advocacyof contemporary or recent music in which ncvel means areevident at the expense of twentieth-century music oi. Only occasionally has it been necessary to omit the quotation of music to which significant referenceis made.Parrish. But I wish to state at the same time my conviction that the principles of contextual shaping to which this book is devoted are fully applicable. 2nd ed. set of musical references was established foranalytical at times recurrent! treatment had been an essential premise fromthe earlieststages of this study. N. Norton and Co. Inc. andBerry and Chudacolf.._]. 1964!. more traditional persuasion. 1969!. and resourcefulness in music of traditional confidence within conventional means-music that is bents and assured unfortunately less studied in view of its relative accessibility. New York: Holt. Inc. when in fact there is much of great interest. 2 Vols. the selection of works to which to devote attention was the first problem undertaken. indeed.: Prentice-Hall. highly diverse. mediumlsystem.

In many instances signification is probably self-evident.Throughout this work I have soughtto fulfill the analysts obligation to make clear all lexical and symbological bases for graphic.but it should be read astentative and preliminary. Thus. I use the term element with reference to any of that set of primary structural parameters within which events oflike significanceand character take place in music. In any study of this kind. This applies not just to pitch structures but to all the elements examined. specified context and restricted realm of inquiry. equally. arising necessarily out of newly formulated concepts.22 introduction strongly rejectthe conceptof any fixed orthodoxy of analytical procedure and representation. Analytical sketches. someof the analyses inthis book take form in descriptive statements of an expositorynature. thus. given a few stated. and by degree of loudness. again within the intent of latitudeand fiexibilityof specific inode of execution. it should be kept in mind that sketches ofpitch or PC! content represent for eachexample. the problem of terminology is a difiicult and considerable one. expository. however. or stratum. too. but I have tried to give the reader thebenefit ofany conceivable doubt Brief expositionof certain most essential and recurrent terms andusages might be given herein passing. and may in specific areas take. go beyond the text in analytical comment and statementand must be reviewed in necessary supplement tothe text. that of harmony in chords or vertical simultaneities! . the hierarchy of metric functions is represented with careful explication of devicesemployed.It has been my hope to counter this problem at least in significant degreeby the best possible consistency and clarity of terminological selection and definition. by registral locus. an abundance of illustrations. and suggestions of symbols and procedures are given. The index lists all crucial and problematic termstogether with numbers of pageson which their definitions can befound. that of meloafy in contiguous pitches orattacks occurring within an identifiably continuous linear stream. others are graphic or symbologicalwithin a substantial range of possibilities-some innovative. In general. by articulative mode ofproduction of sound. sometimes within a limited. underlying terminological assumptions. any of a number of forms. . and other methods. of which there are many and many kinds. that of colorin timbresor sonorous qualities" within a given "These are determined by physical characteristics of the sometimes altered or manipulated! sounding medium. the element of tonaligy is projected in tonicizations. there is. voice.in Chapter 3. believingthat the approach depends on the nature and basis of inquiry. an interpretation of structure and functional processand affiliation. The question of how to prepare synoptic sketches of pitch structures is oftentreated informally.

element-event.] Equally fundamental are the terms progression. The expressive content . The terminological premises noted briefly above. Thus. recession. functional and expressivesignificance. are employed from time to time.structural role of an event or succession succession denoting a generic conceptsubsuming progression and recession!. It is my view that every musical eventin contextsto which these theories are applicable i. in fact. or nature of participation. terms like element-action. and the like.Forms like element-succession. and where the associationof component terms might not be self-evident.and givenfull explication at later stagesin this book. If the concept of structural function is in terminological reference commonlyallied to that of expression. or -to theflat shape of unchangingevents within that element. all of these termsand conceptshave full presentation in the chapters which follow. are in constant use. but the textural element is also regarded as inclfuding such factors as density and space. constituent parameters of tempo and meter are seen as of great importance. element-change yield the more specificforms of which metricevent and harmonic action mightbe cited as instances. especially noun-noun forms. is in a sense the product of actions of all other elements. [The hyphen occurs in generic forms. and related terms. tempo structure. these terms representin the simplest consolidation a primary conceptual basis for this book. of an event in the import of expressive contentand significance.. Similarly. as we have seen. Naturally.introduction 23 vocal or instrumental spectrum.Terms like tonal structure aresimply specihcations of the generic form. but comparable specificationsare also used to denote structures arising within constituent parameters. elementstructure. and to a lesser extentstasis. The most complex elementof all. harmonic progression. succession. Ahyphenated term like element-structure refers to the shape delineated by changing qualities and intensity levels assuming thereis change! within a given element. pulse-tempo!. that of rhythm. and in terms. I use the term function to refer to the processive. is it becauseI cannot regard them as distinguishable in the object-subject relation of actual musical experience: functionis the role. all except those in which contextual contiguities and simultaneities are fortuitous and arbitrary! has discernible. element-function is the basis for source of! expression..g. cognized characteristics or those presumably intended! and relations to affiliated eventsin a given work at a given level. the functional-expressive meaning and substance of the event are its perceived. these arefor the greater part conventional usages. tonal recession.e. yield certain derivative terms which I have adopted ordevised inaccord with underlying theoreticalconcepts. which I have devised e. The element of texturemight be said to consist in events by which the interrelations of lines or other cqfunctioning components areconditioned. rationally interpretable.

The above summary of some basic terminological propositionsis. not intended as a glossary. While discussingparticular structural elements andconsequences in a very broad selection ofworks. it employs commonlythe hyphenated form functional-expressive addition in to didactic useof the individual terminological components.an events functional significance in the structure! is indissolubly allied to. with respect to agiven directional tendency. It should pose no unusual difficulty for the reader equipped with understanding of fundamental conceptsof music theory. When I wish to refer to the eventwithout necessary regard to its expressive contentor functional role I often usethe term prejection. multiple terms suchas tonal-harmonic succession texturalor metric intensificationare useful. for explicit discussions ofthese andmany other terms the reader is referred to the text of the book itself and to the index. allied or resistant functional tendency at somelevel. having to do with stasis or nonparticipation-nonfunction within agiven element-structure. whatever its functional-expressive contentand significance. It seems to me that the only sensein which these are experientially separable concepts assuming consideration not merely of objects. I employ fundamentally the terms complementary and compensatoy sometimes such associated terms as parallel and counteractive! to denote relations betweenelement-actions whichhave. Within this concept. and apart from such significance.its expressive impact in the experience!. In description of situations characterizedby the confluence ofseveral element-successions." Since this book is concerned with the analysis of contextual relations in shapedcombinations of events. and it is my hope that thesestudies succeed in laying out in theory and in application somevital ideas and methodsin supplement to the work of many others Compare Cones immediate apprehension as opposed to synoptic comprehension in the source cited earlier footnote 14!. respectively. but of experience! isthat in which the isolated musicalevent whether it is in isolation. this book points out and illustrates many approaches to analysis. the term neutral is at times necessary. a atgiven level.24 introduction or potential of any musical event rests very decisively on its functional role within a contextual process. to be sure. The foregoing is intended simply to call attention to lexical items of most general importance. . and the primary basis for. denoting simply that which issues fromsource to percipient in the musical experience-the stimulus itself. Finally. with respect tothe confluent successions of concurrent elementactions. even unavoidable. or is construed in isolation in the absence of apprehension ofcontextual relations! might be said to have purely expressiveas opposedto _functionalexpressive import.

and linguistics. Thus.Gestalt psychology. relevant theoretical sources are cited from time to time. Important. if the syntactic operations and relations of confluent eventsare expressive of meaning at the most sophisticated levels of apprehension and comprehension. for example. orthose aspects of the event.probability and information theory. but the event forwhich no plausible functional relation to surrounding events can befelt or deduced. the problem of logical considerationof pathsfrom analytical insight to decisions ofperformance isonly one area of need that comes quickly to mind. cognitive act of relating! of the appreciation of affective valuesin isolated events ofpure.. for." But the present studies byand large follow from direct encounterswith musical works themselves. the musical work transpiring in time. . I have the feeling that purely surface qualities-those divorced from or regarded and felt apart from! contextual implications-are underestimated in the study of musical experience. one feelsthat.g. I have also implied that. Of further areas of potential exploration. Of course much work remains to be carried further. fl* By no means do I regard extramusical systemsand communicative structures. articulation. Understanding is sought in direct discoursewith the object itself-the score page andthe sound images ofwhich it is the symbol. heard and felt apart from contextual associations. loudness!often have in themselves unusual affective importanceat low levels ofstructure.thorough studyof subjectresponse to the single musicalevent in isolation in the widest possible rangeof combinations of parameters! must ultimately play its part in the understanding of the musical experience . as lacking important usefulness in the study of music. Adancer will respond with related movement triggered by the affective content of a single sound. local surface. and in exploration of the experienceof what psychologists callthe stimulus object. subjective association of musicalevents withextramusical experience-association triggered by analogical parallels of various kinds-may have greater "Perhaps themost importantcurrent sources of suchanalogs are set theory. contributing to its import and impact. applied analogously or adopted assources oftheoretical models. the naked qualities which inhere in the single event unconfused bycontextual disorder! presumably haveevocative powers in themselves insome pure and primitive sense. from which observationsare drawn with respectto functional elements and expressiveeffect. density. in -my view.introduction 25 along distinct but often complementary linesof inquiry. probably because of the apparently unintellectual nature absence of the intuitive or deliberate. the qualities of single events e. without recourse to parallels in extramusical systems and without employment of systemic analogsand models of other kinds.! The qualitative impact of the individual event is intrinsic rather than syntactic-with this I mean notjust the event out of context.


as abasis for structure at some understood level of perception. indeed. The tonalsystem consists of a hierarchic ordering of PC factors. but through earlier modality and more recent freer tonal applications as well. center. In the tonal period of conventional common practice the primary system consists of hierarchically oriented degrees of the diatonic scale and the tertian harmonies erected on these The terms pitch-class and pitch-class-complex symbolized PC and PCC! are used to denote pitchindependent of specific registral occurrence.! the ultimate point of relationship which tonal successions are contrived to expcct. The discussion that follows restsupon the broad definition of tonality necessary to such an argument. The practice of hierarchic systems of tonal order. it can be argued persuasivelythat nearly all music of the Western tradition is structurally conditioned by some kind of expression oftonality. Tonality may be thus broadly conceivedas a formal system in which pitch content is perceived asfunctionalty related to a specijic pitch-class or pitch-class-complex ey resolution] often preestablished and preconditioned. axis. by which the concept of tonality is engendered. with the tonic final. etc. Mans cultural history is marked by few achievements of comparable magnitude. is of truly monumental significance. or a complexof suchpitches generically understood. The foregoing definition of tonality is applicable not just to the tonal period in which the most familiar conventions of tonal function are practiced roughly the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries!.cH/wen onus ton ol ity /n troductory notes The concept of the hierarchic ordering of pitch content has in one mani- festation or another served as abasis for musical structure since the earliest stages the in Western traditiorg is It the intent of this chapter to introduce some ideas about tonal order in music and to illustrate and discuss certain approaches inthe analysisof tonality and tonal successions according to the concepts presented. 27 .

28 tona/ity degrees. with derivative melodic and harmonic configurations disposed in such away asto express and give primacy to a particular tonic or. and to present plausible conclusionsarising from such methods and hypotheses. particular such tonal content is reminiscent of conventions of the tonal period. resulting in a changed experiential significancefor the sense of tonic or vacillating tonic. will amplify the question and suggest possible interpretations. Often in fluctuant contexts.Conventions of tonal expression are thus particular means of aflirming the tonal hierarchy in practice as opposed to the broad principle of/zierarchic order in thesense in which it can beseen'to be generally applicable. Although no amount of argument cansettle thequestion ofrelevance of tonality in music describedas atonal. as well as predictable successions of harmonies bywhich othersare seen as exceptional or deceptive in the period of major-minor tonality. and the discussion oftonal referencesor allusions affirmed to be implicit in them. and its validity in experience may in significant part be based on powerful conditioning in the all but universal practice of systemsof tonal order in Western music. with normative points of tentative and fi-nal cadential repose. In more recent stylesin which tonality is relevant a system may but need not! consist of specific scalar formulations PC collections! of these or other kinds.Effort is directed here to an understandingof the techniques by which tonality is expressed and to formulation of interpretations of tonal implications which are demonstra2The terms convention and conventional will refer specifically to triadic and othertertian harmonies. Inmodal styles. Questions of the establishment of tonal reference by harmonic-melodic succession. exceptwhere considerations of structure are put aside altogether. asin somealeatoric music. tonics. and of the nature of tonal fluctuation. and melodic successions having these as their framing bases. in which tonalityl as aformalized systemis lessrelevant-or irrelevant. are necessarily somewhat subjective.corresponding systems are the modes. rather than to achieve any kind of inflexible truth about the examples andideas explored. . The many examples of twentieth-century sources in the following series of analyticalpresentations. More- oviiftyles in which tonal fluctuation is constant and extreme in latitude may find the structural function of tonality impaired. and the concernin the analyses whichfollow will be to cite methodsarising from theoretical propositions stated. These analyses thus include referenceto music later than as well as earlier than! that in which conventions of tonal-harmonic order prevail. even extramusicalfactors. There are of coursemusical idioms. it is important that the question be raised in the light of specific musical instances. and the less relevanttonality in. like that of conjectured tonal allusion in antitonal styles.a particular style the more musical structure must depend on other factors. especially ofthe current period.

and hierarchic statusin eachof the system components of the particular tonality in question tonal function! . or its auxiliary subsidiary. elaborative. also hierarchically defined with respect to a given level of reference. prolonging! relation to an event ofhigher order. and especialbf to the bass. /92 or 92/ !and passing e. links two harmonic or melodic points in an action filling space beyond that which is normative in the neighbor association. or other proximate relations".. embellishing. common-tone associations. and linear function in a comparable sense but also in the fact that a given event is associated often with more than one other event in different ways. then. In discussion of tonicizing factors those which support the emergence or existence of a particular tonal center. identity. An event may be auxiliary at a broad level. In a passing configuration. at a broader level the ca- . /ntroductory commen ts concern/'ng Iona/ and //'near functions Melodic and harmonic functions are of two kinds: the first of these has to do with position.tona/ity y 29 ble in the circumstances discoverable in the analysis of a given work. aV cadencewith Q second scale degree! in theupper voice is theessential structural aim of succession at the level of the phrase it concludes. or a neighbor auxiliary at a very local level may be seenas part of a broadly passingstream at a higher level. . Distinction between neighbor e. up or down. Of linear functions. the neighbor auxiliary embellishes astructural point in harmonic or melodic succession and is oftenderived in voice-leading ofone or more stepwise adjacencies.g. even at the samestructural level of reference. Often a neighbor separates two appearances of the structural harmony it elaborates. a matter of voice-leading.___---"' ! configurations involving linear auxiliary functions is. implicit in one or more voiceswill be relatively conj unct descentor ascentin a passing stream normally filling intervals of a 3rd or greater. For example. essentialat a more immediate level. the consideration of voice-leading gives primary attention to outer voices. or central PCC! primary interest resides in techniques by which the basic tonal order iscfirmed and established. We shall suggest that these functions are multidimensional-tonal function as to relatively deep or superficial levels of tonality. the second isthe role of the event in the melodic-harmonic linear stream linearfunction!. A second typeis the passing auxiliaiyoften a succession of passing events! in which movement.. where harmonic"as opposed to monophonic textures are concerned.g.Linear function is the relation of an event to the structural relatively essential! linear frame or basis.

- . Multilateral linearfunction thusconcerns the diferent events qfqjiliation ofa givenfactor ata given level. passing complex of events. the former appearing in two positions linked by a complex succession of passing auxiliaries related by tonal function as well as by chromatic successionthe in lower voice and other. it has to do with the fact that an eventin a linear succession can bemany-sided in its roles. is indicative of the fact that linear andtonal functions nearly always appear incomplementary conjunction in tonal music. as is sometimessupposed. The concept of multileveled linear function thusconcerns the nature of the function itself as viewed or heard! within differing levels of perspective. as in the instance described above. Thus emerges the concept of multileveled linear function paralleling that of multileveled tonal function. In the Beethoven thelinear force of chromatic ascent is of course inescapable. chromatically related. as described. a pitch event whichis of central essential! function within a phrase is seen to be auxiliary to more fundamental factors at broaderlevels. 37-40 forfurther reference to these concepts. as wouldbe expected. mutually contradictory or exclusive concepts. or ambivalence: that in which a particular eventis afiiliated with more than one related event. vividly illustrating the two aspects of harmonic and melodic! function which are a principal premise for this study. Following the process of subdominant elaboration. See pp. The concept of multileveled linear function is unavoidable. and never far removed from the primary system. the f is part of the neighbor encirclement of g andat thesame time a lowerauxiliary ofa!. V undergoes prolongationby neighbor auxiliaries. with the diferingfunctions pitch of events at various levels of structure-a multiplicity of functioncrossing structural levels.This might be termed multilateral linear function in keepingwith its character. added treatment ofthese issues is alsoto be found in discussion of examples to follow. Linear functionhas afurther aspect of multiplicity.a particular pitch might function as upper neighbor auxiliary to another and at the same time anticipate be a factor in the prolongationof! an essential point which follows. This sketch.or multiple. oran event which is a neighbor auxiliaryat a very immediatelevel isseen tobe a factor in a larger. above and below. andit argues that the two kinds of function do not reflect. and itscomparability tothat of multileveledtonal function will be readily apparent. comparable linear successions!. The multiplicity of linear functionis.The multileveled aspect oflinear function has to do. but at the same time the tonal functions indicated are plausible.30 tona/ity dence is perceived as auxiliary toits I and l! consequent. tonal function is of significance and in evidence and an experiential reality! in foreground.of two dimensions. The exampleis a severe reduction and abstraction of harmonic content in mm. then. perceptible.Or a particular pitch event mightfunction asauxiliary to two relatedpitches inthe succession g-a-f-g-a. Example l-l points up the issue of linear function as related andcompared to tonal function.functional relation may beoperative ata single level of structure. The essentialsuccession is iv-V. For example. immediate contextsat the same time that the series of harmonies may beof significance as aspace-filling linear stream of passing orneighbor auxiliaries.For example. 3|-12 of the fourth movement of Beethovenssecond symphony.The analysis isbased on the premise that except in relatively rare tonally non- functional elaborations. Thiskind of dual.

7 1o .fI1U|l=1JI'Y1l=== _ |92'7 ' Db._ I i== §== i= -_-_I Q!-_I »» . IV *D. Beethoven.n:=l==l1»1 I ' ff $111114 .ff Z .tona/ity 31 Ex. . I` e' ' 92..:==1'_1i. ::t'x~'1l_.1 1£1 1 »_ . il Ve.¢ ~ = i.» _ . .I=11'1s= II 1 I Q II *o -0 .36._ '° 0' _ =Bi==i==i:11i. _ »_ f =:==§:===§=== I ?_ _ =£C==§== Ob. V V/ iv iv VI v? V `i e 92/ iv.. l 3. :in-ll"l -H '° Bn. 3'-£. m. 111.c: V IV rv/Iv vii N2 V/iv IV I vi iv/ iv vii l iv vii/V IV V A6! vii/V lg V/ iv! Vi vii/ii? ii? Specimen identifications of multileveled tonal function seepage 52!.I O. /"0 f_` 3 .:i|T1|'Q1H2I I ll !=1__» :1 Vla.1 'Q ~ ° *f ~ ' :Q-I. h1'li== Vln. __ zz '|. Abstraction ofapassage in the fourthmovement..=i==r~ I U 1111! I -I7 ° if ° =Hiv. Op. 2 in D. §-_ r =-f7'_-.= ° =a"I:Ii = .hm~vI'nIi1. 1-1 .d2 iv g: i C. lan.--!5r'2--22ll - ` if ` sf ./V i .302 fa /"0 Jf Fl. nr 1111.303 _.ZZI~¢ 92" 92'! _ I _ __ __p_. *Some roman numeral symbols are simplified. Symphony No.e lmhmwzgr-11==i==r-i1_1i:r' :'.

Boi /*___* //_é /_X ¢ fm uf il J ff 1:1-` E' A2 _ 4? ° ff = ?_.E¢=-.---rr-= r==:r * ff ff ff ff Eg Q f .E :r..._i '...3 = g. .tona//ty 11 ntinued.E=:rE .. u-.191 4' 1? ` f'..

The example demonstrates two fundamental classes of harmonic and melodic! activity: that of prolongation of iv.. the latter of signiiicance atthe immediatelevel of the passage itself. then of V! The conjunctionof twolike symbols of upperand lowercase. jllfj Effie ji @5 is at at 1 wa' @ if V iV f fi VC-» f f ll Dbwgag é. reflectingthe principle of multileveled tonal function.'G39¥l. 5V Hn.. 9 il T 62 u Q Timp.tona/ity 33 Fl. local~ tonicizations ofiv/iv c! and V A!. the former of broad significance. the primary harmonic basis f`or the entire ascending passage. denotes a situation inwhich majorand minorforms orsystems are conjoined.! 2/ if i. f/F J i" . and in which both are relevant.. in addition to that of iv g! itself. Elf" T a #V ob.IV. fqi Db-JT! ll fvci they include brief.3&192:JZ V. Roman numeral analyses are given at severaltonal levels.. separated by the comma.including tonic and subdominant. . but felt.

ID T 1:-'Ti . The Beethovenextract showsa primary tonal systemon Eb expanded by references to the diatonic tonics f. IV. wedge-like configuration toward the V. 3 in El..v D] [sm SD st SD Wedge-like configuration toward V . 1 -2. purely linear factors are obviousand extremelypersuasive and they are accounted for!.34 tona/ity and that of movement in this case.292 m. and c._. Symphony No. the V undergoes no fewer than 21 measures ofinsistent prolongation plus fermata! in a typical atmosphere ofgrowing intensity before the I is reaffirmed in thematic statement. mm.1 92. recessive succession. Beethoven. ._ 2 ' "I -M 1 . Op. 220-21..v 92. the subdominantnormal medium for direct reintroduction of T: V-and with linking. passing auxiliary harmonies embellishing the recessive harmonicmovement from IV to V.l I note chromatic role ofmodal variant of tonic!: @§_'=-%2 . as well as linear functions both passing and neighboring. -IIEQH tion in the final movement ofBeethovens Eroica Symphony.v 92._ ¢3 . m. but tonal 51. and vi.v ~.1 IILQ I ._ _-l3__ | lil-' -m 1111 _= `. T: I is stated powerfully in a seriesof utterances. Again.given in the one-staffsketch.IL . or 240-44. Although it is not representedexcept by an inserted note.. . All of this is summarized in the sketch... 317-21. 3-1--1:0-_ lf* -'VIYQ -Il _ Cll!I BI C :ll-1. with ultimately a more extended reference to Ab. The reader may wish to make comparable study of other passages fromthe same movement.£%='?=¥¬1'I'|T¥1='»{§'T?'==3 lT?= .v ' le F Q §'5 92-V E 92.92|vf 1-1| _-_ . A further example ofharmonic abstractionis givenin Ex. Ab. e. largely chromatic. harmonic fluctuations of comparable features-for example.. Q *Undergoes 21 measures of unbroken prolongation. 1-2 in resumé unfortunately without quotation of the too extended extract on which it is based! of the reaffirmation of T.L . 55. overall.here Eb.. I of the tonic T! system. Synoptic harmonic abstraction of an extract from the fourth movement. I5 and V following developmental fluctuaEx.3l5 .. from iv to V!.303 m. elaborated by neighbor auxiliaries someof which tonicize thediatonic harmoniesii.. to make theessential harmonic directions and functions visible. and thereis addeda brief synoptic representation of the contrapuntally potent.277 m.


29-32. where suchrelations arecontextually demonstrable. . lacking tonal significance of evenimmediate functional value. in this context.117 l Y. Thus. The chords are of aspurely linearfunction as it is possible to imagine..the parallelismof voice-leading preempts and precludes expression or suggestion of tonal function inherently. Db-Gb! imparts °Again.*. the passage involves direct../ 92_. especially of fantasy or improvisational style. parallel chromatic succession from one diminished 7th-chord to the next. The sequentialrelation at the outsetof the succession F-Bb. inthe eighteenth century. tonal tendencies are fulfilled or suggested in foreground actions at immediate levels If relative significances of linear as opposed to tonal functions are a matter of degree.°-i._ lrnlllll I lil 11 lN 'lLlP'_ g. is avoided. _ ¥_/v -'_ i | v1 gf: _ v/v t: R/t: V III? I! prolonged andembellished bya series of chromatic auxiliaries.! succession in elaboration of essential harmonic content.gn-» '.-Gb-Eb-a triadic formulation with its own logic.logic of 5th movement in that succession. Such pure parallelism ofvoice-leading is a primary technique oftonalb nonfunctional harmonic usage. This is very different from the Beethoven examples.'_. eclipse any potential inference of tonal meaning in the stream of diminished 7th-chords. 1 -3 continued. 29-32.: ini "__. :1 4 im. thus. This is because of the parallel succession inwhich any inherent potential for contrapuntal interaction and afliliation. in which despite the force of consistent linear of structure. andof course becomes common as anelaborative device in late-nineteenth-century impressionism.despite the pattern of tonal shifts D ?-G ?-A ?-D ?-E ?! inferable fromand inherentlypotential in the succession of diminished 7th-chords.The juxtaposition of the Beethovenand Chopin examples isuseful in illustrating this distinction. virtually nonfunctional..36 tona/ity Ex.. it is nonetheless a valid analytical judgment that at some point tonal function is superseded inexperiential eH`ect by the force of relatively straight linear function in which potential leading-tone relations are unfulfilled at any structural level of perceptible connection. in mm. potential in the chords. The Chopin analysis must also giveattention to the root succession at a more essential level: BI. if ambiguously. Li 92_. and not at other points. with respect to tonal significance. in mm. I. or leading-tone action in support of potential tonics ofreference. it is to be foundin examples. their positions as passing chromatic harmonies in embellishment of the structural harmony does.e.1:"l1:Y'i" . 1. They become. '1 | ' 7 lrtv' 1 v -f -HI: . and the .

local context ofreference treated in traditional theory as foreground. and unique expressive consequence of the particular work resides in very important respects in the particularities of elaboration in the foreground by which broader structural factors are realized and amplified. logical unity. the actual surfaceof music. We have been concerned in discussions of pitch structure to this point. 33 isconsequently ofenhanced. Compensatory reaflirmation of the primary tonic at m. arresting patternsby which the great work of music projects and extends in time the prototypical basis. is of continuing necessity in the analysis of tonal-harmonic function. strongly resolving effect. It is vital in hierarchic status. and GL-Bb implied root of the primary dominantat the end of the passing stream ofdiminished 7ths!-Eb. background structure is of more generic content the more broadly it is viewed. 7Consider as well thehorizontalizations F-Bb-Db.Often many levels can be characterized. leaving untreated the vital. the consideration of leveled structure in music that the surface. . theHavor. through numerous intermediate grounds. music in which norms can be identified-nearly all music!. Analysis is far too often content with delineation of broad structure as THE structure. character. repeated allusionto the Gb passing tonic t: III ?!. The concept of mu/t/Yeve/ed function further exp/ored The conceptof tonal functions asambivalent. the primary tonic is impaired by cancellation of its leading-tone in the intriguing. with functions-including tonal functions and identities_of pitch complexes within very local areas ofreference as well as more essential functions. be kept always in view. to the mostimmediate. one might well observe that in music of normative stylistic terms i.tona/ity 37 a further underlying. Bb-Db-Gb. while regarded in its proper The reference to hierarchic status as low in level bears no implication of relative importance. in accord with that of tonics of reference ofvarious levelsof structural significance havingrelatively local or broad implications. the linear interpretation of functions of pitch materials their dispositions in lines-their horizontalness and contiguity in time! concerns aleveled structure except in the most microcosmic contexts. Indeed. orforeground. In Ex. and continue to be concerned. Similarly..l-3. insistingthat immediate tonal implication is very critically a part of the experienceof music.' The chromaticism of the vocabulary of the example is enhanced by chromatic succession ata number of points. ranging from the extreme background the total form as an all-encompassingimpulse!-the broadest and highest hierarchic architectonic level.e. to set the stage for the series of passing diminished 7thchords.

For example.! To put it another way. even a small unit of melody can be viewed varyingly so that at one level a particular factor appears relatively essential while at another level relatively auxiliary subsidiary. the concept of chromaticism. Thereis thus a conjunction of formal units into a larger unity by relative superiority here of pitch. inanalysis.where an F# appears in tonicization of the V! but not at another level in the same hypothetical situation. as it concerns alteration of the factors ofthe diatonic scalein melody and harmony. the term essential is orcourse to beunderstood as meaning of the essence and notin the more restricted sense of necessary. tonal function is the basis for discussion ofthe concept of tonal fluctuation modulation!. a melodic line of severalformal units reveals. a particular PC may be chromatic in relation to the tonal system at one level e. anincreasingly complex hierarbhy of functional significances: anessential pointwithin a phrase may appear to have an auxiliary relation to a more basic point when the phrase is viewed in a larger context. is a procedure ofanalysis whichexamines a particular harmonic or melodic line in stages ranging from the particulars of its appearance on the score page to the general structure described by its most essential points. then. each involving a kind of linear analysis of pitch functions having 1eveled significances. This the expansion ofspatial compass!is. they are complementary and interdependent views. . but often of duration. l-4. along with motive mirror. In all references to linear function of pitch materials. and the high point in pitch within a single phrase is likely to be interpreted asa subsidiaryhigh point in the analysis of that phrase in combination with others.! of one event over a related eventin a linear sequence. where the Fll is diatonic!. elaborative!. depends for definition on the concept of multiplicity of level and of tonal reference: thus.density. rather. The differing conclusions derived in this way are not of course contradictory. in which it is asserted thatthe signyicance of fluctuation in any given instance corresponds to the breadth of structural level over which an emergent referential tonicprevails. clearly implied despite registral variance. not at the secondary levelrepresented asthe immediate context of the tonicization of G. Similarly.is shownas part of the representation in Ex.38 tona/ity The concept of multileveled. etc. l-4 is subsidiary to that of the second phraseof the group. the primary system C.The significance qf both points intonal function l.g. Two examples follow. or multiple. The high point of the first phrase of Ex. and a high-level conjunct successionhigh of points and structurally important cadential pitches. the chief means by which the content of the opening phraseis varied in the second.. Important. should also be emphasized. stress.

Time distributions withinthe unit are represented spatially. its cadence achieved in part by rhythmic means. Accidentals given in parentheses in the quotation are thoseapplicable by virtue of already established pedal settings. Op. andapproximately. Theodore Presser Company. inthe notation of pitch events. m._ T _____________ ' EE 5! 1 ~@ I- The phrasefrom the Sequenza II for harp by Luciano Berio° Ex. Pf PP II *Each measure is a fixed durationalunit at 40MM. Brahms. Berio. 1 -5. sole representative United States. Several observationsneed to be made in extension of the analysis: both °In the index will be founda listingof citedcomposers and their years. 1 -4. The quotation. TE /A 4 /-J: T' "` +.makes these functional interrelations visible. Berio uses accidentals only to indicate pedalchange. _ ~_. which can be interpreted as analogous tothe traditional tonic. . 1-5! is a concise melodicunit. Each vertical bar-line corresponds to onemetronomic pulsation at 40MM. The structural basis is felt in the succession of principal and subsidiary high and low points toward the cadential D.101. Universal Edition.. Sequenza I/ for harp. its course very purposefully controlled._ __ ____ ____ _ ____. © 1965. Used by permission the of publisher.tonality 39 Ex. Trio in C minor for piano. . The melodic line assumes a kind of wedgelike character seen in this light. Ex. with supplementary explanatory symbols. -1 Andantegrazioso P J J Q92_»Lfl' ~ ~_. third movement. .l4* __ g gl I II ii //PP 1l PP f iff' #ff | gi/.violin. andcello. Canada and Mexico. The exampleillustrates afurther aspectof hierarchicrelations among melodic units within a single phrase.

a diatonic set togetherwith vertical PCC derivativesof common usage and expanded by subsidiary collections of chromatic affiliates usual in such a given style. The primacy of the tonic is a function too of its role as the ultimate point of cadential arrival. in some styles. marked forte. tends to center in those particular conventions by which the tonal period is identified. A! are immediately preceded by leading-tones whose resolutions arefulfilled in octave displacement. the tonal systemof any class ofworks might be theoretically conceived. aparticular work and the experience ofthat The word tonic willbe freelyused to denote thePC or PCC at the centerof the hierarchic orderin all styles in which suchorder is a relevant principle. and the strong natural relation of the 5th and its inversion. the tonal system of a style might be conceived as that embracing. . Of more immediate concernis the concept of tonal systemas it applies to a particular musical instance. The hierarchic tonal .40 tona/ity cadence PCs D. In the same way. the tonal system ofa style would represent the normal range and ordering of PCmaterial reasonably to be expected. and a rest precedes theprecipitate cadential succession. The ideas of pr/macy and hierarchy among pitch-c/asses and p/rch-c/ass-comp/exes.. the sequence of high points chromatic.the recession of low points is diatonic. functions. constitute in a middle register a descent diatonic! toward D. and interactions be understood in performance. complementing that of the succession of low points. the stressed notes. or is less. for example. however broadly conceived.gzstem can be referred to as oneof generic applicability-i. The leading or leaning force of the proximate pitch in semitonal relation. Thus. Propositions respecting expressions of tonal order in earlier and later styles areoften introduced in analogous relation to that most immediately understood conventionalpractice. In the projection ofa primary factor within the PC contentof a musical work or style! much of the weight of historical practice suggests the chief importance of its relation to the pitch a semitone below and. generic and part/cu/ar tona/ systems The discussion and analytical exploration of tonality.e. above! and the pitch a 4th below or 5th above. Some ofthe examples of recentmusic tobe presented in later analytical discussion in this chapter will be concerned with instances of hierarchic linear arrangement and order in which tonality is not. including those which predateand postdate the periodof major-minortonal conventions. emerge throughout tonal practice of all kinds as preeminentaffiliations by which the central factor in the hierarchic order is approached and understood. relevant. each subsidiary high point is preceded by a rest and/or upward leap. It is of course vital that these relations.

it could also be arranged to representa hierarchic ordering based on such factors See pp.. preparing! pitch factors oriented toward each of these. Tona/ systems of compos/'t/'ons.g. Such a particular system may include chromatic factors e. Eb. scope. may be seen to have some kind of anomalous second-order component e. auxiliary. or may be seen as. d. Thetonal range expanse. or tonicizing! certain of its degrees. We will see ofcourse that particular tonal systems reflect stylisticnorms. and secondary expanding. . Bb!.the phrygian scale together with predictable secondaryleading-tones attending and inflating. G!. and the hierarchic ordering of the content asexpressed the in formulations cy' that particular work." Example l-6a is agraphic representationof the tonal systemunderlying the expositionand developmentin the first movement of Mozarts Sonata in F for piano. and a!. or the diatonic scale ofC comparably expanded. and byimplication! rates of _fluctuation by which its primary system isexpanded and enriched. Neapolitan harmony! as significantly projected secondarycenters. latitude! is immediately evident. recurrent cadential G within the phrygian context. leading. In the representation of a particular tonal system the rate of fluctuation may be inferred in a general way. 134-38 for several representations of thetonal system ofthe fourthmovement of Beethovens second symphony. for example. embellishing! systems on C.tona/ity 41 work.' reg/'ons and /'n terre/at/'ons The specyic tonal system may be defined as the collection of tonics tonicized PCS and PCGS! and the supportive encircling. for example. may be seen to extend a particular modal ambitus beyond the norm. but at the same time the analysis of the tonal system ofa composition will illuminate its tonal structure by making visible the particular directions. 332. or predominantly plagal action within the framework of eighteenth-century tonalstructure!.. The tonal system specific to a composition represents the total resourceof PC content basicto that work. as opposed to the theoretical system genericto the class of which the work is a member. Methodswill be suggested here for the analytical representation of tonal systems. The generic system might be. K. range. those shown as parenthetical are of distinctly inferior status. but the rate of fluctuation is a rhythmic factor to be treated precisely in subsequent portionsof this book.g. It shows a primagf system on F. Although the ascending order of the chart represents thechronology of tonal rwrencein the piece. inflating. a primary system consisting of a trichordal or tetrachordal collection rather than the more extendedresource common to a given generic system.methods by which the tonal image of a work can be portrayed and its latitude and directionsof fluctuation shown.

Mozart.V ass }`/= __92 5= E ff~ 5 EEEEEEEEEEEEEFEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE! m. a! ' G. -:-ai-' §___ r 5 ""D "°° ' R/d ` n B/-B I.d sm r! Orcéer refegence p 5@ 9292ll ' n I1 Allegro Z_` J =» 1 _ 9292. P 1f|nuu _.42 tona/ity Ex. firstmovement. 92/v Bb! | FQ Q 92. A A 92/' Eb 6 C. Sonata inF forpiano. 92__/..Jr s T SD IY ' #2 D.c gigs: as I7 -1. Representation the of tonalsystem and extracted key tonal events in exposition and development.J . 1 -6a. K. 22 Ei? 35% . s 2 11-rf. g! .: ' I 1' nr v1 E -inn. 332. | 3.

tona/ity l 1g7é/ f_92 ll ll f /'ba f V Jihizjr fb. bf ESFC VPJ |'P_| If E fP fP [if .

1-6! . .44 tona/ity Ex. A tentative representationof fluctuation to and from points of relative distance isgiven below the exampleas further indication of the structural importance of fluctuation within the expanded tonal system. F. is thus preeminentat the broadest level. The underlying tonic and dominant components" are offirst-order and second-order significance.C. itself hierarchically ordered andcapable of expansion by superimposed inferior system components. passing! arein evidence here and will be discussed further later.1l7 g7 fP fP fP f' J fP f 1 Eggs-f. is The term component . While relative importances of tonics are suggested by note values. the dominant. 1-6a continued.9»stem or component refers toa level within the total system-a related system. as might well be expectedin the style of which the exampleis an instance. d is a system component of relatively inferior status. the relative superiority of any given tonic of reference isa questionof structural level: the central tonic. Specific typesof tonal function embellishing. Example l-6b is a further kind of representationof the same example and its tonal system. Thus. The whole is a visible. in the Mozart Ex. synopticimage of the tonal resource. it could ofcoursebe extendedto represent the total harmonic resource as well. It is important to emphasize ina graphic exercise ofthis kind that the notation represents PCs only. m."i% 3 I m. and should of coursenot be read as a pitch-line. specific durations of tonal reference arenot represented. Curvedarrows representdirections and paths of especially dominant-tonic! tonal affiliation within the system. respectively.l27 92 °s Pf l 1¥' "' "E as frequencies and durations of tonic occurrence cadential and prominences of such occurrences. Of course. not specific pitches.


Josquin. and the hierarchic order of cadential functions is of fundamental significancein study of the tonality of the piece Ex. 1-7a. 5 f ¢_ GP=_ 1| 1| CXO |10 li suggests the mildly tonicizing effect of the plagal approaches tothe cadential VI as well. I' Q uSMa» E I g __ Qsd ilhi10| . primary system is obvious. tonal structure is of course also evident in cadential functions. as is evident in the most cursory examination of sources. That concept applies to early music predating the tonal period! no lessthan to tonal music of the twentieth century: it is implicit and essential inthe idea of a scalar or other PC resource hierarchically disposed in cadential and other focal applications. Examples in this chapter reflect theconcept qf tonaligf broadly dqfined. in that sense it is evident in liturgical chant no less than in sixteenthcentury polyphony. 1 -7a. Beyond that general concept. and its representation as shown provides animage of hierarchic tonal order which can properly be viewedas a foreshadowingof complex tonal structures of later music? In Tu pauperum rqfugium.46 tonality The concept of an emergent secondarytonal system can be seen in a representation of the modestly expanded primary system asshown in Ex. t r1== uli 1 1 |19 ll! . The applicability of the principle of tonal expansion bringingabout limited excursion beyondthe fundamental. Indeed. Synopsis of tonal system. 1-7b!. It indicates a tonicized iv as second-ordersystem componentand Ex. The secondary regionon A is tonicized in the second phrase and elsewhereby application of the G# leading-tone. much music of modal systems can be seento foreshadowthe conventionsof later tonality as well: the functions of root relations of chords and of primary and secondary . Tu pauperum refugium.

is evident in many highly provocative sixteenth-century works. emphasis added!. 257-84. can constitute a useful point of referencein the study of stylistic trends. Pronounced textural contrast Varied reprise §¢l.ric Theory. terms. No. generic concept of tonal system applicable toderivative representations of the tonal systems of individual works. xii!. 1961! illuminates aspects of tonal order. And the tonal principle of opposition of areas of fluctuation with stability.but significantlydistinct from. which show in incipience the means of later.l. and evolutions. Examples of sixteenth-century tonality are discussed often in the light of emergent devices common tolater major-minor conventions.III. Ltd. Josquin. the chart of the regions suggested by Arnold Schoenberg in Structural Functions of Harmony London: Williams and Norgate. as well as what the author calls atonality" and floating tonality in sixteenth-centuryworks. the other with later manifestations. 2 959!. Another source of substantial interest and relevance to the concept of tonality broadly viewed is RoyTravis. . Tu pauperum refugium. Succession and hierarchic order of cadential centers.% . pp. Ch. the concept of a generic tonal systempertinent to a class of compositionsis discussed only limitedly in a forthcoming illustration. III.tonality 47 Ex.. Tonality and Atonality in the Sixteenth Century Berkeley: University of California Press. 15. The deduced norm-defining tonal system of a class ofworks. "The theoretical presentation whichfollows is related to. interesting sources might be mentioned. 1 -7b. Towards a NewConcept of Tonality ? in journal qfMu. while not a major concern here. 1954!. The reader isreferred to Schoenbergs theory as astatement of major importance promulgating a theoretical. The concept of a generic tona/ system explored in theory Since the intent of this chapter is chieHy to explore tonal principles and specific tonal systems manifest in individual works. Strong i elaborations Hierarchic order of cadentialcenters: third-C --ll second-a first-e leading-tones in the applications of musieajicta. At one pointLowinsky notes that a net of cadences on varying degrees related to the tonic and organizing a wholework into various sections comes closer to definingtonality p. and of ambiguity with focus of tonal orientation. T wo relevant. Edward Lowinskys paper. broad tonal expansions by chromatic extensions of fundamental diatonic collections.one concemed with early manifestations of tonality. in provocative studies in which tonality is conceived asa tonally centered organization p..

or practical. although such relations can be adducedwithin an infinite breadth of systemicpossibilities. where N denotes theNeapolitan! are sometimes shown. and like symbols. symbols like smziv in C. M/t = Eb. relations cjjifwest terms. for example. the identification of f il as st/D/r or m/D/D "Other.. Bb in C minor.that of the unexpanded diatonic majoror minor collection andits derivativeharmonies. otherwise itis understoodthat the symbol is one of direct reference tothe primary tonic e. iv/vi or aziv! or D/Tzii in C. ST supertonic!. will be used.! It is important to recognize that in a representation of this kind these symbols represent tonics-actual or potential centersof systemcomponents or in Schoenbergsterm! regions of tonality. Again. l-10! and thoseof a contextual..e.etc. 1-6! in which systemic content derives from a particular context. orthat of the bimodal collection withoutfurther chromatic expansion. ii/V or Gzii! are sometimes used. These are listed as nearest relations.g. Similarly. panmodal tonal system onC. as well as lowercase correspondents to representminor systemcomponents. R relative!.g. as wellas relations farther removed:e.SD can be viewed as an extension of the principle of IV and a succession T-SD-Dan extension or inflationof thesuccession VI-I V. A symbology of tonicdesignation akin to Schoenbergsis adopted here. related generic systems could beadduced as pertinent to phases of stylistic experience within the tonal period: e. st is understood as st/T! _The slashalso shows other kinds and levels of afliliation within the system: e. capable of courseof transposition throughout the equal-tempered pitch resource. Example l-10 includes alisting of relations bywhich all PCs within the chromatic primary system can be relatively closely identifiedwith the central tonic. /t or /T is understood as the concluding term. The symbol r/T or r = relative minor of the primary major tonic. Thus. etc. 1-10! is a theoretical representationof a chromatic.g. Relations of considerable removal from the primary system SD/SD/N.In that sense. GH.i." It is a theoretical system of proposed generic significance as opposedto one Ex.. G. Ex. r/D/st. Bin C major. etc. such symbolsas T tonic!. M or M/T = E.48 tona/ity What follows Ex. explicit only when necessary to preclude ambiguity. M mediant!. .. R/t or R = relative major of the primary minor tonic.The affix /T or /t will be used whereconfusion might result as in usesof the sym- bol D as dominant to distinguish it from that standard letter designation of pitch or PC! .g.. basis which are the chief concern of particular analyses!. not merely harmonic factors. Thus. the relations given are otherwise through diatonic links.r/D relative minor ofthe dominant!. C.in view of its common membershipin many practical individual systems. it is important to make distinction between relationsof a theoretical nature like those adduced in the following chart. to indicate relations as well as simplePC identities. Although the N is noted occasionally. It represents tonicized factors within an expanded tonal system by symbols which go beyond the usual letter designation ofPC to indicate the relation of a secondarytonic to the primary tonic..

bothof thesetreated further as thischapter unfolds. all degreesin the primary chromatic system areregarded as of tonic function. 3k I iw. Since theconcept isinvolved with questions oftonal ratherthan purely harmonic range. or sm. VII. thisfactor alone can be deceptive. E o . rather than simple harmonic successions within a Ex. D. Implicit in Ex. note that Ex. . l-6b!. sd. hence. not merebf harmonic factors . diatonic system. Ch.9292_ ___§____ j T D/ r/T st/D/r/T T r/ gs j W s 92/ s T D/T D/D/T m/D/D/T Key signatures are listed as including the tonally vital leading-tone of the minor system a practice shown in Ex. asis noted in the discussion of tonal distance which follows later in this chapter. diminished and augmented triads 3Schocnberg. QQ.. Although key signatures are one indicator of tonal distance. eachis consideredthe root of a major or minor triad and its theoretical significances andaccessibility derivedfrom that assumption. A very critical factor in tonal distance or proximity! is the immediate adaptability of a major triad as dominant to T or t-what Schoenberg calledthe interchangeability of mode"-a principle responsible in very significant degree for the expansibility of tonal systems in conventional tonality. l-8 should similarly be read as consisting oftonics-tonicized harmonies. 1-10 represents tonal. m.tona/ity 49 suggests that its nearest relation to C easiest diatonic accessibility!is as seen in Ex. l-10 area theory of chromatic harmonic succession and a theory of multileveled or multiple! harmonic function.Again. 1-8.1-8. Structural Functions. The major triad may have tonic significanceas R. st. Where potential system components are hypothesized. or SM. The minor triad has suchpotential significancesas r.° the summary given as Ex. SD.

or SM/r/ D/r for the major triad on A. i. Thefirst-order system primary! is shown at the base as T. Analyses oftonal fluctuation. l-10!. say. . of greater distance. etc. Ex. T: V D/T: IV r/D: iv -I -V V/V! etc.e. further relations-relations of greater complexity. a Bb triad in expansion of the system of C as lowered subtonic and suggests for it such a plausible. in the given context! of the second. 1-9. V/vi! etc. The designation of relations by this principle avoids the often dubious identification oi.Such a representation mightbe asin Ex. derive as alterations of factors in the basic diatonic collection on T or t. 1 -9. tonal system. precisecontextual relation as SD/SD. whichincludes abranched diagram in which the dominant systemcomponent region! appears as an outgrowth in the given context! of the primary system.the symbology proposed has the advantage of showing ultimate relations to the primary tonic as well as immediate functions within secondary tonal systems. in extension of a chart of this kind Ex. of more terms-could of course be adduced. to be capable of functioning as system centers. to note such potential relations asr/SD/SD for the minor triad on G. might well show the particulars of relation demonstrated in specific contexts.. as suggested in the chart. Finally. and the third component as an outgrowth again.e. -V .50 tona/ity are not considered be to of potential tonic function. For example. or in representation of any modification or qualification of this hypothetical. one might go further.etc.vi _ ii . generic.-all such relations potential and plausible in functional tonal contexts. V/iii! . Implicit in the functional chromatic system is the principle that the chromatic factors have a diatonic basis. i.etc.. in theory and without reference to any particular contextual derivation.

_______ lg 55' EL li ! m/D/T Z D/D/r/T SD/SD/T. D/R/t sd/sd/¢ r sm!/T -1 D/st/T. . generic tonal system.. m M m ` M m M.tona/ity Ex. and hypothetical proximate dlaton/e re/ations linking each ofits potentially tonicized degrees with Cc Mode of Tonic Examples Tonic Triad Degree Signature mo Mo mU MU M -lof Close Relations of Diatonic Succession m/R/t. D/D/D/T m/D/f/'r sm/t eI ° I! II _ . M 92 nl D M m I! __ __ r/D/r/T -1 SM/sd/t +N! ¢ '__-_'_-l-___-__ I T 33'---`_`__ M M_ IT! U1 M-.2 ! ____._`__ sd/sd/sd/t -1 e st/T D/D/T m . st/SD/T D/T _W ' _ m/T D/sm r!/T -1 R/t e -1 e m ii m M ""-. 1-10. A view of a theoretical.

.secondary tonics of referencemay be structural in implications within low-level contexts over which they prevaile. that is.however. Structural Functions. Ch. sometimes very remote. of course. Vital to this considerationis the concept ofstructural level. 1-6b. III. 2°Schoenberg. or multileveled tonal-harmonic function. different system e. A fundamental difference must. where departure expectsreturn and conditions the interpretation of the tonic of departure. The primary. At the same time. as submissive. or central. individual pitches! are represented incommon techniquesof linear. tonic and dominant forms As implied in Ex. in melody. 19. and the superior tonic asgoverning.g.g." The concept of level of tonal structure yields that of multiple tonalharmonic function. hierarchic representation canin no sense be interpreted asa sounding line of actual pitch events. be kept in mind: a stream of tonics in such a graphic.A number of the examples analyzed in the following pageswill illustrate this concept. if hierarchically inferior. otherfunctional meaningsderive from references to other systems operational in the given context. primary system Schoenbergs monotonality!. fulfillment within the primary.52 tona/ity Pr/mary and secondary ton/'cs and the/r structura/ and auxi//'ary functions. particularcontexts in which the tonic of departure ultimatelyprevails-tonal structures. can be felt in a way that lends harmonic events within multileveled systems anextraordinary depth of signyicance.. expanded system. F at the level of a single phrase over which it has tonal predominance!. tonicscan berepresented inmuch the same waythat structural and auxiliary embellishing harmonies and.tonal meaning is traceableto the most immediate tonic of reference.. But the idea of low-level predominance doesnot pertain to the cadential tonic representing within the same unit of reference tentative a departure from the primary or other superior tonic. If in a specific tonal structure there is one. reductive analysis.2° it follows that there is among "Some of the examples to follow will demonstrate. At one level. especially p. tonic is of course always of first-order importance as the term primary suggests!. The full explanation of a secondary tonalfactor involvesa rangeof tonal functions which. and only one. and consequent expectationof ultimate. some songs of Wolf!. which setout initially in subordinate regions ultimately absorbed within a culminating. with experience and understanding. a concept by which it is proposed that the true analytical interpretation of tonal function in any given harmonic or melodic! event is often one of numerous terms. The multiple function of tonal harmony is suggestive of an ambivalence not necessarilyambiguity! in the significanceof any single harmonic event or succession influenced by the emergenceof a secondary tonic or complex of suchtonics. mu/ti/eve/ed mu/I/Qo/e! tona/-harmon/c function.

fluctuationin the direction of R/t t:III tonicized!. etc. Prevalence in the tonalperiod offluctuation andtonal expansion in the . This will be discussed later as one manifestation of distance between relative systems as compared with others of greater apparent distance. When t:vii° and t:III+ are tonicized as major triads they normally involve thelowered 7. whose tonic triad unless tzv! has solid diatonic status within the primary system. the latter denoting all primary and secondarysystem components particular to a given composition or class of compositions!. is considered here topose the particular problemof unusual disruption of the primarysystem incancellation of the primary leading-tone! as compared with the equallycommon fluctuation in the direction ofD/t or D/T.gystem component. and thesupertonic and mediant in the minor mode. exceedingly common intonal forms. the dominant or relative might well emerge as second-order systemcomponent. or t:ii° and III* 2' will function as secondary tonics only when modified to appear as major or minor triads. often occurring at intervallic distances of the 5th or in other idioms the 3rd!. primary tonic. In certain tonal styles other orders are somewhat predictable. respectively.." The leading-tone triad in the majorand minor modes. etc.a violation of the primary leading-tone. secondagf system and . the system components collectively viewed..1-7!. Such functions as T:vii°. We have already made useof the terms primary tonal gystem. Given the termsor norms of a particular style it can be predicted that.in relation to the primary center.. Those triads of the diatonic system most likely to assumethe role of secondary tonicin music of the tonal period are of course theconsonancesthe major and minor triad forms. 22In otherwords. It is for that reason especially thattonal-harmonic functionsof the minor mode commonly derive from the harmonic form of the scale. secondary subdominants. and have a consequent weakening effect on the primary tonic. the evolution of major-minor tonality out of modality involved more than any other singlefactor the inflec- tion ofthe7 as a leading-tone. and highly supportive. I.! For thesame reason tonal change toward the minor tonics relative major R/t! can be regardedas far more disruptive of the primary tonic and its predominance than fluctuation into the dominant region. just as in modal systems PCs of likely cadential prominence can be preinferred. whosetonic isdiatonic. e. primary leading-tone. and for such a term as secondary leading-tone.tonality 53 secondary systemcomponents a hierarchic arrangement particular to the musical instance see Ex. as well as expanded tonal gfstem. But beyond suchnorms the particulars of tonal system are a vital factor in the character of the individual work and its expressivepotential. etc. for example. All of these havetheir counterparts: primary subdominant. t:vii°. The concept of secondarytonal levelsis of course thebasis foridentification of specific harmonic events as secondary dominants.

Dominant forms are those in which the two chief factors of dominant action and potential relation are in evidence or clearly implied: ! the leading-tone and ! the potential for root relation a 5th above the affiliate tonic form. the dominant 7th-chord with its 5th raised or the dominant triad with the same alteration-a favored device of the later nineteenth century.! A resuméof the group of dominant forms is givenin Ex. succeeded by the V. . the note a semitone below the tonic affiliate.Thus. 1-11 . is the apparent root of the chord. primary or secondary. in fact. inseparable from auxiliary anticipations of! the dominant triad. Listed forms of III* and I6 are of course 4 virtually indis- understood as highly dependent chords-tentatively delaying the usual dominant major triad of resolution and. l-l 1. To these forms could be added still Ex. it is understandable that such dissonantforms would have priority over the simpler dominant triad because of their strong drive toward tonal resolution. i.. Of the following dominant forms. * * ai Q V V1 vii° vii? Vs Vo III* i or U2 *Often considered to havethe dominant degree as implied root. others: for example. 1'Usually infirst inversion. soparticular chord forms functionas dominants. the particular dominant form in question isa variant of the very closelyrelated form built on the note a major 3rd below that leading-tone. A resumé of common dominant forms. Iln second inversion: delaying. dependent on.54 tonality just as particular chord forms function as tonics tonic forms: major and minor triads! . It must be recognized that when the leading-tone. arbitrarily relating to a potential tonic affiliate D.e.the dominantdegree as lowest note. especially ofBrahms.thus analogous to the corresponding V7 and Vgforms. the dominant 7th-chord and the diminished 7th-chord on the leadingtone must be recognized as the most important . is tinguishable fromand interchangeable in function with . All have potential dominant function. The diminished 7th-chord is favored over the half-diminished because of its versatility in direction of R/ tmay wellbe aresidual tendency remaining from modal traditions of cadential Huctuation lacking dependence on the later leading-tone function by which major-minor tonality is largely defined.

5:2 CTCSC. as canbe seenclearly if mm. l-12 certain factors of apparent tonal significance are quickly evident: there is reiteration of the major triad on C at the outset. _ ° ==== :E _ |513-D-sennnzrsnnnn-:Hui e= E= :Er -= 111-1 1 --=-='-. C. both of the accidentals introduced dominant in m.. _.considered in the contextof the secondary system of G. and the early threat to the primary tonic. there is fluctuation from the diatonic system Fit in m. 9. other aspects of its versatility are treated later.'-4 .-_----= -.'= == 11 1 111-1-1 m.7 /_92 KT. Beethoven. theG asa secondarytonic.tona/ity 55 resolution to both maj or and minor triads.is r92 ~ .1 » li 1. The first accidental. the F il must be interpreted asa secondaryleading-tone. Bb in m.1V l _ 1 ' -I Allegro con brio Z-$_ 1I 3 _ 1 H Q: 11 _H _ _ -'=== li! 1_ Z _ 1 -= H l 1:1 -' _ _#_ _. xi1=g_:$ := #nh ° __Il 1 . 2.4 'Q /'i -' . Op. Sonata inC forpiano.1:-1-1-1-1-9-I |¢1111.. is in a veg!local sense a leading-tone.4 IH 1 §|1. 2-3 are.-_TQ-1-1--_-_--_1_-Ifiuiijnii 1_---I*_------ini!--Z!-= l1lllll1-- -1-I H-Q!-IQ b 5l'= Tonal Huctuation thus occursprecipitately. is one of the factors conveying a sense of unrest in the opening passages of this work. its tonic. in the Huctuant portions are soon cancelled. 5!. In Ex. resolving to G. firstmovement. solelyfor analysis. 1 -12. Fil. not G as examinationof the entire movement would confirm!.-at-1-7-ri-1-1-71 m. =i¢n|m:_ ll._ ' Ui I i-1-_-Q. Since theprimary system is G. and the original C is reaflirmed in these cancellations and by appearance of its Ex.111_ 1 . . "'°' IQ _:lx-_ --_Z-. I!-11'!1$1l92:~l A 25 1_ U. Ei. 53.

with such embellislzing secondary sjystems succeeded by reaffirmation of the primary tonic. theseevents have tonal importin some degree. 5 is analogous in important ways: it is a sequential repetition of the opening.F. of course. F. moredistant. auxiliary to C. In broad analysis ofthe Waldstein opening. 8 hasno tonalsignificance. Secondary systems can be seenin general to have functions of two discernible principal classes: some embellish the primary system. amongothers. fluctuant successions. The primary tonal system. Bbin Ex. There is an important difference. The above analysis ofmm. otherscan beseen to link disparatesystems. is thus expanded andembellished bythe inflated significance attached to its dominant i. and chromatically derived!. it is also a subdominant in the secondary system on G.by the tonicizing of C:V!. however:it is not derived diatonically.. the tonic of C. a step lower. is one which has a tentative presencewithin the procedural relations of tonal expansion. An analysisof the tonal structure and systemunique to this work accounts for the inflation of that systemby system components auxiliary neighboring. suggests that the opening harmony. e. Exx. . indeed makes it seem inevitable. The entire process leads to an unequivocal T:V7 by persuasive and inexorable chromatic descent in the bass linking l and 5. Such passing ortransitional secondary tonics alsoembellish and expand. Bll becoming Bb!. by the presence of a secondary dominant.but which does nothave morethan a very nebulous. in a very local sense making possibleby simple diatonic meansthe referenceto the secondary level. on C. dual function-again. continuing thebasss chromatic descent tothe dominant by which the primary tonic ispowerfully reaffirmed.gymmetriealbf ordered around the primary C. Example 1-12illustrates auxiliary secondary tonal systems in expansion and embellishment of a primaryrystem. while its perceptual signficance is uncertain or clearly negligible. each prepared by a secondary IV the SD/T:IV alien to the primary diatonic system. V!. parenthetical A gfstem. has an ambivalent. the introduction of Bb involves chromatic succession mm. see. 2-3 as expressing a secondary tonic. 4-5. 1-6!. The progressionfollowing m. encircling! in relation to it--D/T and SD/T.. but they have the particular function of participating as connectivelinks in transitional.56 tona/ity thus. . it is a reference to the secondary tonic.g.G! . theseprocesses might well be capsulatedas momentarydeviants swiftly brought into focus asembellishments ofthe primary tonic. of m. hence a secondary subdominant. 1-39 and 1-47.! 23The Al. which can have either function. it simply alters the mode of thesecondary tonic. involving the samesecondary functions IV. implied manifestation e. That is. The consistent chromatic line in the bass within and surrounding this succession eases the approach. A parenthetical system can often be identified as important in defining the relationsby which tonal fluctuation occurs. expanding the system beyond the preceding tonicizedV.

G and F appear as embellishing secondarysystems symmetrically neighboring the primary C.1-13a. ritenuto ed appassionato assai .Transcendental Etudes. At the broadest levelof structure all secondary system components can be interpreted as expanding theprimarysystem andelaborating theprimarytonic. No.tonality 57 In the Beethoven.G is passingat one level. embellishing neighboring. for example. The issueof the levelof structure taken as referential is essentialto the characterization of function of a system component: thus. The third of Liszt s Transcendental Etudes contains. in the Beethoven. surrounding. a provocative expansion of the primary tonality conditioned by a largely chromatic descent in the basslinking F:I with F:V Ex. Ex. encircling at a broader level. 1-13a!. 3 in F Landscape!. Liszt. just before its conclusion.


since extremes of range and fluctuation are more common in later nineteenth-century music. 1-2. 1-1. The parameters arethose of frequenqy qf tonal change the quantitative facet of tonal rhythm! and distance and volume qfehange-both vital questionsof style. yet the auxiliary tonics emergeas distinctsecondary passing functions. 1-1 . thelevel portion showing the ultimate stable expressions relativefocus! of tonality after widely ranging fluctuation at the outset. increasinglyprovocative questionsmay arise. Indeed. Tonal expansion.tona/ity 59 In the Liszt succession references are remote from the primary system and the means of tonal fluctuation extreme. especially as it concerns thesecond ofthese considerations. 1-2.this isa shapingprinciple by which a great deal of later tonal music is conceived. might be symbolizedas in Fig. As examples for analysis reflect progressivelylate styles in the tonal period. There are firm primary tonal pillars framing the passage I. increasing-number and distances of components Tonal expansion In more Huctuant styles of highly chromatic idioms there aresometimes extremely remote and rapidly driven fluctuations in the tonal structureeven at such critical stages as the beginnings of works. 61-! primary Expanding resources within_the system and within other individual system components + Expanding range of fluctuation into secondary systems. Fig. V! and the fluctuation is swift and brief. Symbolic representation of tonal structure broadly receding toward final pointof relative focus. L . Symbolic representation of tonalexpansion. Fig. creating tonal forms which might be represented graphically asin Fig. enriching the primary system chromaticallyin the works final developmental episodes.


And in the midst of such extremes many analytical interpretations represent a range in which right and wrong are in somedegree inapplicableconcepts. In the identification and analysis ofessential harmonic functions weare inevitably much concerned with the analysis of cadencesand their relative strengths. not merely harmonic. and like characteristics ofevents. its strength a product of such subtle cadential qualities as registral placement. essentialfunction at some level. There are. the/T hierarchic basis often determined tonal and cadentia/ factors by A central premise of the present study is evident: harmonic and melodic analysis is. norits only important aim we might note.cadential position. Linear function is strongly conditioned by tonal function as well as. Essential and auxi/iary //'near functions of pitches and pitch-comp/exes. the interpretive identification and evaluation of auxiliary and essential linear functions which make up the stream of successions. or at great length in the forms internal stages. for example. While of course not the only approach to harmonic and melodic analysis. Cadentia]events areinvariably of fundamental. Onlyin some instances is there reasonfor insistence upon a right interpretation to the exclusion of others.based upon a complex of factors less objective than those by which tonal function is determined. some interpretations which are readily seen to be ill-founded while others derive from persuasive logic. at lower levels or in nontonal contexts. distribution of harmonic factors. stress.and especiallythe positions ofthe cadential harmony in relevant primaiy and seeondaty tonal systems and the place ofthe cadence . succession. linear approach to the cadence point. of course. It must be emphasizedthat the sketch belowthe Brahms quotation is contrived to show tonal. The identification of some harmonic or melodic factors as essential basic! and others asauxiliary elaborative! is not a matter of absolutes. reiteration.tona/ity 61 unlike many instrumental as well as vocal works of highly chromatic idiom less common and generally less severe Classical precedents of courseexist! in which the primary tonic is very richly expanded-its prevalence even impaired-at such crucial points.functions. the importance of study of style characterization!. rhythmic prominence. constitute an interpretation of linear .The conclusions reached. metric prominence. the identification and evaluation of linear functions are nevertheless basic. thelevel ofsignificance depending on thestrength ofthe cadence in relation to others.in an aspect complementaryto that of concern with tonal function.

in low-level rhythmic formulations analogous to thosein Ex.general ranking and accounting of such factors. tentative. These are vital. However. and subdominant i.. and the discussions which make up much of this chapter are concerned with this underlying premise. ! Cadential harmonies are essential inthe linear functional hierarchy. While any and all dimensions andparameters of musical articulation are potentially signiiicant in the interpretation and eH`ectof essential and auxiliary functional distinctions.. crucial considerations in all harmonic analysis of whatever nature or premises. functionas highly subordinate auxiliary events.we think of and hear! II as functionally interchangeablewith IV having considerable overlap of PC content. tonally and formally more decisive cadences towhich they are related. e. when tonal music isviewed inbroadest terms. I and its chief auxiliaries a 5th removed!. 1-15. etc. V in conventional tonal composition is necessarily acrucial basis for distinctions among relatively essential and relatively auxiliary harmonic events in the linear stream. . precluding any simple. andwith respect to whatever musical styles. for which it is the principal medium of tonicization. its relation relatively affirmative. in conventionally frame. Thus. the motions toward it. In very much conventionally tonal music. IV. the following broad observations can be useful if they are not read as absolute and universal in their implications.. A predominant preoccupation of harmonic analysis is thus the analysis of cadence-its functional identity and character. harmonic analysis will reveal a broad prevalence of the primary often triadic! harmonies: tonic. and III. the essential substance of the structural vidual tonic and dominant harmonies can. as V-like in function because ofan overlap of PC content which duplicates the leading-tone and the 5 itself The centrality of I. an auxiliary support andembellishment ofthe former.! to cadences which precede and succeed it. often III. I-a delaying action which brings about resolution of the leading-tone and introduces l but otherwise suggests further motion toward more conclusiveresolution. and often occurring in first inversion with fl as bass note!. ! The primary tonic and dominant are very often. preceded by V. we tend to regard others as tentativeor allied forms of these. dominant. and especiallyof the first two of these. as a tentative substitute for. And we consider VII analogous in function to V-almost indistinguishable from V.62 tonality in form conclusive asopposed to preliminary!. and V. in fact. we regard VI. IV. indi- tonal music.In such tonal music the vast majority of harmoniesdesignated as essential in the basicframe of structure must be I and V-the latter. Conventional tonal composition thusgenerally manifeststhe central structural functions of I. although at relatively broad levels ofstructure weakercadences are auxiliary to more affirmative.

duration. The general superiority of tonal primacy. the ultimate aim of motion. stress.g. or 1! is the object of recessive action. and the factor of cadential occurrence.the superseding cadential eventultimately I! is thesupreme tonal-harmonic-melodic factor uponwhich all other events of pitch and pitch-complexare suspended in elaborating. to be developed further in Chapter 3..! event: e. We shall take theposition in Chapter 3 that articulationsin which elaborating PC and pitch events are seen as grouped infunctional associations around more basic. But it is notnecessarily medium a of metric accent.In the present frameof reference. e.! is of great relative duration i.! and the kind of structuralbasis which is our concern in the present chapter. No ear would deny the superior structural value of the higherlevel resolution. the medium of absorption of preceding dissonantenergy and intensity. in the present context. Ex. a dominant triad over tonic pedal. where tonality is relevant. Finally. an appoggiatura. . of decisive agogic superiority! in comparison withits cadential resolution. inwhich unitsare delineated by accent dissonance. duration. point.. within the elements of pitch content the primary tonal event I.as do purely formal-cadential groupings ofevents. to other manifestations of structural value can be illustrated and empirically demonstrated in the imagination or in improvisation of a frequent situation in tonal music: that in which a dissonantfactor a dominant 7th-chord. Vol. etc.In Chapter3 we shall wish tomake a firm distinctionbetween metric structure.Tempered Clavier. The issue of distinctionbetween superiority of tonal and linearfunction andmetric accentual! value must beintroduced verytentatively atthis point. saying thatmetric or accentual value necessarily inheres in thechord ofcadential resolution by virtue of itstonal primacy. etc. I Ex. structuralevents interact. areof increasedsignificance.or a delineator initiator! of metric unit. density. reiteration.such factorsextrinsic to actual PC content. l-16! illustrates harmonic prolongations and auxiliary embellishments. We are not. stress. 1-15 is pertinent to this ! In nontonal styles. interestingly andvitally in musical structure with often counteractive delineations of metricaccentualb' pnyected! units and unit relations. all evaluation of linear like tonal! functionmust rest upon evidence intrinsic tothe particular context in question.tona/ity 63 C 'ESM-tt EI I Y' iV V ! Many factors extrinsic to actual. prolonging actions. Indeed. specific PC content can at lower the structural value of a harmonic or melodic levels affect. even determine. The first prelude of Bachs Well. etc.

__. Xp: `/1 i v/v v II ._| r-PP : _I p . I ' 1: _IP 2'G T' Y _ --. Bach.' _ v ii _. 1-16."|' 7_9. 4 11 I' I_ I_ ii. ___ 4 --_ l7_i' U I .____ _Y I' _I/ 2 I _ I.A I i_ C-I ze.3 --. each repeated once m. Vol.64 tona/ity Ex. 1!. ____ ___ --I II 17-9. »1 TI E Q 7% R ~ ..Z T! C T!:l V! I vi ii/V! G D/T!: IV ii V if-`: Q : II Q 92 Q ..1 .I_" m."f 92-/ |57 .4 1' Y.»r. Y' 4 Y' iii 1' 7 U*/V » m. Prelude No..:. Sequential patterns. 1' 7 Lia ei . 1* Q.- _ --.19 i/% -é VQ ti 92. Representation of linear and tonal functions. V ' '2 E 92__' E_ 92-' _aj !` ' Z '_ I! ii §92_di "_llrl!!!_ E / Vl [d st/T!: N vii° i] representation of multileveled tonal function *Note bass descending diatonic scale cl-c!.._. ° Yi o' 3. 1in C We/l-Tempered Clavier. ~_. . I uii v Ya _lf I__- iii f I-ll _iS II ES.

7 m. 15 .tonality m. 11 m.

we cansee that the ultimate aim of the ensuing succession is the toriie of m. comparable situations. 19 consists of an expansive aflirmation of I by a broad cadential formula encircling I with its primary harmonic supports: I V/IV!-IV-V/V-V prolonged for nine measures. used in other.l7 II 2° I . e.g. 23-31. the .one to the dominant. The factof linear descent suggests a melodic recession complementary to that of the tonal-harmonic coursetoward I. J ."J. mm. and again to the dominant. 20-21.! Two sequences the in descending. passing stream are bracketed and they of course represent ahighly standardized convention of the style. Reading ahead fromthis relatively brief pro- longation which serves to establish the primary tonic!.' il g° ` The function of iii and V. at either extremity in this overall succession. or multileveled.66 tona/ity Ex. function! of harmonies. in the prolongition-embe1lishment ofthe 25 opening Iis particularly clear inthe voice-leading. ephemeral secondary references to the snbdominant region. of the Sketchindicate the succession of passing auxiliary harmonies linkingth. eight of these over the 5pedal!-I. essential point. m. made visible in the analytical sketch. There are also subsequent. There are two secondary tonal references. I-16 continued. toward which there is general descent. the other to the supertonic.! The roman numeral symbols show what hae. For example.. emerged as amost important factor in the theories ofanalysis developed here. in the easy adjacency of pitches of the two auxiliaries. Harmonic content beyond m. m. the deep tonal significance multiple. 19. Auxiliaryelements ofrhythmic-metric emphasis might be indicated by the symbol 1 . 22.! The diagonal lines drawn through the bas. the latter derived chromatieally.

1-17. prolongation! of the contrived harmonic structure illustrated in Ex. followed bythe C: V/V.D/t: vii-I isdz I I . indeed.tona/ity 67 minor triad on A. it has allQf these signifcances within a leveled perspective. as ii in the secondary system.The identification of such multiple functions is a reflection of the depth of tonal-harmonic meaning and of the way harmony is heard in tonal music. 92 . and an inflation of. The later D minor triad is both i in the secondary systemand ii in the primary system-a tonicized primary supertonic. Tona/ order as an inf/at/'on of harmonic order and succession lt. Gzii! is not an inconsistency. harmonic order. hierarchy.is well to pause here to make explicit the concept of tonal order and hierarchy as directly analogous to.. fl becomes the basis not merely for a harmonic factor. is shown as viin the primary system.The inflationary process by which IV or 92 VJ IV becomes SD is one of tonicization. Harmonic rhythm thus has its counterpart in tonal rhythm and all parameters ofharmonic structure their counterparts in tonal structure. and as ii/V in the primary system. and succession. as a hypothetical example.g. but for a secondary tonal system expanding the primary tonal system. there is an important sensein which. Thus. The concept ty" multiple function is necessarythe in fullexplication qftonal-harmonic signyicance. ii/V. The dual or multiple meanings ofharmonies in tonal contextsare thus here reemphasizedas a fundamental premise. The designation by roman numeral symbol of a harmony in two or three lights e. a five-part rondo might be seenas an inflation extension. it is a realistic representationof the range of functional significancesattending a harmony of both primary and secondary contexts of tonal reference. the Czvi.

9 in E. 1-18a.S /'T lsrmlli /' XBl|'ll!Il 'lil "I Largo * |_ . Prelude No. 1-l8b.q .... Chopin.68 tonality An example of tonal expansion isgiven in Ex. ------ _ ... 1-l8a. In Ex._ _lla _ I' _ -! J° -oo - ""*""5§5§£5?£5§ =EEF-§E5§§5§é= 33 33 cresc. .. Ex._. the succession of tonicized factors tonal events!can be seen as a broadly. richly inflated underlying harmonic succession.

notated with F>.tonality 69 theless. The "vagrant" diminished 7th-chord is important in the progression: the harmony at the end of m. and thejudgmentthat a particularfactor is "nonfunctional"is. Ex. looks back to the tonicized F through which the music has passed. 7. notated with E!. it looks ahead as a dominant to A>. The passingsecondary tonics are identified as embellishing tonal functions. 5th!. it is IV of the primary system. or passing systems.i.t! .a~/gg R/sd/SM /t m /T! F.. denoted by the appearance of accidentals.. embellishing. without normal root movementor expected resolution of the leading-tone. . tially tonic or dominant harmony may occur purely as a sonorous linear factor having no significanttonal function. it may havefunctional effectwithout association in the immediatecontextwith the expectedtonic of resolutionor its deceptivesubstitute. 73! in which a/:i acts pivotally as E:iii. inevitably.f SD. The concept of nonfunctionalityis applicableto only low levels ofstructure. whether they represent shifts to primary. Example 1-18b shows without fidelity to original voice-leading! the entire passage as an elaboration of E: I again with linear expressionof the factors of the prolonged tonic its root. Tonal fluctuation and techniques ofimmediate which itis effected succession by Tonal fluctuation is. if a dominant form is suggestive of a tonic prevalentin local or broadcontext. On the other hand.1-18b.or if it hassufficientdurationalor other emphasis.often interpretive. 3rd.e T. e. Enharmonic-diatonic succession A I'.sd/SM/t! C SM/t! F. of course.The restoration of the primary tonic is accomplishedby enharmonic-diatonic successionseep.

Any changeof tonal significance-any tonicizationother than that of prior incipience or prevalence-ismodulation in some degree ranging frompurely parenthetical to very substantial expansions of the primarysystem. secondary or primary in its implications. bydurational orother insistence on aparticular tonicform without supportof attendantharmonic functions. thesignificance ofaparticular event in the tonal structure depends in part on the environment in which it occurs.e. entirely one of the level of analysis perception. is tonicized by a dominant form! or.system components. Alterations through which the primary system persists unimpaired in its hegemony i. as when the normal raised 7 of the harmonic minor scale appears. isa partly subjective issue. like the extent of its supersession byan enteringone. The significance of tonal shift isthus measurable in accordwith the level ofstructure over which itseffect is relevant. Toput the issue another way. occasionally.The special concern of tonal analysisis the change or set of changesintroduced in the harmony so as to have the effect of making referenceto a new tonic. the question of the existence of tonicization relevant at some level isone of substantially objective determination. every tonicization is of tonal significance in some degree.2"! Accidentals may. Thus. but this is rare and. while again the force of the shift is often a considerably subjectivequestion to some listeners even themost elusivechange may upset anestablished tonalsense!. again.. bebrought about by plagal action and even.although less commonly. those of no tonal significance! will be cancelled shortly after appearance except whenthe changeis oneof more or lesslasting modal shift.if a tonicization occurs Wl denotes the lowered seventh scale degree. °'I`onicization canof course. The identification of specificplaces where tonal reference shifts isbased upon objective criteria. Tonal fluctuation involves tonal events-harmonic successions irylated by tonicization. appear l» without tonal significance. notreally convincing. byother means". like the judgment that a tonic emerges only parenthetically. or when there are cancellations of any of these alterations lackingtonal significance. Our definition of tonal_fluctuation will be simple and inclusive: it is a change of tonal reference. a secondaryleading-tone may have purely foreground impact. normally including but conceivably without the expected tonic resolution or its substitute. . of course. observation!.70 tona/ity In theory. We will consider that a secondary tonic is as a rule supported by the appearance of its leading-tone i. it is true ofcourse that the retentive influence of a prior system. b 2°The theoretical problem of modulation is.. since the dominant alone may have strongtonal implications. whenpurely modal changes occur. T: IV can be tonicized by I without accidentals. without 7. Moreover.when altered nonharmonic tones are used. and however immediate in its significance. is one in which determination is in some part subjective. Tonal fluctuation is thus significant with respect toa level of function: for example. intheory. the question of a hierarc/zic ordering fy .e.

PCs or PCCs! which coexist in a single diatonic tonal system" not necessarily the primary system in whose context the successionoccurs. 1-19!. fluctuations. one that occurs over a pedal point. sinceit is this scale form which expresses tonal function. A diatonic succession occurs between two pitch factors pitches. we would argue for their importance. with the raised7.it has more persuasive effect as tonalchange than one that occurs within a stable closed! context in the tonal structure e.such techniques are of less interest to many theorists than are the broad outlines of tonal structure. Processes. The lowered7 is a melodic factor tendingto subvertthe tonal sense by a leaningtoward the relativemajor. is ideally comprehensive and multileveled. the tonicization of D/T at the end of an antecedent phrase will have significance in its cadential affirmation at the level of that phrase."diatonic to be A tonal system"in the minor modeis considered the harmonicA scale. or techniques. modulations! involve particular techniques of derivationWhile. A diatonic tonal fluctuation occurs through a diatonic succession Ex. with the multiple interpretation and identification of harmonic function a necessary consequence of the fact of structural levels in music. this study continues to make the point that the analysisof harmony. 1-19. possibly even a parenthetical system. g. g.How a tonal inflection takesplace the process can be decisive in the quality of its expressiveimpact. in the expressive effect of the musical surface. of tonal change can be classifiedin a way that provides a basis for useful inferencesand conjecturesrespecting such effect. For example. Finally. Ex. Secondary or renewed primary! tonal references shifts.. Diatonic succession ~ IW ~C-F 30For these definitions. or one surrounded by persuasive referencesto an underlying system having predominance over a broader structural level!. including tonicized harmony. .while at the level of the entire period of which it is part the function of D/T will be seento be tonal embellishment of the prevailing T which the consequentreaffirms. during the courseof what we shall refer to as accelerated tonalrhythm!.tonality 71 within an atmosphereof fluctuation e.. like the importance of many sharply felt eventsthat are of primarily local impact.

1 -20. Ex. may be regarded as an elision of the process T-D-D/D-D/D/D = SM!. 1-20!.. interesting theory of chromatic successiongermane to its apparent experiential effect.!. A~chromatic tonal _fluctuation occurs through a chromatic succession. whenof tonal significance. etc.VJJ-g J 1inflection Chroma V` 92 J VV V The hypothetical generic tonal system discussed earlier implies a possible. g. modulatory process by which SM/T = D/st/T.! is derived. r_*-f0l1iCS'ii| tonic . the presence of chromaticsuccession does not of course in itself imply tonal distance. but this is not necessarily true consider an augmented-6th chord and its resolution!.72 tona/ity A chromaticsuccession occurs between two pitch factors which do not coexist in any single diatonic tonal system Ex.approach tothe SD of C by theinflection B-Bb!. It often involves a chromatic inflection G-Glt. for example. . This theory of chromatic fluctuation proposes that the fact of omission of stages terms! in a potential diatonic series of underlying relationsin somedegree accounts for the effect ofapparently wide tonal thrust in relatively little time. Whether relatively distant regionsemerge directly chromatically! or gradually from T is an important facet of style." Since very nearby regions can bederived chromatically e. 1-21. Thus. That is the theory that chromatic succession. Db-DU.c *I TD tonic *I T D/D/D 92 tonal elision Q 1 Q tg D/D D/D/D z an . etc. Chromatic succession . when one of direct chromatic succession. l-21!.is in effect tonalelision Ex. B-Bb. the Ex.

Enharmonicdiatonic successions e7 Note: x p el» g!'. diatonic relation pertains between the two harmonies. z a diatonic relation. these are further techniques of tonal shift. assumingthe necessary enharmonic interpretation. it is meantthat if that notewereharmonized appropriatelya certainharmonywould be most . in Ex. when a particular note is said to "imply" a certainharmony. Ex." In Ex.a chromatic nondiatonic! relation pertains. the conceptis contradictory and illusory. b." there is alwaysat the point of tonicizationa discoverable relation which forms a link betweenthe two systems involved. Enharmonic chromatic succession atic inflection + E7 Note: x p z E/y ~ p an enharmonicrelation.Moreover.the conceptof "commontone" asa technique of shift overlooks the fact of harmonicimplication.tonality 73 An enharmonic succession is one in which enharmonic equivalence pertains and enharmonic change occurs. Thus. While a modulationcan when associated with the entry o<a newformal unit. It the succession! may be diatonic or chromatic. 1-22b. y an enharmonicrelation. ssAnalysts sometimes speak of an "abrupt modulation"asa classification of technique. explicitly or implicitly. or when approached by especially radical chromatic and/or enharmonicchange!appearrelatively "abrupt. 1-22a. 1-22a. z a chromatic relation. Where tonal significance is involved. but it mustbe seen that if the term is construed to denotean "unprepared"entry into a new tonal region. so that it is proper to distinguish between an enharmonic-diatonic succession and an enharmonic-chromatic succession.


always constitutes a chromatic succession. and in late styles of the tonal period and in the twentieth century. areas of relative stability and areasof relative fluctuation. 'Q A A i X' g= PP dim. :. . S#/.-.. more locally derived as a diminished 7th on 2 in F!. g IQQ: =ii¢l I o lu i92 `` #1 1 ?»é i -lT _ -lrI=? §'7_g' A. a series of phrases culminating on thefinal.4-|»| i. the augmented 6th.. 123 J. 810. It is vital too that the concept be extended beyond developmentalas opposed to expositorypractices ofthe tonal period. Tona/ organization as a pattern of re/at/ve stab///'tyopposed to re/at/ ve f/ux While it may be obvious both in principle and in application. vI V1=Ge* f ul .r-ci _|= 3 :pgs .and opposingin various ways. ' 7. areas . _! | e Enharmonic-chromatic succession 92 _ Ulf] 21. applications in earlier and later practices are relevant: in a modal form.r'l1 _ gr _ dzm. with its resolution. =|. the delineation of tonal structure by projection of.first movement./°9292 |/__ gp 92 PP dzm._ gy " 92 Y . Quartet in D minor forstrings "Death and the Maiden"!. llw . quite apart from specific tonics. ° 1. Schubert. u/ 92 92 -V _ Q l.tona/ity Ex. it is well to make a particular issueof the importance of the conceptof tonal structure as alternating between. D. :Lo= _____f 92 °V PP ° lIT92 _ Yf 1 "'?'.5' pp dim.»__-» *The German augmented 6th on iv! in gil/ab is enharmonicallyequivalent to a:V-._ s » l.§:? Zllfl H rz. as compared with others expressing fluctuation to other degrees.Thus. 1-24. Allegro m. despite the significance of these practices.

That an entire form can be conceived asderiving in an important sense from this principle as well as from the principle of ultimate tonal rounding or reaflirmation of the initial. One has only to consider awork of this kind as auditory experience to be vividly aware of the fundamental significance of the alternation of tonal conditions. for example. It is in the nature of the episode in the invention-fugue genrethat it is fluctuant see Exx. Some examples in this chapter pp. An example of Classicaltonal procedurewill serve as abasis forfurther techniques ofanalysis andrepresentation of tonal structure and system. Tonal succession and the fluctuative process are illustrated in two episodes from the Mozart Fugue in C for piano. 394 l-25a. stable thematic statement and. It has been notedthat the fugal episode. nonresolution! contrasted with areas of relative stability focus. Consider. lack of clarity. we mustalso be concerned with the comparable opposition of stability and instability as a critical shaping elementin the music of Classical tonality. primary system! is evident in examination of any instance offugal procedure. The analysis shows the operation ofa trileveled tonal structure in which system components are representedby symbols indicating their relations to T-relations not merely theoretical but of demonstrable contextualvalidity. can be conceived as an area of accelerated tonal fluctuation. its imitation!. 59-60. for example. The episode quoted and summarized in Ex. 142-47! illustrate procedures in which tonal structure derives very importantly from the ordering of successions whose overall function is gradually to bring the tonality into focus.1-25a.b!. or the reverse ofthis.Of course.and tonal processes of expansion. often serving to bring about transitional tonal references in preparation for the level of a following.elaboration.the D major sonority . and fluctuation. with the final cadence left undecided in opposition to clear tonal orientation at the beginning. clarity of tonal direction. and a further look into the areas of fluctuation normally reveals a number of elementsfunctioning in complementagr support of the organic principle of tonal fluctuation: for example. Although it is not carried out thoroughly. an acceleration in surface rhythmic activity. resolution!. onein which it is suggested that. or the complementary activating force of imitations at relatively brief intervals of time.like transitional and developmental passages in tonal forms. a traditional form in which the principle of alternating stability and fluctuation is a fundamental point: the eighteenthcentury imitative invention or fugue. a multileveled harmonic analysis is indicated.76 tona/ity of relative instability ambiguity.b!. K. usually. l-25a reveals a passing stream of harmonic successions involving chromatic relations-transitional and auxiliary in linear function but nevertheless of locally signyicant tonal TWTence.

I~F{f'111-_lu 'TIT' 1 "1 i !!I! i=é.§. la T ir? %!' |+*1 C T!: vi a r!: i ii IV/vi iv IV II V V/vi iv V A5! I I il / . But here the process is entirely diatonic: chromaticism in i. locally functional._ of hierarchic tonal system in operation Concept ofmultileveled harmonic function can be and must be! heard in vagfingfunetional implications as it is related more broadly or loeallv to hierarohiealbr ordered operational _systems relevant to the example..tona/ity 77 Ex. 1-25a.Y'Q! f. chromatically related harmonic events: -. 394.Il|||l: = alili. 1-25a. Andante maestoso m.Ll#. the successions are diatonic first in SD.! As in Ex. then in SD/SD..-§ 1 /LY. e.Ll ¥~1="' "*f' '. ll. At the sametime there is an element of evidence in the function and relative distance of one nondia- tonic tonic: Bb.serving primarily to fill tonal space and achieveforward linear motion with factors of harmonic richness beyond the primary tonal . -1 92 : ' » i*7 L2 iz . 1-25b! reveals a comparably fluctuant environment reflecting again a multileveled tonal system. V 'vii° I II d D D'd/D/T!' _ vii? i vii A6! Concept I IV? . D/T!: xg. Fantasy and Fugue in C for piano. 9 i. the tonal references are of swift and ephemeral effect.i §Y'l ITT'-ll Fil l:Y'l.J'l =lY g Passing. . Mozart. A second quotation from the Mozart Fugue Ex.K. ' i mu! U1 0 'A HEI | /_` "5 92 'Y ll ` i H7-11-1 nl 1._g-I-EIT1-_1 l. SD/SD.

locally functional.. II|9292 . Tona/ rhythm What we have statedin the preceding section. characterized at active. Fugue. 394.l X11-_--1-_-11 Iii-.___ nv1. of a composition._1'I " l92l|_{ `I J 1|.J-ILIU 1'l'1"/_iii-_-Z2--Ql'?7Y. and thus an important subject of inquiry. that the time intervals separating tonicizations contractand expandin functional ways. developmental stages by substantial acceleration with surface rhythmic drive and other elements often accelerated and intensified in complementary actions!.l1_l. m. is that it is fundamental to tonal structures that they are characterized by controlled distributions of changing tonal reference.1 §l §--lT7'l I " ll. yet. Without such inquiry neither the directions of expansion of the primary system nor the meansof such expansionwould be apparent. K.F'| L5 ' HY' / "_lf] I'-I ___ I 1 I ~" _ "92 | 1 . and rhythmic life. their implications are locally felt as expansions ofthat tonal resource. Mozart. 19 _f1i. resource.» -I 'V v. Thiscontrol of the rate of tonal change constitutes an aspectof the rhythm. Tonal rhythm.put another way.f"l li -if IZY . 1 -25b._Z._- Passing. diatonicallyrelated harmonic events: 92 I £1 *Il `A `J /I _1 / 92_/' .78 tona/ity Ex. ii wiv ivv V nb SD/SD/T!: Nondiatonic secondary tonic as element of chromaticism vi ii? v 11 iv viii. C T!: wiv msn/T!: v IV V/lVlV 1 vii# vi. is an important .

if accessibility ofone system to another through diatonic harmonic succession is a reasonablecriterion. episode. The questions of Iona/ /htersection. The tonal distances traversedin a given musical form are surely of great significancein structure and style. we must recognizethat the outline given in Ex. Of course. the /7716/'C/73/lgeab/'//ly of modes and the "equ/'va/ence" of para//e/ tonics We havereached. in other words.! The strength definiteness. C and G!. One problem. in an important respect. we can make some useful observationsof certain criteria by which a theory of tonal distance would be informed. andof the extent to which that experience is enforced incircumstances in which tonal changesare strong and emphatic. of texture. 33Tonal rhythm is comparable to but not to be equated with harmonicrhythm. other factors in the accentual strength of tonicization are the degree of distance traversed the extent of change represented by a given tonal event! and the duration of the predominance of a systemcomponent.9I3/`!C6. For while a concept of tonal distanceis at least inferential in much of our thinking about tonality we speak oftwo systems as closely related-e.it must be true that the degree ofinsistence in that event. the evaluation of distances betweentonal systems is a very complex problem. g. a particularly critical and difficult stage in the theoretical treatment of tonality.tona/ity 79 part of organic substance in music. is a necessaryfactor in tonal rhythmic#ct Again. 1-10 a theoretical chromatic tonal system of hypothetical.! is relevant here. what one might call its accentual force.if a tonal referenceis a rhythmic event.. emphasis of any kind of timbre. diatonically nearest. See Ex. While it is doubtful that any absolute scale of relative tonal distances e. and Cl'l. etc. and -inexpressive effect. onehas only to think of the acceleration intonal fluctuation as experience. 1-45 and the attendant discussion. d/rect/'on. A tonicization is relatively strong if it is effected by devices that lend clarity that carry the ear along without equivocation into an emergent tonal region!. h/gh-/e ve/ chromatic successions and nond/aton/'c tonics. with the needto discuss tonal distance and direction. is: What does onemeasure? Forinstance. of course. which may or may not be parallel.. we can see the traditional principle of development transition.` /hterva/s of fluctuation.g. . clarity! of a tonicization is certainly an aspect of its rhythmic function.! as. one of tonal rhythm.list of systems relatedto any given system in the order of distance fromthat system!can be achieved. In this sense. etc.

y. and especiallyallowing such common nondiatonic devicesas the Neapolitan harmony. The criterion of extent of change between two systemsis probably decisivein the "effect" of being at a given point tonally "remote" from another point. If the key signature indicator is to be of use. The following is an outline of somebases of criterion and measurement of tonal distance.i. IV. The 1 te etio IV=V ll hl fi. l! The extentof intersection between two systems:hey signature Corre-. are fairly readily approachable in tonicizations by diatoni'c succession. it must be that the lack of intersection involving such fundamental degrees as 1.G dfil. e and C. What is problematic is that tonal distancecannot be conceived merely as the extent of such intersection. ! The extentof intersection: triadic diatonicsystems. but the intersection involving those of primary tonal lfi lfie e 1 t 1 ly ltl 1. since this is vital to tonal function. ! Theextent of intersection: scale and primarydegrees One eas. The foregoing considerationssuggestthat T and t are very closely related systems. and primary triadic functionsAgain. the "distance" of three Hats or sharps between signaturesof parallel keys e..80 tonality relations! showsthat all of the chromatic degrees.g. sinceno distanceis significantly inaccessible even diatonically. But that has to do only with process i.ily measurable factor is the extent of intersection between two diatonic scalar sets of PCs. yet. the . ldp +hlye tlt tel thl "1 " ltl th ldthelot tlo linking. Moreover. letting system. tonaldistance is in some sense a function of theextent of intersection between diatonic PC collections of tonalsystems. even as roots of major and minor triads.iv. mean diatonicsystem in exclusionof evenvery common chromatic factors. the particular factors which intersect since some are more crucial to tonal expressionthan others! are of necessary consideration. C and c! is surely in an important sense illusory. e.. how do you derive a second system without recourse to direct chromatic succession? Another basis of criterion must be the question of urhere you are the extent of difference betweentwo systems. for the presentpurpose. 5. This questionis probably more crucial in the experience of fluctuation. Obviously. and especiallyV! suggests that in practice it is reasonableto consider . In fact. it must account for the raised 0 of the harmonic minor scale. despite the considerabledifference of signature. spondenceof key signature is one indicator often cited. the crucial correspondenceof fundamental functional harmonic content I. and 7 wouldhaveespecially significant tonal consequences.intersection of diatonic triads coexistingin two systems is easily measurable. say.

F luctuation in the direction of R from t. ! the prevalence 'IZ-with of same the result- . standardized practice of fluctuation between relative keys. and ! the attraction toward potential tonal function in the relationof ii°-III as secondary vii°-I! inherent in the diatonic aeolian mode. the summary takes as an assumption the equivalence of enharmonic relations and tonal The problem more acutelyconcerns T-r R-t! than t-R r-T! since in the latter process R:V is immediately accessible from t:i e. even though the second may be derived in a low-level. These observations also leadto intriguing reconsideration ofthe issue of distance betweenso-called relative keys in practice of the tonal period. a problem to which referencewas madeearlier. a particular. and an analogous situationpertains in the relation between t and R. g.. azi. Here. T and r are very similar in signature there isone important difference if the inflection of 7 is taken into account!. or common V preparation. or II! is a significant relation not much removed.." has far more drastic or emphatic effect as tonal change than does the easily interchangeable succession T-D.can introduce C:V without chromaticinfiection!. or aV preparation in the second system. when V of one system is containedin another. IV. 1-3.tonality 81 T and t as distinct modal forms of the sametonal . One such factor is of courseV. Thus. In summary.The issueof diatonic intersections involving V. Three factors must certainly be ! the ambivalence of 7in evolution of theminor mode its in avoidance of the awkward melodicinterval of the augmented 2nd. is summarized in Fig. step-by-step diatonicprocess. This is the basis for earlier comment that T and D are sig- nificantly more closely allied than the pairs T. Tonal distance might be conceived in terms of the capacity of one system to yield diatonically without recourse to direct chromatic succession! the V of another. whose signatures are alikebut for the crucialquestion of7 in the minor mode. Chromatic necessityin derivation of the critical V implies and conveysa sense of distance. an especially significant kind of relation pertains. That is. the issue of intersectionis fundamental. or the V preparation. ! Diatonic accessibiligf ofthe second V.being equivalent to Czvi. vital aspectof the question ofintersection. when there occurs a high-level chromatic succession between two tonics. R. No doubt a better understanding of the evolution of major-minor tonality especiallyof seventeenth-century music! would illuminate bases and origins of the conventional. r or t.e. lowering inclining t in the direction of R!. a commonplace inconventional tonal practice perhaps deriving from modal traditions.gistem and to distinguish sharply and fundamentally between tonal change and modal change.provided accounting is made of the particular factors which do and do not intersect. and the intersection involving a potential V preparation commonly I. and the importance of harmonic intersection in evaluation of tonal distance is further evident in the likelihood that we experience greater remoteness from a system whenthere is fluctuation to another tonic having nondiatonic relation to the first-i.


fluctuation in conventional styles often proceedsin 4ths and 5ths. When that happens,it is useful to distinguish further betweenplagal actionsthose in which succession is a 5th down or a 4th up i. e., in which one tonic is, at least in this important sense,dominant to the succeeding tonic! and the reverse. That is another way of referring to the critical V intersection cf. C ~ F and C ~ G in Fig. 1-3!. ! The number of terms in any harmonic diatonicsuccession leadinginto the second system. Here, referenceis again made to Ex. 1-10. For example, the relation of T to D or SD might be conceivedas one of two terms there is an
immediate diatonic relation between them!, but T to SM of three terms [as

in the diatonic succession T-st-SM in which st = sd/SM!]. In the discussion attending Ex. 1-10 a number of variables are noted, including the fact that this basis of measuring tonal distance accounts neither for relative frequencies of diatonic triadic functions nor for possibilities of succession including such common nondiatonic functions as the Neapolitan. All of the above must be understoodas a setof observationsgermane to perhaps in the direction of, but far from constituting! a theory of tonal distance. The concept of tonaldirection is related: theorists speakof the "flat direction" counter-clockwisein the circle of 5ths! and "sharp direction" clockwise!; as suggested,for example, in connection with fluctuation in 4ths and 5ths, reversals of "direction have significant implication in structural function in music and, often, in the perception of tonal distance as
well i. e., the nature and extent of intersection, and the severity of change!.

Concepts of tonal progressi on and tonal recession To the extent that distance and direction can be inferred on the basis of

stated principles, we shall regard tonal fluctuation away from the primary tonic asprogressive and fluctuation toward the primary tonic as recessive. The conceptsof tonalprogression and tonalrecession are thus opposed tonalsuccession applies to both tendencies,denoting change without accounting for relative distance!.Theseconceptsare in keepingwith a fundamentalidea of this book: the idea of progressive fluctuation in thedirection of intensifying conditions expecting resolutiondissonance,complexity, ambiguity, instability, distance, acceleration, etc.! opposed to that of recessive fluctuationin the directionof conditions achieving or tending totvardresolutionconsonance,simplicity, clarity, stability, proximity, deceleration, etc.!. These concepts require the assumption that in any particular tonal structure, if there is fluctuation," there are points of maximal tonal distance and "best" tonal stability the latter, at broadest
.Where tonal fluctuation is lacking, there is harmonicfluctuation of restrictedbut analogous effect.The conceptof harmonic distance from I! within a singlediatonic system or



levels, usually terminating! against which tonal progressions and recessions
are evaluated. A tonal structure is thus seen as fluctuant between conditions

of tonal "dissonance"and "resolution" distance from and proximity to the primary system.The progressive and recessive actionswithin the tonal structure may conform to have complementaryrelation to! thoseof other elements, but the tendencies of concurrent elementsare often opposed in compensatory, counteractive relation!. These tendencies and interrelations of elementactions, of which tonal fluctuation is one, are regarded as fundamental to structural function and expressiveeffect in music. While spacedoes not permit their quotation, we may refer in passing illustration of theseconceptsto two songsof Wolf, both characterized by the unusual condition of tonal fluctuation at thebroadest level On.eof these,to which referencemust be made without quotation, is Seligihr Blinden No. V of the Italienisches Iiederbuch,Vol. I!, which begins in E/ and concludes in A/. Surely the tonal relations so describedconstitute a tonalrecession overall from D to T rather than, say, a progression from T to SD!; but the tonal structure is complicated by the fact that E> yields to more distant regions G> R/d?,
and B! D/D/T! before its role as D/T is directly fulfilled. Thus, the tonal

structure is first progressive,then recessive;the path of recession must by any reasonableestimate of tonal distance be seento begin with the reference to B>, m. 16. The function of E! as D/T is first clearly suggested in the appearance of E>:I as a dominant form with D>! in m. 19, after which it undergoes elaborate and extended prolongation before T arrives in m. 27, itself then prolonged and embellished in a fourteen-measure,strong verification. A Wolf songof comparably recessive, active tonal form is Der Mond hat cine schwere Klag' erhoben, No. VII of the samevolume, also unfortunately discussedwithout reprinting. Its three tonal systemcomponents whosecenters comprise the notes of T: I.! are shown in Fig. 1-5 with their relations to T

Fig.1-5. Outline of recessive tonal structure in Wolf, Der Mond hat cine schwereK/eg' erhoben No. Vll of Itelienisches Liederbuch, Vol. I!. Recessive tonalsuccession:e/ s>/f > C/ = components of C/:I

expanded system is of course relatedto the issue of tonal distance, and is implicit in standard theoriesof commonpracticeharmonic succession e. g., VI-IV-V-I! as well as in observed probabilitiesof succession and cadentialformulation in modalsystems. The inflation of such a principle of harmonicdistancecould provide a further basisfor measuring tonal distance note the proximity of V, I as compared with that of D, T!.

86 tona/ity

adduced onthe basisof plausiblecontextual function. In describing the overall structure as recessive, the systemon Gb is, in view of the tonally powerful I = V intersection, regarded ascloser to Cb than is eb.

Concepts of harmonic and me/od/'c progression and recession; comp/ementarit/'es and coun teract/'ons of e/ement-success/'ons

Melodic and harmonic successions are likewisecapable of classification asto progressive and recessive or static! action. It follows that an attempt at such classification, on a theoretical basis subject to empirical verification, is a vital necessity once a premise is undertaken to the effect that harmonic and melodic changes are generally not neutral with respect to theintensity-release scale of expressive efizct. Of the following observations,some arerelatively conjectural, some are easily demonstrable, and a few are manifestly reasonable and even selfevident.

! Progressive harmonic action, action in the direction of increasedintensity, might be summarizedas: a! Action away from I to V, thenceat some level to II, IV! ; thesuccession I-V-II IV!-VI-III can be regarded as oneof increasing progressive tendency providedthe closeassociations of VI
and I, and II and IV, as well as in certain contexts III and V,

are taken into account whenever pertinent; a general consideration of progressive action away from I, in the sense in which it is noted here, would of course be of relevance particular to conventional tonal systems, and the concept away from I in freer, or other particularized, tonal systems requires adaptation to the terms unique to such systems or individual works. b! Action in the direction of increased dissonance ry' an implicit kind increased dissonanceof a tonal kind would presumably be synonomous withincreased distance from I!. c! Action in thedirection ty" increased densigf and ofincreased spatial jield a concern of texture explored in Chapter 2!. d! Action in the direction of acceleration of harmonic rhythm noted in Chapter 3!. e! Action in the direction ofmore intense coloration, or of relative intensity within other cofunctioning elements. ! Progressive melodic action, action in the direction of increased intensity, might be summarizedas: a! Upward succession, which in intensity is increasedby the extent of leap i.e., rate of ascent! and by the duration-span of continued local or essential ascent.

tona/ity 87

b! Action away from f-a consideration of tonal bases eff the above
criterion of harmonic action away from I!. c! Action in the direction ofincreased dissonance of intervallic relations between pitch events at a given level of structure. d! Action in thedirection cy" acceleration melodic of rhythms or more intense
coloration, etc.

The conjectural observations listedabove haveto do with the specific structural parameters dimensions! of harmony and melody, respectively,or with related, cofunctioning element-actions. In the characterization of certain successionsas progressive and others opposite to those listed! as recessive, various relevant factors must at some point be regarded independently. Factors such as those listed do, in fact, Wen function inparallel com-

plementay! ¢Wct-i.e., a melodic succession may move away from l and upat
the sametime; but it is obvious that a line may be recessive tonal in fubillment and progressive in intensmwing upward movement at the same time, andsuch counteractive tendencies are in fact very common in music and of important paradoxical effect. Similarly, for example, in a harmonic succession there may be concurrent, complementary effect in parallel actions toward increased disso-

nance and away from I; but the reverse is common-e.g., harmonic action toward I but involving intense, implicit dissonance in often prolonged! V on the brink of in very close proximity to! I. In such a situation, the counteractive relations of coincident element-actions are of veg: powerful qfect indeed, and dissonance oftenincreases progressively e.g., V-V7-V,! in the course ofprolongation. What we are talking about is of course tightly related to conceptsof tonal progression andrecession noted earlier, except that considerations herehave to do with possibilities inherent in a purely diatonic, unexpanded tonal system. One can readily hypothesizeor cite further situations in which distinct melodic and harmonic actions which are coincident are of complementagf effect or of counteractive effect: for example, onemight imagine, cite in music, or improvise an ascendingmelody over static harmony, or any comparable or reversesituation. While observations inthese studies are not always made specific with respect toprogressive and recessive tendencies, the implications of such expressive actions should always be kept in mind.

Some examp/es of quasi- Zona/ order in me/od/'c and composite functions

Melodic analysis of initiating subject statements is shown in extract from a setting of the De profundis text by _]osquinEx. l-26a! . Three of the statements are seen to fluctuate, essentially, between the final and cofinal of the mode, as would be expected, while one of them-that of the altus-is comparably structured at the level of the 5th above,the cofinal G its most essential point.

88 tonal De profundis c/amavi Motet!.

I*J92_§JJ 15 VHQE' _"

@ I-I
5% I 'I '

- ~I

5,1 JE;

I 'I

§rI'I9b'IJ @§Lr__I
I" I9 I 'E I'I


-vi, ad

V5 r' ma V

- vi,

If I
ad te,

pro - fun

cla -



cla - ma


tona/ity 89

m. ll

gr'-' E'1.f'
te Do ----- ml

- ne;


@1f-Vg-EVV @,!li£E @;m,¬i ,K ,
P*1'VVVE'ftf Q5 JQI

SS31 upcdu _[E ;

J l i in lil*

90 tona/ity

The relatively tentative characterof the superius statementis evident in the
primacy, within its own terms, of G. The other three statements have, in combe seen in a composite sketch as reflecting very

parative melodic structures, relativelystronger aflirmationsof C, the final, as
essential basis. They can

clearly the V-I motion

Ex. l-26b! which further underlies the entire

Ex. 1-26b. Josquin, De profundis. Composite sketch of initial entries showing essential motion toward C "l"!. | e /"`


_, 0



92 _ /T?! ,||92
; |I 92`____

|| `92_i_, §

V RI ____/v

composition. In the composite sketch only essentials, degrees l, 5, and Q, are
represented, with the auxiliary neighbor and passing indications of the melodic reductionsof individual subjects omitted for a more fundamental

In the Berg melody Ex. 1-27a! certain notes, by virtue of tonal conditioning, actual resolving motion, and/or subordinate status in relation to more essential melodic points to which they are proximate and rhythmically oriented, are of clearly auxiliary function. Some are of especially strong tendency. Thesecond note, dbz, isapproached likeand resolves like the classical appoggiatura. The subordinate g at the end of m. 2 is a neighbor auxiliary to the prominent ab preceding; it has resolution in the following measure, butthen reappears, lacking resolutionexcept as part ofa descending passing group.The fb of m. 3 expectseb which does occurin the piano!, but it is releasedunfulfilled an important aspect of expressiveeffect!, even in its second appearance at the end ofthe samebar, where the sense of nonresolution is intensified. Its felt relation to Eb has to do with the prior appearance ofeb in the line, and the impact of an Ab tonic expressed in the
clarinets first measure.

Although rhythm as suchis not at this point a matter of attention, we can briefly note how ideally rhythmic effect complements the melodic structure. Essential points have agogic emphasis al»2, m. 2; el»3, m. 5! as well as emphasis byrepetition mm. 3-4!. As the line ascends to its high point the


or bb b . recessive motion of line. of m. a composite alignment of bitonal tendencies can be seento intersect. forthe apparentlydeviant outcome of the clarinet line achieves D. from the D tonic of the opening toa concluding Bb.in chromatic bass descent. insistenton D! but contrastingto that of the clarinet. Al»=°°|"? g I. arriving at the structural d.awaiting resolution. Ambiguity is expressedin the conclusion. . those repetitions consist ofthe major 3rd.. the high point occurring almost exactly at midpoint.1-27b.In fact. The characteristic 37 The piano toohas anopen tonalstructure. The tonal structure of the line is thus open. d and f 3. revealssome persuasive factors of unity and ambiguity Ex.E T T1f . What emerges most strikinglyis atriadic basison Ab. unresolved until the subsequent motion to the ab' tonic. the earlier is interpreted as an anticipation of the upper auxiliary. then a descent of approximately three octaves in accelerated. 1-27b! .°ii f-1 '-1 VI 2P ___ ____________ __ A synopticsketch ofthe Berg melody.In this light. . The sketch suggests arelation between that isolated al bb b! of the clarinet m. moving. 1-27a! appearing later as upperneighbor to the essentialab.with a two-octave ascent to eba!. projected asa subsidiarylow point of some prominence. 4! shortly before thehigh point and the pitch notated as bbb in Ex. the tonic of the pianos initial repetitions. Ex. duplicated inthe final utterances of the clarineton the same pitches exactly.92 tona/ity exposed pitchis the a. with auxiliary notes oriented toward the basicoutline. manifesting a tritonal relation with the otherwise fundamental Ab. which is ironically contradictory to the established tonal implication. 4. That is its eH`ect.! The descent of the line finds compensation for greater distanceand fastermotion in more conjunct succession in which even 3rdsand 4ths give the impression of steps in a sequenceof motion-stasis-motion ordescent-plateau-descent.

The Webcrn example Ex._ * HW -h n"' ' ° kaum héirbar g|'||S[¢s_ ________ _ _` Q _ .'--' _ if 1 so i. l-28! is perhaps an exaggerated instance of melodic tonal expression.1EEEi._v __. lendingstrong accentualvalue to the immediate goalofthe line. No. showing auxiliaries of strong leading-tone function in afhliation with a structural tonic. ab 2. ' ___ J'-92 II | 92l _ if/_/'_. Ex. The motivic unity of the melody. but with slurs and arrows suggesting lower-level orientations within the anacrustic group.J lI -rt _ ei l £1 '. and a second sketch shows a further reduced resumé in which the most essential motions and directions are extracted._ *"-'92 ' .f. Canada and Mexico. Gil._ 5/ 1 %%* E HP. Theodore Presser Company sole representative United States. moving in its most basicoutline from a to al. high points.£_.' Hllolme cresc. 6 collegno ""23f'=" -.-.. Op.=EEE 7 11 it _ __ II || _ ----. is represented as associated with the ab 2. Webem. Copyright 1922. Used by permission the of publisher.caao! mn Dimpfcr ' °' S'°' ' `1 Qe . The lower leading-tone.. 3. sehr iangsam Ji. 7._ `. Four Pieces for violin andpiano.as thesketched analysis makes abundantlyclear.'=i `3 .' mug '___. e. with the range of the line extending slightly above and below these points.. 1-28.tona/ity 93 anacrustic material of the opening... provides in addition to strong support of A the neededlow point in a line whosecurve is beautifully molded. is representedin the analysis in a limited way. Essential prolongations. . involving sequence.'f¢=°"S:-° 11=¥¢=2 -J "'?¥"" ._:~. and other factors are represented as in other examples. Universal Edition.

1 . Example l-30a shows the graphic representation of a melodic curvein a period theme. where it is stationary. vertical units on the left represent divisions of pitch each having the value of a semitone! while those across thetop representdivisions of time in this instance. &JlL&1='==`1=JI-:-§l='f=5.for piano. It . ambitus!. The second phrasereaches beyond any point established inthe first-thus. Op.57 _. and where the activity is slow. The diagram shows where the melodymoves. and the balance and distribution of skips and steps. A very important part of the analysis of curve must derive from the particulars of melodic movement the broader strokes ofwhich are described bythe essential points of the line. showing upward and downward directions with whatever specificity or generality seems appropriate in accord with the aim of inquiry.. in another sense it is a static melodic element.H _E gl E |=ll§-'. Brahms. that of the second both down and up. 1-29.establishing a new high point. in a sense and at one level of consideration. Andante tenera nte phi lcnto! . it shows whether the melody moves in large or small intervals. Ex. The essentialdirection of the first phrase is down. m. where accelerated-all important factors in its effect. . 2.illustrating the comparative breadth or narrowness of its pitch compass range. Forexample. Intermezzo in A. while built upon the same motives. Ex. No.=='==I:{§5'. 1-29 reveals a seriesof up and down movements. High and low points in pitch are immediately apparentand it is clearwhether or not they are repeated and how they are approachedthrough subsidiary high and low points.each representing an eighth-note or eighth-rest!. and in what directions and by what distances it moves. 118. and the disjunctness or conjunctness of its intervallic successions. Such a representation could be designed to illustrate the symmetryor asymmetry of its units.94 tona/ity Me/od/'c cun/e The curve pitch-profile! of a melodic line can be represented in many ways. In the graphic picture of the line.?§= in fl ' 1 =2=213:22= **=2=$==% i===S== *'=|==" '== -~~' A t The graphic representation of the melodic curve would show clearly where the melodic activity is concentratedin the range of the line and temporal durations of its active and static stages. and revealing the graphic image of its tonal succession or basis.


adecisive criterion in all tonal music. 1-3Ob!. 8-9. cz. still another manifestationof a pitch central to the entire period at the broadest level. Q or 5/5! is ultimately resolvedonly in the Allegro which it prepares. by leap. we arrive at a reduced curve. climax note of the entire melody. with which the first phrase begins andwith which it continues after brief digression through more than half of its length.e. The principal notes of the melody in the interpretation suggestedare f2. Synoptic representation of curve inthe Haydnmelody. These points have special significance with respect to one or more of the following factors: formal articulative function e. initiating or cadential!. and by interval of leap!. centraligf of function inthe tonaligf.e. .96 tona/ity If we isolate the essential notes of each phrase of the melody to which Ex. l-30a refers.. prominence by virtue of high or low pitch. the f 2 with which the second phrase begins the same pitch as that with which the first opened. The essential tones of the melo@ are factors indominant harmony. It is of interest that the principal notes are the dominant and supertonic dominant of dominant! degrees. and the f 2 withwhich the second phrase ends. The eschewingof any point of tonic repose in the melody quite beiits its introductory role. Ex.g. in tonal and linear function! as opposed to thosewhich are ornamental and auxiliary-as a means of getting at the most fundamental basis.. 1 -30b. relatively emphatic manner of approach i. dynamic projection. andthe melodic line of the two-phrase themeof the Allegro carriesout this intent. that of a more basic dimension. durational value by repetition or sustained length. The intensity occasioned by the prevalence of dominant feeling in the introductory theme . and most important of all. metric prominence. The analysisof curvewill thus be simplified in a way that is usefulfor perceiving the most essential directions ofthe line-a higher level ofstructure Ex. This process is analogous to that in which structural points are identified and outlined-those most strongly asserted and/or fundamental i. the ca at mm.thus manifestinga prolongation of that note!. Identification of structural pointsin the consequent allegro theme would show that its melodyis anexpression of tonic harmony just asthat of the introductionis anexpression of dominant..with which the first phrase ends and toward which the movement of the line is aimed after the initial f 2 is abandoned.

.24 _ legato[7 iii :2 9292l'-O !|| Piano II ravi! I grr rio il1:.tonahty 97 A melody of Boulez.radically different in character and substance. appears as the final subject in this series.r yy y lu 804' "" °'~ f'92 I :i li Y _. 144! m. Structures for two pianos. etc. at m. _ /'92 .24 I 90 duration series G. Used by permission of the publisher.part la.24: ii 9 I l8 #Ii_#Zi /U 1 °° °° 9 10 . Duration series at m.. . l-3la!. Theodore Presser Company. lo inn :gn lo sempre quasi f " E' °%5 rt |. |i 0 Q10 ' etc_ E A V' W V °° etc. it is useful in illustrating analytical representationof a melodic curve of extremefluctuations posing particular questions see Ex. W l QQ! 1955. ll 12 i "` f *" . sole representative United States. Ex. Canada and Mexico. and atonal.=:g.--§` mlm. presque vit' JL. 23 45 67 89 I0 ll 12 Original /l set: l=|l uv é Duration series: Transposed mirror _I Y. Universal Edition. retrograde onA!-: U Modéré.'_=¢§r¢=Q:| 315. Boulez. 1 -31a.24: Source of m.

The problems arenot merelyof the absence of any sense ofdivisibility in the phrase into smaller units that can be grasped as such and of which any point is made. translation by David Behrman. The Question of Order in New Music. pp. a sense of drive. expressive! of thedeterminationevents of and eventrelations on the basis of contextual interaction argued. or five notes. The example. Butthe aesthetic itself is the subjectof the questions posed. where the importance functional. referringto this same phrase along from the same work:° "One recognizes that these judgments. It is possibleto imagine discretely perceptible' groups or units within the phrase-the Hrst three notes. Henri Pousseurdiscusses the Boulez. Lacking repetitions of any kind-of motive.98 tona/ity The melody in Ex. in Structures.like other elements a product of serialcontrol. poses problems of coherence and apprehension. The sheer extremes of movement within the line impart. and the absence of tonal function contributes to an effect of unpredictability and mobility!. There isno assertion. changes are quick and of radical scope. of pitch or PC.In general. ironicalty. certainly.Its curve is oneof greatextremes of range in a singlephrase it encompasses almost the entire piano keyboard! and angularity of movement. 57-64 Tres modéré!. fourth. or the concluding F-b! appear almost conjunctin the established context. 1-3lb!. 93-l l l. mm.four notes. . in the quotation of these passages from Pousseurs excellent article. V. like others of its kind. the melody is one of constant renewal. The leaps are of such extreme distance that smaller relations of intervallic succession d-Eb. 1-31a issounded without counterpoint or accompanying voices. The issue of more orless total serialization of elements and element-events and the comparable question of random operations in musical composition are treated in this books introductory section. e2-fit. definedby the inherently punctuative effect of the longer third. is 4°Henri Pousseur. although the composer prescribes a legato execution of the entire phrase. of rhythmic value. and fifth notes. Part Ia. in PerspectivesNew of Music. The high and low pointsare temporallyadjacent. as well as any comparable formulation. or the consistency of dynamic level. Thereis a paradoxical feeling of randomness in the melody-paradoxical in view of the thorough predetermination of with another all its elements. The second melodic example to which Pousseur refers is that of Piano I. More basic still is the fact that in its disposition of pitch and rhythmic differentiation-the primary factors by which melodic form is perceived-contrasts are so extreme and so constant that the %ct of contrast is. settling at a relatively middle ground at the endof the phrase] .that his concerns necessarily parallel those of this writer. radically attenuated.1 966!. occurring just beyond the middle of the phrase. are based on values which can bedeclared irrelevant to the aesthetic of the work in question. or of the absenceof hierarchic function lending any kind of tonal order. despite such unities as achieved by the shape of line [the wedge-like succession and interrelation of high and low points. clear in the graphic representation Ex. inwhich some degree of conjecture must bc acknowledged.

Both passages might be likened to what are called "Brownian movements.. . by the fact that each one is organized in the most irregular. Ex.among other things.tonality Ex." i.e. 1-31a!. 1-31b. movementslacking from the observers viewpoint! in all individual signification and therefore offering a high degree of resistance to unified over-all apprehension and to distinct memorization. Graphic representation of the Boulezmelodicphrase. Our difficulty in making a precise comparison between the two figures when we listen to them is caused. ~Anomalous: a unit of 11would be expected see derivedduration series. Note: Each graph unit representsone semitone vertically and one 99 horizontally. least periodic fashion possible.

or differentiation in density betweenthe two and other moments of the piece! upon the over-all form is to guarantee a permanent renewal.of course. however long orintense however accented!. where it is relevant to the style inquestion. cadential function-any characteristic imparting significance to particular points in the line and greater relativesignificance tocertain melodic events. Far from establishing perceptible symmetries and periodicities. is structurally subordinate to the l of . regularity in similarity and in differentiation-in other words. . some stressed. . in graduated stages of finality. all true order.dynamic stress. Underlying structure in tonal music is.by which in analysiscertain points are regarded as essential. essential structure is determinedlargely by systemic functions in significant ways analogous to those of later tonal systems. but something of presumed empirical validity that analysis seeksto discover and interpret. 5! on whichthe melody is conceived and onwhich it most often comes to rest.metric prominence. and that structural points often express the primary triads and other tonal harmonies. tempo.others as auxiliary. so that. We find that any example of melody has a certain essential structure-not an objective absolute. forexample. others consonantwith immediate harmony. The perception and understanding of such melodic functions are of importance in how a melody is heard. the dominant. We have noted other qualities by which low-level and nontonal! essential structureis projected. both classifications relevant to hierarchic level. . these points elaborated and prolonged by points classified asauxiliagv-some dissonantand nonharmonic. the factor of high-level prirnaqf qf tonal function surpasses all others.100 tona/ity Thus the rigorous serial procedures which determine all the detail do not seem to have a positive function. and attack . Still. some themselves embellished by auxiliaries of a lessfundamental level.similarly conditioned by the hegemony ofthe tonic and its main support. andan absolute degree of unpredictability. an effective and recognizable ordering of diverse figures--they seem instead to hinder all repetition and all symmetry: or to put it another way insofar as order and symmetry may be assimilated one with the other!. Some further observations concern/ng me/od/'c ana/ys/s The foregoing discussions ofmethods of melodic analysis are concerned chiefly with melodic curve and linear functions. at this higher structural level. In modal examples. We have observed that tonal melody is qftenthe horizontalization ry' harmonies. The basicstructure consists of pointsin the line which we have classified asessential. prolongation by subsidiary embellishments. In modal melody the final and cofinal are primary degrees often l. These have to do with such factorsas duration. and of course in interpretive performance. a dissonant appoggiatura §. underlying. The effect of statistical disposition differentiation of dynamics.

_ . Pc Z92 "92 ° If-92 H111 ' . 1-32." . rl. counterpoint. tonal function can bea decisivefactor in establishing andprojecting essential structure. Some features of melodic structure and form motivicunity.Op....2 'Q . Brahms. inwhich dissonances are sometimes of great agogic value.. 40._ .|1=1i_H 11 li-I921liL_ --E|2=2=====g=|--.--. "An aspect of this problem is the necessary distinction between significance in the sense of linear andtonal functionalprimacy as opposed to metric accent.. sequence. . are sometimes elusiveyet significant in effect! and discovered only when analysispenetrates beneath the surface. This is a consideration that becomesparticularly important in later tonal styles. although they are discussedextensively in many existing books on form. c._q=-rm . Factors which lend motivic unity to a line.-_ '. for piano. 1-32. balance of conjunctdisjunct movement. or which motivically relate the various formal units of melody. inherent contrapuntal implications in compound line. Pespress.2.!__ I r 92 1 92/'I D II 'I' ji 1..violin..tona/ity 101 its resolution. thematic process. often counteractive . in comparison with norms of established systems.'-:-=:-_:sg-J-:§=j§5._ :IIIITI ZLPT li1P'1 lh 1. H. andhorn.~_ .-=-P r _ '-' 92 f ..=.._M. thirdmovement.= e '~=r. the esEx.and others! are treatedonly peripherally in thesestudies.In Ex. Trio in Eb. and comparable subjects..1." Many examples studied in this chapter reveal that even when tonal expression isunorthodox. Adagio mesto Piano '.

especiallywith familiarity.! and embellishing configurations. SeeTheCraft of MusicalComposition.sole representative United States.become especially important in delineating essential linear structure.. in fact. SeeChapter3 forfurther treatmentof these issues." This characteristic can be observed in Ex. on texts of RenbChar. Some theorists believe this a virtually universal condition having implications of "necessity" and value. identical in essentialsuccession.41 gy~ de mon cou-teau J s2! m. 1-33.te 52! J to4 J 7o! ~ SIP J. Vol. for alto voiceand alto flute. Of course. Inc.including many which are externalto specificPC contentaswell as registralsuperiorities of some pitchesoverothers. J Alto voice sur la poin . The ear is very likely. Theodore Presser Company.Le MerteausansMaitre " The Hammer without a Master" !.702 tonality sential succession of tonally structural points is seen to involve important relations expressingsignificant deep unity between the two formal segments shown. Ltd. in stylesin which tonality is diminishedin importance. 19396.third movement. To go only slightly further in thesesupplementary commentsconcerning underlying motivicandprocedural unitiesin melody factors revealed only in the analysis of structural bases we might well note the very general relevance of underlying step succession in melody of all times. I. Canada andMexico. Certain repetitions are deleted in the analysis. V.! These two units are.! 42Among theseis Hindemith. linear and metric functionsaremorelikely to coincide. 1937!. etc. translated by A.1-33. to hear the conjunct or nearly conjunct succession of high and subsidiary high points: particularly those of to the structuralsignificance of tonal "absorption"of the kind characteristic of theauthentic cadence.Chap. while importantly varied in color register. Boulez. Ex. .45+~ ~ J-70! f' s J -!o4! le r -Pe rou Copyright 1954.Used bypermission of the publisher. and London: Schot t and Co.6-too! J YAP deS !o4! m..Universal Edition. especially pp.In these circumstances.. This example is the conclusion of the third movement of the Boulez work fiute part omitted!. Mendel New York: Associated Music Publishers.other factorsof primacy of projection.

as the bases forharmonic content and major conditioners of harmonic substance and control. objectives. or point of tonal objective andquasi-tonal resolution. l07ff. and progressiveor recessiveaction. p. properly and comprehensively defined. Such a succession as in Ex. Although the example is contrived. Voice-leading is thus an important harmonic determinant in all styles. Wereject any assertion orimplication that harmony.! In some instances harmonic succession has a basis of logic in voiceleading itself i. considerations ofspecific tonal function or dissonance or density fluctuation. aswell as by the prominence of the C-Bbrelation in the penultimate phrase mm.41-42!. voice part!.! In other idioms the textures ofchords. textural resistance of opposing directions a progressive tendency!. enforcingBb. constitutinga chromatic. it points up the doubt that semitonal voice-leading can achieve harmonic succession independent of quasi-tonal allusion. it is obvious that the harmonic analysis of some worksof the recent period dictate or suggest special premises. of individual strata!.Where tonal function is less relevant. . as a significant organizing principle.tona/ity 103 the final cadence..with such considerations as adjacencies orproximities linking harmonic events. We have already seen. may be an important object of analysis. quite apart from other manifestations of harmonic progression. Voice-leading can emerge as a trub: critical factor in contextsof pronounced tonal ambiguity. or irrelevant. Factors of textural fluctuation are treated in Chapter 2. voice-leading the persuasions of linear function! can bevery important as agoverning factorapart from. See the discussion of a cadentialextract from Schoenbergs Op.is fortuitous or irrelevant except in certain extreme instances of randomness.e. and approaches. 23. may be an important object of harmonic analysis. or in some degreeapart from. this is because of Quasi-tonal effect is enhanced by the penultimate Bl] the same PC begins the final phrase. thequantitative factor of texture often referred to as densigw.leading-tone factor in octavedisplacement. m. l-34 must be considered to derive in signihcant degree from the pure logic of voice-leading. Some part/'cu/ar /SSUGS of harmonic ana/ys/s /h /ater styles While basic procedures and aims of harmonic analysis are appropriate to many twentieth-century idioms.for example. andperhaps tointerpret them as supportiveof Bb as something analogous to tonic.are of vital importance and relevancein many twentieth-century styles. 43. that tonal functions. with harmonic intensity and release achieved significantly by fluctuations in harmonic density. the fluctuation in degrees of harmonic dissonance as a means towardmotion and punctuation. and semitonal and quasi-leading motion.

and specific PC content. Accenti.forming a lowest perfect5th and a major 3rd with the top noteofthe chord. dissonant harmonies find resolution in singletones which often take on the effects of quasi-tonics by virtue of the emphasis inherent in their cadential isolationand in the recession into so radically reducedtextures afterheavy density. Other factorsextrinsic tospecific PCcontent canbe ofgreat significance in the sense of harmonic progression and resolution. 1 -35.For example. because of its temporallyand registrally isolated.- the relation of semitonal succession to leading-tone function. a harmony whose content is not of appreciablychanged dissonance or density can convey the senseof cadential release by virtue of its registral location e. fh Q5 $ Lf`92~° #U l 3.-we-" If the dissonant harmonynotated in half-notes isplayed with any of the bass notes playedafter. the bass note. even tonic. in which dense.1-34. its dynamic level e.g. /A HA 52 L4 §/ . as in the Dtl-E succession or. the culmination of descent!.g. 1-35. The operation of factors extrinsic to specific tonal or linear function.104 tona/ity Ex. Ex. the Gil-A relation. to a lesser degree. and despite severe dissonance and considerable overall density. Moreover. often the indefinite duration of the fermata. the entire sonority held as though with fermata. A comparablesituation is the subject of reference footnote e! with respect tothe pianopiece. from DallapiccolasQuademo Musicals di Annalibera.. can be demonstrated with reference to Ex.whichever it is. may assume the character of root. final appearance and consequent cadential prominence. it will be perceived that the total complex assumes cadential feeling because of agogic value and textural isolation of the final note. the culmination of diminuendo!..»° Perhaps the best root-tonic should be said tobe Fil. . or rhythmic factors likeduration.

tona/ity 105 Traditional or quasi-functional harmonies. notation. Example l-36c is a sketch ofthese closing bars in two distinct representations. jean jobert. The harmony following the two half-diminished 7th-chords retains three of four pitches to form a diminished 7th-chord seeming thereby to move in the direction of clearer tonal focus andfunction. is worth extracting for special focus. This succession. _f|Fmix. v/v g/" t!l»¢. onpoems ofPaul Verlaine. is an example of this Ex. is less evident. jean _]obert. No. This harmony.1'rr1|~r!|»f 92V/ 92__ Forms of Copyright 1388. Used by permissionthe of publisher. individual chords. l-36c!. 1-36a. are often concealed byirregularity of position. 27. or resolution. See Ex. 27-28! is of course areminiscence of the recurrent harmony of m. 29 Ex. in Debussys l0mbre des arbres. potentially functional. 1-36b!. its function as a passingauxiliary is readily apparent. Two half-diminished 7th-chords occur in the direct parallelism of succession which is one of the styles best known techniques. Voice-leading is essential tothe understanding of the series ofpassing chords starting at m.9292 _ |111 if -lllltl -Illui! lm: hm: alt! 31|-24llfxli iv? "V" Ati! half-dim. on All. passing context which prepares the primary dominant of m. constituting the most severe denial of traditional contrapuntal interaction and an extremenegation ofimmediate tonal function in the passing.l192lI. in view of the dominant 7th on G which follows in m. and ElkanVogel. while significant.! 92 //1 . representative of some of the features and problems of harmonic analysis in impressionist styles.. 24. 1-36b forrelevant excerpt.-`_ 92/ iv? /°92_ / agirmgpu _ 5|¢ U 'H.embellished by linear harmonic functions. sole representativethe for United States. but its tonal relation like that of the V/V following it! to the dominant at the end of m. Inc. . . The augmented 6th to the primary dominant of mm. But the reference is slight indeed and the dominant on G mm. lw 1* g. yet still obscure!.n| -Ill' f. the strong and simple functional basis is evident.1l|1Zl'92| § lllill llutihavi. elements of pure parallelism and of common tone retention are encircled. 30. 2930. Debussyg /0mbre des Arbres "The Reflection of Trees"!. l-36a!. 3 of Ariettes Oub/iées "Forgotten Melodies"!. takes onthe feeling of altered submediantto a parenthetical secondary tonic C. 2 in a changed. in both. ln the abstraction Ex. Ex.

/ 1| _ i ' %____/ i m.I111 _ _ 1JI 1Q nl . 1-36c. U P I' _ .. ul' II.-wg 1. .. . .|»ll921i|.i H. -=i|_!§_ mir nlnznurglmi ===I_. i _1 ._'.n|w|~ 1 ||n:nuz.i»l:11ur.:jk1 »l¬L i iz _ ___ _ -**"_ :T.-/ _ r._____-ii ______ _____.iuxnxlnnnau J .l' Y. 2! auxiliary to I.1ll-ffl' l! lll.it:.| | | '" r¢u.*'_-:KI L92lI|92l7..:_ V i vii1/V ii 92* VI iii. 1L 1 if |I 1: __ . gr l=:|l-=l-: f-92 ' I Li 1 ii |.l.l». . ll.1. i =..U§ i I Tes es-pé-ran -ces noy-é i1 ._l r._ viiv/V F| SD!: *Originally m.r. u.Y'i§'Z -92._ :_ -Q|_..lzfr ilu z ll ..1 ~ g. Q..._______.___i::f::i:"°:i:::..27 1:§EI9292II.fi ___T¢. dm IV 15.7'U.1|r _§.:.m:r_ i nu 1 __ " PP--=-` ' PP ` II 92 1 Tres feteflll sempre dolczsszmo e morendo m .l» A _l§'_. J -- 3 4| es. M .22221 _Ei--Q.T".106 tona/ity Ex.92 1:1iI9292:ff_l _ 92_.I. _E i § -| -I ?! fn . ii __.? `m=" 5% ` ff =I¬L.. now to V.' 11'IZ@ __ 3I hI H .1l:r=rilil_.' _.1!L$h'=-T "`fI=T'i'fJ¢ =1 " 'TZ n 'limi 3 ::» ins u§i-izmw -~ " : _' L. II...:_. Q.¢ f. |l. .. :L . --1 =flfa:¥.4 '| q .4 mu 31 i.4=|l92lI ? -I 1*-.|g.?l"=L"": "' " 2= i U ""'=$»»-' 'F' ~/' 92_Q__'._1i'm`_a|r192uu~ w rimw 25 -.~ '°` .. _f§EJ'sir. uv I /92 A `_ -_ _ *- ui .rZ'i'i|||§:L.lf C: vi° V1 Ex.npr 92/ _Q .i'§ZJ92.. . -1: KW' |'|£ PP 1 1¢u.-1-I Q | ' TQ 7._ 1" 1 ~r I gg &. 1 -36b. I .I.1u»¢:z-ur.r.nur r 1-' ` -If ° .::::i::_.

Our concernhere is with evaluation of the final cadence. perhaps. and textural-spatial fluctuation are reservedfor trcatrncnt in morc appropriate contexts. digressfrom central purposesbriefly to consider the issueof dissonancefluctuation. but studieshave been inadequate and inconclusive in dealing with the problem of relative dissonance values. implausible! premises. deceleration in the qualities of rhythmic motion seeC.hapter3. Op. The chief concern of this chapter is the presentation of analysesof diverse extracts in which interpretations of tonal and linear functions can bc suggested.tonality i. And it has been noted that aspects of harmonic process extrinsic to specific PC content questions of harmonic rhythm. The question of dissonance is of course dificult and problematic.Still. however.we are inhibited in thc theoretical exploration of dissonancefluctuation as a controlled. 107 +The horizontalizeddiminished7th-chordis identical to that recurringin the passing series. is probably the most persuasive single factor in the achievement of cadence. clearly recessive in general tendency toward the very low descentof the final. is a very vital factor in musical expression. bassmotive. somethingcan be learned in the exploration of the issue of controlled dissonance fluctuation on the basis even of selected not. questions andpossible techniques of inquiry with respectto dissonance fluctuation in a brief extract from Schoenberg. 309! which. 23 Ex.particularly in the matter of dissonance fluctuation. while not within the range of immediate concern. Nor is it clear how far techniquesof scientific inquiry can ultimately lead in the direction of objective understanding of dissonance effect in the musical experience."' Before turning to considerationof thc harmony. We might well. e. few would deny that it. and little understood in connection with expressive process in music. reduction in textural density 4sThe consideration of dissonance hereis dependent in part upon an interpretationof normsassociated with the tonal period out of which Schoenberg's style evolves. for example. it would be good to enumeratea number of other elementsserving the effect of cadential release: decline in pitch. p. let us consider. Nevertheless.the final six bars of the secondof Five Pieces for piano. 1-37a!. . purposeful processbecauseof the diAiculty of objective understanding of dissonance"values" degrees of severity in dissonanceas experienced.We are certain that any scale of dissonancevalue must relate to the stylistic context in question.

Schzrmer. allmahlich langsamer werden m.Op. 1-37a.2P desletzten Taktes non legato m. FivePieces for piano.. Schoenberg.10S tonality «.22 dolce Reprinted bppermission of G.23. . Inc. No. 2 Sehrrasch!.agent for 8'ilhelmHansen Edition.

M2 andm7-are distinguished on the assumption of different dissonance intensities.. extending to Helmholtzin the nineteenth century. although morerefined distinctions would undoubtedlybe pertinent on the same basis of assumed milder intensity for larger intervals. of these. have to dowith therelative severity of dissonance eject.5|~6. Even the single question of relative dissonance severity intensity! is itself highly complex. compound intervals aredistinguished from those within the octave only to the extent of the 9th. Each of the _/Yrregoing is rj enormous importance in complementary relation to the harmonic element.Esaisfee E52 ess rf " . 20-21 following the initial diminished triad outline. 1-37b. with respect Efforts to understand theexperience of relative dissonance intensities goback to Plato andEuclid. however. In any evaluation of dissonance fluctuationit must be borne in mind content is not alone decisive. in the first two measures quoted. Example l-37b is an abstraction of the intervallic relations occurring in the last fourbars.. of which the comparisonof intervallic differences isonly an important part. Enharmonicequivalents are treated asinterchangeable. Hindemith inour own. the relative timbres. and their gradual abandonment.. 20. the distances between coincident pitches. and the list could be extended. and physicists. In this process of release. the rhythmic values of the notes-all 8 *Intervals of disparate sizes ofthe same class IC!-e. There is agreement. 20 right hand!.g. the registral levels at which they occur. *I /92 |~'.=. and manyother musicians. themajor triad emerging at the beginning of m./92. extending into m. "3 i3c~»§`»a» wow S G H.ttQi 92. and agreement is difficult concerning any proposed scale for intervals and chords. However. EE " f` WJ iltll. A factor in dissonance and its fluctuation is the predominanceof diminished triads.` f92 1~ 66 555.tona/ity 109 toward the final counterpoint of two voices. are of importance./ 92" that intervallic the manner of articulation. the recessive diminuendo. philosophers. in the twentiethcentury dissonance is a fundamental concern of the psychology of music in which one concept ofdissonance intensity would trace it to relative degrees of fusion of tones in the phenomenological . and such increasingly consonant melodic motives as the three-note units appearing in the bass of mm. The evaluation of dissonancefluctuation is thus a vastly complex question.ef=§. Such factors as the extent of simultaneity of pitch events. the dynamic levels. Ex. and arbitrarily. in some degree of dissonant effect.

Kfenek suggests no physical basis for his conclusions. Whatever the value of conclusions derived in a study of this kind.m6. and more absolute in conclusions. or other acoustical phenomena. m3. M6. there is usefulexercise inthe exploration of premises. combination-tones.! The graphic representation of the dissonance curve shows a line of detailed changes which is a jaggedone with frequent fluctuationsoften among extremes. He suggests that the P4is consonant or dissonant depending on its context a traditional view!. and 8as consonances. is sometimes considered of neutral dissonance quality. presumably. with form deriving. Vol. P5. dissonant when thepreceding intervals areof lower tension. for it depends exclusively on aesthetic concepts. relative release atthe end-a profile which. listing theunison.. and the m2 and M7 as dissonances of higher tension. Kienek goes on to discuss the tension-degrees of chords on the basis of their intervalcomponents e. M3. with those intervalsof assumed greater intensity listed at the top of the scale Ex. aswell asa scaleof dissonance values andbroadly encompassing theory of interval and chord roots. Animportant. yet. although the conclusion may at times seeminescapable thatdissonance fluctuationis arbitrary. the M2. if not widelyaccepted. He states thatthe degree of tensionmay beexplained by vibration-ratios.. Superimposed over this line are two essential curves showing relatively low dissonance intensityat the start. and a methodology for its consideration within one parameter of harmony. m7 as dissonances of lower tension . consonant when the preceding intervals are of highertension. I. canbe reviewed in Hindemiths Cn# of Musical Composition.!. and it is intended to suggest only a further dimension in the analysis of Schoenbergs cadence. in complementation to other factors noted earlier. from purposeful fluctuations in other element-changes. Schirmer. takinginto accountphysical factors and complextheories of theefl`ects of spacings and vertical alignments in chords. must be regarded as of harmonic significancein the process of conclusion ofthe piece. etc. of two consonances and one mild dissonance. l-37c!. dividing the octave intwo equalparts. 1940!. effort to establish a physical basis for generally applicable theoretical approaches to theanalysis and compositional usage!of dissonance fluctuation. The tritone.g. and procedures for experience of intervals and chords!. . The question of dissonance values is also treated by ErnstKfenek in Studies in Counterpoint New York: G. The profile emerging from controlled dissonance fluctuation is especiallyvital in twentieth-century music in which tonal functions are diminished.1 10 tona/ity to the existence of significant functional differences in dissonance severity and consequent fluctuations in most musical contexts!and as to the importance in most music of the considerationof dissonance qualities and functions. relatively severe dissonance in the middle of the succession.Inc. chords of three consonances. The following attempt to evaluate dissonance relations takes into account none of the extrinsic elements enumerated above. At the left is a scale of hypothetical values. Heregards thetritone as a neutral interval. Hindemiths concepts of dissonance and dissonance fluctuation are far more elaborately stated. questions. the decision of whatshall beconsidered a dissonance and how it should be handledis an arbitrary assumption emphasis added! inherent in a particular musical style. listed as an interval of considerable intensity because of what are regarded as inescapable traditional implications of ambiguity.


The control of harmonic rhythm is often in itself a critical shaping factor. Pronounced agogicsuperiority of an event in a nontonal style might well be decisivein establishingits hierarchic first-order status. structure must be seen as shaped decisively by certain element-actions which predominate while others arenot of shaping relevance to structure. or other modesof emphatic projection. or of no significant relevance. in supplementto or independent of other harmonic principles. densities. passing.] Procedures of ana/ysis. in serial music. tonal order including modal and other systems ofquasi-tonal order! signyicantbi governs the structural hierarchy. by virtue of structurally essential status underscored in agogic. dynamic. in the particular instance in question. The procedures outlined in these pages areapplicable to lines of both melodic and harmonic events. while in a tonal order emphasis ofthat kind is submissiveto the predominance of tonal considerationsat higher levels. dynamic intensity. cadential. forexample. embellished by surrounding auxiliary neighbor.iterative. elaborative! harmonies. or of other kinds. ! Harmonic successions mayhave significant logical basis in principles of voice-leading even pure linear function in adjacencies and other factorsof approachand departure!. apart from tonal significance. The systemsof symbolic representation of linear functions and affiliations are useful where reductive _graphic sketches are relevant toparticular analytical .of relative intensity of dissonance andrelative consonance. symbolic representations of and harmonic functions and aft?//'at/'ons me/odic In the application of the following symbols andmethods to analysis oftonal music. ! The harmonic qualities may be vitally conditioned by factors rhythm.! are contextually determined and of decisive importance. [In many musical situations. and others mentioned! extrinsic to specific PC content of harmony. PC content of harmonic and melodic events may be determined largely by factors external to immediate contextual function and process within recessive and progressive tendencies. etc. creatinga sense of harmonic progression andrecession within this parameter. may conceivably prove irrelevant.1 12 tona/ity ! Even where there are not appreciable or perceptible tonal-harmonic functions. ! Particular harmonic factors.orthodox or unorthodox. ! Harmonic techniques ofany of these. may be heard as basic. registral distributions. while other elements rhythm. there may be controlled profiles of dissonance Huctuation.

that expanding literature speaks powerfully. A chief difference is visible in the mere dioersigf of sketching procedures em~ ployed in these pages. is available in a translation by ErnstOster.l982l. published under the title Free Composition New York: Longman. and the underlying premise that works and stylesof music suggest and require! varying modes of inquiry and procedure even within the consideration of hierarchy of pitch materials. Moreover. Thus.or procedural modifications. a number of conceptual interpretive departures from traditional Schenkerian method including the interpretation of hierarchic structure in contexts other thanthose of conventional tonality! will be apparent to the readerwho is aware of that tradition. . areadopted in line with other modes and purposes of inquiry. an important aim in this context is the presentation of concepts and procedures whichare deemedvital and which do not significantly duplicate those of widely available existing sources. No dogma is intended. no universally applicable assertionof a number of levels common to music.tona/ity 1 13 purposes and objects of inquigf. nor is there insistence or evennecessary consistency in the modes of treatment of various subjects. And a comprehensive and systematic presentation of Schenkers theories and methodology of analytical representation Introduction is Schenkerian to Anabwsis by AllenForte and Steven E. it should be noted that there are important conceptual differences betweenanalytical approaches pursued in this chapter and those of orthodox Schenkerian procedure. Many of the symbols andprocedures given here are related to those of existing studies especiallyof Schenkeriantradition!. At the same time. One hesitates to add yet another system of symbology to the many which exist some ofthem cited in the note printed below! . Gilbert New York: WW Norton and Co. for itselff Schenkers most important treatise. Other procedures. many of these analytical representations do employ the "Despite differences of conceptualsubstance and emphasis. methodology subjectrather to particular con- textual problems of different kinds and different demands. Our purpose is to explore a range of questions andpossibilities of useful analytical approach. for example. Der freie Satz.Naturally. others are not. if often withinunfortunately narrow biases. by which at the same timethe presentstudy issignificantly affected. l979!.. in many instances harmony is abstracted and represented as an element apart from its specificapplications in voice-leading andtextural distribution -a procedure that is legitimate and useful when tonal apart from linear function is theprimary object J inquiry. yet." Since the relation of symbology given here to those systems allied to Schenkerian tradition and thought will be evident. one is reluctantto offer a redundantand necessarily superficial review of techniques of analysis of voice-leading and directed motionassociated with the now firmly establishedtheoretical literaturederiving from Schenker and alliedanalytical systems. the system presented hereis innovative where particular approaches are thought useful as representing conceptual pointsof departure basic to this study.

! may beindicated byan accent symbol over the notationof the event: ! Passing configurations are often shown in summary by a diagonal line.1 14 tona/ity technique of sketching harmonic and melodic essentials. at other times solid beams are contrasted with dotted and/or lighter beams of relatively lower structural level: ! An stated reason events notation may beenclosed in a rectangular form forany on the basis of which attention is drawn to it: _ ! Emphasis extrinsic tospecific PC content dynamic stress. . with actual pitches omitted: ! Formal punctuations of relative significanceare indicated by one. of theseare used. descending order of significance within the perspective qf the example itself!: . duration. or more vertical dashes through the top line of the staff: i*i . are notated in the following. ! Beams by which pitch eventsare linked represent hierarchicstatus and prolonging aliiliations by various means:at times. where hierarchy ofstructural function is germane to the analysis. the following symbols are often usedand will be usefulin carrying out further analyses oflike purpose and comparable basis.. where that is true. an outermostbeam is representative ofhigher-level structurewhile inner beams represent progres- sively lower structural levels: | l____ ''__| or | ti? I I' ' "' ' ' ' "1 | . and which. etc. two.° °° _ Procedures vary as to how many. ! Representations of pitch factors ingeneral.

or by braces: V IV OI' OI' 3! Upperand lowercase distinctions G.tona/ity 1 15 ! Attention is drawn to particular events. ll! Arrows linking pitch events indicate dominant relations. g. the arrow pointing to the tonic of reference atan appropriate level of representa- tion: olgl or ! 2! As in numerous examples alreadygiven. V asa conceptapart from any particular form or manifesta- . VI. above!. byvertical brackets. sd. SD. etc. 0! As with passing configurations item 5. oftenhigh and low points in melodic line. etc.! are generally observed to distinguish between major and minor elements in conventional tonal situations. harmonic alignments of multiple tonal implication functional significance atdifferent levels of tonal reference! areshown by vertical rectangular enclosure. vi.. g. M. But these distinctions are abandoned a! where the reference is to an abstractconcept apart from any specificity of application-e. m. or for other purposesindicated with the particular example: 9! A wavy line may indicate excision ofmaterial which is redundant or extraneous to the particular purpose of the illustration in question: or . by arrows overor under the eventin question: the representation of such points by dotted or parenthetical arrows denoteshierarchic leveling of signiHcance comparableto the devices given in item 1 above: 2 | ! 8! Brackets over or under a sketched example are often used to draw attention to comparable often sequential or iterative! groupings of events. particular very local elaborative contours may be representedwithout inclusion of specific pitches: .


nor is everypitch ofa given harmoniccomplex necessarily represented. Melodic analyses in this chapter aredevoted primarily to considerations of pitch relations withinthe linear structure and tonality anddo notusually treat questions of motivic connections and processes. [See. but these issues are treated extensively in existing sources and to a markeddegree in standard music pedagogy. for example. the melodic dissonances diminished 4th. while inner voices are represented in summary abstractions. diminished 7th!. The Thematic Process in Music New York: MacMillan and Co. l95l!. The prolonged l with which themelody begins might otherwise have been indicated by connection to the underlying beam . Affiliated embellishing groups appear beamed and oriented to structural pitches to which they refer.or not at all. no singleillustrative representation can portray every functional significance.tonality 1 17 An events representation asto hierarchic level of linear function often changes as the level ff reference changes-the broaderthe level of referencethe fewer essential factors. too. or two often bass. Where emphasis of attention is on tonal identity and function-usually multileveled-it is often useful to abstract harmonic factors without consid- eration of linear alignment and distribution. The analysis ofa melodic conception ofCorelli Ex.Nothing is of greaterimportance in the experience of melodic unities than motivic relations and permutations. 6. Certain of the proposedtechniques are in evidencein examplesalready given. the sequential repetition suggested butnot fulfilled. At the same time. Typically. or outer voices!. ideal end of comprehensive analysis which takes all pertinent factors into account. comparable devices. and the failure of certain tendencies toresolve asexpected-the g of m. 1-38! will further illustrate some of the methods outlined.Rudolph Reti. and there is value in isolating for analytical attention single aspects of suchfunctional significance.we should make very explicit the desirable.] .. or by other. With enumeration of the foregoing suggestions of symbologyfor representation oftonal and linear essentialor auxiliary! function of harmonic and melodic events.it should be repeated that in many of the graphic sketches given in this chapter actual voice-leading among harmonic events is not given. locally essential events subsumed and seen as auxiliary in the more comprehensive view. The line is particularly striking for a number of reasons: its wide range for so few bars. the melody outlines the primary notes of the tonality. they might also berepresented by slurs orby other techniques of self-evident significance. voice-leadingis faithfully represented withrespect toone voice. At times. 4 and the e' of m. that is againonly because choices have to be made inassigning limited space. We have described thisaspect of linear function as multileveled.

Example l-39. The sketch includes most of the actual pitches except for symbolized passing groups!. also from the eighteenth century.! the unfulfilled leading-tone e2 precedingcf. in sequence.--f' F _- e92_.. b:V. Grave _ __ = f- --~-~. R/d/t! appears as a brief parenthetical reference linking the two chief tonics. The essential progression.a linear expression orhorizontalization. is through a passing formulation of roots a 5th apart. structural progression goes to b:V from its subdominant. Were the analysis extended to include subsequent phrases. Corelli.b.L.1 18 tona/ity Notes attached to the underlying beam are here selected to show essential pitches whichhave superiorprojection andwhich comprise the iharmony of which the melody is. 3.:=%=:===-:=::=:= %:. but their resolutions and more primary pitch afliliations are represented as tonally-structurally superior. and ! the otherwise consistent conjunct descent from the high point. Op..:iT_°l*'___ II *The f 2 isrepresented as expected becauseof ! the precedent in the initial fivenote motive.The relative major of the secondary tonic D major. emerges. Ex. 6.==-.g. from ezi also bziv! to b:V also e:V/V!. 1-38. the el of the second phrase!. aL»2. asoften within tonal conventions.The aim of the progression. to c2. . Concerto Grosso in F minor. as arepoints of cadential arrival. ` H 5 is e Ed' ____ i iT '_. »i IT l-* _"" ----.third movement.. has prolongation and embellishment well beyond the point quoted before its resolution in b:i at the conclusion of the section.The strong tonal allusionsare fortiiied by the fact that the underlying. Further excision or symbolization e. expecting long-range resolution on the tonic degree!. .@=. is a four-measure extract from the binary first part of a dance movementby Couperin. `! image. that portion in which the secondary tonic. further reduction would be of increased significance in showing essentialmelodic functions in the illustrated bars. Tendency would yield a broader view-a more essential tones having accentual emphasis are indicated as L. from f "2 to c2".No.

r .W1 etc. is shown.. Gayement m_5A A 'l~=::.e r IV? ii/vi? at -» fi so .====='='=5§£=@ "==%§E:::.:: . Ex. _ 5_ e i #Ta 92.f 92 l ee ____ T_ ____ ________|... There are at the same time functional dispositions ofboth dissonanceand density in the direction of release. Couperin. ¢tx D R/d!: ii b d/t!: iv _. a piano piece of Kienek of which the final cadence. important functional meaning of e:i. -_ii " 5-EE* XT af* 92 g li » - I. ornaments omitted.-::r' g!l l Ei' " L. -55-'I--_ ! 5=:: "2' LZ =:. La Bondissante from Ordre 21!. andthe strong sense of Eb as root and tonic at the end imparts to the penultimate bass D the senseof leading-tone in a quasi-dominant. Example 1-40 is an extract from the twentieth century. VI III? VI . in a limited context. to illustrate further some of the techniques of analytical representation outlined. The example serves. 1 -39. instructive in a number of ways.. The factor of voice-leading adjacencies is clearly of decisive importance in the derivation of auxiliary harmonies. me can +. V/V lst V/vi? th ii V order! nd! order! rd! nd order! lst! biiv-V y Hierarchic order Hierarchic order in the movement in the phrase R/t also appears! . This broad view is included in the representation of roman numeral symbols of multileveled harmonic function. i c l.tona/ity 1 19 a further.


tes 3. I_- -0- '92 ' I_` -O g_| . of central importance in the melodic structure and we regard them as analogous in importance to primary degrees inlater tonal systems.ti -0.the progression from G to C. 2.ni Cre-. the cadenceof the secondphrase.92.ai tor Spi-ri-tus. of course.urnvi-si. Chant.ta: Im .ple su 5 :g I9"' /°"92 | "92 . Quae tu a .has the effect of a domi1935!. /T Amen. Norton.tona/ity 121 Ex. Similarly. .tor Spi }` I.'_ -a rum vi .ra. 1-41 a. and a translation of its text. 1958!. .sti pec These pitchesare. Men.ri .per . pp_. W. 16-18. [The Hrst phrase makes it abundantly apparent that premises oftonal conventions of major-minor usage must be put aside in understanding and perceiving the relation between modal final and coiinal.si .. Méntes tu-or .to . - a fl a° ' at In Is 'I a Pg f °° I I ~ E . Z . |' 45.'O' . /*_* cc cre - lo |.ta: 9I 1. in the sense of later tonal usage. Adiscussion of the history and traditionsof Venicreator spiritus. suggestsdominant to tonic. Heard in the terms of later practices ofClassical tonality.tus.na gra. O- i92 1.I- -0° Q! 4 I- I tu o- a . . Ve-ni _92 »-92 ¢ I_¢ I Cre - I *" o. '_ . describing the interval of a 4th. will be found in Carl Parrish.A Treasury q/'Early MusicNew York: W. Veni creator spiritus authorship uncertain!.

. the third moves down and up again-an inverted arc within the established pitch range . _ . 1-41 b._. so that in the example chant of given here the succession F-G requires deliberateacceptance as having conclusive function to the modal final tonic!. as expected. a deliberate effort must bemade how deliberate depends onthe listeners experience andunderstanding! to hear the chant in modal terms and in accord with modal functions.Y lF92i 'ii 1. The confusion that can arise in the conflict between modality in the Medieval-Renaissance sense! andtonality in the eighteenth. an auxiliary to c._ _i I I ""' I . at the broadeststructural level. The cadential degreesare dominant cofinal! for phrases l and 3.122 tonality nant cadencein C. 2. Sketch of linearfunctions inVeni creator spiritus. Q . Thus._ . from g to cl with d' as auxiliary neighbor!. It shows the essential progression of the first Ex. Part of the perfect unity of the melody is inherent in the musical rhyme of phrases I. Example 1-4lb is an interpretation of melodic functions. for phrase 4.and the final phrase.if we submit to the conditioning of later conventions. with its more afiirmative function. The first phrase consists of an essentially ascending progression. l _.ln_ _-v :P E' »`~_ -1 _ _. at almostthe exact middle. and 4. X /_N == " __ e le 'T. is essentially a recessive descent fromc' or b?! to g the latter having an auxiliary lower neighbor. thus describing an arched profile of wonderful grace.__ 92`_L_/ 1 .__.seeming inconclusive.iii -_ _ _ ' l SQ _. the cofinal of the authentic form of the mixolydian. the modal final. .i __ . with the final cadence. and final. the opposite cf the _first phrase. mirrored in the final phrase. it seems important to urge upon the reader aconscious dismissal of the norms of Classical tonalityin approaching the problems of analysis of the example] Certain general conventions illustrated in the chant should be noted briefiy: the overall curve of the melody consists of a rise to the high point e..-' __ _ `----Y-' _ .n ._ -_.and nineteenth-century sense! has largely to do with the conditioning of modern ears to regard the leading-tone to tonic succession -l! as a necessarily semitonal relation. Cf. f!. which employ the same cadential motive. and hierarchic levelsare represented by leveled beams running below the sketch. anda return to the starting note. while the second phrase concludes on d'. `929292929292 n. Although the foregoing is somewhat digressive.1 Levels of hierarchy |§ 1. _. functioning here as.Some passing notes areomitted. the second describes a further essential ascent to d.11 .:.

Each of these pointsis seenas embellished by auxiliaries: the g is embellished byupper and lower neighbors. and twice down to g. the cofinal. is clearly the primary structural basisfor the third phrase. the latter embellishedby its upper and lower neighbors the final.andthecl I t . lower neighbor of c'. While C. the cofinal emerges stronglyin its cadential placement.. C. The analysisof phrase2 exposes a primary essential progression from c' there is a subsidiary. The g mightbe symbolized .e.in the larger context it is seen and felt as clearlydependent on cl. it has a particularly striking effect. at the more basiclevel of the total melody the reverse hierarchic relation is evident. thus having an auxiliary function in the second part of the phrase! andidentified asa significant structural point because of its cadential role. dl is clearly of greater hierarchic valueat thelevel qf phrase 2 in view of its cadential role than at the broader higher! levelof phrases 2 and 3 conjoined. which in turn is auxiliary to the final. aswell asanticipation ofthe cadential dl part of theprolongation of that pitch!. It is of course notactually stressed. g to c. There is." Indeed. the linear functions of bothpitches inphrase 3 are thusmultileveled. yet more broadly of auxiliary function in its strong leaning toward the more basic c which surrounds it. aninstance ofthe multileveledsignificance of linear functions dlof phrase 2 isof differentsignificances at different levels!. Thenote b appears forthe first time as auxiliary to a degree other than the cofinal-in this caseauxiliary to a.as in numerous other references self-evidently comparable. with the expected structural primacy accorded 'the final and cofinal. manifesting again the dimensional implications of linear 5'I. The fourth is the only phrasenot beginning with final or cofinal. "One can see again at this point the interdependence of structural level and linear function: inthe localcontext ofphrase 3.on the other hand. havingfour appearances.tona/ity 123 phrase from final to cofinal. The final is established with considerably greater prominence in the first phrase. the d resolves to c' in direct succession into phrase 3. each of the two essential points has embellishment. starting as it does with the leaning. thereare several embellishing deviations-passing formulations up to auxiliaries e' an early repetition of the high point! and d. The first dl of phrase 2 canbe seen in ambivalent multilaleral function at the same time: it is upper neighbor auxiliary to the essential cl. Phrase 4 is shown to have an essential structure mir- roring that of the first phrase. It might be symbolized thus: . but its position asthe first note of the phrasedoes mark it for attention. .the final G is clearly subsidiary to the cofinal C. The analysis shows this auxiliary to have emphasis. elaborating deviation to g and back during the prolongation of c! to d'.or-?--. The vacillation of the line throughout between g and c' is of course conventional in the application of the mode. here. Again.the c' by its upper neighbor.

Example 1-4lc summarizes. G. 1 -41 ¢. the elaborating and supportive cofinal. Carrying the implications implicit in thisprocedure to iheir proper 92" 3 . continues the syllable of the preceding note. l-41d Ex. the melodys low point. tentative. suggesting a slight difference of inflection. the more dependent auxiliary role of the first e. the first el hasits own syllable.124 tona/ity function. the two primary structural points. except in the sixth stanza.suggest further criteria of interpretive decision making. of the degrees of repose or lack of it in the cadences tentative.! The final cadencerepeats. 1 -41d. with d. in a hierarchic ordering. or any. in a more fundamental analytical interpretation. ff It scarcely needs tobe said that it is of the utmost importance in the execution of a melody of this. D as auxiliary to C. shows the most f`undamen`tal essence of thk melody as an extensive prolongation of the modal final. kind to be aware of these essential directions and linear functions. the modal final the more basic of the two. The contrasting tendencies of bin these two environments/' and 92-is a striking factor here. ata much removed point in time. and the exposure ofthe secondin its échappéelike departureby leap. wemay characterize the melodic structure at more fundamental levels. Ex. with the two other most important pitches. shown as auxiliaries: C as auxiliary to G. Ex. on the other hand. shownin this more basic sense as an auxiliary of c. more tentative. and hierarchy of functions at a level in which all notes are represented. the cadential note of phrase 2. of the nearly contiguous reiteration of the high point. while the second. conclusive!. at 1 conclusion.! Having observed in careful analysis both the overall and individual curves ofthe melodic units. This will be affected in some degree by the text setting.

a forerunner of Bachs Well.Tempered Clavier! are treated next in reductive analyses of two dwrent kinds and purposes. Third-order manifestations of G in later tonal evolution the R/t! are also represented._92I __ I 'I r Il In V -ll' I °lfllim-_`I_92-2 li U_ nl-5 _ nu. . editor.::--Z--.__ Twice-tonicized R.. Used by permission U Belwin-MillsPublishing Corporation. Kaller. 1.f 92 i `-' 1 § =? *Dl= $= " 'fill ' 7 »1 phrygian i " l_ l!E H_ . at its broadest level. tions of the repeatedly tonicized iv as the chief neighbor auxiliary of the prolonged i.Vsd/t! in Y3 e f 1¢ _ 3¢_¢ U* °?3 eb » -I l Vl broad plagal elaboration I m. primarily.-- "" "'*'. Jahrhunderts. more broadly. 1-42. 1 --*i' T 'gg-FF' -H l ! l'! ' ' -I * "I-fl-'='E==l !_. E. QE _.f'l ll _ P--__'--.l'1|}-¬l|§¢§1E=f|.G can be seen inmultileveled function both aslower neighborauxiliary of A and. published by Schotts Sbhne. as a passing linear factor linking the elaborative A with E.l-lu J. The sketch Ex. _ 92.M/t! G lower neighbor of second-order a Reprinted from Liber Organi: Deutsche Meisterdes 16.92. The Prelude in E phrygian! is seenas._-_.1 -____ `d' e rw iA_ 92. an important cadencepoint in conventional applications of the phrygian mode.tona/ity 125 Two Preludes from Fischer.9 E" " or 5- 92§==|--ri5f==Hl3}-=If¬. Mainz.A PW _ I! 1* J» _ "_ i_ '1' "I L- 'ifl -. the interior manifestaEx. l-42! is conceived torepresent. IF ll 0' fi r er Interior manifestations of iv lu: J ..: Q `. Prelude in E phrygian! from Ariadne Musica for organ. und 17. in a broad plagal action of embellishment. Ariadne Musica Two of the preludes of the Ariadne Musica of Fischer 715.""" ij-R H -1 ll Ill. a prolongation of the tonic in elaboration with A. The . Fischer.

4 3 f_ I/. N. but omits the concluding three bars i prolongation! of the piece itself. Fischer. published by Schotts S6/me. as indicated. The Prelude in D minor from the samework is sketched Ex. l-43 the quotation of the piece itself is necessarily abbreviated. Inc. an interesting V-expressing relation of essential factors in the top voice andthose ofthe tenor emerges: the former rests on the PC succession A-E-A-E-Cil. . both of theseelaborative ofthe arrival note._ ul rn ' _J - .The exampleincludes acomplete sketch. of which it is dominant! is again in evidence. absolutely without elaboration. Prelude in D minor from Ariadne Musica. in representation of its essential structure as con- sisting of an anacrustic wind-up from the 5th below the anacrusis note embellished! and extending to the upper neighbor auxiliary also embellished!. Ex. overa broad harmonic fundament. The bass.| m. the sketch iscomplete.are includedin WallaceBerry andEdward Chudacoff. Mainz.however. which has agogic. cadential. Jahrhunderts. 1 h-ll|_ 929292' I-1 33 7° ll-ililf' 2.126 tona//Ty broadly elaborative A is represented bythe upper beam and upward stems. editor. In Ex. and metric prominence. Eighteenth-Century Imitative Counterpoint: Musicjbr Analysis Englewood Cliffs.:= 'e _I ' ==F#IiF== l -1 _ l'LA| mul l.l11 'I V' _ T7 all f' !""'= --l IF "_ . 3s 1_1 :I-1. E. tonal. und 17. 1-43! to represent.with others. Koller. the latter on the succession A-E-C#-E-A. "Both preludes. Seen in this reduced sketch. 1-43._]. 1969!.921 l1. I .. H-7232: ' _ 5 192l "'" 3 11 _ IQ _U __ r-92¥% 3 [hill Reprintedhom Liber Organi: Deutsche Meister des 16.l '_'-1 1*-2---§.: PrenticeHall.. underscores in a series of pedal points the fundamental I-V-I structure. Reprinted by pennission Belwin-Mills of Publishing Corporation. Typical elaboration of the concluding I with the auxiliary iv. entries of the persistent motive i a _which is sketched as .

¢.5 und sa ge.sec p._ n|l:n»:11 c ___ 4 . .. L.95 Yf -r l __.de :Zim -='° ef =I '!=. withthe text given abovethe staves except wherenecessary to show a different setting for the bass voice. komm. Bach. Komm. Choral aria "Draufschliess ich mich indeine Hénde" from Motet.--' °'°" "" ' "`~-_ -------------I V/iv! Bach. Jesu. parts for two choruses are compressed into notation on two staves..1»92 £ PI r ~ =§i"¥i' gu .l-44a!. 1-44a.92_. . Jesu. "Drauf schliess ich mich in deine Hiainde" from Motet. Ex.92.ter! W 54 For a translation ofthe text./' *_ in dei 4" » .1. asf n. Komm. komm In the quotation of a choral movement fromBachs Motet.ter hiacht! f f_ f at l!$= - . Jesu.ne! r_ ___ hi J __ m. komm Ex. zu gu .tona/ity 127 IIL4 I .§1 ' I Y! ¢_ 92 ` V! 7 1V iv lV _W |v Q ra _P~9292 -A___. Welt.1.428.Komm. Andante Drauf schliess ich mich in deine Hiin .

92.. 1-44a continued.J J ~e 7'-=§§EE il "v ' :V Z* :___ 1 wohl an .J.l3 ist doch /V ee . Jz'-=1|? Je H _F ag' J1 _-.» .nem Sch6p - 1. ge fer schwe = bracht.l :g 5 L :Il der wah 55-55 lu J. Vf V" "5 I der Geist "92.128 tons//ty Ex.ist -flu.V = an bei sei .ge -92'92-I J @ . ` 4 .benslauf . m_9 eilt gleich mein Le bens . .| und bleibt der wah -re 21 weil_Ie sus .de.lv 5 _ e _ e §%'::: L .lauf zu En . .re! . Le ._ _ Qje sus lst und bleibt . 92 eJ/'I-& mm: e .ben.1 /7 - ~J J evvf 1 ` I' m. - _#J J"5.! .o _ xe e Er soll e 9292q.bracht.zu! J m.

&/'f' j . Auxiliary harmonies are. Asi has an outer prolongation. very often those one step back in the tonal order: dominant auxiliary to tonic. etc. although of coursefrequently at other than the primary tonal level!.3 F s I if #lil e ""~-9 %~___/'I "`~_--w §/ `~-. -J-4 3 Z" s .tona/ity 129 Weg u zum Le . and key positions in the articulation of form.- ben. | __ ° .:' In as conventional and ordered a tonal style as this the essentialharmonies are those of primary tonal importance-the tonic and dominant cadential harmoniesare one or the other. one in which the background of the soprano pitches outlines that harmony as does the bass!and in which i occurs atcritical points including the beginning and end. 1-44c! reveals alinear expressionof i. reiteration.. logically enough. . Roman numeral analysesare included to show many not all! of the tonal functionsin primary and secondary tonal systems.1-4-4b. Theseare theharmonies ofmost frequent prolongation. L_ I o I' 1 . Finally. 'gli A SJ . Ex.EF . subdominant andsupertonic to dominant. submediant to subdominant. . and the intensity of relation is frequently underscoredby chromatic alteration Ex. rhythmic-metric prominence. The sketchof the Hrst phrase Ex. l-44b!.under each of the sketches the analysis iscarried to a more fundamental level. sketching some linearand tonal functions and relations..* The following series of analyses takes each phrase in turn. there is inner prolongation .

and harmonic recurrencesare shown in association by established means. in hierarchic order. actual explanatory or identifying notes are inserted. V. .1-44c. In the secondphraseanalysis Ex. especiallyin referenceto a secondarytonic.130 Ex. alsounderscoredby upper voice factors. 1-44d!. to an underlying beam. In the further reduction given below the first sketch. Primary i and V are linked. supported by its chief auxiliary. the essentialharmonic factor is seenas i. the g:i contributesto prolongationof the precedingcadentialharmony a multilateral implication! and asserts a more tenuouslink with the underlying tonal basisevenwhile it participatesin the linear encirclement of B!:V a multileveled implication!." It is incidental at thelevel At the sametime that it points toward the cadentialBIs:I. the primary tonic has auxiliary function in a context of its tonal and rhythmic subordination.! This analysis of the Bachmovement is not sufficientlydetailedand exhaustive to accountfor all suchmultidimensional implications. The value in this procedure is in the analytical reasoningby which it is derived aswell asin the image of structure which it immediately affords. it is shown that. Most individual harmonies are symbolized in accord with the concept of multileveled tonal significance. tonality g t!: BbR/t! F D/R/t of iv. Functionsof the harmonywhich begins phrase 3 arecomparable. Where necessary.asrepresented.

extremely local tonic substitute._-_ __::§?§§f:~ -31 T132 of thesecond phrase. Phrase 4Ex.. both of whichinvolve Fl .i:E§§}f.:¢ -`7i55` _ _t '" "" i' ' _ " '° `|--1-D/R/t:V -J -~~ WV/Ill?! V/V? v Iv v V/lil? m? IV v I1 rv vii° Iv if a *im* _ ':::. l-447e! is directedtoward the tonicized primarydominant.m__`. Its first appearanceas aminor triad is thenatural result of the preced- ing secondary tonics.T`___ _-. 1 -44d. despite the apparent proximity ofBb to g R to t!.f»vT'l. In the analysisof phrase 3 Ex. They are included becausethe tonics of reference. l-44d! a number of harmonies and a few in the second phrase! are given questioned interpretation in the primary tonal system. functioning as part of the embellishmental group in the secondary tonal expression ofBb. 92-vi __-___. the question refersto the fact that the tonic of referenceis in dissolution.5 E_ "2 :" """' lg Fila* l:° e 21.:::. there isa singledeceptive succession in which c:V moves to vi°. it is considered that their effect asfunctions in the primagf system is substantially attenuated. ___.:. Questioned functional interpretations have the same bases asthose in preceding phrases.e -» g 5* I. In phrase 3.` `_ ll uftlf 7 1. while in Certainly this event abridges the distancefrom the primary tonal system. " °-** §92"Ll_QQ___5_`f'l§1'_'T__592f ° _13" .: :_ 2: ! °92 ' 9"¢ Phragc 3 g D/R/ul _ . Phl'3SC 2 _'ll' I '1-` f1 R/ISV _g if "-_ ' HZ/ .~ 21 2 I" . In phrase 5 Ex.:. :ii if1:. indicated in the functional analysis as a provisional.::_ bass v/vu?vu? I °*"' --~'~+ 'iifffz 3 F nf-_"a`::":::::::`i` " it .-L-R/t: I in bass--I s 92!= i B5 R/t!:vi v F D/R/¢!= V/lv? aee z* 5 _2 : ~. its reference to the primary tonic is of course sharpened in affirmative effect. as secondary tonics.__"m'Hm.»§: __ _'W 92 __T_. directed toward the primary subdominant.tona/ity 131 EX. Because bothIII and VII. butthe phrase concludes with the triad in major form. l-44e!. involve the cancelled primary leading-tone. submitting to F. with this.:i§i§f. . the harmony containing EH is reasonably interpreted as vii°/V in Bb .e :_ 11 2S -. ie as _§.



Op. and subsidiarybeams to link the important tonal systems D/T and r/D = m/T!.! Structural and auxiliary distinctions. themusic of which is not reprinted but might well be consulted.. the systems are arrangedin an order of increasing sharps inone directionand increasing flats in the other.. f 8. relative importances of systems. but a continuousbeam is usedto link all occurrences of T. Some minor mode tonics emerge as variants within major contexts.and lowercase atcertain intersections. there is limited implication of hierarchic significance in the enclosure in horizontal rectanglesof the most important primary systems they are D. such relations can be inferred on the basis of actual contextual functions and derivations asin Fig.Figure 1-6a is an abstract viewof theentire tonal system. a view generallyof akind suggestedearlier. and c!. fourth movement Representations of the tonal system andtonal rhythm Figures l-6a and 1-6band Ex. f tl . Again. 1-45 show varied representations of tonal structure in the fourth movement ofBeethovens second symphony. 1-6b. Items in parentheses are of most fleeting . Important intersecting relations linking the systems in contextual operations areshown by vertically aligned rectangular enclosures.The indication of modal variants in the listing of tonal systemcomponents suggests. In this casethe systemcomponents arenot hierarchically ordered.134 tona/ity analogous content between phrases 1 and 4. it must be remembered that the digest is not to be read as a pitch-line in any sense at all. A-the factors of the tonic triad!.g. areevident in some degree in relative durations. rather. Beethoven. as doesthe inclusion of roman numeral symbols of both upper. 36. g.Roman numeral symbols not so enclosedsimply list harmonies which occur significantly as part of the tonal resource but do not participate in intersecting relations. prevail before a superseding fluctuation. is the result of a diflicult and tedious exercise which is at the same time extremely revealing as a digest of actual tonalrhythm.e. while others appear independently e. Symphony No. the notes arestaff representations of PC tonics in the order in which and in the durations for which they emerge and.However. Example 1-45. and between the pairs 2-3 and 5-6.a further representation ofthe Beethovenmovement. and they are not in chronology of appearance otherversions ofthe chart could show these or otherarrangements!. the importance of modal variation in facilitating the intersections by which tonal iluctuation is often achieved. Although the chart does not give symbols identifying specific practical relations of secondary systems tothe primary system.even momentarily. i. 2 in D.

C 0 a0 N CO c Oc I CA 0 C I O . EO I CI LL SU~Sesmuy QSg SUISEMDU$ .cE 0 ! E O so c ~tA ~ CVg! 0C 2 0 + C c.

3. or st/D st. perhaps predictive of subsequent strong tonicizations of these factors. l-45.d. 7. and is in decline as noted above. 1-6b. . Compare the beginning of the exposition. increasing flats De E D/D b sm r!.IV Decreasing sharps. C-A-F. Second-. 8. The circled numbers over the sketchare for reference to the list of notes following.but precise in their applied relations. D/T has emergedas structural tonic of second-order importance of course auxiliary to T at broadest level!. theaccent symbol v is here usedto indicate emphasis notnecessarily of duration . Transitional phase characterized here by D-A vacillation: highly significant tonal-rhythmic ordering in increasing values qf A.136 tona/ity Fig. the symbol ? indicates uncertainty of tonicization effect. where D might otherwise be unclear. arrows denote dominant affiliations. herein 3rds. 2. Note within the first stable area very slight tonicizations of f ll and b. Symmetries within D/T area: E-A-D. In this list of notes PC letter names are used in addition to symbols of relation to T. or sm/SD G SD C SD/SD a r/SD/SD F R/t g sd/t Bl: SD/R/t c sd/sd/t sd/sd/sd/t A D/T Yf effect. fourthmovement. Note again a rhythmic ordering in the tonal form-decreasing values ry" A tonicizations. 1. but here the primary tonic is reaflirmed as expected in single-movement sonata form. Note passing tonicsin symmetrical formulations. mild tonicization of D/m Cll ?!. Emergence of strong reference to mediant m/T-fll [Note embellishing. Typical symmetry of tonal reference. it is shown as D/T if the dominant system componentis meant. 5. a list of durational note-values arbitrarilyemployed inthe sketch. Symphony No. third-order systems N m or r/D/. Beethoven. Finally. is given at the left in Ex. As predictable in conventional tonal practice. Longest pure manifestation of primary tonic. Passing secondary tonicsin movement in 5ths. and a wavy line indicates an excision of repeated material. 4. 2 in D. Secondary system components and their contextuallyimplied relations to the primary tonic D.] 9. 6.


A number of the dominant harmonieshave the form of the augmented triad. cf. 27. Itstonal structure is closed tonally rounded!.e. It can resolve might as III. t: or'Q/+! to a normal tonic consequent Ex. Particularly important is the controlled change fy' tonal-rhythmic values. and degree of independencemaniof festation of secondary systemcf. While relative prominences as representedhere would clearly be a factor in any broad. Inc. 2nd ed. anaugmented triadon G which could function asa dominant of G! The entire song is included inBurkhart. . "Das verlassene Magdlein" from Gedichte von M6rike A further example of striking tonal expansion isextracted from a song of Wolf. In mm. the augmented triad has a particular wayward2 nessview in its of ambiguity of root. among other factors. 85-86!. f il.46a. at end of movement. other factors would qualify any mere computation of relative rhythmic values: e. A.. at 8!. 34.. 29. rhythmic ascent in values of T. Analogous processes continue until. New York: Holt. The point at which the extract begins rests upon the tonic PC expressed at the beginningof the song. on Gb. at 8. Antholog_y_jor A/Iusical Analysis. hierarchic ordering of system components. 22-23 there is evasive. 20-21. above. with SD. Note final tonics as outline of SD:I. almost universal emphasis on SD seen in incipience in sixteenth-century examples! in coda as in elaborations of authentic cadence in general. one that is much discussed.g. but it can also act in deviant ways. repeated at m. Note changes in values of G and D SD and T! in the coda: again. 18. Rinehart andWinston. which has much stronger dependence onthe primary tonic undergoing elaboration!. at m. notated as a dominant to Bb. This time the suggested tonal direction is confirmed by the resolution at m.nonfunctional i. Note traditional. 19. Rather. theposition of occurrence of the tonicization in the form. very strong here. 16. there is no realization of that potential. Wolf. 17. 28-29!. 23. tonally nonfunctional! chromatic succession from one augmented triad Ab: V+?! to another a semitone below. some ofthem chromatic. there is a further chromatic succession to still another augmentedtriad. referring ephemerally to passingtonics. m. mentioned a number of times in the above notes. As a dominant form.l. f ll. degree of uninterrupted prevalence as of m. unlike the open tonal structures of the two Wolf songs cited earlier pp. descent in values of SD-controlled changes in the tonal rhythm having clearly functional implications.. 1972!.It is followed by a series of successions.138 tona/ity 16. would suggest it might function as a dominant to Gb. G. 26-27. and. mm. While the notation of the augmented triad of m.

21 m. Wolf.tonality Ex.26 etwaslebhater . Langsam m. 1-46a. "Das Verlassene Magdlein"from Gedichte von Morike.

L. _ .! _nj '2|. then a dominant 7th-chord.¢ 'Q W assumes the function of mediant as dominant! to e. 17 and the clear restoration of the primary tonic at m. dass ich die Nacht vondir ge ° .What is presented here. but the ambivalence of the ubiquitous augmented triad between tonal function and nonfunction is an important aspectof tonal structure in the song.'/ :I ` -f-gl . The e of its resolution is then inflected to become a dominant. rather. in one sense embellishing neighbors qf A.a]m QI.140 tona/ity Ex. Still.ne auf rn. 1-46a continued. 37. Tri ' E' m fI . for reaffirmation of the primary tonic. are tonicized in significant actions. One is almost tempted to assert that the tonal structure is best characterized not in terms ofspecific tonics but. 34 »_ wie zu Anfang 55 °5 [QV af ha II be.triiu 9 ~ met Kna fllffl _ YG: _. between m. in terms of the pattern tripartite! stability_/luctuation-stabiligy. The passage of Huctuation is extreme in a number of ways: ! in the recurrence of the vagrant augmented triad sometimes a V+. one approach does not exclude the other. is an extended passage of characteristic tonal fluctuation and uncertainty. The above has perhaps seemed somewhat digressive forthe immediate purpose ofdescription oftonal structureand fluctuation. and both Ab and Bb. H1 30 etwas mr 'Y ~ 0o ruhiger r9 be.f ---=--` P u' U i gl ' @ PP T Q4 ggi .= 5¥tlsl1ls:!l_e'eE!!!1|s 9292l'1:92¢_-. sometimes .

there is given in Ex. Synoptic sketch ofthe Wolfexample. functional and nonfunctional augmented triads. act as encircling tonal not merely harmonic! embellishments. sometimes nonfunctional!. i _21 If _ I. measure numbers: 17 20 ._ I 1 II Ill Ill -ll 23 24 t: I. A telescopic viewreveals a stepwise succession of augmented triads linking two structural appearances of A.representing in the midsection the tonicized chromaticneighbors-Ab and Bb-of the primary A. ! in the complete denial of functional expectation arousedby the dominant 7th of m. the initial tonic A. Das Verlassene Magdlein.In summary. andiinally e. and ! in the tonal distances traversed: there arereferences toAb. and thus act as tightly related linear compensations to the errant tonal progression to remote regions ofwhich they are centers.-Y/:PIII _ l . The Ab and Bb references thus have a persuasive linearlogic as semitonal neighborsof A. A synopsis is given on a singlestaff abovethe example. .i. an exceedinglysimple basis V-I! underlies an elaborate superstructurein which there is chromaticism of immediate succession as well as of tonal expansion. Bb. which becomes the primary dominant in function. Especially the relatively longer references to Ab a semitone belowthe original tonic! and Bb a semitone above! seem to impair. horizontally. illuminatingthe chromatic derivations of two passing tonics.a:I. l-46c a reduced sketch of the entire harmonic structure in abstraction. with the primary leading-tone represented enharmonically. which gives wayto seeminglyirrelevant chromatic succession to start the stream of fluctuation. Bb andAb. isgiven in Ex._Y'1||921Y' /. This provocative material is seen in a further light in the one-staff representation below the example: theplausible interpretationof bass factors as expressing. 1-46b. Ill ll _ ' 'lf 31 32 36 38 m/' I Functional dominantsl As complement to the foregoing discussionof pitch structure in an extract from Wolf s song. A fundamental view of the entire passage.tonality 141 IIIJ. and implicit chromatic linear successions of the voice-leading. two leading-tones. 18 A:V. of vi ?!.! Again. Successions in and profiles of individual voices arenot representedexcept for some fidelity to essential movements in outer voices. yet in a purely linear senseso logically elaborate. the primary dominant. 1 -46b. Ex.

. 1-46c.33 cm' " 111. E. i I rl li 2 1 : i: 1. richly colored.Example 1-47bis a synoptic rendering of the entire structure.1 i i'_=_I-'ai /92 __ TY 1' lrgu £51 =r: 'll _ _ rl 1. _/1 r w/nu. I V? Chromatically encircling neighbor auxiliaries! |1h.. prior to this there is modulation from the principal secondary tonic.l-47b. "Das Verlassene Méigdlein.A|| Ip.. While these are for the most part representedonly symbolically in the sketch. l-47a!. Measure 15affords an excellently clearillustration of the prolongation and embellishment of a structural harmony here.142 tonality Ex. "Le Martin-Pécheur" from to provideenharrnonic form of Histoiras Naturelles A Ravel song isthe subjectof referencein the following discussion! In the song Ex.! by parallel auxiliary chords of similar here.The shift toward the primary tonic now takesplace by .3 and the sameauxiliaries but instead of returning to the E:V they continue a step farther to a dominant 13th-chord on G shown in the sketch!.F 1 : :_ :. ly-_ my 2 1.l7 * m. the root of each yielding an ornamenting bassnote.J: 92-'W _ ee v vee e -------1 ii V "i" ii V i iv ii I III* V/V "i ii V i iv etc A6! V?! __ ____g S _. 16.E::§i ¥iH: :' '* =7 :r il' mirrvr.41 |= W :5 E If rvPi tin' 2 2I E-'E ". E:V. to F tt.i_.-rv. at a more immediate level. .: *Substitution ofaugmented for major triad on Ab primary dominant III"'! ? Ravel. 1 m. G# and Dil! ..1 '1 1-rag" E. only a few details of which can be discussed.1 |»¢|.. The process of parallel embellishments continues in m. That bar begins with the sameE:V. linked by chromatic passage amongnonfunctional parallel chords. . where key measure numbers are given! are a prolongation and embellishment of F ll:I even in its final appearance activated by static dissonances. a primary tonal systemon F# is expressed.92-Lg -15 92. The final six bars see Ex. WE ' /N .r1w-Ifv1l1|l|1u1uluf.i»1./ E 1 2 592-E Q» .:. 2: . and confirmed at its conclusion.im..: 5 ---.. 92. Wolf. the dominant on B is embellished by an auxiliary dominant on A and these are.ul nw.rv: nr ul-s mr uiméz-n ill 'H--f 92." A reduced sketch ofabstracted tonal-harmonic structure. identical! intervallic content.f_ .

P uv 1| |¢vx. .f:§| Klliflha I _ 92 1/. .' 1/.l|l» n|1111 . 92 92. On ne peut plus lent :flm:r.||:| r.r 3 -mr |l.-` ~ °" * _v:m.d 1 ..I Y. "Le Martin-Pécheur.15 -_zur i' mm uv u. ilu 3f Y._192|»»1 P uv li 143 QA !fIfm:r.m1na |/. Ravel.ei DIV 1 /' 3 l I_ _--7 ' D' '* ~ _:I¬l1§: l|1!JA t "T 92-/V' 3.'92 _/- rnolo l** Y...r f 92 zz url ina _' I in? PP "' 1 92 P' 1 qar 92 :vt .ll'-/Quan .¢||»l.-l|CZl'L|I"|.m|'r1 P I nr I/qinlav up P VP ' H l' f'_ T 5 | .|»ul' i` nlrlzrnnhl -:fn I " '| 7 P e Nous mr 141| 1:15 f fPP92 my f 92 IP IW 92 mr _:lsr .ii|UfJ92|i_.¢ .i|CfJ'92|I11 -1.tona/ity Ex..9 ? I lv navons pas doiseau plus é .1115-»'¢.-¢||| 1 s I/. 1'Z'l'92|ff_I lqmifr' *' 7' l ll. 1 -47a...cla -tant P 'In 'l_ - Q ' P 3.nu sy poser.¢"¢¢l|:L.-.1|l||»1||PI-'II uulni-igrrpm .8 ._'1|lu' P un P z 5 I -1 f r v ' P will :U | PI -` ||'l !fI'!'92|f'1I|||| . l V m. 4of Hisioires Nature//es." No.L.11l|°1.

Tres cahne m.tonality Ex. 15 r 3w Je ne res-pi-raisplus. tout m. 16 . 1-47a continued.

/ 5 up . . 7Ql'TF92|-/ Lili.l---:-i_§|| L92l'_. -f|'l'92|f§_l-f I' Y.x f'92 O _ _ gi ll 5 .C C YIQIQIFH--ji . 1 if _ ll -lm branche 5 une autre.l!7 .Y'-l! 2UfI1921!§§lI$ _"_ fl|CI|92l2/iifnf _.__ I.|| iii r-92-¢"`. /.!|-'_ = _ -7: _ 1 quil ne fai-sait que pas-ser dune ` °C 9292 mais quil a cru -fl-1111 I ml. and Copyright 1907. 22 _fIr92:fr.20 I . .I ' I 4 O O 92q 92.""'-92 C . ' .Q"fF92ll I--QI-|_/_I-|-I-Illf |l. PP 92" E:92 J5 1 Cl ion qf the publisher. sole representativethe for United States. ` l92U:l| C C C UUIINNIIIZ I1 |. Durand etCie. _ Ill U II m...tona/ity 145 m. Used by permiss Elkan.lé de peur. Inc. | f|_-|'1- 3-1 L Q! ll 1 I L -515-51-UUIQYHI-L_ __ -. up '92YY_lHT-/_lillllf -.. Durand et Cie. .Vogel._-_L P` 5 .

Measure 9 begins with a quasi-dominant of F$. 1-47b. After a series of auxiliary harmonies on E. the Fx so it is notated in the voice part! resolving into E:I after tantalizing delay. . nonharmonic factors. This harmony is "horizontalized" note the bassnotesCf. B in a descending stream! the Ff harmony is returned as the ultimate tonal resolution. One further element in the succession described above must be noted: it is an harmonic elision of a sort typical of the style. and further accounts for the "parenthetical" function of B. B not shownin the sketch! until at the secondhalf of the samebar the basssettleson the primary tonic note. It is interesting that the harmony of m. it is thus of somewhat dominant character. Synopsis of tonal structurein the Ravel. 10. The techniqueof tonal shift which had earlier introduced the secondary tonic E mm. the progressionat its basis is diatonic. Finally. Gf. and the C serving as a chromatic link to the B of E:I. which would in turn be a potential dominant of E. Despite these passing. the two essentialharmonies having diatonic relation in B. is delayed to give the harmony relatively greater stability. 9 12! is related and should be compared. E. but the chromatic successionof parallel auxiliary chords above the bassnow settlesinto an harmonic complex making of that Ff a dominant 9th-chord. attention is called to some summary concluding notes which . But the movement here omits the B harmony which would resolve the one and prepare the other. although its minor 7th. The dominant 9th on Fll becomesa minor 9th-chord in m. representedas a parenthetical system in the structure. The dominant on F$ "expects" B. Viewing the succession in this light helps to clarify its nature as a diatonic rather than chromatic succession.148 tonality Ex. D. 18 is a shadowyreflection of thoseof the preceding bars.'Ff:!"[" E!: "y/ "y/y/ >y > ~ > [> ~ ~ » y» >y/y»7 >> y> ~ [Fs 92>+» > [> ~ ~ chromatic succession to Ff: "I".

which constitutesa recurring Ex. Lento JS63-60! -m. stylistically characteristic resistance to semitonal successions in the voice-leading reflected in the overall tonal successions F# -E-Fd!.!. retention of gil!. The reader should note: the extent ofchromatic relation in contiguous harmonies.20 Y # jf ry P 12-Llf Copyright 920 I by Universal Edition.g. Compare the formtaken byFil :I pearances. functional. . Renewed 1948. the significance of an underlying motive. Bartok. 2.A. entirely diatonic more strictly. but nevertheless. l and its recurrence atthe end. thirdmovement. for the U. Inc. structural harmonies e. String Quartet No. whose expansions are unorthodox in the quasi-modal prominence of the system on E. comparison of the I of m. 18-20 asa backward look toward the secondary tonic E. Copyright and Renewal assigned to Boosq CQ Hawkes.tona/ity 147 have direct reference to the sketch in Ex. as bassline determinant. Op. Consider. g. third movement The Bartok movement poses some relativelycomplex problemsof tonal analysis. the types of embellishing chords e. especiallyin embellishing successions.5° Bartok. pentatonic! in their relation to F it . m. 1-48a. major dominant 9th-chords and derivative half-diminished 7th-chords!. 1-48a. String Quartet No. havea very characteristic formulation when rendered in a chordal configuration as PCs superimposed over E: . and most fundamentallythe underlying closed and explicit manifestation ofthe primary system. intheir secondary tonics. together with the primary.. 18-22 asprolongation of F it:I.! in openingand concluding ap- . means of tonal stabilization opposing the activating power of dissonance-the broad F il-E-F# succession of prolongation and neighbor auxiliary. l-47b. The collection of secondary tonics. S. 2. mm.. the tonal implications of the succession in Ex. 15 as avery visible prolongation and embellishment ofsurrounding.17. Op. the recurring e of mm. functionaland nonfunctional. butits approachesto tonal structure are stringent and definite: it is a structure whose chief foci are diatonic to A. 17. for example.

the reader should.. l-48b.! The succession is stronglyaflirmative of A.B acting as a quasi-dominant of the sort discussed earlier. are notobserved in the discussion of this example. and by linear direction toward and indirect or direct encirclement of the tonic PC.r1i _ P My difn. Ex.148 tona/ity harmonic motive in the movement. . While some fragments of Bart6ks music are quoted in connection with the following discussion. QYZ 3. -1 I or o #0 rn. have the scoreat hand. ideally. etc. each ofthem directed toward or otherwise giving prominence to leading-tones of A. consider thetonal implications of the lines in Ex. m. _. the tonal system is typicallyone inwhich modal differences are freelyexploited. that of Bartok relies upon someof the techniques oftonal expression noted earlier. I5 _ :. etc. affirmation by quasi-functional harmonic and melodic elements resembling conventions ofthe tonal period the quasi- dominant action continues to rely heavily upon theconcept of leading-tone tendency and accustomed rootmovement!. Symbological distinctions between A and a despitethe movements conclusion on the minor3rd sonority!. 1 -48b. 23 ff r P' Like other freely tonal music and this work is part of a vast body of music of comparable aesthetic in the twentieth century!. With the tonic A in mind it is established early in the movement!.°° the tritone F. stress. °°I nthe Bartok movement. especially the following: emphasis upon the tonal center and its supportive functions by iteration..a. or between l and i. the tonic resolution explicit in the bass following in each instance. especially at points of formal punctuation. prolongation.

tona/ity 149 The initial two motives in the cello form, with the violas E, a kind of

evasive tonic -|- dominant! sonority in which the root, A, is tentatively suggested byencircling motions above and below: B-Bb and G# are pivotal in these movements cfl A: VH!. Thereafter, the cello phrases consistently conclude onA, which is alwaysa longer note mm. l 1-12, 15-16, 21-22! and often directly supported by leading-tones aboveand below. Its descending triad of mm. l8-l9- may be said, moreover,to act as V to the I minor 6th, C# and A! which follows.
At the same time, the long major 6th in the viola mm. 9-12, then

15-17! resolvesas a V to the later octave C, eventually absorbed into A: I. Note that this major 6th is also part of the traditional A:V-,, just as the tritone of m. 20 is both suggestive of C and an element in the traditional dominant 9th of A, which of course prevailsat the cadence. One of the most compelling of the melodic formulations of-quasi-dominant character is the first violin motive of mm. ll-12, beginning on one leading-tone of A, ending on the other, strongly expectant of the tonic PC,
which is held in reserve. The same is true of the second violin motive, mm.

l-2, which accompanies thetonic note. The opening measure thusboth establishesA and sets againstit a Vlike motive primary dominant augmented 6th?! in the second violin. Thereafter, within the first section, the melodic units often are projective of and/or directed to G# and Bb leading-tones toA, sometimes,as a reflection of ambivalent tendencies, notated enharmonically! and D#/Eb E is established earlyby emphasis in the viola, andquasi-leading auxiliaries are strongly felt in the recurring Eb of viola, mm. .13-14, andsecond violinthereafter; in the first violins active tritonal successionof mm. 1-2; in the major 2nd of m. 5, etc.; and especially at the release of the first violin, m. l9'!. While these interrogative leading-tone gestures and motives occur, the cello part continues tobe directedconsistently andrepeatedly towardthe A of the cadence. The longest notes in these opening 22 measures are E, D, C, B, and A, their functions in the tonality obvious. It is interestingthat despitesuggestive leaning toward E, and early emphasison E in the viola, that PC fails to emerge cadentially, omitted from the quasi-tonic sonority at m. 22, perhaps because of its subsequent prominence in the tonally contrasting section to follow. Immediately before the cadence,there are two tentative suggestions of quasi-tonic harmony: the end of m. 20, where the harmony is activated by a suspended Bin the bass, delaying the root; and the second half of m. 19, where thelower instrumentsexpress the tonic at the sametime that the upper instruments express the inconclusivedominant.°' Preceding this is a quasi"Quite possibly,the Cil, Dil, G8 sonority ispredictive ofthe C8 secondary tonic to come.

150 tonality

dominant which includes the upper leading-tone, Bb, notated as All! of exactly the kind referred to in theory earlier in this chapter.
In Ex. 1-48c are some of the melodic and harmonic materials to which

we havereferred, aswell as others that are supportiveof the tonality of these opening bars. Measures 23-27 repeat the cadential formula, reestablishing the A tonic, coincident with the now familiar G# -Bb leading-tones, then to leadinto and prepare the contrasting lento whichfollows. It is impossible to examine every detail, but let us at least point out further manifestations ofthe cited techniques oftonal expression. Again there are clear examples oftonal direction and orientation. The first violin of mm. 23-27 articulates a phrasebeginning and ending with the two A leading-tones, stronglyemphasizing Bb.Later it comes torest on G# mm. 33-36!, which resolvesto A, then conjunctly climbs to and insistently reiterates E, as part of the cadence at m. 46. The final harmonies of this section are ambivalent in tonal meaning. The violins, one sustainingE, the other reiterating A and its upper leadingtone, are supportive of A, and the F of the inner voices seems notto have departed far from the primary tonal system. But the ultimate thrust of the
cello toward c and clk' foreshadows, in the environment of an inconclusive

cadence, theC# tonality to follow. The more intense outer voices piano,as opposed tothe pianissimo of secondviolin and viola! project the C#,E seeonday quasi-tonic sonority.

The Ct#has beensuggested harmonically, of course,much earlier. The sustained, motivic harmonies at the beginning of this section first reiterate and reconfirm the quasi-dominant and quasi-tonic functions in A mm. 25-27!. But at mm. 29-31 they effect a tonal shift pointing to Cl, the latter tonic sonority having the same form as that of A which preceded. From here to m. 46 the melodic lines arein essence expressive of A and Cif, sometimes ambivalent between the two tonics, like the first violin from m. 31,

which has quasi-dominant suggestiveness of Ci# at the same time that the resolution of the long G8 to A is reminiscent of earlier tonal reference. The second violin from m. 27 also tends to expect C8 ; it prepares perfectly the eventual C8,E resolution at m. 31. In the climactic, essentially rising passageleading up to the cadence, thesubtle hints of C# combined with its careful evasionare of enormous importance in the effectiveness of its ultimate arrival in the cello. Consider,for example, the substitution Q/'Bit _/or C itin theotherwise diatonic rise ofthe jirstviolin from git to es. The transitional passage towhich we refer above is sketched in Ex. 1-48d in a manner intended to show in larger notes, by enclosures,by arrows, by connecting lines,and by other symbols! some of the expressions of tonality we have notedas wellas others of importance and comparablefunction and technique.

152 tonality Exe 1 °48d|

Tonal fluctud derivation ion Cl: of l"!
mm.23-36 =" ""*_1'.. :Qi-.iw ~ ` 9292|' .AW IQY'_ na U1 ri 1


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It is necessary fromhere on to limit discussion to the most essential points, leaving for the readers independent investigation a number of elements of tonal expressioncomparable to those alreadyidentified in earlier portions of the movement. The closerelationship of C# to A, the fact that G# is both the dominant root of one and the leading-tone to the other, and the coincidence of the notes C#and E in both tonic triads, make it possible forBartok to express a certain ambivalencein the contrasting material following m. 47, to establish tonal variety by functions suggestive ofCH! without relinquishing implications of the original tonality. Note too the interrelations explicit in the forms the quasi-tonic harmonies take: the occurrence of A:I,,, with Cll as its lowest pitch, in the motivic harmonic succession, as well as the implicit relation between the two tonics in the M,m triad on A, consisting of superimposed minor 3rds which are the basic ingredientsof the two chief harmonies
of resolution: .

Melodic analysisof the first violin part from m. 47 to m. 67 would show very clearly that it is built around E at the beginning a member of the Cll:I and at the same time a dominant preparation for the ultimate
destination of the line, A! : its first nine measures, in fact, are a prolongation

tona/ity 153

of e, after which it prolongs e3. Followingthis high point in a broader sense, a resumption of the e of mm. 41-46!, the line descends emphasizing Bll, the C# leading-tone! in a quasi-dominant formulation from m. 60 to m. 63~. The descent of the line after this point, sequential, is a condensed,abrupt, reaffirmation of A, the note of its cadence,through an intriguing diversity of modal implications. The secondviolin part also requires examination in similar connections. It is, of course, conceived to a considerableextent as a parallel doubling of the first violin; much of it is a prolongation of the note B lending a modal quality to the tonic Gil!. Shortly before itsfinal resolution, on an emphasized A, there are reiterations of the upper leading-tone Bb, notated as All, in the repeated succession B-All!, and the lower leading-tone, Gil, has a single tentative appearance in m. 64, important nonetheless inits propinquity to the arrival point. The strongest aiiirmation of G# is in the cello, fundament of the harmonic structure, whose melodicanalysis wouldshow a prolongation of c# in the first several measures, then describing an octave descent to Gil, through Gil and Fil. With the cancellations of sharps except for the bass note of A:I° in its familiar form and context at m. 65! at mm. 64-67, the cello comes into agreement with the other voices in the shift which restores the primary tonic. We do not take space for the melodic analyses suggested, although the reader may wish to do so in confirmation of the tonal expressions ofthe individual lines in this passage; perhaps theconsequences of such analysis are,in general, preevident. The harmony is, of course, conditioned to a considerable extent, like the individual lines, by Bart6ks technique of mirroring the outer voices and filling the texture with the parallel 4ths which accompany them in the opening bars of the Lento assai. Nevertheless, harmonicfunctions, especially quasi-dominants andquasi-tonics, are of decisiveimportance in the expression of tonal feeling and coherence.The first harmony of m. 47 is a recurring Gil :I. Some ofthe auxiliary chords by which it is embellished,incorporating one or more leading-tones, actas quasi-dominants e. g., very potently at m. 50, third beat!; theseare markedin the sketch in Ex. 1-48e. The cadence of mm. 54-55 prolongs the I approached through a quasi-dominant in mm. 52-53! by alternating the root position with the first inversion. Elided

with this,the violin quintole figures describe triadic functions suggestive of A,
alluding to the later restoration of that primary tonic. The sketch indicates essentialquasi-tonal functions in the modulatory section of mm. 56-67 Ex. l-48e!. The C|l:I is seen to persist in upper voices and there is a G# :V on G8 following. The Gil, as suggested before, has an ambivalence in the tonal dichotomy of this passageleading-tone ofA, dominant root of CB.! The cello reiteration of F it denotes a prolongation of harmony on Dil, coincident with the prolonged leading-

154 tona/ity Ex. 1-486. Cl; "v" A="1"

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Nl" V

tone of C# in the top voice; the All of this C#:II, as we have seen, later turns, asBb, toward the cadential A, so that the Dil triad also hassomething of an ambivalent function. The final cadential harmonies in the primary tonality are by now familiar, although in this instance the viola F of m. 66 makes of the A:I, a I-I-VI, the F anticipating the recurring quasidominant of m. 66.

The developmental section which follows mm. 68-87! is of great interest tonally,and of considerable fluctuation and some ambiguity, ultimately directed toward the SD level, D see mm. 84-85!. It should be regarded from two viewpoints. In the beginning of this section the two violins reiterate a motive derived from m. 47, except in m. 85 consistently a3rd apart. At first, the 3rds move twice to a D root, forecasting thePC of culmination at m. 85. The pattern is as shown in Ex. l-48f; the points designated by accentare thosewhich are repeated or, in the case of the conclusion, stresseddynamically and otherwise prominent as highpoints in the riseof pitch. Note that the sketch notates theupper note of the penultimate interval, the only tritone, as Eb; it does indeedact asan upper leading-tone ofD in a harmonic complex which is a strong quasi-dominant consisting of the normal dominant root, A, and the upper leading-tone, Eb.! Also striking is the relation of adjacent interval pairs ascompared with that cy' the movement s two chiqf tonic sonorities. The secondstratum of tonal progression the two are initially in a kind of antiphonal relation, but come increasingly into confluenceas thedevelop-

tona/ity 155 Ex. 1 -48f.

' ts
/ 1"'



[Y 47'


Fi Q
J_ 92__,vj

Progression of upper tessitura toward D tonicization culminating atm. 85



ment progresses! is that of the viola and cello, in which the second violin also participates. This series of harmonic successions begins mm. 69-70! with the familiar cadential formula in A, with its familiar resolution. The progression is then repeated fourtimes, with extension andvariation, deceptively moving to harmonic sonorities of changing tonal implications. The A: V by this time in the movement clearbf expects the A: I , realized only in the first succession of the series. The deceptiveresolutions create a sense of fluctuating tonal direction: each is a dissonance, each has one or more specific tonal implications seeEx. 1-48g; possibly theyare quasi-functional in C# and A!, but the sum total is one of considerable,uncertain fluctuation until the final
clarification at m. 85.

If the flats like those ofmm. 74 and 77! are heard enharmonically, the range of tonal fluctuation is lesswide than it seems.Against the precedents established earlierthe secondharmony of m. 74 is interpretable as Cl# :IV and that of m. 77 asC# :V. The sketch in Ex. 1-48g shows that the second
Ex. 1 -489.

WT W P 716 » »...~»»» -. etc.



156 tona/ity

of these,the Ab/Gil harmony of m. 77, now recurs asconsistent penultimate

harmony inthe motivicrecurrences which followf. While it has the effect of
recalling earlier quasi-dominants of A and Ci, iit resolves indecisively to deceptive dissonances until finally, abruptly on D. In the course of this the expansion ofthe motivic interval is of coursedeliberate and intensifying, and the tonal implications of its placementsare visible:with the extraction in Ex. 1-4-3g. Example 1-48his a sketch, like those seen eazrlier, intended to represent schematically some of the observations of the albove discussion. The piano appearance ofthe motive in mm. 86-87, somewhat whimsical, tends to subvert any tonal decision achieved by the strong sauccession preceding it. It
serves both to establish inconclusiveness of cadence and to recall in a subtle

inflection the primary tonic, at the same timeeasi_ly interpretable within the secondary tonalsystem onD, just aflirmed, neither of which is supportedin
the measures which follow.

Ex. 1-48h. mm.68-88 un _ ,, _-----_ 4 aw/ _--_ /` _-----~--_` ---__ ' `~ " .r | rf? in,_/`°'°"8 7 '1" v-3 /h.a's-|'92s»:Lf1qf 'I ,rg: ."» _ ." '_ . , -_____ --'3 `~._____-.A I I- =='ii _ ;» lui v V v Ir ' lI.~ ":" 'Y lI 9 ||:f.! ' .'T||..§|.§"..|'_ll. T ll ' f C7 V || ll 1 ,ru-1.: gli' llff -dill' _IU if Ilmil. 1' fi r,' 4 I |w 'I 924 I *_* | ,, . 4, . fx ,` U r v ¢-92 M 'Q _ __ ____ '_ 'I ' H l'. h I " Is ' 'A ._ `:_ U Lil ' _ll H/ I 1 Z :fa =IY-1§{'!

ll: V

__ '

»= -I

~-_.______ _?_---

After A: V-l" in normal" succession, increasingly ` deceptive, fluctuant consequences A:V: of ambiguous. transitional tonal references linking A, D.

The Bartok movement approaches now asecond stage in developmental procedures which will lead back toclear reaflirmation of the primary tonality. The sourceof the materials developed after m. 88 will be found in the movements first bars first violin takes the cello motive fof mm. 3-4 as its point of departure, asof coursedoes theviola; the opposite voices-second violin and cello-take for extension andvariation the top voicze of mm. I5-I6 , which in turn relates to that of mm. ll-12, or the secondviolin of mm. 7-8! . The tonal Huctuation of the section followilng m. 88 begins with a strong allusion to F, F and C# symmetrically relate:d toA; it is a tonal reference in which both voices join.

tonality 157

Following the first few bars of this section Ex. l-48i! tonal meanings are again relatively ambiguous. The Bl»,E tritone so suggestive ofF in the above-mentioned extract gives way now to rapidly changing tritonal relations in which the lines do not concur!-each of them having certain tonal implications but none of these realized, as tonal allusion shifts from dissonance to dissonance. In the brief sketch in Ex. 1-48j mm. 92-97! the
EX. 1 -48i.

9 #jf-5

. l*

r1 T

git; rf-3-


Fw !


indeterminate tritonal

fluctuations are

bracketed; the sketch also makes very

apparent the essential chromaticdescent ofthe bassfrom the BI; of the initial F reference down to F il, a point of brief prolongation. It must be acknowledgedin passing that the above-noted passage can be broken down into more explicit tonal allusions if the individual lines are examined. For example, the top voice of mm. 93-94 expressing Eb! is sequentially related to that of mm. 89-90 expressingF!. But the difference is that in the case of mm. 89-90 the lower voicesupported the reference toF; in mm. 93-94 the lower voice is more independent, although the Eb :VII is briefly formulated in the bass notes D, Cb, Ab at mm. 94-95. Another significant difference is in the fact that in the earlier passage the prolonged E leading-tone of F! moved down to C F: V!, while in the latter the El»,D succession moves to A in one of the tritonal movements!, tending to disrupt any senseof Eb which may have beenfleetingly conveyed. Again, the passages treated above have tonal implications which can be felt; that they constitutean interval of relative tonal flux and obscurity at the

¢"'| . Asthe climax develops thereare brief tonal allusions within the lines but thegeneral tonal ef'l`ect largely is indeterminate. In mm. primary leading-tone ?!. _lll. . 97-991 the lower voice traces the leading-tone harmony of Cl# and the upper voice underscores that reference in an elaboration of thequasitonic harmony. ii/J 3' tg The approach to the cadence atm. C8 is a clear passingtonic in which the voices concur. it should benoted that while the cadential successions into the B: I are underway the bassvoice is itself of extraordinary fidelity in the . but theysignal a tonal departure at this point. here. when the bass expresses a quasi-dominant.What isevident here is theshaping opposition of relative ambiguity with relativeclarity oftonal reference. EX. 104-lll . although tonal specificity andunanimity become relatively more pronounced in the approaches to the cadence. Measures lOl-ll. revealing an important aspect of theidiom andthe form. The tensely dissonant clash of tonalreferences Ex. Finally.in which the materials are developed climactically. 1-48k! is calculated to serve therising intensity. a. l0l_ andthe tritonal leap from G# to D in the upper voice of the same bar. the lower voices stating the first inversion ofthe B tonic. Either note could of course function ornamentally in the C8tonal system. formulation in imitation of a similar configuration in the upper voice expressing Gb. At the cadence.158 tona/ity same time is anecessary conclusion of analysis. interestingly. is also bitonal.. It is broken up with the bass Gof m. At onepoint a suggestion bitonality of arises. a principleprobably applicable to all idioms of tonal music despite differences in the means and extent of ambiguity. the first violin persuasively aflirmative of AI. then tonic. All of this isshown in the sketch l-48m! of mm.J K.1-QUIK. the upper voiceends with a quasi-dominantformulation in Al» . the lower voices joining in quasi-dominants andquasi-tonics suggestive of B. are thesort ofpassage sometimes described as pantonal.

1-48m!. 107-ll. as indicated in Ex.tona/ity 159 Ex. the only voice occupiedwith significant melodic motive. Following m. see Ex. The iirst violin part of mm. 1 -48:11.. and it is anticipated in the first violin of the measure preceding. The V contains the upper and lower leading-tones the latter notated as Ab!. which has throughout the movement beena vital factor in quasi-dominant functions within the primary tonal region.. .. ll3! which is an expectant preparation of the A of the cello.___ __ expression of that harmony in a linear succession which includes a complexof leading-tones mm. Concurrent.f 1 A: KW" NI!! At the same time. 112-13. The fluctuation into the primary tonal system retonicization of A! is brought about in a number of ways. l-48n.l04-1 ll L /&l is __ ll* . the harmony is a quasi-dominant m. transitional references to A* and B mm. This quasi- . The D of the viola might be saidto have its premature resolution in the C-C# of the first violin motive."". That harmony is built on B. is itself revealing. ll4 the primary tonic is restored in harmonic and melodic functions of greater stability. recollective of those of the first part.. [. Bartok has manifested inthe abovepassages the traditional tendency to establish in developmental areasa pattern of tonal fluctuation.

The quartal Ig has considerable prolongation. an enharmonic notation of those preceding.. provides in the unaccompaniedA the resolution of the preceding quasi-dominant.160 tona/ity dominant see Ex.|~1.~@-=. on G and Gil a momentary sounding of A: VII!. 1-480! of tonal functions and aH'iliations in the Bartok movement. #I-_"~_ succession l and linking 5 Underlying chromatk bass us" A V.. One of the embellishing auxiliary chords..'. with the first violin imitating the cello abortively.now Q _J r .which is tied!-suggesting again the kind of linear determinant of harmonic auxiliaries which is so crucial in this and other late tonal styles.921||_I"i1 -_ . Y ' _ I- ._ ____ ____---" ' &/4 O 92 . embellished by quartal auxiliary chords again consisting of semitonally related neighbors i..e.av1:92.: =: l-92 92 Af. l-480.r :gil 92. The phrase which begins at m. and the chromatic descentof the bass melody with two register shifts! from the ton-ic A to the dominant E-the latter sustained for three bars. Both factors are represented in Ex. l.| -¢ +" a na _"Y'L|l`Ll'| I* W 92` 1 II . Exo 1'48o| mm./ __ ".r 92 aE |¢ | ~--' . is itself prolonged asa quasi-dominant-the harmony built . he IUX on ' l:P1I' il. 92 ri.f ~+ F' __ - ~i / wg 7/ ` i fl /I /K _ r Ia ` fnIrt. leading-tones! in a rising sequence of pitches. ~v» -»» *i mm -en L --1 '_.. 1-480! is itself introduced by a harmony of semitonally related auxiliaries except for the bass. 114. f __ |28 d 9¢ml¢°*| ¢8hb°" C|92°|l¢t¢fi9'-i¢_3¢i|i°fY °f n~. TheV and its prior auxiliary harmonic complex are shown at the outset of the concluding sketch Ex. : h IN 1 T 92» l -° A. on F and Fll _ The tonal references are thus free and fluctuant but two factors are of particular importance: the ultimate quasi-tonic six-four over the bass dominant E... toward which the entire succession is directed. . The prolongation of the Ia traditionally a dominant auxiliary! 4 is a striking functional preparation for the _final resolution.` -..."§¢:¢f '. 51. -_ 92 » 92` 9292 . 1 2}I I /:___ `92 rv -.ir 92é4' 92. l . The diminished triad motive thereafter occurs at various levels: on A and All.»r nv/vu? nv" "ln ::.

this harmony is embellished by auxiliary neighbors ofits upper members. functional precedence tothe bassnote of the harmony on A# as doesany reasonabletonal assessment of the tradi- tional Ig!.tona/ity 161 on the bass All at mm. l-480. Ex. 1-48q. the B also resolving to A mm. l28-29 and l3l in Hrst violin. B! and the quasi-tonic harmony A. in accord with its notation. 1-48p!. The cadence is consummated by the motivic quasi-dominant tritonal sonority F. the analysis suggested here givestonal..1-48p. introducing the V/V on B.. but the bassAll remains constant. preceded bya dissonantanticipation of I combining C with C# in characteristic modal ambivalence. like the preceding I%. 1-48q in explicit demonstration of the significance of the concept of quasi-functional tonal harmony. a hypothesis best examined in actual. 9292 9292' r /~. The harmony occurring over All can be construed as quasi-dominant twice removed V/V/V!. 130-32 in cello! in a functional recession which has beenrecurrent Ex. 9292 In a quartal harmony the identification of root is problematic. ~"~ Q ew = _ Cf. fullyquartal in construction. _ =. 127-29. attentive listening toBartoks cadence in comparison with the conjectured prototype. q!. 'T' . #»'9292. C!. The harmony is. p. 'Q B V/V v . and mm. which is reprinted in Ex. Ut * EK. That All can again be understood as the upper leading-tone of the tonic A and. Ex. the All acting in its ultimate course as an upper leading-tone to A see Exx. as the ambivalent lowerleading-tone to the B prolonged with it. -Q-! 92 !|V 92_2 Q it _ v/V/V . The entire succession might be conceived as analogous tothe following traditional sequence oftonal harmonies.n =*" BW gg lfgvg Eg . __.

162 tonality While the cadential formulation is underway there is a most important manifestation of tonal expression in the first and second violin parts. for violin and piano. The motive occurs onceagain. and verification in experience i. The sketch in Ex.moving in parallel 3rdsdown to G. The important concern of analysis is experiential efzct as plausibly described and underscored in objective evidence. with its A# auxiliary embellishment. The second violin. as well as the B of the cadential function just realized. The primary tonic is now well reestablished the . after which the line falls two octaves intoa cadential resolution on a. with such experience conditioned by the understandingwhich follows from analysis. now descends to A az!. compare mm. Such evidence of course requires interpretation. Op. The tonal structure isof truly compelling effect. restis its prolongation for conclusive finality. Further enhancing the sense of tonal resolution is a melodic tonal reference-that of the first violin in its phraseat m. Op. underscores the arrival on the tonic in a concurring resolution. ll-12 or 23-27!. These motivic iterations supply A: V once m. a modal auxiliary. only mildly evasive in tonal allusion. 1-4-9a. again beginning on Gil and ending on Bl. We have sought in the above discussions toexplain the overall and specific directions of Bartoks tonal structure in this movement. and it is confined to factors of tonal structure and technique. e. No. 135 . 1. 1 An important example from the works of Webern is given next as Ex. A tonal . and pointing out areas of relative tonal stability and relative activity as delineating structural factors and giving analysis ofthe meansby which tonal referenceand tonal fluctuation are carried out. 132! and otherwise recall the secondary tonicsC# and D. 7. although Webern is said to have afiirmed the importance of tonal relations in his works. in a slight stir of tonal evasiveness immediatelypreceding the final two tonic statements. Four Pieces.. The discussion is not of course exhaustive. The earlier prolonged B in the former. this time lacking the quasi-dominant tritone.It is the first of the pieces for violin and piano. on Eb. 7. Webern. . the tendencies which seem unequivocalin this piece and it is representative ofmany! may well be intuitive. identifying tonal functions in melodic and harmonic extracts.There can be no insistent suggestionof consciouscreative intent.gzstem of the sort described and at times charted with reference to earlier works could of course be derived and graphically represented: it would reveal the remarkable extent to which tonicized PCS by which the system is expanded are diatonicalbf related loA. subtly animating that concluding tonic elaboration.480 shows the motive of rising 3rds. listening!.

-. pg. -I l- I. Canada.o PP e mit "1 55:52 fr Diimpfer /'92 1 ee r espress.."="" Imp-¢mPf`¢ dusserst gart | 92 IL! gf: 9292|7§ '` 4f*" ` 4-4. and Mexico.. Used hy permission the of publisher.i1»1 1' Q 92 ml 1fifl! 7 _U . Four Pieces for violin andpiano. Theodore Presser Com pany sole representative United States. Universal Edition. m "J-'I_ .1_.Ln . B. .|-1L~--§=»=HJfv I1 :uZ°¢§hg..° I ==5i¢=I¥ii'-|¬l§3iE. 7. 1. 1- i l- :~ HPh_ H n' Ei [1 Y ll m°4 f92 1I .- ` # -- :_. 92u'|/ 9292lV ' IQYHD ll X1 l' -- :1:=. °6 92 7 3 f"§ PP. 1-49a.r * `E Q _ r 1l-2|l 9Z HP-°""'1' T IM :E _ ll.:=-- ~ ° » H-92 ee mv li.tona/ity 1 Ex. If 1| 0 110.. Copyright 1922.'1 Halt-'Y -_ _D 1' W __ -_ -_ lj N* '_ l'l -=-I' lfl _* _ V Ii.. Op. 84 PP I 9| . Webern. No. 63 Sehr langsam Ikea 50! uvlzgqr . m -- -- a -H! 75 1/. HP * I __ _7 rit. q :sir f h -_ ' _Z i ---.e!zogen -__-_-_-_-_-_ -_ -_ -_ 1- -57 '. .l= ` 7 ._..

1-49b. might well be included. and is embellished by its own lower . Indeed. root of the final chord. A further. chromatic set lacking El' J F_ Qi/ 9292 92 92 _. Ex. Ex. Tonal tendencies in the Webern upper stratum. significantly. Q 92 . a quasi-functional harmonic recession takes place. implied step in this succession. l-49c. but the primary Eb is virtually without enrichment of expanding secondary systems in this very brief. and preceded by a succession derivedfrom a chromatic set illustrated! which signyicantbf avoids Eb. The first of these pitches is simply held asa violin harmonic.expressed asa melodic configuration. The tonal system of the piece is simple suggestive secondary tonicizations of the leading-tone D could be inferred. When onehears this succession its functional implications are very persuasive. it is representedin the third sketch. The first sketch Ex.creating an intense expectancy ofreturn of the establishedEb. all of them oriented toward a primary tonic Eb. there is no significant fluctuation: no real deviation from insistent references to Eb at a number of levels. as shown in Ex. Thetwo neighbors of the V are shown by the symbol N . l-49d. one of these is stated in two registers. establishing the tonic PC. concentrated work!. l-49b! shows the descent from structural manifestations of eb to eb and finally to el». The second is reiterated. The repeated figure containing the eb is released.164 tona/ity Three sketches will illuminate tonal functions of different kinds. At what might be described as an internal stratum in the pieces spatial field. on eil and d2.

1 -49c. . the importance of voice-leading. its smoothness a result of linear adjacencies. J 7F _= c! ` ||| -. lg Z$ mu it ' | l_ _ I ! __ *If I| ' _______ ___ Q" W.tona/ity 165 Ex. superimposing andincorporating principal factors represented in these three. Particularly effective in function is the penultimate event.' .dissonant! re In / neighbor asindicated in Ex. 1 -49d. Ex. eb._ m . the succession is Eb. The harmonic succession noted above is included parenthetically. Quasi-functional harmonic successions in theWebern. A summarysynoptic sketch. . which functions like the d2 of the violin. the final tonic root. Further especially lower stratum! tonal expression in the Webern. Eb isits center. l-49d! complements and is a counterpoint to the descent noted earlier Ex. e|». IZY' -. '''' n . A dissonantform of I precedes the final resolution.--f i. Fb Ell!. Finally.and tendencies of leading-tones and otherauxiliaries are indicated by arrows. shown in the Hrst sketch! as a leading-tone expecting. 92 92 / N rr § "" re. would project a comprehensive imageof tonal tendencies and relations in the piece as a whole. Again. l-49c.J '92 7' 92 lm l ll nn i.. an ascent inthe lowertextural stratum Ex.r'_!j-' _ A I' _'_ _|'l| / 'I i1 »' ' `/ E ¢`___.is apparent. NN --+` 9292 i Zi . Throughout the succession. and directly antecedent to. . 1-49b!.

3 .__ marc.-. are greatly rewarding in study of this kind.ll -/92. 9-10. there isa strongly suggestive and functional succession which in some ways expects C and at the same time powerfully manifests a quasi-dominant sonority in the piano in mm.5_. in C. The reader would do well to study others of these pieces as to manifestations of tonal order. one of the motives beginning on B. Canada and Mexico. Op. il ` =qu|192l ' 92.-1-_ niiallfi |'= -T? = _:vm |.166 tona/ity Berg._ pil r-5% fisll l'3i92 r-3-92 UNL! ' §"|. especiallyas theroot of a major triad to which is added two pitches that might be construed aschromatic auxiliaries of the G and E of the triad!.No. _. e HIP . In the approach to this reafiirmation of C. No. The following discussion refers tothe Four Pieces for clarinet and piano. The piano harmony consists ofthe conventional Gand F with the upper .. Universal Edition./V 2 . Op. During the statement of this reiterated harmony consistently of the duration of 3.. Langsam l'|l. Ex. 1 -50a."'="* Echoton. This principle of encirclement is made extremely compelling and explicit in the return of the chords atmm. Op..___. within both serialand preserialprocedures. the other on Cll.3 __ __ h92|~ .f!! the clarinet sounds two motives one the extensionthe of other! which tend to encircle the C tonic. strong and resourceful in their expressions of tonality. Four Pieces for clarinet and piano. for clarinet and piano. 5. 4. expressions of C are of numerous kinds. l-5Oa!.if. Theodore Presser Company. sole representative United States. Four Pieces. il 4.. .».lg . In this piece. 5.` .f ». 3V 3 Q | lla = v= E I4 Illfl =_" lm! = nt 92llZ».r ' si. 5. 4 clarinet notated at sounding pitch!..-92I"j_ . _ _ _ _ '_ _ -Ig. The opening C basspedal is of courseitself highly suggestive andpreconditioning.P1l| Er' -"TES _ 2921|| 17 PH _ Z! I _ .1 I r rl|51 -1 -i W. _ -'H-.¢. Berg.l.`£ __-` i- ll 1' ll Copyright 1924. 4 The works of Berg. we refer here to No. Used by permission the of publisher..f =i . 1 1-12 Ex..Lf 4I __ PP ' g1! HP 7 -'~ PPM .

intensifying the expectation of the C resolution of m. Of Ex._ _L_-. eg/ .» !! |1.. In m. 8.|.g ..-3 iz* i' _ /T" i 92 r-'Ffr!.tona/ity 167 and lower chromatic auxiliaries of C-all of this symmetrically disposed around c2. P-s-Y wi :f _ _r Jf.. Once theline moves.. 1 -50b. IO.! Of major interest in this passage is themotion of the clarinet line toward ci.f-c / *Prominent asV preparation m.r.as ca.=."%3 m_9 3 . ..~ 1i I 192:r=` »' ::: ::: 3 -4 -'* .s:::. as does the contraction in thepiano. F_ g¥ Ja i I.. l-50b.. / voice |Eparat1on: I I w g. ll. at a lower octave. which appears only fleetingly in the clarinet and is otherwise deliberately withheld.1r.= "'_?°'% 92 3.The lower level of the compound succession moves toward cz. the clarinetbegins this process with tremolo repetition of two pitches: b|»and g. __3. 'I' u' ' u'_ . __ EEEQEEEEEEEEEEEBEEEEE-EEE=E==3-| 92_i. /`92 N: P ii 1..._. 3 3_e iI Y. Mm. No.r ° gl =°° iE. 1-50b.:-.:== "ii wi 7e /"" 3_ . J and auxiliaryin concludingmeasures. as summarized in Ex./-""'"i » 92 92 » 7.___.| si-' 'iiE§i§§§`§§§`i§E§ii_ii -L '. _.r::.-.--My user of . A ='.f=:fzH_L!'_l!'_ ge ::. 8-10and sketch of recessive actions toward C. in m.7¬"f Z.=e!.=r: -""" "" /'j""§-_ . -'. Berg. 1 S. ll and its anticipation inthe clarinet. 4.. it doesso with insistent implications ofbileveled compound! structure functionally directed toward ca. '.¢_-4 ij-I ?TF==§.-__ 'u n_H §7'l| 'I 7 . Four Pieces for clarinetand piano.B . whose chromatic neighbors of C are transferred unresolvedto the clarinet in m.n' ` °° ° gf/ "" ° kurzleicht und gestossen W .i M 3 "sr. _L -5 if "E _ ll _ .. See Ex.

The progression is opposed to a piano descent to CC in mm. 1-50b continued. For example. sole representative United States.l ~: . -. J? .' -»/'I *gi ' 595 ::!::-: Ll.168 tona/ity Ex. 5' 2 .in Copyright 1924. course. Other factorsof quasi-functionalsupport of the primary C can be noted briefly./" H' /° " :. Used by permission the of publisher. :. thefinal recessionof tonal structure toward C involves an underlying chromatic ascent of the clarinet toward ga e-f 1-f li-ga! in a progression by which that dominant is projected with great emphasis. after which the C triad with B! is first outlined in the piano bass.l'.= § ?»-s ° f . thensustained in a chord of piano harmonics and.E::.1-50c. l-50c!. the absent c' does appearas root of the pieces linal sonority. Universal Edition. The function of the pianos gradually accrued penultimate harmony echoed in the clarinets final phrase! as a complex of leading-tone auxiliaries resolving to the final tonic is apparent in the sketch of PC content in the two harmonies Ex. ° ._ g ___ if *-lL-r:2r1'¢rJ».L. then C in the bass ofthe piano. repeatedin unstopped notes over c. mio f*------ EEE! QW/El! V Timmy? lf! . subsequently. Canada and Mexico.*i ee gé-". 9-10: =e = . Theodore Presser Company.£' I//'Pdf BQEZ/. .: . Summary of piano contraction in mm. ?/ is o ----.s». Q! In . Ex. I. thereis tentative resolution in the arrivals on c insistently repeated in slowing tempo in the clarinets upper stratum!. -/ 92J% 5 Cl3. 13-17.E::::.

. We therefore take the position that modality whether pure or in later evolutionary stagesis a manifestation of the fundamental principles essentialto tonal organization in music. and that. with the increasing emergence of leading-tone relations. the bass line ac- companying sixteenth-centuryvocal declamation in. onemust regard as indicative of later tonal conventionsthe increasinglysupportive role of the bass inearly multivoiced compositions--a role characterizedmore and more by the useof 4ths and 5ths of quasi-dominant-tonic succession.its function is substantially that of defining root progressions of clear tonal purpose.This kind of harmonic organization and this type of bass movement become increasingly prevalent in the course of the sixteenth century. W. It is primarily the practice of musicajicta. that a critical factor in its structure is the quasi-tonal hierarchy which yields. modal or quasimodal structure. formalized tonal functions.] . An element in this trend is. it is clear that the conventions of the tonal period are incipient and sometimes very significantly manifest in applications which long predate their formalization in Baroque and Classicalliteratures. the practices of lutenist composers. the chord progressions and thegeneral harmonic plan in most of _]osquins works are to a large extent governed by dominant-tonic relationships. Along with the wider applications of leading-tone functionsby the uses of musicajicta in contexts of modal derivatives. Moreover. for example. the ultimate being the final itself. Inc. an important embodiment of harmonic conventions in the tonal period. Donald Groutwrites thatwe becomeaware of a consistent organization of theharmonies along the lines of ourown common practice. Norton and Company. l-41. Though they are still rootedin the modal system. pp. One sign of this organization is the conduct of the bass line: more andmore it has begun to bedistinguished from theprimarily melodicnature ofthe othervoices and has begun to assume the function of a harmonic support. the concept ofhierarchic tonalorder is trubf relevant. and this too mustbe recognized as analogous to the systematized tonal functions of later styles. to preestablished components of the modal scale as elements of relative finality.tona/ity 169 Summary notes on the un/'versa/ity and s/gn/Hoance of the pr/nc/p/e of h/erarchic Iona/ order Any analysis of liturgical chant demonstrates. of course.like that of Ex. we have seen thatin modal polyphony groupsof auxiliaries tend to revolve around notes most basic in the hierarchic. asultimately is that of the figured bass of the Baroque. in much modal music the later specificconventions oftonality are in vivid evidence.1960!. Indeed. less andless bythe intervallic and rhythmic equality between bass and other voices which is a Renaissance ideal. And while the transition from purely modal to emergent tonaldevices is gradual-and overlapping among different coexistent styles. which is in this sense unmistakablyanalogous to the tonic of later. in modality. [A History of Western Music New York: W. 243-44-. of course.which contributed in the Renaissance to "Of _]osquin. consequently it often moves by fourthsand fifths. at points of cadence.

too. In other than chromatic styles. for analytical discussion of music of Lasso. presumably as a conscious expressive resource. by which tonal order is expressed. is another manifestation of the growing emergenceof harmonic formulae of the major-minor system. and other sixteenth-century chromaticists. linkedwith a bass line less andless independent. Tonaligy and Atonaliy. Moreover.-as cantusjirmus in polyphonic compositions or assubjects for variation in compositions of highly provocative ambiguities markedly in phrygian derivatives! exacerbated the modality-tonality ambivalences and conflicts. broadly conceived. and to the increasing expansion of tonal systems and consolidation of the conventions ofthe tonal period. the increasing use of simpler textures." constituting one of the most intriguing sixteenth-century stylistic currents. at the same time analysis attempts to determine structural consequences of tonal reference in theindividual work. In many transitional works the blends of modality and major-minor tonality are extraordinarily provocative and often of great charm. the melody imposing upon evolving harmonic conventions of the rising major-minor system vestigial inflections of the past.functions counteractivelyand complementarily in its relations with other elements in the musical work. would be associated with advanced trends in the rise of major-minor tonality. and seeks to understand how tonality. not of value! is in the latters firm conditioning of individual lines toward conventional tonal ends and of their confiuence in the Baroque to serve prescribedtonalharmonic functions. Where this occurs. especially in polyphonic music. . one of the fundamental differencesbetween thepolyphony of the Renaissance and that of the Baroque an issue of style. Music theory awaits a deeper understanding of this evolutionary processin.170 tonality the gradual dissolution ofpurely modal conventions. often in modified polyphonic contexts. At times dense chromaticism is practiced. Gesualdo. It is easy tounderstand that more homorhythmic textures. to facilitate and focus attention on chromatic successions without competing textural complications. chorale. the harmony increasingly pointed toward the later conventionsof the tonal period. Lied. In the Baroque. It is noteworthy that most highly chromatic passages are homorhythmic in texture.etc. increasingly given to defining codified successions in relation to a central tonic function by movement of4ths and 5ths. modal vestigesshould not be regarded as inhibiting tonal order although many do in the specifics of major-minor terms!.ofcourse. to a degreethat eventuatesin a great flux of tonal reference Lowinskys floating tonality!. but as conditioning the mean. the use ofold melodies-chant. for example. seventeenthcentury music. Historical factors of ambivalence and evolution concern the devices of tonal aflirmation 3 not the fact of tonality itself See Lowinsky..

tonality 171 The technique of juxtaposing tonally fluctuant areas ina musical form with areas of relative stability or ambiguity with clarity!. Such leading-tones act in encirclement of tonic factors at disparate levels. It is of particular importance in the late nineteenth centuryand in the tonal music of the twentieth century. Tonic function can of course be obscured by contradictory events. for example. while dating from very early practices.' The question of when tonality is expressed and functional! and when not-i. The extent to which such functionsdenote tonal reference depends. We have noted that in those twentieth-century styles in which the identity of tonic is less explicit. as we have seen. while others consider tonal coherence obliterated in contexts of relatively mild complications. and in encirclement of the individual factors ofquasi-tonic harmony. as well as on the supportive or contradictory terms ofthe surrounding particular context. the sense of that function. where fluctuation may be over an extremely wide range. as established by rhythmic.e. be in part a matter of subjective response and judgment. especially in cadential actions. Still others regard any consistent application of a twelve-tone set as akind of tonality. in practices of voice-leading involving frequently quasi-dominant! harmonic derivatives comprised of semitonal neighborsto harmonic structures of resolution. diminished. on the basis of the prescriptive technique of composition in and of itself. l-7!. Perhaps the truth is that examples of altered.. possibly extinguished reflections of tonality in recent musicare subjectto classificationinto a number of levels ofsignificance of tonal effect and function Fig. When one or more of the essentials of dominant function are retained in a succession. especially potentwhen the encirclement is by chromatic auxiliaries. Of importance in such procedures is the expansion ofthe concept of leading-tone: with the important technique of tonicizing encirclement. Some theorists insist that any configuration or concurrence ofPCs conveys some inevitabletonal sense. dynamic. is likely to be preserved in some degree-whether significantly must. and other means. The tonality-atonality question arises particularly with respect to serial music. again. is among many that are probably incapable of insistent verdict. and often clearly felt. in the Bartok and Berg analyses!. even necessary. the upper leading-tonetakes onan importancecomparable tothat of the traditional lower as observed. on their relative strength as experienced in a particular context. of course. aspect ofmusical structure and structural function. metric. isfundamental to larger forms of the tonal period. with the implica- tion of affirmation of tonic. be . the expressionof relativerepose and relative mobility of tonal allusion is a particularly vital. but it is clear that serialized associations of PC materials cannot. that of atonality or nontonality!. It is frequently possiblein textures ofconsiderable complexity and freechromaticism to establishtonal feelingby suchapplications ofsubtle inferences of traditional functions. as we have seen in quotations from relatively recent works.

tonal manifestationsmay well appear as often in Schoenberg. In connection irrelevant to the experienceof tonaland other fac- with his discussion of cadential functions tors which can be interpreted to point to E as a tonal factor in Schoenbergs Klavierstzick.1 72 tonality Fig. But hierarchic tonal order may be implicit too in a twelve-tone set itself see the following discussion ofthe Schoenbergsong. He may counter that one ought not to hear the music in this way. but he is then criticizing the music. In others. not the analytical method. p. tonal function? Tonal flux within broad. But one who does hearthem must admit to that extent the validity of the approach. Tot! . In serial works. of significance forour considerationof the relevance oftonal allusion and tonal analysis! in certain twentieth-century styles: More controversial is the attempt to find tracesof tonal form in avowedly atonal compositions. . prevailing tonal unity Extended expanded! tonality Tonality of quasi-functional manifestations Conventional major-minor! tonality Tonality of ambivalent conventions Tonality of modal conventions Purely melodic tonality Primitive pedal! tonality pronounced necessarily external or ity. Analysis Today. Cone. 185. with its usually clear cadential structure. somespecific twelveEdward T. for example! in the light of techniques already much discussedin examples of preceding pages. Absolute atonality? Atonality as a relative tendency? Irrelevant tonality? Multitonality? Pantonality ? Tonal flux extinguishing. To the charge of irrelevancy. Unwanted cadential effectswould be as great a Haw in atonal music as thechance appearance ofa human Figure ina nonrepresentational painting. 1-7. I answer that one who cannot indeed hear such cadentialphenomena in this music must judge the analysisto be prescriptive and inapplicable." We would embrace Cones concept ofrelevance as vital and necessary in analytical discussions of tonality. Edward Cone makes the following observations. yet I do not see how music like Schoenbergs. Op. can fail to arousecertain traditional associations and responses. 2 960!. in The Musical Quarterly. XLVI. 33a. atonality or irrelevant tonality may indeed be found to pertain. or severely attenuating. Conjectural set ofclassifications of levels ofsignificance of tonal function.

some suggested primary and secondary tonal implications are indicated. potentially functional tonal possibilities are quoted in Ex. #Il/':/IT Lf.»__/ _:_ #. CI lg h #I . Canada and Mexico. There is. afirm sense of tonal resolution.Universal Edition. and orchestra. Tot. _ Schoenberg thus expresses a tonal structure means by that are free ofstrict tonal conventions. and vice versa. the twelve-tone set is sodisposed that when the voice partis based upon theF . 407-1 l! in order from 1 to 12. In the song. yet insistent. alto. In Schoenbergs song. it seems. andtenor soloists.a tonic element _ is suPPorted b Y two leadin formin E-tones 8 °a u lex .The entire song isan excellentexample ofquasi- . While there are comparable tonal functions at other levels. Canto Sospeso for soprano. those noted are the most vital and pervasive. in the first violin. Berg: b . now a.Corn é duro dire addio! the note Ais strongly established at beginning and end as a referential PC. expressed both melodically and harmonically. . The tonal implications of the Nono set are especially evident when as in No.g _ Nono: JKT-C g.Cquasi-tonic PCC and itsleading-tones. Violin Concerto.! _ . The final cadence of the section takes all twelve notes mm. The opening of Part 6b has the tenor voice sustaining boeca chiusa! a' for two bars. 1-51.by Schoenberg. T glrf/. Ex. Examples 1-52a and 1-52b show the composers applications of the above quasi-tonal functions. 1-51._ #4 li! Berg Violin Concerto copyright I 936. after which the upper and lower leading-tones notes 2 and 3 of the set! enter.the C1 uasi-dominant com P _ 5 . the piano is not. Luigi Nono. Used by permission of the publisher. then returns the first note. 6b. mixed choir. sole representative United States. Nono Canto Sospeso set reprinted by permission qf ArsViva Verlag. Theodore Presser Company. Twelve-tone sets: Berg. In the excerpts.tonality 173 tone sets of obvious.


ltlliiulli"1l_ lb l~ni'1-1-titlil i .v-.. der fand W .u"11l9292.tona/ity 175 m. . -v - II W' I1-Z r11!i' ~ ' II l II . If'_...4.4.E. . 1. __ 7 | » 7 I..J1_1_-'i_l__l1l Y..ll IPI it Il *lil-|_illl §l||_ll_'I¬_l'I'. - m._ V. 1. for example.-lr' -l_r11». I unit ___ fi V f" h P 7I I 7h r .1 I '0 A l-` 1/ 'R 'IA -'llldvir iltlli if II l1 'r¬1. _--__I'1-Il I l.' In _.." with potential quasi-tonal affiliations suggested.'-Hpwdwiwuls nxt §LJ. _ ?. fand _ lteins. in much use of Ex.V .` I ° '° . yetis imperfect.Bl» have in relation to the F .taking thesecond tetrachord oftherow in retrograde orderG.l1'_Ql'l. 7.B and the tritoneE.F | is I* I' ffl.. which of course would not require realization in actual applications. 6.|.. ll L in §_ l | IHTILJQIIY I nn I lu .JA-I-ll-Q qi .vlrlf1 1 lr 1 lg.._____i.Y-» li|..-_ ._ V1 1-|1_!1l 5 r|..5!.|.Csonority strongly tonicizing effect.. --. :_*_ * ° 7 .___ .1 ..l'1 lr.l|.I |_LF |. tonal functions in a twelve-tone work. thefinal three PCs of the set could have been applied to tonicize FI# as well! in deliberate expression ofthe primary tonic F and secondary tonic D.| '_ i 1 _----zlzj-i_l_|l:¢.: q 0 " 13. Ab. lending a functionalambivalence to the F which has been sopersistent and nearly constanta tonic center of reference.111vi unti I g7_ 92 '$ E" und ich _.lit ll Z li! C11 nitllmi nuullilitm 31 P ' 1ii. Note that the right hand of the pianopart in the final two bars..¢ -1 | | in IliI-rrL.l3 _fl-i Ili nxt .l1l'Ht_.».4 l1l!1_11 |r..I I_ EI i3 |.Q'1 -2-Il-fi1]l`__l"Y_-Q-TQ 'nv lA.___ sein Gliick __.1w|. .. . Bb-8.l ¢I .11 l1l~_l92921l Lili-r_1. "Tot.9'u'|.1| _..¢». 1 -52b. n» |1 |I Reprinted permission by Associated qf Music Publishers. Twelve-toneset forthe Schoenberg song. . and the final cadence_ significantly realizes tonalexpectations. nr in I FY' _? .:».1l|192 Hill-:ln _~ II I | »' IL |I .i if I .4 | ' _im °7 . Inc.l1I.l$. are potential in the set itseltf Schoenberg exploitsthese particular possibilities it will be noted that.Q ~ B ll-Z1lT_Q-l_Il'|I"'1"1' -. . theleading-tones FII. .gm L L I *f _ I_.. comes out onthe lowBb as finalnote. adIll' lil l r. s 5 ll1 .[1il-1/ | uv. Atthe same time.. Tonal orientations.

of course. and in avoidance. in which a kind of all-tonality prevails. In the extreme.176 tonality relevant tetrachordal segments. 22!. The term parztonal can refer toa musical situation of the kindsuggested above. Webern. but the . Tonal referencesmay thus. Any music. a potential exploited as shown in the quoted excerpts Ex.obviously has tonal references-i.!. leading-tones. This conceptmay be pertinent to Ex. three.. such thematic usesof the set asformal recapitulations or other recurrences in which a particular variant and transposition of the set takes onquasi-tonal significancein terms of recurrent thematic direction and orientation e. if one considers a work interval by interval nearly any analyst will find in each the experience of one tonic root! or another. Any work. and. conceivably. even the most atonal. 249-53!. sucha pantonality must be a neutralization Qf tonaligg theextreme spreadof tonal reference causing a blurring to the point of extinguishing the effect of any single tonal implication. 1-53. may become spatially central to the pitch content as at times in Webern. can theoretically be regarded asconsisting of the constant fluctuation of such tonics so that fluctuant tonality is presentin every work. dominant-like.follow from certain specific properties of the twelve-toneset andits applications. Op. l-52a!. l7lf. and the application of the twelve-tone set such that invariant functional relations recur-relations grouping together in disparate set formsinvariant adjaccncies of two. intervallic relations implicit or explicit in the set such that potential is established for quasifunctional relations dominants. a much-quotedexample. The second tetrachord has the potential of leaning. pp. One of the problems in tonal analysis of music in which tonal centers are supported only ambiguously is of course the extent to which analysis should goin the pursuit of and explanationof tonal allusions thatare suspected seep. qf any transpositions. Pantonality is a concept suggesting a particular perspective forregarding what are also described asatonal situations. see Chapter 2. creating what is analogous to the whiteness ofthecombination of all colors.! supportive of a recurrent PC as tonic . although the set isused in retrograde. in each microcosm of which a tonal center could be said to be implied. more or less significantly.g. or more PCs having structural predominance. rhythmic and other applications in any way lending PC primacy and.. symmetrically applied. or elements of the set. a constant shifting of tonal reference within the smallest units.e. reduced toits most microcosmic units. and a free combination among textural strata of diverse tonal implications. then. when compositional procedures submit to the implications of such properties: the set fully or partially disposed around a particular axis or axes which. hierarchic arrangementcentered in that primacy! to a particular element of the set. etc. toward F.

1-53. . Whatever results are realized in particular analyses. Universal Edition.tona//ty 177 Ex. Six Bagatelles for string quartet.' .. Henri Pousseur.9292 _ Eli? `/e Set: Y * N* L Q-'Lf I V' Copyright 1924.. The individual tonal allusions suggested are inherent in Weberns row. rather than the thematic rigid66 ity of the seriesof Schoenberg. D? G? Dlw? F? Elv? _._ A? e- UQZ 92 92 _S L: w rd. translation byDavid Behrman. ."=:. pp. sole representative United States. 9292 = / i 3 $92 iq i 9292 1 . e ' We ' am Steg ___. k gl! . §_*1' L i S am tes """ """ I/r 2 RP ~-92 D? F ? .i -. there is certainly music of the twentieth century in which the aim of the composer isto resist tonal leanings andto achievewhat Pousseurcalls a distributive equilibrium-an equilibrium which is directly opposed tothat of tonality becauseits specific harmonic weight is equally distributed at all points with a resultant harmonic homogeneity and mobility which.L~./ . 107-8. often in some degree subjectivelydetermined.first movement. g v7 3. which is included in the example. The Question of Order in New Music.. Theodore Presser Company. Used by permission the Q" publisher. 1 __._/ l? 3-1 g 1. 11! I 5:1 ' lui I I LJ_ |2111 -Ill » I ¢l'. Op. PP sord. . sum of which is so fluctuant as to be a neutralization of tonal feeling.m l -/T Hal" H2 . 0 . again. 1 966!.'.l -g . Webern. sord. and these are. V. are the function of the twelve-tone series. These words seem to state very well the intent and eH`ect of atonality. in Perspectives New of Music. r 92q i / i c /I _ §__. 9. Canada and Mexico. . » .

complexes ofpitches in linear and vertical arrangements by which listeners are conditioned to expect certain responsive succeeding events. in given style contexts. sometimes very specific in their implications: It is thus virtually impossible to exaggerate thesignificance of tonality in the structure of Western music. or limited fulfillment of expectations aroused and conditioned by prior assertion ofa tonic and its structural. and . Theanalytical techniques incorporated in this study are of an intentionally heterodox scope. dynamic contrasts. at times. with tonal homogeneity a fundamental source ofunity and tonal contrast of variety.178 tonality Almost since music began there have been. The extent to which tonality is resisted or dismissed in music is thus normally the extent to which other elements-color. Foregoing exampleshave demonstrated that many twentieth-century composers havesought to achieve new ways of establishing tonal feeling. texture. Tonal reference and fluctuation are the before chief pillars upon which the standardforms of the eighteenthand nineteenth centuries rest.such factorsas therecurrence and variation of melodic-rhythmic theme become basic. or with relative stability of tonic opposed in formal delineations to its controlled fluctuation and. without altogether dismissing the idea of order around a tonal center. andsystem pertinentto the individual work or at times morebroadly to classes of works!. range. our chief purpose has been to show how in various idioms tonality is established and made to Huctuate. give testimony to the vast importance of tonality in the determination of musical structure. their aim is the discovery oftonal structure. rhythm.as do the shaping effects of rhythmic elements. and to demonstrate techniques the in anabfsis qf tonaliyf within awide gamut qf genres and styles. or tonal axis. and we have seen that music of the Western tradition and after what is described asthe tonal period is very often dependent on orientation of musical events in relation to a tonic toward which melodic and harmonic elements perhaps quasi-functional harmonies! aredirected. When tonality is abandoned. hierarchic system. or complex of centers. These are sometimes conduciveto a range of expectations. nonfulfillment. While the many examplescited in this chapter. and the special means bywhich tonal structure isexpanded and modulated in accord with expressive needs. relative obscurity. In the vast majority of works of this monumental tradition the languageof music is substantially that of dissonance in which cadential andother formal articulative functions are characterizedby fulfillment. diverse asthey are in style and historical orientation. and functional contrasts of texture.

One of the main points of discussion has thus been that analysis must discover the various levels of structural function.. evenin parallel. and among their individual manifestations inprogressive and recessive operations.And in music in which harmonic colors are an important factor in themselves. in the surface reside many. sometimes independently of tonal function. e. Melodic curve. Still. transposed to C and reduced to fundamental structural bases. correct conception structural functions. It might well be that all the melodies ofMozart. as are considerations scured. It is this kind of consideration that leads to the identifica- tion of structural profiles which are more and more fundamental. probably most. Conc/ud/'ng notes The foregoing analyses deal with the question of tonal andlinear functions in melodic and harmonic contexts in which tonality is of essentialimportance. would look very much alike.tona/ity 179 others-have ascendant significance. of the characteristic features bywhich the uniqueness of expressive power is felt. and of density fluctuation. with the controlled distribution of contrasts and aflinities among these elements. important approaches. motivic of dissonance-consonance fluctuation and unities.g. and which underly that of the harmonic-melodic surface. a cadential note. We have seen that in most music linear and tonal functions coincide. Harmonicand tonal rhythms are such a concern. of To make this clear and to remind the reader from time to time that in most music a number of analysescan be shown to be admissible. especially in styles in which tonal implications are obrates of eventfulness are other such important supplementary concerns.! In some of the foregoing analyseswe have been concernedwith supplementary. determining structure.is often seen to have at other levels auxiliary function in relation to structural factors of higher hierarchic order. Analysis cannot hope to point to a single. with a few exceptions in which particular issues are exploredapart from such primary concerns. nonfunctional streams or complexes of like sonorities in elaborative formulations. wehave repeatedlyused theword interpretation to describethe resultsof . and a central point has been that harmonic and melodic analysis isproperly viewed from the perspectives of differing structural levels in which events havediffering implications. The rnost immediate is that level which is the object of analysisseeking toidentify tonal and linear implications of all the notes thecomposer has written. But an event that is of essential function at a given level. we have noted that auxiliary chords are often introduced for relatively pure linear function and for their sonorousqualities.

But the first primary dominantis in m.ultimately. 1-7 foreseeing the later tonal principle of expansionto the level of the dominantbeyondthe dominant!.and in a sense the fluctuationis moreradical than in Op. 11. it is continued. In that piecethe primary tonic a! is stronglyaffirmed at the end. The comprehensiveanalysis of music must take all into account.however. with its own auxiliary subdominantand dominant functions.symmetrical image: FC GD a. to make the most valid possible choices amongconceivable suggested interpretations of a givenexample.the delightfully spirited chanson of Lasso. and must see.180 tonality analysis.a later Renaissance composition. 53 sincethe first measure is itself a secondary tonal reference. The skillful analyst learns. ~A comparable example of the principle morebroadly applied is Brahms'Intermezzo in A minor. 19.on the basis of procedures and criteriaofjudgment of the mostpersuasive possible substance.the primary tonic is embellished by fluctuation at the outset. p. bMeasures 19-37of the samepiecereveala comparable expansion of the tonal system in the prolongationof T:I.'s point. Secondary tonicsb/ and D! both diatonic factorsin t! occur. Bonjourmon coeur. in the total context of which it is an aspect. this book regardsmusical effect and experience as deriving from the complementary and counteractive functional associationsof all element-actions. 159. and while space doesnot permit their investigationhere the readeris advised that he will find this basic.for sevenmeasures.a synopticsketchof the bassshowsa linear expression of t:iv The D/ systemcomponentis stronger than any of the fluctuant tonal allusionsto th. Op.might be analyzed from the standpointof a tonal structureon G which can soundto modernearsambivalentin its modal Ff and consequent leaningtoward C.For instance. There are passing refer- .Thus.No. in tonicizations of D and evenA in tentativetonal expansions a step beyondthat of Ex. supported by a strongdominantpedal.and relativehomorhythmin which the lower voicemovesa great deal in 5ths and 4ths.The concernsof the remaining chaptersare with texture and rhythm in music. Chapter 1 will have to be seen. The two Liszt examples showtonal expansion in elaborationof harmonicprogressionT:I-V! and prolongation T: I-I!.rich anthologya fertile ground for study of early tonal structures. 118. l. their progressiveand recessive actions in interrelations by which expressive effect is realized. NOTES In the samecollectionoccur manyother examples of potentialvaluein theseconnections. Moreover.ultimately. fundamentally. The tonal system of the Lassoexample might well beseen to havethefollowing.the first tonic very brief! in m.

tona/ity 181 ences to F, G, and C before the first primary leading-tone appears. Even thereafter the musicobscures the primary tonic more thanit supportsit. The structural importance ofthe primary tonic is that it draws intofocus following the tonal ambiguity which is the chieftonal featureof mostof the form. Thereare, in the Huctuant areas of the Intermezzo, certain hints ofthe ultimatetonal course: the substitution of a sixfour onA in m. 2for theexpected resolution of theF:V-1; theaugmented 6th in m. 5, which expects A:V but docs notproduce it; and otherabortive references to functions which, in their normal contexts,would be supportive of the primary tonic. Similarly, thereare afterthe final,long dominant pedal, reminiscences of earliertonal deviations-e.g., the BL of m. 35 part of a dominantof the subdominant!, andthe F-C appoggiatura over the primary dominantof mm. 37-38. A synopsis of the bass succession might be asfollows; it shows again the principle of linear expression of t : i, and the tonal system components are a,F, C-factors in the F :I F = SD/R/t!, F beingthe system of reference with which the tonal structure sets out. Thus, of the two most fundamental triadsof reference, the overall bass lineexpresses one and a resumé of tonal system components expresses the other:

' E:
-an" ='

-, .1

c D/SM R/t!

A remarkably comparable example for melodicanalysis can be foundin mm. 12-19 of the first violin part, second movement, of Bart6ks Divertimento forstring orchestra: its essential course runs from all established and prolonged differently but with comparably strongeH`ect! to da, again in a tritonal essential movement. Thereader will find in the Bartok melody thetechnique ofsequence repeated motivic unitstransposed ina conjunctsuccession of subsidiary high points oflargely diatonicrelation! : U _i,»"~-___;_--- `92_¢ __ gf ' Q1 1 3

| » I

In Accenti, second piece of the piano set Quaderno Musicale di Annalibera, by Luigi Dallapiccola, the single note which emerges out ofthe harmonically dense motive the final noteof theform ofthe serial hexachord used in the given instance! often takes on a tonal meaning simply because, in its severe isolation anddynamic stress, it hasthe effect ofresolving the preceding, intense dissonance and density. Whenthere are harmonic ormelodic elements that supportthe feeling of tonalresolution atthe same time, that feeling is of courseenormously strengthened. Thus, at the pieces final cadence a strong sense of tonalfulfillment arises from thequasi-dominant character of the outer voices of the harmony ofthe final measure B and Dil! as well as the chromatic succession in moving voices: C18-D-D#-E. Whether this is the composersintent cannot be said, butthere canbe little question that these factors impart tonalimpressions and, thereby, stronger impact to the powerfulcadential thrustwith which the piece ends. Another example useful for study inthe same connection is the firstof Weberns Five Pieces for orchestra,Op. 10, in which a concluding,reiterated F,in an atmosphere of severely reduced texture, has the effectof quasi-tonal resolution. The piece should bestudied for evidences, of which many could be cited, of quasi-functional projections of or expectantsuggestions of! F, and A and C, in the pitch materials of the piece. [For example, lastnotes of the trumpet-F, G, A, F; trumpet and trombone ofmm. 6-7, centering onF; the leading-tone E in the flute motive of mm. 8-9; clarinet phraseof mm. 4-7, centering on F and A; or the succession E

82 tonality flute!-F-F if-G violin!-A-G1f cello! preceding andsupportive oftonal feeling in the final, isolated F.] Certainly it must beacknowledged that the analystwill find many instances of apparently arbitrarily and rapidlyfluctuant change, or staticdissonance effect, in recent styles. Thethird of Schoenbergs set of piano pieces, Op.19, isa casein point: dissonance seems relatively fixed in intensity,as is harmonic densitypitch factors of four and five in chords throughout thepiece!. At the same time, the pieces structureis compellingly shaped by other factors-quasi-tonal function and harmonic rhythm are ofparticular importance within the harmonic element, not to mention the shaping effects of other element-fluctuationsspatial field, movements ofline, rhythms of attack, directions of dynamicintensity, etc.!.It must not beassumed, then, that dissonance fluctuation is necessarily a significant factor in the shaping of structure.The discussion of the Op. 23 extractinvolves onlytwo-note simultaneities; where chords are concerned the evaluationof dissonance quality and process involves appraisal of such qualityas thesum ofinterval properties in chords.This can be calculated in a number ofways, and again a judgment mustbe made as tosignificance of dissonance quality in intervallic relations between thelowest in relation to upper voices,the upper in relation to lower voices, or all intervallic relationsamong all voices inthe texture. Uln the third of Eight Etudes and a Fantasy for woodwind quartet, Elliott Carter develops his form entirely out of coloristic contrasts, since theEtude is entirely an expression of the D major triadwithout change in its position or distribution andwithout auxiliary notes or harmonies. Only the assignment of notes ofthe triad among the four instruments changes. It is perhaps the mostelemental expression of tonality that is possible to imagineand it is, in this piece, of strikingeffectiveness, although it is of course a device thatdoes notbear repetition. When early modal scales are usedas resources in melody and diatonic harmony in twentieth-century styles, as theyare not infrequently, especially in earlier music of this century,they create the same modal/ tonal ambivalences one often associates with

works of] say, the sixteenth century, in which, for example, the mixolydian lowered
7 can to modern ears effecta leaning toward the region of the subdominant.For example, thefirst thirteen measures of Bart6ks Divertimento for string orchestra, third movement, sustain, in intense tonal reference, a quasi-augmented-6th harmony of primary dominant function.It is followed bya V-I root succession setting offthe principal thematicelement, amixolydian melody which, while on an F tonic, leans toward Bb. In this piece, thereader maywish to evaluate dissonance fluctuation in the light of the composers own specifications of dissonance in thesource cited on p. 1 10. A number of cadential successions show what appears to bea verypurposeful dissonance control: mm. I4-15, in the direction of milder dissonance note, too, the voice-leading determinants: outer voice contrarymotion, and more conjunctinner voice!; m. ll, an appoggiatura figure whose pattern of dissonance release is very evident when the tenor and soprano voices are regarded independently; and m. 6, both of whose harmonies contain sharp dissonances, but in which there isnevertheless sense a of release occasioned by the factthat in the firstharmony the dissonance occurs between outer voices while in the second it is relegated to an innerposition withthe consonant major 10th between outer voices-a good example of the mitigating injiuence qf spacing and distribution in harmonic dissonance effect. In mm. 18-22, the general increase in dissonance intensity seems to be a compensation for relative rhythmic inertia; and toward m. 30 there is a distinct mounting of dissonanceand steady increase in density! towardclimax. JRave1s Surgi de la croupe du et bond No. 3of TroisPoémesMallarmé! de might be citedas an example in which tonal structureis notconfirmed, i.e.,is left open, at the conclusion. The early, relativelyconcise tonal expressions of D major! deteriorate at its

tona/ity 183 conclusion, where there isonly theslightest hintof the original tonic. The final harmony isa combinationof dominanton C, to which the bass has progressed in chromatic descent from E, and an A major triad with F 8added andnot resolved. This latter, if construed as a primary dominant, isthe only,faint allusionto the initiating D system.! Tonal clarity thus substantially dissolves in the finalcadence. In this sense, the tonal structure is illustrative of opposition ofstability and instability relative clarity and ambiguity! asshaping features. The earlierexample from Brahms l-14! and theBrahms Intermezzo, Op. ll8, No. I, cited infootnote description on pp. 18081, reveal a patternin whichinstability oftonal reference gives way to ultimate,strong clarification; the Ravel does just the opposite:

*It wassuggested earlier that the two mostprominent tonic sonorities, harmonically conjoined, providethe intervallic basis for the recurrent motive of superimposed 3rds: 1

The collection of these motives at the endof the movement can be seenas a wholetone series in which, as noted,basic tonalfactors arerecalled: .-I. lla f.92 & .. 92___.., ILJT _ 92 J92.||92 92

L, »-lnL, &:?


The lastof themotive statements, that ofmm. |38-39,is tonallythe most deviant, but it is strongly functional in reemphasizing, at a penultimate point,the Bbupper leading-tone with which the violin phrasehad concluded, at the same timeproviding a tonally distantperspective against which the ultimate cadentialrelease is strikingly enhanced in effect:

---_____""~-__ -_--____" _-__` `§_1 ```` _" 92 /*92 V/ 92{1-l/§H"§/_'" I" I If Relatively anomalous techniques of tonal usage like bitonality and polytonality are not treatedas suchin this study, but in a bitonal situation e.g., Stravinsky, Symphonies qf Wind Instruments, 1947 revision, following rehearsal No. ll, where different tonics areactively anddeliberately opposed! the expression of tonal center at each stratum is likely to be in accord with techniques and functions likethose noted in this chapter.Indeed, it is characteristic of mostmultitonal usagethat each stratum asserts its independent tonal center ina verydirect, even primitive, manner,as in the Stravinsky example cited.



/n troduotory notes

Certain of the qualities and classifications of musical texture have been treated abundantly in the work of music theorists; references to relative densities andsparsities oftexture, to categories ofdescription such as polyphonic or monophonic, and to many other features and types of musical fabric are common. But adequate formulationhas notbeen givento analytical treatment of processes involving textural events and changes, or to the significances ofthese in the structure of music. What is musical texture? The texture of music consists ofits sounding components; it is conditioned in part by the number of those components sounding in simultaneity or concurrence, its qualities determined by the interactions, interrelations, and relative projections and substances of component lines or other component soundingfactors. Density may be seen as thequantitative aspectof texture--the number of concurrent events the thickness of the fabric! as well as the degree of compression of events within a given intervallic space. There is a vital relation between density and dissonance; the relative intensity of a highly compressed textural complex say, three components within the range of a minor 3rd! is a product of the severity of dissonance as well as of density. Furthermore, density clearly has a relation to coloration; thus, two simultaneous pitches sounding in tight compression say, amajor 2nd apart! will project varying degreesof intensity depending on relative homogeneity of coloration e.g., two clarinets, forte! as opposed to dissimilar coloration in which the proximity in musical space seems attenuated by the separation implied in the disparity of color. Similarly, intense dynamic levelsexaggerate
The term concurrent or concurrence is used inthe sense of occurring together -coexisting, intersecting,overlapping inreal time. Two lines are in some degree, and at some specified level, concurrent if they overlap inany part. Concurrence of individual sounds is onlyof themoment of sounding together, unless such sounds are parts ofconcurrent lines. 184

texture 185

the effect of spatialcompression. Relations between coloration and density
could be traced far beyond these simple observations.
The nature of interactions and interrelations within the musical fabric,

apart from calculable density, might be said to constitute the qualitative, as distinct from the purely quantitative, aspect of texture. Thus, in conventional broad linesof classification,monophony isa type of texture, and a condition in which certain qualitative features oftexture apply. Unlike textures of two or more concurrent componentschordal, polyphonic! monophony isexplicit in its condition of minimal density. Examples which follow will be much

involved with the demonstration of musicalprogression and recession as
shaped by changes both in densigf and in the qualitative interactions qf the components ¢y musical texture. Reference will be made as well to the applications of such changes in the delineation offorms-as, for example, inthe emergence of polyphony in developmental contexts,the stabilization of textures in cadential formulations, 'or the common association of relatively uncomplicated
texture with thematic statement.

Of necessityin the analysis oftextural qualities is the evaluation of various kinds of interrelations and interactions among textural componentsthe degree and nature of interlinear concordance agreement, lack of conflict! or coincident factors of relative intensity and variance counterpoint!. Changes in relative independence and interdependence among concurrent components in a given musical texturewill be seen toconstitute some of the most decisive and subtle! factors in the expressive shaping of structure. Much of the attention of this chapter will be devoted to considerations of textural progression and recession shaped as bysuch changes in interlinear relations and in qualitative and quantitative textural conditions, and to the convergence
or contrast between a textural structure and those of other elements.

The complementary and compensatoryrelations of texture with other elements of structure will be evident in examples analyzed in this chapter. A simple instance maybe cited: that in which, for example, heavier,greater densities seem frequently to require relatively reduced rhythmic activity. Other relations of complementation and counteraction compensation! between textural and other factors are suggested, forexample, in foregoing
references to coloration and texture.

If a single pitch is sounded,a texture here, oneof maximal simplicity! is established. If a second pitch is sounded in simultaneity, the texture is altered-its density is increased. If the two pitches are a 2nd apart and they are succeeded bytwo pitches a 6th apart the upper moving up a 4th, the lower down a 2nd!, a textural event takes place-a succession involving not pure quantity density-number! but involving densitycompression and a number of important qualitative factors in the texture viewed independentb' of other elements. An incipient quality of interlinear indepen-

186 texture

dence is asserted in the opposition of direction of movement-a quality subject to enhancement if rhythmic differentiation in the relations is introduced.! Two lines moving in parallel 3rds may in an important sense besaid to constitute a single real textural factor consistingof two components. At any point at which differentiation is established-in rhythm, in direction of motion, in the distanceof motion, or in any other sense-a texture initially consisting ofa single real factorof two sounding components!becomes atexture of two real factors or at least progresses in the direction of such differentiation!. Progressions and recessions involving changes of these kinds or of analogous effectare decisivein the shaping of musical structure. The foregoing extremely simple illustrations are suggestiveof proposed distinctions among implicationsof factorsof quantity and quality in musical texture, both subject to a vastrange ofsubtle and constantly changingfeatures. The sectionsimmediately following are concernedwith the theory and terminology of musical texture, and with further fundamental considerations of the means bywhich textures undergo quantitative and qualitative modifications in functional events and in the delineation of forms and structures.

Textura/ progression, factors

recession, and var/lat/on as structura/

Example 2-la serves asa very simple, but exceedingly vivid, instance of progression andrecession withinthe element of texture. In the example, thereis progressive development oftextural complexity toward m. 4 and recessive decline in that complexity toward textural accord and simplicity! in approach to the cadence atm. 7. The changesin degrees of density and textural diversity-the succession toward maximal interlinear independence andthence toward textural homogeneity-can be traced by evaluation of the numbersof sounding and real components ateach point of significant change. The exposition of the brief subject, presented in overlapping imitative entries at harmonic intervals of the 4th and 5th, is conventional. Lessstandard in procedure, but important in the expressive quality as an element of asymmetry, is the variation in time interval of imita-

tion: 2al ,4 J ,2J The . accrual of voices, their relative independence in
the directly vertical sense!asserted byrhythmic and/or directional differen2The term component may refer generically to any textural ingredient or factor as indicated in the immediatecontext of consideration, and as qualified by such adjectival modifiers as real component, inactive component, doubling component, etc.

texture 187 Ex. 2-1 e. Milhaud, Six Sonnets for mixed chorus No. ; 3, A peine si lecoeur vous a considérées images et figures lfthe heart has scarcely considered you, images and impressions! on textof J. Cassou.

J = 92/ "ff -1 pei-ne si le

016 F
A pei-ne si le coeur vous a con~si - dé

V .I
A pei- ne si le coeur

vous a con - si - dé-rées, vous


i "2


'Q .L _LQ Q3 J is
coeur vous a con - si-dé-rées, i ma-ges et 6 - gu - res IV rees vous_a i0 II con - sl-de-rees, 1 0 ma-ges F1 - gu - res

a con

92 --Z .
si - dé

§.f - rées,i ma-ges fi - gu - res

pei-ne si le coeur____ vousa con-si-dé - rées,i-ma-ges Reprinted permission by Heugel qf é? Cie., Paris, France.


gu -


188 texture

tiations, can be represented as follows: l _l_ if l_ _L!}_

the lattercondition of

maximal diversity achieved at m. 4, with the entry of the fourth voice. At the end of m. 4 and the beginning of m. 5 the upper two voices become associated in parallel rhythms and directions we are overlooking minor differentiations in interval of motion at the most foreground level!; this

condition might be represented by thesymbol _L-showingthree real com1

ponents and four sounding components-the first significant decline in the textural diversity. Immediately subsequently the lower voices are disposed in comparable association: 2 , representing a further decline in textural

diversity and complexity but none in density-number!. Finally, at the approach to the cadence, all four voices becomestrongly interdependent in both rhythm and direction of movement with octave duplications!-a vital factor in the expressionof cadence. Two extremely foreground factors might be noted in extension of the analysis in Ex. 2-lb. First, in the recessive process distinctions of intervallic
Ex. 2-1 b. Qualitative and quantitative textural progression and qualitativerecession in the Milhaud excerpt.


1 21,

lg gl


1 _1_

92 Quality curveconditioned as changes by
in independence-interdependence!

T Quantity density-number! curve

3In thissymbolization, the actual verticalalignment of voices is not necessarily represented. Parentheses may denotea componenthaving independence or substance in some way restricted. The term density-number will be usedto distinguishthis parameterof density from that of density-compression,briefly notedearlier. These two aspects of densityconstitute texturesquantitative dimension; both havefurther treatmentlater in this chapter.

texture 189

content amongthe variouscomponents continue to occasion modest diversity so that, for example, in a situation of almost consistenthomogeneity m. 6! as manyas threedifferent ascendingleaps areprojected? A second very 1oc_al
factor can be seen in the cadence itself, where in one sense there are four

components four different pitches and concluding successions!, in another sense onethe agreementof all four voices in rhythm and direction!, and in another sense two octave duplications of soprano-tenor and alto-bass!. The analysissuggested inEx. 2-lb traces thetextural processmore broadly, omitting any accounting of such local, minor differences,but it is important that they be mentioned as indication of the complexity of even modesttextural development and analysis beyond relatively categorical observations. The foregoing example illustrates very simply the concept of textural progression and recession, thecontrolled shaping of textural events here, both
quantitative and qualitative! in speci/ic structural functions here, cy' development and

cadence!. Changes in texture-surely quantitative changes, but thoseinvolving textural qualities as well-are :Wen among the most readily perceptible and appreciable inthe experience of music. An example from _Iosquinis drawn from a setting of the De profundis
Ex. 2-2!.

The example is a beautiful illustration of the controlled sloping of textural structure. The phrase is characterized,in its texture, by significant interdependences ofthe two linesat the beginning andend, andby significant independences in its central portion. The complementary relation of the textural processesto the melodic structure of the superius is stunningly effective, as is the complementary application of rhythmic technique-syncopation anddotted rhythm at the climactic point. The associationof the two lines at the phrase extremitiesis not without diversification: at the outset,there isconsistent rhythmicidentity but oblique, then contrary, motion; and there is some directional opposition within the homorhythmic approach to the cadence.The internal portion is characterized by rhythmic and directional differentiation. The phrase is thus an illustration of progressive diversification toward a point of relative intensity, and of the cadential function of` increased interlinear interdependence. In the kind of symbology which has begun to emerge in these discussions the

example might be saidbroadly toprogress, then recede, from 2 to L to 2.

These twoexamples expose, of course,only someof many parameters of textural shaping; other exampleswill pose other kinds of issuesand reveal other functional, expressive, processive operations. It seems clear that what we have described as textural diversity complexity, activity-like density anaspect ofintensity in the texture! seeks
5This texturalcondition is identified asheterophony.

Bilthoven. by permission qf Creyghton Musicology-Musica Antiqua.. simplicity. Josquin.e. . m. Like dissonance.Alsbach and Co. f :°~*°JHi U Errflffrg Reprinted _/rom the Smgers edition. published by G. accord.36 'f V if 1. 2-2.an intensitywhich increases the more the progression is prolonged. De profundis c/amavi Motot!. Thus. rhythmic acceleration. inactivity!. ascent in pitch. _ release in what wehave described as reduced interlinear independence i.190 texture Ex.etc... progression toward increased levelsof diversity and interaction creates the sense ofneed for reconformity. textural interdependence. Netherlands. homogeneity. an expectation that the trend toward com- plexity will be reversed in cadentialexpression. Amsterdam. the progressive complication and diversification ofmusical texture are assumed to be evocative of the impression of rising intensity.

and dissonance. resistance.even though terms denotative of textural conditions and classes are a useful convenience. of activity or stasis. i.etc. intervallic content. assuming a fixed density-number. theinflation of texture-space is regarded as an intensifying factor expecting recontraction! andincrease in density-compression similarly intensifyingcf.seen beyond most local events.the evaluation of interrelations and comparative substanceof motive. of course.! in and among thecomponents of the texture is the all-important problem of analysis both toward the characterizationofthe textural class and toward the analysis and understanding of functional successions of textural events. The fact isthat cadential processes in music are more often thannot operations toward spatial contraction and. in monophonic textures. and theexacerbated interlinear conflict of highly crowded events!. conditioned! by the voice or number of voices and other components projecting the musical materials in the sounding medium. and it is always possible simply to describe events. to make the problem of terminology a central issue. Thus. Rhythm is surely the most critical factor in interlinear relations. and words along with some concordance of understanding as to what they signify! are essential todiscourse. terminology prob/ems of c/assi#cation and Texture is conceived as that elementof musicalstructure shaped determined. within the independence-interdependence scale of textural values it is the most decisive factor in the assertion of interlinear opposition diversity. directional opposition. consequently. thus.texture 191 Types of musical texture.conditioned by the number of simultaneous or concurrent components and by the extent of vertical space encompassing them: densigr-number and densib'-compression. as well as number and degrees of proximity in the vertical alignment of events. dissonance. a part of the business of music theory is lexical. normally increased density-compression relation in to which suchrecessive factors as consonance and textural simplicity. Attention is essential too to interrelations of motivic material including imitation!. nevertheless. is interesting It that the two aspects of texturetermed density-compression and texture-space developed later as theoverall fieldor ambitusin which events take place! arenecessarily contradictory in progressive or recessive inclinations. If allowance can be understood forthe difficulties of iirm and arbitrary distinction within any spectrum of textural classifications. Except. is Density is defined asthat textural parameter. and when there are two or more components!by the interrelations andinteractions amongthem. quantitativeand measurable..density. counterpoint!.e. andif it can be well understood that any musical instance. as always. . Complex hyphenated terminologicalforms which follow from the system outlinedhere arerarely needed but are nonetheless logically plausible and fitting! . One is reluctant. as well aslinear decline and anynumber offurther recessive element-successions. function compensatorily.

Mirror association. often imitative. Homophonie would literally denote a condition of interdependent voices. direction. it is thusgenerally understood to havequalitative implications beyond its literal. but its traditional connotation is that of texture in which a primary voice is accompanied bya subordinatefabric sometimes interactive in tentative ways. it may thusbe a complex ofdoubled lines. The traditional usage of contrapuntal is comparable to that of polyphonic. its voices often relatively homorhythmically related. 5. while literally meaning many-voiced. can serve to denote. the bass normally in a contradirectional or other contrapuntal relation to the primary voice or voices!. Counterpoint contrapuntal! denotes a condition of interlinear interaction involving intervallic content. to mean single-voiced monolinear! . Doubling can denote lines homorhythmically-homodirectionallyhomointervallically associated see thefollowing definitions of these terms!. Heterorhythmic is a conventional term adopted in accord with its conventional signification see below!. and very useful. it seems appropriate to formulate certain terms which can be used to apply with some precision to specific conditions of interlinear relation in multivoiced or two-voiced! and multilinear textures. Sonorigfmay be defined as the overall sonorous character determined by texture including doublings! andcoloration including articulation and intensity of dynamics!. as conventionally. 4. rhythm.! ` 10. involves a relation that is homorhythmic-homointervallic-contradirectional. Chordal is aperfectly acceptable. conventionalterm referring simply to texture consisting essentiallyof chords. 9. 6.there will be value in the statement of proposedterminology. 8." 7In thisstudy theterm line refers to any texturalcomponent in which horizontalrelation and configuration canplausibly be traced as a logical continuity-an identifiable stratum inthe textureat some given level.192 texture likely to represent a mixture of such classifications. Heterophonie is understood to denote a relation that is homodirectional parallel in contour! but heterointervallic see below!-having minor diversification of interval content. Pob/phonic. 1. The termvoice will normally denote a linehaving distinct relativeindependence. Beyond the above. it is a term in common usage. limited meaning. usuallyunderstood asstrict. but is not itself . 3. again. as conventionally. 2. multivoiced texture of considerable interlinear independence. 7. Monophonic is taken. Certain widely used terms of relatively _firm conventional signyieation can be accepted asgenerally understood. and other qualities or parameters of diversification.

strictly means the same thing and has conventional implications of qualitative diversification. directional opposition.phrases like rhythmic contrast. which seem necessary and unavoidable in discussion ofmusical texture. bidirectional. dimensions. and contra-'° areadopted to refer to conditions of identity. and morepronounced contrast. there are sixinterval classes the unisonexcluded!. As arule multivoieed two-voiced. line isthe moregeneric concept.3 the highest manifestation of polyphony! can be establishedas a lexical basis for description of relations among textural components which are concurrent or simultaneous at some given level.g.or perhapsto two conjoined parameters of reference in hyphenated terms like contraintervallic-homodirectional. triintervallic. respectively.are simply anextension of conventional usage. arefreely used to describe particular relations. or heterointervallic!. the terms homorhythmie. theissue ofenharmonic identity is.It is more usualto refer to single parameters of consideratione.g. and linear intervallic content.Polyphonic.. spheresof reference! are adopted as relevant to the evaluation of textural conditions: these arerhythm specifically rhythmic pattern!." l. . capable of doubling. heterorhythmic both of these in conventional usage!. three-voiced. three specific parameters aspects.! Withinthese distinctions. etc.! is areasonable and perhaps admissible synonym for contrarhythmic. An interval class IC!includes anygiven interval within the octave together with its inversion complement! and all compound extensions expansions by one or more octaves! of the given interval or its inversion. monophonic single-voiced! texture can of coursebe multilinear. and eontradireetional motion in a straight line exists asa possibility along with motion up and down! all have potential applicability to relations among components oftexture. Applications of the prefixhomo. as in homorhythmic. contrarhythmic-contraintervallic-contradirectional.uni-.. homorhythmic. the terms homodirectional. Within the parameter of direction.or eo-!. heterodireetional.° hetero-.trilinear. 2. many-voiced! has qualitative implications. it is often used in a sense more properly expressed as polymetric a distinctiondeveloped in Chapter3!. direction of melodic succession!. 1°While the term polyrhythmic cf.'. While such hyphenated terms are rarelyneeded. etc. In the following system the prefixes homo. Theterm multilinearalso bilinear. Beyond the terminological system outlined here.! can thusbe used to denote texture of morethan one simultaneous or concurrent component.of course.Moreover. intervallic conformity. ultimately multivoiced.texture 193 A system-scale spectrum! of textural conditions or values from simple e. they might beused inprecise reference toa complexof specificconditions ofinterlinear relation. mild and veiy local diversification asin the conventional heterophonic!. etc. and eontrarhythmie all emerge as potentially applicable and useful. If enharmonically equivalent forms areconsidered of the same class. as noted earlier.g. Within the parameter of rhythm. one oftheappropriateness of functional distinctions among enharmonic equivalents within any givenidiom. the possible birhythmic..monophonic! to complex e.

! Example 2-3 is a list of very brief. usually applying to specific intervals rather than classes. Fl. Thus. . etc. Of vital. and oontraintervallie can all be used to describe particular textural situations and relations.194 texture 3. 2-3. Ex. Within the sphere of intervallic content.or threebars. significantly. ll-1 --ull' ' -|ll-_-__I--1:2 I i homodi ional r¢¢¢ heterodirectional# J. contradirectional *Applicable atlevels of one. heterointervallio regarded as synomous with the conventional heterophonic!.to have homodirectional associationat a broader level. two. as areall terms within this group-a distinction to be clarihed when appropriate]. the terms homointervallic [applicable to IC interval class!. general importanceis the need in all analysisor description of musical texture and textural conditions to maintain awareness of the level of structure to which referenceis made.. Relations the at level within the temporal context! illustrated §: i# R R homorhythmic F heterorhythmic contrarhythmic I' QP# #Fl. specific interval. contrived examplesin illustration of the foregoingsystem ofterminological classification. intervalcomplement. two lines may have contradirectional relation in a local sense but be seen.

95 Relations at the levelwithin thetemporal context! illustrated homointervallic' heterointervallic' contraintervallic' 'As to specific interval of motion. on the otherhand. a small distancewith dissonance. The factor of interval of doubling and its impact with respect to interlinear independence isone ofdissonance and of size or distance between the doubled components!. for example. evenwhen the doubling is absolutely strict. No doubtone might go onto hypothesize situations posing .The complexityof thisproblem is further evidentwhen one considers the impactof specific interval size as opposed to IC in. or 7th!. any doubling at whatever interval greatly compromisesthe relative independence of lines. with texturespace and sonority affectedbut with the qualitative association ofthedoubled lines virtually complete. despite the affinityof IC. or whether.the compound form of that of the other: a l0th with a 3rd. as opposed to a situation in which the interval of doubling is dissonant e. This fact has to be taken into account in evaluation of a textural situation in which doubling occurs. a relation whichis contraintervallic but homodirectional.2nd. and it can be appreciated if the differences in degree of interdependence or f`usion! are considered when doubling is at the octave[duplication of PC pitch-class!]. the relative independence manifest in the larger interval of motion is considerable." 12It is not clearwhether considerable space between two linesis conducive to greater independence..texture 1. Of course. as in doubling in 2nds! occasions a heightened interlinear resistance conflict = independence! than does a larger interval. absolute degree: the intervalof doubling has much to dowith the extent of association betweentwo doubled components. where individual components assert a greater degree of independence. say. Presumably. and when the disparity of interval of motion hasone component moving by.g. Some further considerations of term/no/ogy and aspects of texture Doubling does not result in interlinear interdependence of any certain.

especially the octave.and the profiles delineated inspatial changes! as anaspect of texture particularly important in certain styles. while celli and violins both have ascending tritonal leaps a homointervallie relation as to class!. The initial utterance ishomodirectional resultingin considerableinterdependence of component lines!but contraintervallic. Our concern here is chiefly with illustrating some of the conditions and distinctions of terminology with which we are currently involved. whileof the following numbers of realcomponents within each ofthe threeparameters of differentiation: inthe rhythmicrelation. beyond certain importantgeneralities. .1. in intervallic relation. as well as in typical for Stravinsky! heterorhythm.In the analysis oftexture-space. but the underlying pointis that each textural situation will. The subsequent. compass. a work of importantly texture-conditioning structure. Within the strings. We shall adopt the term texture-space or simply space! in referring to this aspect range. produces a higher degree ofinterlinear interdependence than other doublings.e.ambitus! of texture.and between violas lower line and cello! involving duplication ofIC but disparity of distance-i. the examples also indicate some complexities of the problem of evaluation of textural relations. in directional relation.96 texture It is noted above that there is one aspect of texture which is affected significantly by doubling at octave or compound-octave distances. octave duplications are of course significant. they are differentiated in PC-the doubling is in fact at a highly dissonant interval. It is assumed that doubling byperfect intervals. andin the evaluation of progressions and recessions formed by its increases and decreases. occurrence of simplewith compound forms of the same intervals. that of the strings heterorhythmic-heterodirectional. and to a lesser degree consonant 3rds and6ths. Doubling at theunison ofcourse does not affect texture at all-not even its spatialaspect. Within each such relation is likeness flutes 1-2. The overall texture of flutes andstrings togethermight be described as of eight sounding components lines!. That of the entire sounding complex is heterorhythmic-contradirectionalcontraintervallic. Example 2-4 consists of three brief extracts from the Stravinsky Variations for orchestra." comparable questions.responsive motiveof flutes and stringspits oneconcurrent choir against theother in a contradirectional relation denoting a qualitative increase in textural diversity!. field.5 or 4 asto IC!. but only sonority. 2. The texture of the flutes is homorhythmic and homodirectional. the flutes contraintervallically related. and some of the features of textural process to be developed in later analyses.. The line between heterointervallic heterophonic! and contraintervallic texture is tenuous but significant: the strings asa group are in heterointervallic association. pose issues particular to itself. Attention is givenlater to the rangeof the sounding complex its space. l . a factor to which any degree ofinterlinear independenceis attributable.

Harp Piano Vln. 2-4.* 2 Ten. ~All instruments soundaswritten. 797 . Stravinsky.Ex. Vla. Alto Fl. Variations for orchestraAldousHuxleyinmemoriam!. 2 Fls. Vc. Trnbs Bass Tmb.


as the double-bass launches the ascending motion with its initiating attack. In this instance. . . and coloration. 1 isone ofprogressive tendency toward textural diversification and expansion of texture-space! in what is perceived as a textural event ofimportant. as in numerous other passages in the Variations. as wellas ona beautifully calibrated system of refrains and a perfectrecapitulation.also with reference toStravinsky. And there is some heterorhythmic diversification. and XI constitute the structuralrefrain . The distinction-conceptual. It is strikingly interesting. But the coloration is curved in a manner beautifully complementary to the downward-upward curve and rhythmic recession of the line.separated from one another. a fermata or a change of tempo . of course. It is clear that.all doublings but one are unisonduplications-of PC and pitch and intervalof motion.texture 199 Both motivesof m. for exampleon subtleor abrupt textural shifts. 6! is given in illustration of a single voice heavily underscoredin coloration and sonority. to compare the successions of distinct element-events: that 'of ascent and descent of melodic line. The Variations for orchestra are highly interesting in the study of texture. as well as ofdirection . tempo-relations. and the musicin these polyphonic measures provides thesingle most arresting features of the Variations. The second quotation m. l are activated by devices of coloration 11° the articulative doublings of chords in piano. 20-22.! The beautiful phrase quotedas thethird of the extracts. The texture changesneither in density nor in class. on rhythmic variables. rather than onactual transformation-diversityin phrase-structure. a sectional design is postulated on varieties of change and contrast. have extensive discussion later in this chapter. e. 63! an outlineofthe Variations form with divisions variations! marked by changes of tempo. then harp. One avenue of approach would explore the function oftexture as thematic. The discussion of m.. Instead. in an analysis of the Variations [Notes on Stravinskys Variations. One lower octave doubling does momentarily extend the space. inmost instances. Claudio Spies. the relation between thetwo utterancesof m. But the comparison of textural and color successions affords vivid illustration of necessary distinctions betweentexture and color or sonority. Concepts and techniques of textural activation. by a measured pause. It is.! . structural significance. 1 isindicative of the potential complexities ofanalytical treatment of apparently simple textural conditions. terminological.. in summary. V.g. practical-between coloration and texture isvery clear in this brief excerpt. 62-63!: Of Variations thereare twelve. and that of rhythmic deceleration. however. no Theme on whose melodic. mm. here. as a primeelement by which the form is ordered inlieu of the traditional concept ofmelodic-rhythmic theme and its transformations. all of them significant factors in textural eject. Sections II.an extremely potent monophonic statement. There is.. . rhythmicor phraseological characteristics these variations are constructed. with a variety of colors and articulations. in the activating role of the harp. is a further useful illustration. in Perspectives of New Music. texture. although local. Some sentences omitted. l l965!] gives on p. the texture-space is thus affected no more than its monophonic class. IV. Spies writes pp..

The radical style change which characterizes music history around the beginning of the seventeenth century. The unique texture of organum. briefiy competing strands-a development perceivedas revolutionary largely because of the prevalence of polyphony of supreme contrapuntal values during the Renaissance. as we have noted. ascompared with its later increasing restriction to intervals of succession whichbest underlie and support harmonic content within a tonal order. is significantly a textural phenomenon characterized by the advent of sung declamation with a subordinate _fabric onlyoccasionally vitalized by emergent. of two or more highly interdependent lines is the feature by which that style is primarily defined. the role of the lowest voiceis a major consideration of style classification. And the evolution of stylistic tendencies within organum has to do essentially with the gradual progress toward modestdegrees of interlinear diversification. or in the latter of thesecategories between dance and other kinds of music. 5. is a matter of texture. The conceptual attitude termed pointillism. it is often in relatively simple textures that the most expansive and adventuresome treatment of harmony is seen. Often the distinction between musical genres is most persuasively drawn on the basisof textural differences. a dominant feature of some twentieth-century music. Such music is stylistically characterizedby distinctive. a primary distinction between polyphonic textures oftheRenaissance and the Baroqueis the higher degree of bass equivalence in the former. The evolution of style and craft in the art of many a composer is most comprehensively and revealinglytraced in the evaluation of his textures at various points. Thus. 6.200 texture Texture and style Characterization and evaluation of the qualities of musical texture are important means to the understanding of styles and style periods. A few parenthetical examplesof the kinds of questions havingto do with textural phenomena and their relevance to style classification and description will underscore this relation. 3. of course. for example. 2. or the fiorid operatic styles of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It is well understood that. 4. it is possible togeneralize to a remarkable degree concerning textural distinctions between sacredand secular musicsof many ages cf mass movements and chansons of _losquin or Lasso!. invariably! the key to dramatic developments inthe resourceful shaping ofother elements:thus.! . Or consider the homophonic contexts in which highly embellished melody is to be found. uniquely transparent textures. the development of monody. Thus. 7. as in keyboard music of the Rococo.for example. l. Beethovensmusic is an obvious example. Texture is often not.

The comprehensive treatment of tonal. dissonance. An obvious example of this is the technique. melodic. succession in textural rhythm.! would require a broad contextdevoted essentially to theseproblems. events pacedand shapedin a way that is interesting and consistentin functional relation to an apparent expressiveend. of what is properly termed texturalrhythm. the pacing and assertiveness of such events in the quantitative-qualitative textural unfolding!. in impressionism. the idea of textural rhythm is extensibleto that of rhythms of its various aspectsdensity rhythm. melodic. this specific aspect of progression a factor of textural change as of no other elementand. It may be realized. harmonic.! Naturally. can hardly be exaggerated. spatial rhythm. Within structural segments both large and small. and significantly. In a logical extension of this idea. and to therange of issues with which significant development of the concept would have tobe involved. and when thechanges are decisive. reference canbe made to color rhythm in music-the consequence of the distribution and nature of changes in structure as delineated by coloration. butsubtle qualitative changes are significantly "The conceptof concurrentelement-rhythms. is pointed out recurrently in this book. The importance of textural rhythm. uniquely dent lines. that the rate of accrual of the voicesin the imitative exposition of a fugal subjectis a rhythmic phenomenon i. textural. and harmonic events changes! express inqualities of extent of change! and pacing what we can describe as tonal rhythm." just as tonal. strong or weak.. but Chapter 3gives summary emphasis to the concept of element-rhythms and their functional relations. hence. mutually counteractive or coincident in articulation. etc. characteristic. and of other element-rhythms. for example. parallel movement of auxiliary chords within dense texturesof interdepen- Textura/ rh ythm This book suggests that progression andrecession withinelement-structures. These studiesfurther suggest that a primary facet of rhythm is manifest in the pacing and qualities of the changes constitutingsuccessions of events at various hierarchic levels and involving the various elementsof structure.!. and harmonic rhythm. melodic rhythm. and metricrhythms notto mentionrhythms ofelementparameters-or subelemcnts-like density. of ornamentation of a fundamental harmonic scheme by the idiosyncratic. . the rate at which texture changes in the course ofprogression and recession isa vital aspect of expressive effect. so the changes in texture are expressive.Textural rhythm is of most obvious and immediate effect where changesin density are involved.a fastor slow. are basic to musical effect. aspects of coloration likedynamics or timbre.texture 207 8. etc. intiming and in thenature of change. Any description of the style which we know by the term impressionism will necessarily givefundamental attention to texture. color events.e.

q _I '. No. 2-5a. pp. in IF 1 ll » pq f ll _k u i 6 I _ =i§-v 1grl!1 . tempo rit. even motivic! textural event in a Webern song.Op. Anthology Musical _/br Analysis. 12-tone set: i| * ll* P 9-L07 Langsam J = ca 60 rit. -. as in m. 2-5athe triplet sixteenth-notes witheighth-note leap this motive is shortened and varied in its many appearances! and the punctuatingchord sometimes reduced to a single pitch ofanalogous articulative eH`ect. _ll' _ _- Wie bin ich frohl I3 ll. 4 or m.. Rinehart andWinston. 1 of Drei Lieder.202 texture expressive subtle of rhythmic effect. Inc.l uv.- 92 g 9. . 2nd ed. With the concept of texturalrhythm we move toward a comprehensive concept of rhythm as the combination and interaction cy' all element-rhythms-indeed.497-99. Although the evaluationof intervallic content and its changes. and one ofrelevance toconcern with texture. butalso ofits individual aspects!." The piano part isthroughout an alternation between two events sharply distinguished in texture as in other elements!: these appear inEx. New York: Holt. 1972!. 9!. Webern. Example 2-5a is a basis forcomment concerning textural rhythm as expressed very simply inthe recurrence of a signilicant characteristic.VIZ /1 U . "Wie bin ichfrohI" How joyous Iaml!. as well as functions of such changes.!'_IF.g. parametric of rhythms of individualtendencies within elements as well e. F1 The songis given in full in Burkhart.clearly a motive of primarily textural definition. is an intriguing and importantproblem ofstudy with reference to the recurring chordal motive. oftexture. Reference in the followingcomments is to the recurring chord..! Ex. it cannot beundertaken comprehensively here. Jone. on textof H. 25.



proceed. 12 and subsequentlyundergoesrecessiverelaxation to the s Despite broadly fixed space. . ture with that of coloration!is largely thestructure. Inc.etc.Textural progression and recession function in a broadly axed space. Bn. densityof course varies.texture Ex. 205 Ob.2. at local rnotivic levelsasstatements arrive.in compression aswell asnumber. Reprinted bypermission of Associated MusicPublishers." texture is accumulative in intensity to m.exit. reenter. EightEtudes and a Fantasy for woodwindquartet. «Sounding aswritten. 2-6a. Carter.No.

These are quantitative considerations. 17-18. The figures represent distances calculated in eighth-note units. The progression toward the smallest time interval m. Since the motive is fixed in length. the varied distances or time intervals! of imitation. 2-6b. 12! is. 5. The control of changes in the distance ofimitation taking into account contiguous entriesonly.l2! What is striking here is. 2¢b-in a culminative. Thistechnique is of basic importance in qualitative textural progression in a greatdeal ofmusic. Measure number of imitative entry: 34 56 89 10 ll 12 I4 15 l5$6 5 -_ if a I3 --fi 1 4§4§3§3§3 1 4§6§ f Maximal textural intensity m. followed by relatively abrupt cadential recession. sharply progressive operation. are crucial in the structure. which are a rapid.2-6a!. less than consistentand predictable. the varied spacingsof its entriesthat is. see Ex.206 texture cadence at mm. 2-6b. although any entry is in a sense an imitation of all preceding entries! can be represented asshown in Ex. thereis quick reaccrual of the textural components precedingthe final. they constitute the principal qualitative element of textural change. the progressive complexityof the texture. The quoted excerpt Ex. the progressive horizontal compression achieved by the increased stretto. more abrupt cadence. 17-18. as one would expect in a subtly contrived art form. a truly splendid source for the analysis oftexture in all its implications. Ex. as subsequent examples will further demonstrate. Analysis ofthe qualitativetextural progressions and recessionsas theyconcern changing distances of imitation! in the Carter Etude. contain imitative entries at extremely close dis- tances-2 IJ!. 2-7a! is the third of five sections typically . of course. as awhole. Following this cadence. The Fantasies for strings by HenryPurcell are. intense resumption of the motive. The concluding bars 9-22. Measure 12 is followed by a succession of release in which two subsequent entries follow at increasing distances in preparation of the strongly punctuative cadence of mm.

forst g fn. 11. Pu ell Fa t yln C mlnor Z 738. J __ F`. o 2 %VF IIJII. _ lfl' .I % qg .l11 -l-_-_-22-_UI IVZLIH ll. 2-7a.-15 /' if' == 1192 |771 -_ |!'| 92 f 92-9* m.h"1J 1 I l'1§'ll-IW 1 I NJIT' I Vfjll ll I' gil! I 'H EEF _ _ 3 0 fff f°f VV 3? 'V' J /.l1|_.l1_1i.34 slow! J1'll'§ A lf % I° Ylfi -m l .4"ll| _... Up°:J_ 5J J EE lull' In-'Y -!1 ll __-|| f 6! F Wfff e fe e-=»» f 92J__.texture 207 Ex.1.11 IITIQQZZ H -1] EQJ .IV -- E e: !.92i1Slli7 929292':111l2 I I |Jl" I Vfjlli I l|.36 7 I ¢§ YCYI1 1 lIl'l.

Ex. 35! mm. Ex.40 A "E' §'r F' V _ . 38-39! 3* 3 T [Tl 21 3 L 1! 4 *As to rhythmic interdependence. m. 2-7b.208 texture Ex. mm. arediversification takes place in resumption of progressive qualitativechange asrepresented inEx. m. involving qualitative progression and recession. 2-7c. 2-7b. 2-7a continued.J I f' J I delineated by changes in tempo and motivic content. Following the process symbolizedin Ex. 2-7c. 39-40! 42 2 l_ L L 1 . The qualitativequantitative progressionis striking.

etc. Despite these direct and apparently simplepropositions.| . the issue of dissonance has to be regarded as a related. Whetherthe M2 is moreintense a dissonance than the largerM7 is however problematic.for instance. in which the dissonanceconsonance profile is apertinent structuralfactor. At the sametime. The reader is urged to pursue questions of textural structure and process inother sections of this fantasy.l . For example. in the second sense in which wehave defined it that having todo with the extent of compression of the textural components-i. early contraction!. to ask whether an harmonic tritone is in some sense moredense than a major 3rd.texture 209 Gne has only to give attention to thesemeasures as a listening experience to appreciate the persuasive effect. inany style. . and then imitation between voices 2 and 4 at the intermediate distance of 4. proceedingto consideration of overall textural shape to which those of individual sections contribute. these are distinct classes.again 2J .l . like those of other aspects of texture. density as the ratio of the number of sounding components toa given total space is the densigf-compression. Time intervals2 of Jare associated with tentative stages in the first qualitative progression.! or inversion M7! are in generalexpressive of relative dissonance and that of these the smallest interval.that is. thequestion of density is. itis probablytrue that the minor 2nd and its compounds m9.! The position of the m2 in the scale of dissonance values. of that 4 J is associated with and somewhat compensatory in relation to! the area of maximal diversification and complexity of interlinear independence. while there can be no doubt that the proximities by which components are separated in vertical alignment the degree of compression! constitute an aspect of density superimposed 2nds make upa denser textural complex than superimposed 5ths!. Time interval fluctuation is functional too: there is vacillation first at between the intervals of 6. Texture density-compression! clearly is a factorin this judgment. seems doubtless. it is a convenience toregard the evaluation of dissonance as 2'Density.! Whatever scale of dissonance values one chooses to accept. conditioning factor. very complex indeed. Density and d/ssonance Density asthe number of sounding components isthe density-number. 2J anextreme. 107-ll there is reference to the problem ofclassification of dissonance severities. in contexts of greater density-compression. I t is assumed that dissonance effect can be evaluated and itsimpact as a texturalfactor subject therefore to analysis.. their spatial boundaries in the vertical field andtheir distributionwithin suchspace! can also be seen in its interdependent relation to dissonance in the higher probabilityof dissonance. andin the subsequent statement that among the forms within any IC dissonance properties are more severe the smaller the form. what is moresignificant as astyle factoris the manner ofits resolution. of the textural events represented. or however itis considered to be modified-as it must be-according to the historical style in question.vitally functional. isthe dissonance of highestintensity. On pp. It is reasonable. and in other fantasies ofPurcell. again 6. e. the m2itself. and itshigher intensity.


! The graphic representation in Fig.there are further gradations. 6! and at times a compensatory element m. in a statementof the density-number curveexpressed in numbersof simultaneous pitches. a progression toward increased densities: the openingis relatively dense incompression butnot in number-a sustained note in the violin with staccato. The structure of the piece is. 174-75. of course. are at times complementary to the density-numbercurve m. Op." from Three Songs. as is the striking coloration in that bar. within a diminished 3rd!.which quotes most of the extracts to which reference is made. 7. Tot. and its subsequent recession. but subsequently the textures are relatively open and uncrowded until the conclusion. with the voicepart heard entirely below the piano. Op. The dynamics. 2-1 is explicit in description of the quantitative progression of that aspect oftexture which we havetermed densitynumber. on the other hand. 2-1. impulses inthe piano a semitoneabove never prolonged! . whichare clearly interrelated factors here-one an intensification of the other-are of primary signihcance in effect. pp. for example. l l are a complementary factor in this progression. in part.texture 2 11 Figure 2-l gives the key points in a quantitative progression in the Schoenberg song.dissonance and density. See Ex. The foregoing discussion doesnot but could be extended to!take up the problem of fluctuation in density-compression. forviolin and piano Ex.The high melodic linesof m. the extreme opening of the songhas adensity-number 2.5-6 9-10 ll-12-13 78 l3-14 I5-18 63 The succession is spacedin a rather common linear ordering in which there is accrual toward a point slightly beyond the temporal middle of the song. . Fig. l-52a. In the texture of the cadential harmony from the third of Weberns Pieces. Atthe microlevel. 48. "Tot. The piano texture immediately preceding the one quoted is a cluster of three pitches two semitones. ll!. Functional curve of density-number in Schoenberg. and the final sound is of density-number 1. 2-9! . Measure numbers: Density-number : l-6 6 4. ppp.

12 Copyright 1922.Universal Edition.Used bypermission of the publisher. 2-9. 93. Webern.7. .3.tyeichgezogen m. quotesthe complete violin part.60! m.! Sehrlanasam /=ca. Canada and Mexico. Op. FourPieces.212 texture Ex.6 col legno. for violin and piano. p.No. Theodore Presser Company sokrepresentative United States. Example 1-28.

oftenvitally pertinent. Although compression within a portionof lthe total spatial fieldis.and of the contrapuntal values it embodies without prevalent imitation. Of course. dynamic or articulative distinction. progresses along the following consistent order: I . There are six pitches and PCs! within the compass of a minor 14th or augmented l3th!. measured in simultaneities alone. Illustration has already been made of essential factors by which interllinear relationsof independence or its lack areexpressed: directional. imitation motivic parallelism in temporal sseparation!. rand rhythmic corybrmity or disparity-all of these ofcourse concerned with relattions among concurrent lines further subject to complementary or counter:active factors of dissonance. spatial distanceand compression.atthe outset.It is impossible to escape the conclusion that these element-progressions aspects of density! are decisive in the structure.6. aswe havenoted. punctuated of course byreversions tolower orders. and 4. and the dissonanceis intensified by the density. . 2. Example 2-10 is presentedfor the readers consideration at this crucial jpoint. Density-number in the piece as a whole. enhancing therichness ofovertones andthereby the sense of compression.2 .3 .texture 213 The density of the final sonority. distribution is relatively eeven here.4 . and any of other parameters of projection by which independence iis assertedor minimized between two or more components. The sonority is one of severe dissonance even though use of the pedal and the low register are calculated to counteract any explicitness ofpitch!. intervallic. 22A symbolization of density-compression in theWebcrn sonority in question would be :22 pitches withinthe space of 22semitones!. 1/nter//near independence and interdependence lMuch of the concernwith texture is directly involved with what is undoubtaedly themost fundamental and significant criterion of textural quality-the :relative independence and interdependence of its components.is of course relativelyambiguous in pitch content because of its low register-the register. directional conttrast is applied in degrees it cannot exist absolutelyl! so that it is comproimised as the counterpoint gets underway note relative intervallic and tdirectional-but not rhythmic-conformity of voices l. a striking and emphatic contrast to the prevalent textures of the piece. the harmony contains tritonal relations G-c# and Gb-C! as well as semitonalrelations or their compound or inverted forms! to each ofthe threefactors inthe major triad at its center. however. The tritone is the greatest distance separatingany two of its components. color. There should becareful scrutiny and evaluation of the various qualitaitive changes which occur in this beautiful movement.

E 1 -5' P5 -ri Q ""==== V `V Sw Fai-fl VVE Q f J J* F NV r'% VV *fr r E. thirdm Q. Ili certo Grosso in F minor. 6.214 ..IV . Op.| §.J _ ..' Vr J VV|'.Fas all -R ff VV . No.3.V" if o V -VH Jr? F V J|. J "T V V.

too. preceded by texturalgrouping of 2. with the number ofsimultaneous dissonance relations withinthe texture as well aswith theirrelative severities.Ll| ll J Y T1 2 Ill ""-l*. .' _92 -4 U lgr-1 I jf ». and significantly. therefore. and line is evident and balanced. a significant analytical procedure in the evaluation of dissonance effect and fluctuation. 9.. This view of dissonance as a textural quality leads naturally to the conclusion that the intensigf of dissonance #ict has todo inpart.t9XtUf6 2'll'll!92 1.23 Rhythmichomogeneity studiedbf is avoided except where functional necessities bring the voices into rhythmicaccord in recessive processes. the complementarity of textural recession with those of tonality left open. The function of dissonance should be examined in the greatestpossible detail throughout the movement.111111-i 21-1 = n1nv7i=. again expressing vitality within the cadential process:homorhythm is achieved gradually. Along with the tendency toward total interdependence of lines there are compensatoryevents. and considerable contrary motion and intervallic 2 23In numerous instances in this chapter the textural components will be numberedfor convenience of reference. The mere computation of the number of such relations is. Q. the opening note of the second violin is seennot only as a suspended dissonance against the bass but in its relation -th! to the upper voice as well.4u i 1i=i -1 111 215 fl I I MII '. for example. At m. harmony. In the final cadence. but some vitality persists thisis characteristic of internal cadential expression in well-made music!in the separation of voice l from the others. and in the directional opposition of voices 2 and 4. to all of which it is dissonant. Attention should be given to manipulations of texture in cadential approaches. For example.The particular value of viewing dissonance as a textural quality is that this view induces one to seeall dissonancerelations.Q or between voices 1 and 2 in mm. there is of course increased interlinear accord. one step short of the tonic!. 6-7!. voice number l is always the uppermost.

dissonance exerts its influence of interlinear tension and resistance-especially the six-four and the diminished 7th are vital in this regard.! . the time interval.216 texture opposition are maintained. of course. homophonic. The near universality of imitation in polyphonic styles in Western music and its frequency in homorhythmic. Progressions in adjustment of the time interval are an important technique already demonstrated in the intensity-release curve of textural shaping. It can be regarded evenas the supreme manifestationof interlinear independence. the shorter the time interval the more intense the con- flict arising out of the contradiction of motivic affinity and temporal separation." /mitat/on. and complementarily sharpens. a universal feature mu/t/Q0/e counterpo/nt of many polyphonic sty/es. and other textures! is evidenceenough of its paradoxical value in asserting the individuality of voices. but every musician will recall instances in which imitativestatement duplicates intervals onlyin oppositedirections. often.! Actions of dissonance of the sort to which attention is called neednot be seen as purely. Butviewing dissonant relations as to their impact in textural shaping broadens. is very frequentlya strict duplication ofrhythms and intervals and directional successions. dissonance is an issue ofrecurrent concern throughout thisbook. As the time interval changes inimitation in augmentation or diminution. If interlinear interdependence accord! is the ideal of repose toward which textural process ultimatelystrives. "Imitation. the angle of diagonal relation changes continuing in fluctuation of theintensity curve within this particular parameter. Again. 2-6b. the leader dropping out while the follower responds. matters oftexture. Thus. differs fromboth imitation and dialogue in that it implies no texturalinteraction between voices. And the deviceof melodic sequence. ofimitative conflict pursuit!. or even essentially. 2°The timeinterval of 0 is of coursethe ultimate accord. normally complementary tosimultaneous rhythmicand. Two textural components projecting like musical substance at a distance assert their relative independence byvirtue of the sqzaration-and consequent diagonal interaction-of clearly identifiable materials in time. the understanding of this vital aspectof musical effect. or resolution. the association of progressive intensity with contraction ofthe timeinterval seems clearly appreciable. withno concurrentactivity. in which motivic recurrence is within a single voice. directional opposition: the expression rj contrapuntalcompetition implicit in the enunciation fy" like motivic material separated in time. any valueother than0 expresses intensity greater than that of wider imitative distance. orrhythms in relative durationsbut longer or shorter values. imitation is the most persuasive opposition to that tendency because of the explicit potential for parallelism denied by the imposition of a margin of temporal separation--the distance of imitation. The intensity associated withimitation requires clear distinction between that technique and dialogue in which twovoices exchange motivic material.Up to the pointof such accord. See Ex.

For an account of many important. progresses. for example. the effect of eachreadily appreciable: two lines in simultaneity. as part of the expression of intensity toward which textural structure. thefirst movementof the fourth quartet: mm. or time interval. on the other hand. cannot easily be seen as a factorin textural intensity it in no way determines the harmonic or otherinteractions at the pointsof interlinear vertical coincidence!. It seems impossible to doubt that the most intense of these situations.the intervallicrelation between the entering voice follower!and the leading voice at the point ofentry is what is decisive. 20 The Bartokquartets are extremely fruitfulsubjects of study in this regard. prototypical musicalforms and procedures in which imitationis offundamental importance.b. a narrower time interval. occasioned largely by changes inthe distances of imitation. Fluctuations in intensity. 1986!. e. or mm.is that in which the temporal disparity is close enough to give stark exposure to the fact of parity temporally denied. dissonant intervals of imitation are perhaps plausible as elements of intensity. Englewood Cliffs. 27-37. Sth! in music upto recenttimes isevidence of this. the preponderance. 14-22 asto progressive intensification inthe shrinking temporal distance of imitation. is established. it is reasonable to assume. itwould seem. exceptions notwithstanding. Although the harmonic intervalof imitation. Inc. This is the basis for the useby composers-demonstrated in countlessinstances-of stretto. 2-1la. a separation of the two such that a diagonal relation. these sections alternate in the Hrst movement with areas ofreduced textural complexity. Chapter 12. and fordescriptive statements concerning the imitative proceduresinvolved. 2nd ed. for intensityimpact ofinterlinear relation. one doubling the other. a closerimitation. basedon three imitative sections from Bart6ks Quartet No. are illustrated in graphic style in Exx.See. or mm. a dissonant harmonic interval of imitation does not find resolution ina consonant harmonic interval of imitationin general practice. NJ. with other element-structures. of imitative entriesat perfect intervals octave. that the awareness of explicit motivic affinity put out of joint by temporal discrepancy must be heightened by arelatively small margin of distance. theharmonic effect of thisseems to be superseded by that at the point of vertical coincidence-i.and experienceconfirms. . the reader is referred to the authors Form in Music: An Examination of Traditional Techniques of Musical Structure and Their Application in Historical and Contemporary Styles.Furthermore. While the memory and effect of] say. 4th.and the texture of highest urgency of expected resolution. 5 for strings.. the following changes areof strikingly different effect in the intensity-relaxation curve.c. Thus. etc.texture 217 The distance of imitation.then release. is thus seen as a factor in textural intensity in the sense thatthe more distant the imitation the more leisurely the pursuit of one stratumby another. often late in a given form. fluctuation in time interval is functional in many more contextsand stylesthan generally thought. 8-13 or 14-26 as to progressive interlinear complexity.. it is of course probably a significant aspect of style. an imitative pursuit of one by the other.: Prentice-Hall. A mental image of comparative relationscan be suggested inthis connection. The closer the imitation the smaller the time interval! the more intense is the competition.

first movement.v'_=11 1:11111 --'--l1111t.-.1 lI.1v1 . Quartet No._____ ln.1 l§_li'/ rw-r|1111 lrr1l-r A .'f.|.11111_11l|11|1l11111:-|1|ll|!v'|1l1 1 _ |/.|.§. ' ..1l1|1 |.Jll.1-111 111111 IIIIQ--1-1 -ji.Y'l'l lI7'_1. S.1. * |w:1l.1/11111111111111111111-_'jf' -_.. jlf I0 ll 12 13 1 » » » 1 IJ 2J Copyright 1936 by Universal Edition Renewed .ll J¢ 'v $111. A.---' 55 f!1A _ .glS¢_!1 _ l|1--_ .=-1 U11111111111111 1 .1u.P"ll! 11.= 11-11: |/.1 . ' A J-f1..¢||11 1191 1111111 ¢1..| |31 11.". ' 1| £111 1711111 /I /92 ____ 4:!?Fll' 1 11 1 1 IILI.nu i | |._ f! 5 nv/ ..1r1 lI7"_f11|£'Y'1l.gvl 1 11.1---_1 _ 1.II' I-1 111 3' ' I-l_-Arl-" 1 f! 1. .11 r92t:.A1|111 .|1.!.u I rn11u ran 11.01 l:v-1:11111 nv ' :gr-1 r' If .1 Z_-LI1 |1111 1111111 H 111 rl r|.1:-:_-::1 1:_ ----'I11 1 -»|-_111 1nnrnrrrru I' If 1' 1 A 41%.I I_ IILI-I ru. Barték.|1111.-I Ll Ily .11 mb v - ' l.1I1!111 |92f|1. 963.|:v11|:ru.. ' |:|.92=1:111_I-I1l--l11**1.. 2-11a.--' I 1? I1 ff 5 `5 41 A..»mr 4 A 9 A/'*92 H1 I1-11 11 1 |1 v1a|1111114111111111111115111 l/. v r|. for the U.4z.1/111| 1l 1:1 nw zgr 1.: 1. J: 138-132 ffl.17' _ __ ' l.41 1z.s ` 5 -_1 m.11»1 rw-r nu' .!. Inc. Copyright and Renewal assigned to Boosey Co' Hawkes.u |||15111 __.4.111111 ||.|11 _1 1. 5for strings.1 -..=i.gu u I |.1 2.2 78 texture Ex.

in Copyright 1936 byUniversal Edition.A. S. Renewed 1963. 18.prepares ostinato.. in m. Bart6k... 5 forstrings. for theU.. Resolvent contraction to time interval0. 16.Ex. ..first rnovernent. 15 17 18 rn. Copyright and Renewal assigned toBoosey .QuartetNo.!..prepares 1 simplificationwithin ostinato. Inc. 2 1 P Hnwkes. 2-11b..

S. fortheU. Copyright 1936' Universal Edition.Ex. Inc.2-11c.. 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 56~ C g~ & ~ C H Hawkes. Copyright and Renewal assigned toBoosey . poco rit. 5 for strings. 5$ a tempo P1ZZ.first movement. Renewed 1963..QuartetNo.A. Bart6k.!.

a shift in the vertical lineof coincidencee.g. Nevertheless. 2-2.. . Diagonal imitative interaction " '. Certainly. multiplecounterpoint is in the simple fact of contrapuntal realignment in vertical distribution an important technique of textural variation. or 10th-intervals of inversionin which dissonance-consonance relations are relatively not entirely! stable.but the extent to which this may generallybe true is uncertain. if two or more different contrapuntal alignments are contiguous. a scale oftemporal valuesexpressed innote durations!. 2-2. asrepresented in Fig. Multiple counterpoint in which the treated motive is reduced in size in contrapuntal realignment can be somewhat analogous in effect to the procedures of contracted time interval discussed above. triple! is a particular species of imitation in which. Most illustrated changesare progressive toward a point of maximal shrinkage of the time interval. from to - ! alongwith multiple contrapuntal realignment couldhave functionalconsequences analogous to those of time interval change. As often in comparable discussions. broadly viewed.-' Triangular imitative interaction -li interaction Intersecting imitative as in multiple counterpoint! 3°The interval of inversionis probablya usefulcriterion of style distinction.! Multqble counterpoint usually double. Fig. 12th. on the left. Moreover. linesof direct imitative relation intersect. the preponderance of examples before the twentiethcentury areat the 15th oroctave!. at other times there is fluctuation within relative stasis. But variation among appearances of motivic factors in multiple inverted! counterpoint such that their vertical coincidences are altered isrelatively rare. it is possible to quote only minimal extracts from the work.texture 221 The illustrations show thefunction in a line of intensity of the degree andrate of changein the time interval in relation to measurenumbers across the top of each graph. The intensity line is of course drawn to connect points of change in the time interval. and.

often inert.. To what extent and how! is this true of earlier styles?To what extent are the resources extended in morerecent styles ? Theanswer to the second of these questions would seem perhaps more apparent than it actually is: inversion atthe octaveand itsmultiples. "A common device intraditional music.One mightsay that rhythmic activation vitalization!of this and comparable kinds acts toward compensation for the absence of functionaltextural eventfulness. and other means. both chordal and considerably homorhythmic. Provocative questions would be concerned with the extent to whichgeneral statements might be possible in characterizing practice within givenstylistic contexts. of course. dynamic. that of the strings. It can be suggested that in tonal counterpoint. . The intervalof inversion is an important textural factor since it determines the immediate intervallicrelations among concurrent voices. or partially chordal. that of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. and other types of activation within simpler. fixed textures. rhythmic. ubiquitous particularly in the latereighteenth and earlier nineteenth centuries. Neither undergoes significant qualitative change: one of them. that in the higher brass and woodwinds. is only moderately progressivein harmonic. particular thrust to the ostinato pattern. A few examples aregiven here in illustration of some of the primary techniques oftextural activation.Techniques oftextural activation are applicable. is surprisinglyfrequent in many twentieth-century literatures.to any circumstances. accompaniment to a dominant thematic element. We shall return to some of these questions in analysis of Stravinsky. This extremely vital passageconsists oftwo major textural complexes in an antiphonal relation. 12th. is static and its influence extendsinto the wind sonorities. The heterophonic doubling heterointervallic.g. A comparable heterophony occursin the next bar between double-bass andtimpani. and at the 12th and 10th.especially that of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.2-12!. textures. referring for the moment to an excerpt from one of the symphonies Ex. chromatic content. The same techniqueis seenat other points-e. articulative. coloristic. exceedingly familiar example of this. articulative. thetwo bassoonsor cello and viola! in the first quoted bar B in one. forexample. others will appear in subsequent analyses. heterorhythmic. is the local arpeggiation qf chordal factors either in purely chordal textures or in texturesin which there ischordal. is acharacteristic. where low brass andhorns persist in the pedal A!. Within this fundamental context of considerable tonaltextural inertia. C in the other! gives a momentary.10th most commonly! are relatively predictable within a given range. The Alberti bass. 15th.222 texture The act/'vat/'on of s/mp/e textures Musical textures are often activated by dynamic. the intervals of inversion octave. the other. perhaps for reasons of the relative stability ofintervallic relations. The works of Stravinsky are particularly replete with examples of heterophonic. an extremely important range of activating devices isinterposed. melodic. homodirectional! between. butthey are of specialimportance in vitalizing relatively simple.

. Stravinsky. Vc. inBb Bass Ci. inIL 4 Hns.Ex. 2T ts. Symphony in ThreeMovements. in Tuba Vln. 2 Fls.2-12. 2 Oba 2 Cls. first movement.

. 4 Hns. Piano Vln. inC Tuba T imp. inB'~ 2 Bns. 2 Obs. inBb Bass Cl. Db Reprinted bypermission of Belurin-Mills Publishing Corporation. 2 Cls. Vc. 2 Fls. 5 Tpts. Via.Ex. 2-12 continued.

d. Beyond tonal-harmonic interactions and relations." Looking at the example very generally one can seethat the texture is layered in groups of components differently colored. of lines! but of somewhat distinct subtextures in a polytextural complex.e. directness. 225 two barslater betweendouble-bass and cello andin the following bar between the same lines. I 962!. Cone. or frequent marks of articulative stress.c. the low octaves ofthe piano. or melodic! development-a context in which devicesof the sort described function significantly in compematogw activation of largely inert textures. Tonal relations among these strata shouldbe consideredindependently -the various implications of the PC materials ofseparate texturalcomplexes. and the final harmony as a tonal synthesis of the preceding PC elements. so that the entire context can perhaps be said to consist not merely of linear components i. and various techniquesof ornamentation within each stratum. a number of points will be seen as of crucial importance and significance in the analysis of texture. and strings. 2-13. 'The entire fabric is. 324-26. Activating elements within each . the essentialharmonic structure within each stratum see for instance Ex. . 2-l3a. 2-l3f!. of coloration!: the frequent. points of imitation. All occur in the opening measures of Canticum. in PerspectivesNew qf Music. also from Stravinsky. low woodwinds. then. harmonic. 2-12!. oneof relative textural simplicity. the general C-emphasis of mm.texture. in the ostinato texture of which they are components. are heterorhythmic and heterophonic impulses within bass doublings cf Ex.stratum-complex. especially vital in a context in which tonalharmonic succession is restricted. heavy doubling of A in violin and viola. Part V 2-l3b. Stravinsky: The Progress of a Method. A further factor in the activation of both textural divisions is the enormously resourcefuland potent array of dynamic-articulative emphases devices of orchestration. Heterorhythmic relations amongpiano. subtextural complexes aresharply contrastedin rhythmic and articulative character. and diatonic asopposed torelatively chromatic content.° In Ex. timpani. pp. 18-26. each qualitatively distinct. coloration. mustalso be cited.e!. the interaction among these complexes is thus oneof vital counterpoint. and minimal textural or tonal. Concern isdirected hereto identifying and appraisingdevices bywhich textures are activated in atmospheres ofrelative inertia of essential pitch structures.. Specific examples of techniques of activation which are of vital effect butwhich do not materially affect qualitative textural content are given in extensions of Ex. Attention is called toan interesting and insightful discussion of Stravinskys textures: Edward T.

+ Tpts. Canticum Sacrum. PartV llli autem profecti!. 2-13a. Bas ~Contrab Vla. Db. St. Cbn. Mark 16:20.texture Ex. text from the Vulgate. . inC Sass Tmbs. Chorus 2 Bns.i ~Sounding oneoctavelower. Stravinsky.

Ul1 rvli 7' r t$ i1||1 1 92 1| ` ' -l 4-"_ 11 92 'l .325 __ E §§ §J§.¢» °"'°" -_ '___ _ . J =108 _h ____ _ .._"'i.:° ":_.~ lui nn-v14./ -Q? 3 nonf Stmpft . una. zfgm '.__ ? 3_ .*"'°°"° 1 ff Zll' |l.l-1 * I 'I ini' I .:*""-' '""'° __ '=l __________ ______ ____ "" "' ____i__l "`"' ` __ ..§ 1/ 0? wma' " 3* 47' VP -==°=¢ u Poco meno mosso.L?§. In .texture 227 m.'r§1~I Q 92_.

$ P1 Q2 4 4 . texture nm. :f % __ f_ E§ Bm _{ _ g 1% . mb.1 _/'STI . 1' ' l * llll. `f ~ 5. °=. 2-13a tmued. fi FQ °~=-~ .228 Ex. F V" T JJ . JV 4 J.

1. 11: | .i__+ ~- Y l . es cnivo div.|| |1i _¢n I 'li §"2 III Vla. Inc. Renewed 1984.t tlulu |11 _' iam/ T'_ll1 Z 92. ~T °'f_ __ M if fL Qii' __= * --{?-~ Adag'io.2! inI{ qisillil PP' l"lUlUiQE1 i.` l _ ___W_____ Tmbs. Reprinte ._ Q Q in .1|u..1 Chor.?__ -O92 1i 1. ./ r ¢ _. V =?-. li? 1 | "go: | . Copyright 1956 by Boosey Cd Hawkes. A -men.J=66 -A_ _Q Eg ' _I ='-he § ' '°':. Adagio.xi _ .J 66 = 342 I_ |'H -r »+ I~ -| -n H -n T° B.IGXIUI6 S.t 1. 3:3111 pespresswo _ _.Ill i nn J un. __ _Q ' d bypermission.4-L U9292I92l T 21 Z 1 -¢ H1 Db. Q {P_ l .. 192 1 . A few 7e ff°'**Tif ___ _____{P_._1| ' _ . &¢r4"" _ {p . .

3oa r92*'**"*Zl`l". Activation by displacements transferences! of PCs and pitcheswithin a subtextural complex. E Ex. E3 *Sounding pitch.-I Bass Tmb. IIL307 Bn_12 9.230 texture Ion as to essentiallinear movements!. Jk * Tpts. Activation by articulative differentiat a species of heterorhythm.-4 5f _ "°"~f. 2-13c.` 1. Activated chord: 924444 4444! . 2-13b. Ex.:L-¥=--$$"' mb. JJJJ I I 1 L_ *All at sounding pitch. m.

2-13e. 2 Bn. 2-13d and 2-13e. 2-13a. Db. Heterorhythrnic techniquein the Stravinskyall notationat soundingpitch!. one in which its relative tonal stasis is clear. Cbn. Ex. 2-13f. 327 35! by which the Illi autem profecti is punctuated.2-13d. Heterorhythmic and heterophonic technique in the Stravinsky. as are those illustrated in Exx. . The texture is Ex. Tmb. Ex. Cb. The rhythmic activation of a textural massof considerabletonal-harmonic inertia is evident as well in the organ solo Ex.texture 231 The above techniques recurrent in a movement of rondo-like restatementsof thematic material! are motivating in contextsof counteractive forces of inertia. Relativetonal-harmonicinertia of rhythmicallyactivatedtextural massin the Stravinsky summary of structuralpitchesand neighbor auxiliaries!. mm. A sketchof its pitch content is given in Ex. 2-13f.

20-21 but in less explicitforms. for example. . 18-19 are slowly relinquished. as suggested inthe foregoing references. and that of the second trombone to the organ pedal in palpable links of pitch material bridging.1! isfinally reduced to L. The techniques of controlled textural change and activation of relatively inert textural massesby such devices asthose noted are of recurrent importance in Stravinsky. articulation A then . These interactions among textural components continue into mm. as well as longer legato units!. 23 see pp. thoseof tenor and bassto the organ.232 texture moved within a limited tonal-harmonic space by devicesof rhythm. 1-37 is a discussion of cadential process in one of the piano pieces of Schoenbergs Op. left hand. but here too a recessive curve was noted as a probability. where polytextural structure gives way to monotexture with corresponding pitch factors transferred from soprano and alto voices to the organ. reachinginto other areas ofinquiry: for instance. The element-structures involving linear descent.. and in the final two bars they dissolve almost totally. -are invariably rewarding objects ofstudy of shaping aspects of texture. mm. dynamics. thenl. Ex. In that analysis a point is made of textural recessionas one aspect of that process: texture is reduced in density and qualitatively simplified in the closing bars. and meter as to recessively longer durations of event groupings! all functioncomplementaribi. 311 and 312!. the transfer of harmonic elements over boundaries in the form where there is severe and abrupt quantitative change e. between mm.g. In Chapter l it was noted that a compensatory factor in prevailing decline isthe maintenanceof considerable dissonance in interlinear relations.. rhythmic deceleration slowing tempo aswell as longer durations!. For example. Throughout the Canticum and other works of Stravinsky complementarity of such elements as dynamics and tempo not to mention others! at points oftextural changeare of great importance. in counteractive functions. diH`erences ofornamentation of the fundamentally fixed structure. whoseworks. The substantial thickness accruing in the broad course of the piece out of the lean two- voice texture of m. right hand. There isthus agradual qualitativeas wellas quantitative! textural recession. In the qualitative sense. and the like. 107-9!. severe textural and color changes. l the insistent imitative interlinear interactions of. Analysis of the examplefrom Canticum Sacrum would ideally go much further than hasbeen possible here. The comp/ementary and compensatory dispositions or texture in re/ation to other element-structures Some examples treated earlierhave takenup the questions of complementary and compensatoryinteractions amongelement-events in functional contexts.

./' . Mirror imitation is homointervallic andhomorhythrnic. isunderstood to exclude theothers i.lo-rum. The reader isencouraged to trace progressive actions toward mm.. andthe term rhythmic imitation.._ Iorum. 9292 ._ W_ _L °"""'~__-. It is unlikely that any setof simpleterms can or shouldbe intended as applicable to all situations. 'M _ _' _ _ |-¢!_m92`_-I uni.i wil y.' 92 _I ' -1 2 '5I Q _ |$-1|1 itll# _" 1. incorporating language in common usage wherever ithas generally understood meaning.£. 34 The Gloriais includedin Wallace Berry and Edward Chudacoff.`h -. 1 1 ~_ _ I 92 'igx 1' ~9 2'"_'_lv 9292 I/ /. se cu .e. etc.' __ 92_ /'92 __ 92 92 -1 l nF. Purcell.!. 36-37. se . 92 . I 92se-c`u~ lo-rum. ll-13. A_ /.N.lo. butcontradirectional.'i' __A-.g. Gloria Patrl m.ll I . descriptive adjectival modifiers are almostinvariably usefulexcept insimplest conditions. this is suggestive of further plausibleterms likecontour imitation directional conformityonly! and pitch-class imitation or interval-class imitation as in manyserial procedures!.cu -. Eighteenth-Century imitative Counterpoint Englewood Cliffs. `92_/ _ 92 _ .!ll-_-.men.! Contrarhythmic imitation can ofcourse be further qualifiedby common terminology in augmentation-usually understood as homointervallic. il.cu. ProgresEx. by compound expansion. pp. Measures ll-13 of the Purcell piece Ex.A men.and intervallic aspects! can also beused todenote various kinds of imitative relation.-rum. A men. . The term homodirectional imitation opposed to contradirectional! thus refers to interaction in which leaderand followerconform inthe directionof motion. by complementation. se cu . sc cu .A _ / . in nt . One could continue in this process of developing andclassifying terms of potential usefulness. I i-' _" ' ' "_ 92 92_ .with the term imitationunderstood as generic andsubject to modifiers of many kinds. _ ! _ _ __ I ll ._cu -la se-cu .1 lIi. 92 _ _` _. identified by specificreference to a singleparameter.rum. more precise standard classification tonal.. imitation at the 5th!._*7'|-_ 1.lo.to pertain to imitation which conformsin rhythm only!. 2-14! represent an area of maximal textural vitality" in the broad context of the entire work. _ Q' __ s '."* _ :_ II-I " V _VI_ _ !-. rhythmic. etc. ` |1l= _ _ i¥§--I1 1 __ -i :nt U't. §=1»1=l1£n:r1'=1 = 9292l'.a situationfor which nogenerally accepted term isavailable.Inc.Ql|1 -'_-|13 f'l" ln __ 92 92 _ 9292 / . se .I 92 92 I/ ' 1 92» !f_ .! and contraintervallic imitation is subject tofurther. se-Eu92l m.la se-cu-lo-rum._ /1.cu . 2-14.1i=:=§=i|-1. hyphenated terms here too are usefulin comprehensive denotation. or rhythmic canon. 1969!. Homodirectional imitation may or may not conform intervallicallyand rhythmically.-I-'I~../ _-_ Y'll!1!*lF'F$ 1il1`.. A /H. The common term strict imitation can denote likereal imitation! a followerwhich conforms in all aspectsexcept. sem-per et in se =| i| 1' ll -_Zin 1 T. 92_ 92 92 se-cu-la se-cu-lo-rum.1711 1in1»1 iii 31_ .texture 233 A choral work of Purcell.i. `92 92 _ 92 / _ ` c _ 9292 _ _ _ _ -'||I. usually._]. Free imitation or the term _/ieeb: imitative! may denote imitativeprocedure inwhich the aspect ofrelation Huctuates at somestated level. se-Cullo .rum secu.' l. a double canon in which there are concur- rently two mirror canons at the gl !and two strict canons at the o!. is helpful in analysis ofcomplementary functionsin another instance ofcadential process. ` 92 / _ 92 et in se.rhythmically free.- 33The set of terms adopted forclassification of interlinear relations on the basis of directional.: Prentice-Hall. that of PC e.

se .cu .men. linear. A. eds. and rhythmic structures.The function of dissonance as a textural factor in interlinear independence is particularly . A. culminating in the complex web of interactions at highly contracted temporal distances! partly shown in Ex. 9292 =_=. _E' . 2-14 continued. A . it is clear that the recession is one of texture-spaceas well as density. can be.- 'QH men. then 5.:"___°____L:_i . Fortune. and can be seen. the important rhythmic deceleration can be seen at a glance. Of course.men.cu. m. Novello and Co.f V is ~ 92 lo . Following this climactic area a number of recessive tendencies. with complementary dynamic and melodic decline.men. in com- plementary function.2?-= in se ._ n .*lo rum.=. gradual essentially conjunct! descent of upper voice against modestascent ofthe lowest-tendencies in which their canonic followers of course concur. _ kall 92 N -lo -rum. can be noted immediately: the final dissolution of the canons and of imitative interaction constitutes textural simplification of important consequence.. A"" ' 92 /_92 tj' 92 V6 . e -»~ . then 5. et nT A- men. with the linear sloping of the upper voice.A - I1 ~°:. A . and those of the bassthen 3. for example. Ji? A -- . A complementary factor which is less obvious is metric..°" f I men. 2-14... Reprinted from The Worksof Henry Purcell.the exampleshows howpersuasive a textural recession.l4 ».r_z.men.92 rum. by permission qf the publisher. as can the recessive. 14 . With a situation of tonal stasis.234 texture Ex.° Example 2-15is an illustration of quantitative recession in which qualitative factors are only negligibly affected and in which the sense of decline is extreme!. +__.cu la se . A 9292|§ H .Lewis and N. in the settings of Amenin the outer voices: thoseof the soprano having recessive values of 3.lvl i _1 e Z .lo. although considerable contrarhythmic activity persists. Ltd. sion to that area is characterizedby complementarysuccessions within tonal. with voices settlingat differing times exceptfor the homorhythmic relation of inner voices.rum._9292 ! men. then IOJ5. men. Jl H as e _.men. A - men. and by progressive developmentwithin qualitative textural parameters aswell.

r' |_-. .1 ."{ a I dim.J lGi=i2|»5" _5 l¥' 4.92~ X.== ii . g .._ _ #4 _ §gn5%F:§_g§i% Ejf dim.. on r".1 J ---==-== -» » »-f92 `_/ Copyright 1940 by Hawkes éi Son London! Ltd."" " » tr 5 jf dim. second movement.I... Inc. Reprinted by permission of Boosey 6' Hawkes. J Lp jf _.. ' .=-?=E -= __ __ _ @ .46 vw 7d ____ .IEXIUIB Ex. __.r'_|Y I 3 __ ..-"/% .----.J Q Edim..4 -rcon sord.. 235 Vln. 2-15.. jf dim.fi .. J 17. Barték.5pl ____ `4'= _ ___ 92/IJlFI7F _ M.-` ---.'1i= i 1 it ___t l M 2l_|..`/_ i- . K Q"1""=1._ i i 'I ' EJ . Divertimento for stringorchestra. Renewed 1967. . m.

its qualities. The texture is. and both remain active until the cadential measure. sonority.and tonal relations achieve by their confluence apervasive anddetermined functional effect. In that sense the decline is of sonority as well as densityand space. ofthe necessitythat texture be seenin its relations to other elements. as in parallel studies of other elementprogressions and element-structures. The disappearanceof the lower stratum of the first violin mm. strictly speaking. melodic lines. For exam- ple. 44-45! does. Or controlled textural diversification may be an important variational feature within a single thematicunity. one of the most beautiful and often cited! examples which come to mind in illustration of the principle of textural . and among itsconstituent parts. the contrasts between opposing thematic elements orgroups within a sonata or rondo movement are often textural. with textural differences playing a role analogous and complementary to that of changes of tonal reference. the two tonal implications merging at the point of resolution.Textural qualiyf thus remains relatively constant and insistent while the range of doublings is gradually reduced. the reader is urged to posefor himself the appropriate questions andto seek their answers to the extent that other elements are functionalin the particular processive contexts observed. We are thus cognizant here. 49.transparent texture. Some textural functions in de//heat/on of form Texture its class. onlyvery incidentally of morethan two real components. dynamic coloration. Textural progressionand alteration are of course fundamentaltechniques in thematic development as inany manipulation of motivic materials in a generally unstable contextf Among earlier literatures. the stark exposureof a line to be emphasized in and for itself may be in monophonic orvery restricted. constitutea true modification in textural quality as distinct from the sonority or density by which the most severe shaping of the succession is carried out. however. itsdensities! is ofcourse anessential element by which thematic statement is rendered distinctive and expressive. and the like.Or. dynamic level.236 texture apparent: the directional opposition of lines throughout the passage a determined one. the two essential components in an oblique relation! is intensely complemented by a bitonal situation. space. There could scarcely bea more lucid example of the complementarity of elements thanthis in which density. Wheresuch relations are not made explicit.

92. The third section isrecapitulative. then largely restored in the brief third and fourth phrases not quoted!. E. predominantly chordal textures of Parts I and III! 3Apel and Davison. Thesection precedingm. The second part elided with m. g. density is reduced to a consistent two-voice pattern with contrasts of coloration!.texture 237 change functioningin delineation of form is _]osquins Tu pauperum rqfugium. Its beginning is quoted in Ex. Throughout this process.there prevails an attitude of essentialhomorhythm in which there is occasional. in fact. with anacrusis! is widely extended anddeveloped. although imitation is not predominant. the homorhythmic condition and the thematic material! of the opening return here. not quoted. 2-16.. sections in this recapitulative form are contrasted. Complementary to change in cadential pitch upper voice: g. a technique in which Josquin showsadmirable inventiveness. 45-47!. Actually.! At the same timethat imitative contrapuntal texture emerges. as in the varied return of the opening two phrases. 12-13. a. The brief extracts quoted Ex. at m. In opposition to the preceding. one in which the composerdemonstrates a consummate craftof remarkable economyin which the simple motivic substanceof the original phrase 3 mm. subject of extensive earlier comment see pp. is gradually diversified with tentative imitative interactions. along with contrasts of tonal order and other kinds. incontrast to the first part. p. there are now once again points of controlled imitative interplay on earlier motives! by which the texture is rendered contrapuntal in modest complexity opposing the stabler. bass voice: e. 1949!. Vol. The first part. A. I Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 60 sets off a closing section of cadential elaboration again marked by significant qualitative contrast of texture. 2-16! show the strong textural differences bywhich. The premature cadence onthe modal final. Historical Anthology of Music. A look into the complete example will reveal subsequent return and variation of the third and fourth phrases.restrained diversification by slight rhythmic differentiations usually productive of animating dissonance. yet a variation note metric change. in the second phrase. . 60 is. cds. 20! is contrapuntally imitative. only a portion of which is quoted. imitation enters very subtly within the restricted diversification of the fifth phrase. e! is this sloped succession shaped by textural diversification and resolution. The reduction in density serves the function of contrast and brings into vivid exposure the interactions of increasingly independent voices. is in itself a very expressively disposed textural progression setting out from a condition of perfect homorhythm which. for example!.

Domine. . ° 5 ? gf Qi 5 #12 | -wi.Magnus es tu. fi f.° Tf f' 92 5T 1f_ II II °I II . from Motet. ii -J E E51? '..n s-ti - J /¢. .ILA um.-mmj. m. 5. vi --a J T4 la -bo -ra. U f m tu lan- é QP? §ffE ' L. t6XfUl'6 Josquin. Tu pauperum refugium..238 -.

Q ? ob dor mi ob dor mi at in mor0 Diff? 9? i .or-mi in .1 i%' i ? H5 % .C88 MQ# H '¢t et Ea _i '_' J. 'O' 3.tor Do .mi .ne.f8Xl'UI'& 239 JI-|:| i . 'LF' 8 Em# Jw-# . #gr-f.

2-1 6 continued. Any discussionof texture in the delineation of form and forms! could of course go on indefinitely.=s= Copyright 1946. 'é-__?l`. in so manyprototypical designs. 1949. Reprinted by permission of Harvard University Press. to a lesserextent.formal delineation is one of relativebf uncomplicated texture in thematic statement set against subsequent relatively diversified. -L. T 1? T T V T' T T' J-ma C4 J i _ te la. 20-33 and. sometimes intense. - _' A. textural activity in developmental andvariational processes. Theprocedures by which.240 texture Ex.gll_i92_g _F T T -. The manner in which Josquin anticipates the textural quality of the Hrst of these contrasting passages notablyin the second and fifth phrases! is further testimony to the subtlety andcontrol by which his creative procedures are characterized. by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. in the last nine measures. Dominant textural projection is thus one of chordal homorhythm activated by diversification subtly and often gradually introduced and sub- sequently relinquished. the overall textural structure marked bythe change to imitative counterpoint in mm. . will be recalled by any experiencedlistener.f-' 92e= Q' Fiiliuiv F `=i=»f_ `.

Textural contrasts. Of course. 1948!. say. introductory. Examples of variation sets are an extremely fertile resource forstudy of textural progression and recessionwithin individual variations and along the broad lines of overall form encompassingthe variation series. 2-27!.texture 241 And the literature is full of examples ofvariation forms in which progressions andchanges within the textural element are basic techniques. in one of countless manifestations of the principle. textural events at all levels of structure are of inestimable significance in the delineation and processive molding of all prototypical forms. more broadly defined.58-60. ..! are projected see Ex. etc. expository. etc. progression. cadential. recession. and of all forms beforeand following the tonal period except of course where texture is limited to monophony without even the implications of contrapuntal diversity and interaction in compound melodic line. the sarabande and the gigue!. and in inter- sectional relations in highly diversified forms. The Technique of Variation LosAngeles: University of California Press.l0fl`. pp. in complementarity with other relevant elements. do of course serve as well the function of broad delineation. and in antic/Qoation of thematic statement A factor of which a good deal of mention has already been made. Chapters 8 and 9. in recession toward cadence. The . ostinato.Form in Music. of the Baroque suiteand the role of texture in the traditional distinctions among dance movements-between. 189-90! in a different extract.. Nelson.. in intermovement relations in multimovement forms. and its climactic effect might well be said to be more signg/icantlyproduct a oftextural progression See cantusfirmus. This factor is perhaps too obvious to require illustration think.portion of this magnificentwork quoted as Ex. as well as limited discussion oftextural processespp.and Berry. 51f. The De prqfundis setting had prior reference pp. that of the shapingof textural change inthe direction of increased intensity in which other element-structuresoften work complementarily! is carried further in amplification of earlier referenceto ajosquin setting of the Deprtjundis. and other textural proceduresdiscussed as variation technique in Robert U. Textural stasis.and by which expressive functional events climactic. andvariation are basic in the functional processes by which forms are shaped.2-17 isclimactic. Textural processes /'n progress/'on toward intensity. 87-90! in connection with linear melodic and harmonic functions at its outset.

Deprofundis.sti.bit? Do mi . quis su.ne .nc. published by G. Bilthoven.bit? m.mi .Amsterdam.texture Ex. Netherlands.. . bypermission of Creyghton Musicology-Musica Antiqua. Do . Josquin.ne. 2-17. quis su -sti-ne .47 Sland 2J / ti> J! Oo u! Reprinted from theSmij ersedition. Alsbach andCo.

They do so earlyin m. Finally. interim release in. where the internal voices become interdependent homorhythmic. participate in a number of brief but functionally important imitative interactions mm. 45-47 or the superius at mm. 42-54 decisive factors in the texture are noted graphically in the quoted example.l s . Such factors as the relatively stable bassus at mm. the section of greatest vitaligv in the motet. 50-51 cf. and . This section is the only one to this point in which four independent voices emerge incontrarhythmic activity.and its restrictive submission to the demands of tonal-harmonic support. for example. is thrown into perfectly calculated perspective by the almost entirely homorhythmic phrases whichfollow-the only such phrases in the entire piece. almost homointervallic!.although of course complementary rhythmic acceleration and tonal progression play important roles. sustinebit? quis initially are o at. moreover. cadential definition. imitative interactions among appearances of the dotted-rhythm motive appear in a number interlinear of relations at the distance _ The J textural complexity is enhanced here. or even simply in the withdrawal of the tenor at mm. significant "The section of maximal intensity of textural interaction and diversificationEx.!. note the compensatory stasisof harmonic rhythm!. are thus excellentlyillustrative of a number of the textural factors with which we are concerned. 51-52. . of course.§ J J . by contradirectional imitation.das indicated the inexample. The time intervals of imitation are progressively shorter within the section as well as between this and earlier sections: the imitative entries the of words Domine. in mm. 44. to which theinterested reader might refer for comparative study. 52. at and the rising quarter-note motive. etc. the rhythmic identification but directional opposition! of tenor and bassus atm.dof . 2-17! has anear parallel in the final section of thepiece. 48-49. and the ultimate interdependence of voices to which the textural structure finally turns at not long in advance of ! the cadence are vital factors of recessive process. homodirectional. the 2 texture of sucha point as 1 m. but not harmonicalbf.then at J and again o." In mm. . There is. The progressiondescribed above. which are highly animated rhythmically and texturally. And this highly active. the motivic drop of a minor 3rd. diverse. 49. two bars after the passageis launched in the imitative entries described above. and the larger higher-level! progression of which it is a culmination. in 45-46 at time intervals o. and the cadential drop of a 2nd in half-notes.texture 243 than of any othersingle factor. andcomplex passage. the bassrole of later styles.

as a rule. especially when suchinternal cadence ispreparatory to important events to follow. and increased density-compression is a usualconsequence of descent ofupper lines. of value in the clarity of consonant tonal-harmonic function at its most crucial point. Ex. comparable density-number recession 4-3-2 as well as acontraction of texture-space from29 to 13 semitones. seems generally to favor the emphatic substance ofquantity. EH' 2 Larghissimo e misterioso J= 32! tempo _ g_ fa g Auf. Even wheretextural qualitative complexity is maintained to a very late point. in this instance thefinal cadenceof a movement. and predominantly in itsultimate formulation. Musical examplesshow that greater densityof compressionas well as of number is characteristic of many cadential formulations. and an excellentexample forstudy ofthe actions oftexture in cadence. fm morendo g `* P 'ii 1*-U rfb tr--D lr' _-T""=lf-'Z Reprinted permission by Edward of B. call forth relatively full densities see the Brahms reference. especiallyin tonal contexts. The procedure of final cadence. especially where Final cadenceis concerned. relatively ample density-number is. Themotive stated twice by . 2-18.244 texture in their maintenance of the full density of four components presented in the forms simplest textures. where density of texture is concerned. that of resolution. third movement. From My Diary. The reduction in textural quantity density! as a cadential processis surprisingly rare in music. as often with thematic exposition. internal cadence.Ex. Sessions. A cadence from Sessionspiano work From My Diary Ex. cadential expression may depend altogetherin its preparatory stages. Example 2-19 is memorable in the twentieth-century concerto literature. while com/Jensatovy action of recessive simpwication withinqualitative textural parameters takes place. on processes of decline within other elements. when such events. Marks Music Corp. 2-18! shows a functional. Nevertheless. 2-20!. it is morecommon in tentative. In such circumstances cadentialfeeling is often relatively indccisive. examples canbe found in which dissolution of density is an important aspect ofrecessive. finalcadential process.

and tonal activity and especially the complementary decline in tempo and dynamics. diagonal relations Q' a considerable number.iE._ . incipient and abortive but impressive interlinear independence. evenits full potential in the particular context.I if P* 1 In 'V __ sgmdo I _F: W //I .texture 245 Ex.QE ma . with other elements expressive ofcompensatory recessive stasis anddecline. cadentiallinality is qualified.Schirmer. the soloviolin is of primary importance in the entire movement. and considerable density are compensated forby the lack or tight restriction of linear.+--f e__==____ _ JE rn n Tuba .263 1. . dynamic reduction. Inc._ ' pizz. activity. Cadence is often. Reprinted by permission." 'g lf?- /' -M/J rx Timp.! . The significant and necessary observation which must follow is thattextural complexity. first movement. rP ._ __ " . aswe havestated. and gradually slower tempo to the point of fermata are of` essential recessive function. 2-19. 1 Ql g .:_ Hn. Copyright 1939 by G. J 5 ' . Schoenberg.:=. y con sord. markedby realization of substantial density.ta I via E -Q *All parts sound as written. Tothe extentthat textural activity persists. while the stasis of relatively leve1 lines. pp 5* 1. harmonic.92 ~ nv l g` '.1 ' Lento J 76! m. Op. dominant in their overall eH`ect even in the atmosphere of a cadence ultimately slightly tentative infeeling. . The radiation of its influence throughout the texture is seen in the indications drawn into the example: there are varied imitations of the characteristic semitonal succession in almost every instrumental part._ _. for violinand orchestra. Concerto. ' e _M A _l/J '_ 5:'__ " ___ ' --3 'l ff i ' ` =' E . 36.1. 'V si _ __=. In the Schoenberg this principle goes beyondthe accrual of density useful for emphatic effect! in a texture active with interlinear. _ iii? ii* ' f __ ____"` '° ` " -e-e.2.=.

Quintet in G.1 .63 /-` Ad X .l /m. second lT920V6lT928l1t. usually involving dissonance ina universal technique by which expectation is heightened.1 Common modification density reduction. ._ 1 Vla. strongly activated by heterorhythm and intertransference ofchordal PC factorsamong very active voices. for two violins. is anomnipresent factor in music.2 Vc. Op. Quantitative release begins in the following bar._ /` ` CZ?! X F _ /. Measure 64 is a point of maximal density: the texture is essentially chordal. a very common technique by which anticipatory feeling is enhanced complemented by the unsettled tonal-harmonic situation! in preparation for resumption of thematic statement. and cello.246 texture Of course the deliberate minimizing of the natural tendencies ofinterlinear interdependence at the point of internal cadence or preliminary stages in Hnal cadence! isa universal and vital technique of texture for suppressing too punctuative or conclusive an effect.X /_92 92 Vln. And the device of preparation the process of establishing anticipatory atmosphere! can be an important factor in internal cadential process.Dynamic level jbrtissimo! andextremes of pitch texture-space! are of complementary effect. simplification! of texture jbllowing cadential punctuation. 2-20.n V' . The pattern is of course oneof decline in density-number. .l _ Vla. The shaping of texture is requisite and critical to cadential and anticipatory effect in Ex.2 é on C1722 ` N g Ag g/` .` " /. Brahms. one ofthedevices by which cadence is throwninto reliefand resumption announced.11 . two violas. there is somediversification here-a qualitative Ex. 2-20. Vln. 111.

J A ZVH 1. ' Luv |I -Y A /$ wr' m.22 EL F"-5 == .b fP -f X .§ 92 J' 9. ""92 J kph 1. e f fJ P / .texture 247 . __.-5 _ ~~ 92 /1 =~. F _/` '9292 J . 3_ =§§a@§§_§g§a :Z .Jg dim./`. ?"T' 3 ° 3 3 3* f _tiv 92. ll..~ i 5 _ 92 92 __ _ `` f 1.54-~Jf -92 . `ii.I . i W5 7 ! .64 /A nw /` '92 A .65 _. . _ :=.1.. .1 m.:_-_:i_': dim. _ J » in TJ f "/PR ii?= ==» 3 f' .

. with all voices but one now reduced to stasis.4I_:|. m.A.O pizz lf ' /f _ -i compensation inthe quantitative decline-in a limited projection of motivic substance. with rhythmic values lengthened gradually asthe viola line falls in a complementary gesture. ll. receding from l to l. Texture as space The following examples showtexture in its spatial dimension and indicate particular textural dispositions of very distinctive.1 9292-92vl:~ll111¢:|.3 l:r1Zr1|. I_ m_ 4._ll11h. anddeleted gradually. . t | I. andwith harmonic inactivity maintained within the dissonant framework. and of the complementarity and compensationof other.. The manner in which persistent instability 'of tonal-harmonic content on the brink of resolution! counteractsall tendencies ofrecession is typical of tonal contexts.»-'Y _ ||. _ ' nw |_ 1. _ . even motivic. 2-20 continued.`_Q__& *i 92 * i_ I | tn i |i'r| 7 »` . 1 The subsequent stage in the process might be symbolized as R3!._ F `92 I 'Y ° r .||1.1v ||'1 Q-f&` Ya I in » . Q ..67 Jlf: .248 texture Ex. The entire passage is extremelyuseful as an example of textural succession calculated in expressionof cadential and anticipatory structural function. forms. _ lfl 1 in-1' -' P espress ' O P espress 92 1. The ultimate cadential measurecompletes theprocess. as isthe maintenanceof dissonance intensity.| ll * `i _| _Q -. The surge and accelerated activityof the viola line is compensatoryto continued decline. 92 I/. 1. relevant element-events.92 -fn |li i Y I-m Y l 1-I . Gther recessive factors are the continuing dynamic reduction and the total cessation inharmonic rhythm. holding the recession in balance. e ll.

functional aspect of texture-a modulating field in which events take place. 162-65. one of actual depth of experience of structure. 4. Let us attempt to see that piece in its spatial texture. forexample-can of course be conceived as further dimensions. All of these references are of course analogous to physical structures on a plane. whilethe up-down factor symbolizes the field of pitch frequencies." One of the examplestreated at some lengthin the discussion of tonality is the first of Weberns Four Pieces. pp. inthis reference to a third dimension in musicalspace. quasi-tonic the piece sets out with two functionally significant occurrences ofthis PC four octaves apart Ex. The most vital dimension. The shape and compass of that field. Here again.then. The spatial factor texturespace! might be defined as the field enclosed by lines tracing the pitch successions of outer componentsin addition to the two vertical. there are deflections in that spatial field. but the foregoing comment describes theessential linesof the spatial contraction as to a marked extent influencedby the tonal centrality of the PC Eb. after which both recessions converge onel». 6-7. a prominent local expansion of the space. and the analogously spatial 3°It would seem reasonable to extend the concept of two-dimensioned musical space to include a further dimension. or that of timbre. and it seems usefulto regard this space as a distinct aspect of musical texture. ascends in the penultimate measure to eb. as defined. The third dimensionto which the abovereference is made is. and the axial centrality of ebl. is symbolized by the left-right factor in this image. detailed successions to the remotest background-the structural level atwhich thebroadest. 2-21!. time.! .7. Op. or diagonal. discussedas Ex.! Seen in this sense the texture-spacesuccession is one of recessive contraction! The resultant focusingon the root of the final. Obviously. cadential triadic resolution is of coursesupportive of tonal function. are functionally effective in circumscribing and governing much of structure. for violin and piano. Otherparameters of musical experience-thefield of intensity.texture 249 There is a sense in which melodic succession in the extremely high or low components expresses animportant. lines linking these components at left-right extremities at some given level ryf structure. firstrepeating Ebin m. terms like foreground and background are analogous to terms used with reference to the qualities of physicalspace. l-49. which we are describing astexture-space. two-dimensioned a fieldsetting out horizontal and vertical boundaries enclosing the element-successions which constitute the musical work. most generalized lines of succession are discerned. The violin descends thence to a prolongation of activity on eb while the bass. like the low F ll of the piano in mm. that expressed by the hierarchic leveling of element-structures from the foreground of the mostimmediate.by describing the field within which its pitch events arebroadly circumscribed and then by attempting to identify some of the important characteristics of changes in the spatial field as they might constitute an expressive succession within this particular parameter. In expression and prolongation of its EI. the root of the final triad.

22. 2-22b is terminated. In Ex.250 texture Ex. recedes. an extracted major segment of the first movementof the Quartet. The As noted earlier. to recessive spatial contraction and. Op.6-8 l_ m. ofrelatively and potently!consonant implications. a critical point in the movements overall structure!. Contraction of texture-space defined by recurrences of tonal PC inWebern. while clearlysubordinate. 2-22a. No. 2-21.8 formulation described by these lines of succession from the extremesof the opening to the compressionof the final sonority is an important aspect of the pieces structure. final increased density-compression is inevitably counteractive. from which the movement. to which it is inseparably linked. constituting a factor significantly complementary in functional eH`ectto that of tonality. 7. The point of extremity to which the spatial progression movesis underscoredin a number of ways: there are complementary progressions ofqualitative interactions of texture. and color and rhythmic structures are directed intensely to this same point. gently accelerative toward the middle and restorative of longer durations toward the end. in a number of complementary element-successions. or upper voice linear descent! are complementarily or counteractively shaped.9 _ in anticipated m. .6! mm.l-3 mm.-4 m." The idea of space as anaspect ofmusical textureis especially relevant to theworks ofWebern. there can be seen aprogressive expansion of the texture-spaceto an extreme point m. 22. mm. In certain of that composersworks spatialsymmetries are formed by the distribution of inversionally-related set-forms in equidistance around a central axis. Op. 1.in the Webern. at which the synopsis givenin Ex. that of rhythmic motion. Concurrently active element-structures for example.

.* Piano m. Op.clarinet. andsaxophone. P1ZZ.4 Vln.for piano. Teno sax.= ca. Webern. Ten. C1.texture Ex. 2-22a.36! tDf Vln.Sax Piano «All pitchessoundasnotated.violin. 12 tone set: Sehrmassig J. Quartet.22. first movement.

Ten. C1.1-22. mm. Canada and Mexico. Summary diagrammatic representation of thetexture-space in thefirstmovement of Webern's Quartet.Sa Piano Copyright 1932. 2-22a continued. Ex.Used bypermission ofthe publisher.Universal Edition. arco Vln.2-22b.22 . sole representative United States. m.texture Ex. Op. Theodore Presser Company.22.

J1.Ji _92"_/ ¬i.4! 1 92 3 P. and the immediate approach to m.! Only theopening bars. ||n1uI. and maximally inflated atm. the Prelude to a Handel Suite for harpsichord.22. _ ~' fi 'xli' _92 i i § 11`_ ___ 11 -I ~' 3 92 lf /:ri l - m.l0 / . and this particular kind ofconfiguration space of cfl the Webern examples!. 2-23a.. projects a characteristic contradirectional counterpoint within an essentially simpletextural context. is a synoptic rendering of the entire passage. p. 2-22a. c -8 f . 22 constitute a fruitfuland critical area of study in the movement. The shaping of the texture-space is vividindeed. _ f' 92 Q.'1.f 92 i/ hi J __-92_ _».. are given in Ex. Example 2-23a shows brief a extract and Ex. ' 3 :. Ex. 22.a1 . however. m 6 Presto fl Y.llPi111 »| _. Prelude. 3in D minor forharpsichord...q HI _-1.-fi |l.atv r 35/ 1l "_. 1 I1 I __ Q H!__92 . high-level directional opposition between outer components.texture 253 functional actions of all relevant elements to and from m.I _e Y Hgi?.:1.:. It is contrivedto showexpansions in the texture-Space. 2-23b is a condensed represenEx.A7'/ jg 3 ` _i_l_t _f = »:-1_92L_ =r"' |92~l_ _ . il ' aui1.uf r921:. disposed equidistantly around the fll /gb' axis. 2-22b. A further example goes back to a far earlier historical reference..A_'. Suite No.' f ii . ' Ku' ll? #Ll =n'33 l rl llf l-= *1' X rl: = li-1 Zi r'§. Handel.92/-nrnl Ir' . See also Ex.=' _U---I*-4'ii 11. 307. 3-1.. . .z:r. achieved byalmost consistent.

. 2-25. No.254 texture Ex. /+ I" 2 92 '. the first movement of StravinskysConcerto inD for violin and orchestra or the opening thematic statement in Beethovens Sonata in C. andwhen the particular qualities of texture are sovital a factor in the identity and interest of thematic-motivic material.-'P -. . .. 2. 2-23b..that it seems plausible to think and speakof texture as motivic-or of a specific texture-motive. would be properly conceived asthematic texture in an important sense. 2724.-. Synopsis of inflation andcontraction inthe texture-space as expressed in contradirectional relation of outercomponents.. it is evident that there isa single. the motive is incapable of adequate characterization without reference to texture as wellas to rhythmic and linear formulation: one can scarcely imagine representing this materialsay. 256!.It is not significantly defined merelyas an E minor triad as might e:i in a Classicalcontext!. the provocative effect of unusua/ textures There are many times in music perhaps especiallythat of the last hundred years! whenmaterials areof suchdistinctive textural cast. In Ex. as -*/-S ¢9292 ~» 3 929292 92i ---iv V li' £55 lf 5' ""»"__i. A very famous exampleof motivic texture is the initial sound of the Stravinsky Symphony qf PsalmsEx.»-fy. where this textural feature is a necessary and recurrent aspect of the material. it is a recurrent motivic factor of arresting quality primarily becauseof itsarticulation and anomalous..forcibly directed succession progressive. seep.'/_E 9 |3 92 . for piano. then recessive! in which spatial inflation and subsequent contraction must be regarded asmost critical elements in the structure. for example. Op.----i tation . A thematic melody in voices interdcpendently doubled in 3rds. distinctive spacing. Mot/'v/c texture. nor with respectto its orchestral colora"Consider.. 3.. in a thematic index-with one line alone.


piss. g Db. S. S BnL Cbn. 4 Hns. first movement. A. . inC 2 TmbL B.2-25. Stravinsky. Tuba Tlmp.Ex. Inc. Copyright 1991byEditionRusse deMusique. Revised EditionCopyright 1948byBoosey O' Hamkes. Renewed 1958.Hn. Tpt. in D 4 Tpts. Symphony of Psalms. div. B. Copjeight andRenewal assigned to Booscy S Hamkes. 4 ObL Eng. Tmb. J 92 5 Fls. Inc. Chorus T. Harp 2 PianosllOh ItpCc gg div. Reprinted by Permission. piss.

4. An example from Gesualdois given below for relatively comprehensive analysis oftexture. 2-26b. and imitation persists. first movement That the study of functional textural events canbe critically important . It is important to note that progression in density-number is significant at more foreground levels that of the phrase especially. It is thus in this second parameter of textural structure that the overall shapeat the highest hierarchic level is bestseen: the five voices are engaged with considerableconsistency throughout the piece while changes in their degrees of interdependence shape the broadly defined textural succession? Telemann. func- tional patterns of imitationare. The intensity profile of the entire structure thus rises quickly within the First severalmeasures. Fantasy No. while all four sectionsare imitativc at distancesranging from lgl tol5¢l !. subsequently receding and progressing againto a point of maximal diversity at the immediate outset of the intensefinal section. an area of relative rhythmic and textural animation conditioned by the text . with the cadence usually formulated in full density! while the progression of textural diversity significantly features lower degrees tj complexiy but not qfdensigy-number!the in internal phrases. it wastes away!. 4 for violin alone. where there is progressive accrualexcept in the Hrst two units. Thus. toward Developing ofpoints maximal textural are comple T T two progressionsof persuasivegrowth from one voice alone. Investigation showsthat nowhere in this example isa diversity value of 1 I 1 achieved. . alas. Changing. in theintensely chromatic final section Oimé. vien meno. the shortest time interval. or from two lines in interdependence!. briefly suggested in m. _ flies away!. Or. Major attention is given to changing interlinear relations within the range from maximal diversity to total accord. mostly at 4J . Example2-26a isa quotation of the entire prima parte ofthe madrigal. cha In gioia credea viver contento Book 4! from Madrigals.texture 257 Gesualdo. Example 2-26brepresents the step-by-step processes by which the textural structure is shaped. also ofgreat importance and interest. becomes appropriately prevalent in the section Fuggesi . A representation of textural progression and recession with limited symbolization of` qualitative relations as well as density! is given as Ex. however.

pre la gio pre la gio - I !° ie. vi . l" 1 31 1 E rE .if t V-VVI cre-dea vi /92 cre -den vi - Or. che in gio . che ingioia credea viver contento from Madrigals. che in gio .to.=. Or. M'a pre la gio gio - &_ to.dea vi - ver con-ten - _e e 5_4 Lo -I 1 or.to.ver con .258 texture Ex. Cre~dea vi . frm" 7'1"-I 25 .ver conten - E*?__1rto.- ._____che ____ in gio -ia cre-dea vi .-1.pre |l M'a ~ pre la to.=a= J Q* m'a .pre ln jo - L er r1 t . che in gio . . or. 'che in gio - ia cre.to.g__& ia cre-dea vi . che in gio .__°"i"_ '_""_' ___ ' ' l __ VW _ Q1. r r ===. or.ten . |'l92'l . JM _WE L_ ____ _. m.pre la gio ia.to.8 -/ . cre-dea II 7. ia. m'a . M'a-pre la gio . M'a Np M'a . or.ver con .- mr*-r:.pre |a .to. /--*_§ ]'|4_ _ Y .ver con-ten .. Gesualdo.l -I I1 _:lQ: 1 1 p.. `°""_l%"_°1.t. 92 gi/ IV ten .ten . ia -.to.na cre-dea vi .. Book 4.first part ./ lI l Or. che in gio - II lI lE I _I JV Or.____* chein gio ia cre-dea vi - ver con-ten - If ver con -ten .ver con- '-"_ '~ `t Or. N' ' e ' to. 2-26a.ia.ver con-ten . |'n92 ia.- ia cre-dea vi -ver con-ten .

SC-Sl lal . vien me -no. ed.iail se . vienme - ° ¥==92 JH .Z. . oi ..l5 4 __ .f.mael cor. # il:-» ._ mé. fug -ge-si lal. vien me . Fug-ge-si gxo ..iall se .no. A 1»=1' 7 _ oi .mé.ll :1 1I J .__ @*1{_F3 gf? mé.no.ma el cor.no. fug gc-sl lal-mae] cor. vienme . ol-me- 7O l I 92 - gio . Fug lal-ma el cor. oi . it it r '_ JQ mé vien me - £:=92 H ._ .oi-mé. . no.ia 92c c .. il se . by permission qf Associated Music Publishers. as agents Q' Deutscher Verlag fur Musik..mé. -ge-si la| . oi =» I ._____ -1 - _ I- oi mi. .ge-si lal .mé.I . vien me - oi mé.131| se no. Fug il se . fug . e F . Inc. Fug-ge-si lalma el cor. Weismann.no oi oi - LE '8 . mé _. m.no.maelcor. c'lcor. oi-mé.no.no. .no. oi oi - Fug-ge-si laI ma el cor.no.no. Reprinted fiom the Ugrino Edition.texture 259 4 »'92 .ma e| cor.f= D .__ vien me . *. W. Leqrzig.mé vien me mé. oi- m.

A Treasury ofEarly MusicNew York:W.4 m.2 m. represented at phrase andbroader levels in the Gesualdo example. m. like other instances in episodic as well as expository passages. Textural progression and recession. II Qualitative changes: II I2 2I I I2 2.260 texture Ex.At the second entry. II ni. The 42The Telemann movement is brieflydiscussed and quoted in full in Carl Parrish.graphicallyrepresented in Ex. We can only scratch the surface here. 34 35. but textureand textural structurein virtually all its aspects could well be the basisof inquiry in comprehensive exploration of this movement.again. where I! isan "implied" independent voice. with sequential repetition." The movement's form is basicallyone of recurrentstatements of an openingthematicidea separated by episodic digressions of a more fluctuant character. quantitative and qualitative.7 m.The reader will perceivethat the openingmaterial Ex. thereis variationin the doublingof the lowercoinponent in the second part of the sequence but not in the first. 297301. The textureof the firstappearance of the motivemight be symbolized as . 14 I Oime. 1958!. . 2-27b!.! These variations. in mm. 2 5. I I I2 2 II I2 2 22 I2 2I I2 I5 2I 3I Numbers nf real vniccs: Qualitative textural profile: Numbers of lines: 2-27a. 57 is analogous to that of m. The statement at m. 2-27c. NortonandCo. show texture undergoing transformations complementary to thoseof fluctuant tonal reference.2 I2 2 !..9 m. W. poses a line of compound implications of two strata in oblique relation. 15 exceptfor restoration of the primary tonic. One objectof inquiry might therefore concern the applications of textural variation in thematic recurrence.2-26b.2 3!... pp.

2-27a. Hausswald. 2-27c.33 tr a !""""' 1: E 11 Reprinted from Georg Philipp Telemann. Musikalische Werke.Gln 1 /. `l!. ed.1 /. mm. ! m.r i'11_-ld 92 __ -l 1: 'Till-U'1Y'1Y'1-I r~!1!!1_1$-$_1_1 1l _ 1-111 r-11-1 _I ll _Z F rr .5 W _____ l |. m.th VI I V V TTT 1 2| _2 I 1 1 '°' l!l!_El - .1 D 1| '-'-F etc.un-mi -f /_.min lj __ ilix 1 Il' _ . sounding doublin com 8P onent°» where this au mentation of 8 densit Y is Y onl artiall PY . hm-. 2-27b. Fantasy No.texture 261 Ex. texture T! of isenhanced subsequent in appearances by a true. by permission Bdrenreiterof Verlag. l 1111--I--2. 1-2 mm. Texture in thematic recurrences. ll 11 nnnl 1'»- . Ex.u IQ. first movement. Ex.--Z1 `Z If -1-!-ul-H Iii1 I-111 111111 bl--1 l__-Qu# _111 111 i1 ll-. 1.. G.=. 34-35 for J ]E J J [J ] progression constituted by this series of appearances is one in which an initial 1_ _.1--H --1 ` Q 1 m6 _ . 15-16 mm. Telemann. Compound implications in theprimary motive. ___ . 4for violinalone.

G.-=-' ~-=.! =!E=-. . to the release into cadence. 2-27a!is very different from that of the theme: it consistsof an alternation between contrasting textures. and typical of this movements unusual interest _within the restraints ofthe medium. 34-35! there is at the same time extension of the unit by repetition of the two-measurepattern. The textural structure ofthe first digression partially quoted in Ex. /_T . orthe progressiveintroduction of qualitative changesin the direction of increased complexity and intensity in interlinear relations. 2-27d! requires special study: it is a crucial element in the climactic.=. The accrual from a condition of two implied voices. an alternation inwhich change is variationalrather thansignificantly climactically directed or subsident. Measures 42-50 ofthemovement are comparable.E=..! Space does not allow detailed .2-27d. by permission Bdrenreiterof Verlag.. -'-E I'-I lllll Ill' ~ s' -I ~ Reprinted from Georg Philipp Telemann.._53= =' . Musikalische Werke. 25 'J 1A ' A-92 .:==L_E5== =. one relatively static. =f l§l@ e e k m. The obvious but critically expressive profile of the opening phrase._:Ji G5 "=--. ed.:§§. that there are qualitative and quantitative textural shapes whichconstitute an important aspect of its structure in complementarity with other elements. It is remarkable. to the four-voice density of the dissonant chord at m.92 13 f92 on /` m _ . to two sounding voices in considerable differentiation.EE-%'{'°§.262 texture carried out mm. isan example. and to that of the occurrenceof tonal and implicit dissonance as well..w:=§=='§. is expressive of a persuasivetextural shape beautifully complementary to that of the line of pitch events.!.. considered in the light of textural change. chromatic EX. 5... Most vital to the analysis oftexture in this as in any example is again the consideration of the concept of textural progression: the quantitative increase. The textural structure of the digression at mm.... 21-34 Ex.. Hausswald. '°'92 /°` e=g5._.with a second sounding voice inactive! momentarily introduced._.

In what important sense is m. broadly defined textural progression at the highest architectonic level. from this tentative diversification there is progression reaching a level of determined opposition of the two albeit still implied! strata after m. 33!. Interlinear intensity in the climactic portion of the movement issuggestive of a textural feature of importance. i. onein which only one of two implied voices is significantly active in pitch-line. 63-70!actually aninterruption in the final theme statement. . Qualitative diversity of three voices. restrained contrasts.e. late recession into a condition of relative interlinear accord m. which in is there determined differentiation components of the by means noted above. 2-279. for example.Here are stages very subtly contrasted indeed. one of them implied.. 30-32! of this progressive shapean intensity of texture momentarily resumed at m. The movement is. in the competing stratum. 11 l1 34 T 'I Densities 3and 4 represent. that in which diversity is achieved by projection of lines whose relative independence is heightened not only by directionaland rhythmic opposition butby dramatic contraintervallic relation as well. must be emphasized if Telemanns structure is to be understood. by leaps. 27 different in textural qualities from m. Finally. 34 cadence. 23 ? How. a seriesof textural progressions and recessions. the former developing at precadential points! toward maxianalysis of this passage. and the subsequent. one ofsubtle. This fact is critically suggestivewith respect to an overall. 25. even the importance of %!. Further insight into this extraordinary progression canbe suggested in the comparison of analogous measures 23. insistent.by theprojection ofintcrvallic features ofthe highest possible dijerentiation-that of semitonal asopposed toprevalent succession. Compare. 2-27e!. the implied two-voice texture with which it begins. Ex. in summary. values of infiated importance in so restricted a medium. yet. ofcourse. is maximal for this particular context. 30.texture 263 development precedingthe m. nor of the textural structure ofthe final digression mm. throughout this process. opposing demands of concurrent textural components isnowhere more potent than at the summit mm. is textural releaseachieved at punctuating intervals as the directed motion is otherwise continued ?! The importance of interlinear independence achievedby the determined. and 29-32. a spectrum of textural values and conditions might be identified for this piecein a symbolization of content of quantitative and limited qualitative distinctions Ex. 4lHf!.

interlinear independence. 15 is a still intermittent step in the processof diversification. The opening nine measures are a counterpoint. mm. 9 there is a progressionin which total interlinear diversification emergestentatively m." from Motet. . 2-28 for the study of textural structure and process that it is quoted in full. but not yet achieved. with compromising interdependences and consistentimitation. Following m. "Denn das Gesetz des Geistes.the cadential effect of courseenhancedby this textural device. occasionally imitative: 2> !. 10. 17.which is nonetheless a relatively suddencessation of competing contrapuntal activity. 15K! but in which this tendency is restrained by intermittent recessionto the textural conditions of the beginning m. constitute a secondstagein the direction of maximal. The consistency of two real voiceswith occasionalimitation in mm. 2-28.texture mal quantity and/or maximal diversity and activity in which the texture is significantly complementedby other intensifying factors. after the m.the latter in a consistent doubling in 3rds. the following bars. 2-27d! is crucial in textural structure at the broadest hierarchic level. 19 cadence. Increasing rhythmic interdependenceas well as relative inactivity of the lower voices especiallyalto! help to prepare the final cadence. after m. 12 14. m. 11. Intense qualitative developmentin the extendeddigression at mm. Jehu. In an extreme foreground the rhythmic identification with considerabledirectional contrast between outer voicesin m. meine Freude So excellent is Ex. The incipient tendencies in the qualitative progressioncan be analyzed further in observation of the logical extension of the trends noted above. l 9 thus representsan initial stage. notably tonal jfuctua tionanddissonance.4' 4sbetween the alto and soprano components. the texture is thus one of two real voices within a density of three lines with restrained imitative interactions and generally contrarhythmic-contradirectional relation between the two essentialcomponents. Someimitative interactions are traced asdiagonal relations in Ex. as is that of m. 21 34 Ex. 15 there is interlinear independenceto the end.! Quantitative contrast in the final stage and momentary relief within the parameter of density-number! is achieved by the opening of the texture to a single voice. enhancedin its provisionally conclusiveeffect by the fermata and the metric 4 The symbol denotes imitative interaction. note how the textural component consisting of paired interdependent lines undergoesfrequent recoloration!. Bach. with reaccrual of the others.

== I/»:__|!|!"-I Nl.sto __ _. da .ben -._ 1 _ _-Z £5 . des Gei 1. _ :' =l-|!P =-_. maine Freude..dig mach et . in Chri - e .su.-:_--I! _ Z.sto m.-g-f 0 hat mich frei ge .l3 4I'| .von dem Ge-setz der Siin . 1 :u ° su. e E_2{F=§i'$===-?=F:'2{=='|i== l'=| 9292l' lY1'l1 _u _Q il-IP_ l hat mich frei _ gemacht von dem Ge -setz.5 ='i|'{ 5=F=F -1 :wi l 11 N Q11 3 ' 1.=- "-" "-* swf-2 Denn das Ge .` dig__ ' :: =l_=v::=._ =E 7 c == §Z. U-l!7_-_-_-||lZ 2 §l-. in Chri -sto =.stes. IIN9292-92' -7--!_2!_YQ .macht.des Gei stes. " Donn das Gesetz des Geistes" from Motet.9 -J In __ =i"-' 'l je LG. denn 5E§§§§5:-IE f 0 Alto vu.de.i_. der dale .in chfi . .setz "`des Denn._de_r` _-_da"le _hen .-I la.le der JJ 5* J = ===Gei -stes.. I! |! . Bach._ I-'D.111 7 '' |/. V1 =e su._ 1i 1 °*' = -j me = :" ' - e !i ~-_ ======:i:=5 e I1 : ' .! U.D-' _ Y _ __ hat mich frei ge ."' . Jesu.texture 265 Ex.. . hat mich :nf -L_ m. der ._ .._ ' F= 5: rf . hat su.lr:=:=. 1 _le . 1 mich frei ` frei _' frei ge ge -macht.__ J* 92 JT 1E as Ge .Z____j 9292-92' I je - su.""' -| _Ie -- _Q ___ V.su. hat . S°P'-1 :¢=:= Denn Ge das setz . __ -/In i .macht. 2-28.machtvon dem_ Ge 1'| Q -bf-.'i1i|1»1 11111 !'Q§_jl!92-'2§l*92i_ 9292|'mz§'lQ|-I-:-2-_Q "_ In "Y-2i.macht von 3° a= _Ie :" '_ I/.11 _ .= ' mich 92 frei 8° F=~ ' .

lj-C .de und des . --li-To ~ _"|` lu.consider theoccurrence ofthe highestessential pitch in conjunction with maximal density and complexity of texture. _ 2L 2 -'1 a 2 des.des.mr QJ hw-ll:l|.f-=§u'==f=?}lF|='§li»==i=U. m. As so often in orches- .." It will be possible in this context to consider in an orchestral context a number of featuresof texture as theypertain to a broad structural function. § To - A l lm IU ' I 92 -'Z-9 __ 0 QI-l|===2 2 YQ ll= dem Ge-setz der Siin-deund des To ._ _ vo%Ge-setz der 92 ` ' "Y- ` -'l._* I . to consider therelation of other elementsto the textural structure.1 Y. The persistence of textural complexity. For example._-I" -~--.des. = ` _== -. .¢-:fi --' --' ° '2 ._92 _'I'-1 L! Y. the introductory first thirty-seven measuresof the first movement. /B I'|' _ . like the prior section beginninghat mic/zfrei gemacht.des. 68. Introduction Of necessity.lQh1 D Siin-de und des To m.=2f" E . which is modulatory and whose shiftof tonal reference also occurs in conjunction with the area ofmaximal density and intratextural activity. 2-28 continued. 1 in C minor.°: ! . Op. and the concurrence of the tonal structure. The final phrase.u_.1if3 i_ 12 /I i =' .I ~n _f _ Y. I7 J 4V _ i: '*-. with its stream of imitations at the . . in further referenceto this extraordinary example.des. to a late point might well be felt as complementaryto the open tonal structure.266 texture Ex. Symphony No. after the noted progressions. is of course a lower-level textural progression in itself. strength of the final accord.-Q--_'-|!|j-|-Il--IV _ QI! von dem Ge-setz der Siin de und des lin _ .u. _ -Btu'--'Q I" To . _ L1. The reader will be interested.2l . lfl' ` 11.-.aéesi fi .! Brahms.dcs.ZF -' I !-I __ von dem Ge-setz der Siin-de und des To . first movement Un poco sostenuto!.discussion centers here on a portion only of Brahms first symphony. that of preparation of the main body of the movement.

etc. Certain basicfactors shouldbe kept in mind: the broad sweep of the introduction at the background level in which its anticipatory function is preeminent and in which it is broadly seen asa I-V progression preparing the Allegro. distinctions between real voices as opposed to doubling lines.low dynamic level. tonal-harmonic factors such as dissonance and chromaticism. and 29-37.g. a single motive. aswe shall see. 2-29b. Detailed analysisof textural events andprocesses in the introduction is best treated with reference to its four divisions: mrn. the second of these havingits own. to the most microcosmic. 8. 2-29a. and among textural parameters of density. halted rhythms. as when texture explodes under the pressures of developed intensity. space.!. an intensity curve. 0ne striking fact to be emphasized inthe analysis is the unmistakable manner in which textural and complementary! structures are reflected in analogous shapes at varioushierarchic levels from the broadest. thereare two textural progressions of compelling spatial and qualitative growth. 9-20. Broadly speaking. These linesrepresent a path of growth and decline. at the broadesthierarchic level. a broad anticipatory gesture shapedalong the lines suggestedabove and below. the second more active and diverse texturally but with dialogue rather than overlapping interlinear imitation. the graphic treatment includes asummary curve and shows theoverall metric function of anacrusis in a discrete symbolization. The entire introduction is quoted in Ex. but the resolution of textural complexity is vitally complementary. dramatic technique in which elementchange is at times violently severe and abrupt. the drive of melodic line powerfully inflating the texture-space!. or the constant use of syncopationand metric displacement. . and prolongation on the dominant. consisting of a powerful initial attack and subsequent growthand decline to a condition of minimal textural substance. relatively settled pitch-lines. the senseof releaseis accountable to dynamic reduction and a decreasein sonority. and qualitative interlinear activity. progressive anacrustic preparation. the tempo is slow in preparation for the allegra main body of the movement. lower-level. the most likely harmonic areaof anticipatory function. to which adequate. There are thus two releaseareas: the first of these ismonophonic. consistent attention cannot always be given-events of coloration dynamics. asrepresented in Ex. orchestration!.. then the features of texture and textural progression andrecession ineach of its sections are treated in detail.e. 24. To a considerable extent. surface accelerations. 21-24 and 25-29 i. then chordal in texture. and the operations of complementary forces. The example is. 7 or m. 21-29! . l-9. metric elonga- tions.texture 267 tral symphonic introductions.. as of m. and rhythm in all its manifestations e. that of the entire introduction. like that of m. that of It seemsdesirable to pause briefly to seethe introduction as a macrounit. anacrustic. articulations.

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Bn. Vln. Ob. CL Bn. Vl Vc Db Fl. Ob. texture Fl. 2-29a continued. . Vln.270 Ex. Vc.

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t6XlUI'8 273 .`fE4~ ' 1f=i #.Q -1 P_ PP X EF _ PP `E"% lllljllllilill -_ -Q _'i1"1l ' _l _ _ '?§1§.@_ - ' _ ' 1 4 V Q1 » » Vw 'I ' "' u# EI II 'll. 11- @ -1 '92 . IP V _ nv _.l . ' _| QPF: F _ 1" ii`.

area of low density.t. violas! is fortified by doubling in characteristic 3rds and later 10ths and 6ths!.2-29b. intersecting as directions of motion change. vigorous contrapuntal conflict is apparent too in directional opposition.274 texture Ex.i i b di '*i' it o ityby td The bbtt: . Voices 1 and2 movewith great and inexorable drive. in the Brahms introduction. minimaltextural activity Second precipitate recession within all texturalparameters In Section I there are three voices. The total d II'!: . Betweenvoices 1 and 2 there is very little coincidence of movement i. asshaped by texturaland otherevents.area of intense reduced density interlinear activity Areaof density accrual andsonority Intensity of sonority andtexturalactivity density Precipitate release. this factor applied very consistentlyand fundamentally. Intensitycurveat two levels. a high degreeof rhythmic and metric differentiation!.. build-up. The sonority of this component and of the texture as 6 whole! b is of course further enhanced by octave doubling: pedi poet. horns 3 and 4. a technique largely responsible for the richness of sonority. providing increaseddensity with interdependence.powerfully stated. dramatically opposedto the rigid insistenceof the fixed basspedal. Voice 2 woodwinds.e. 24 13 68 57 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 Areaof Broadest space and tentative textural forceof anacrustic interactions. each doubled and reinforced.

Actually. The stark contrast of Section IIs condition of relative serenity is an aspect of characteristic romantic effect. The relative prevalence of homorhythmic texture is an indication of textural recession. double-bass. rupturing under its own pressures at m. At phrase level. 9. contrabassoon! by repeated notes in throbbing regularity-a rhythmically insistent factor against the variegated movements of other componentswhile the first and second horns sustain the tonic PC. The tonally distant harmony of m. compensatoiy intensity ty" tonally dissonant prolongation. D.. . considerably a function of radical change of texture and sonority. with sustained woodwinds. The progression. maintains and does not compromise the firm independence of the three components. as to its upward component. The pedal. largely chromatic rise of the upper voice and subsequently that of the secondvoice! creates. and finally C. a tense inflation of thetexture-space. The determined. Bl. homorhythmic texture which becomes explicitat mm. C# .. persistent. as against the fixed pedal. this initial development has to be seenas a gradually expresseddensity-number progressionpreparing the chordal. C. in this sense there is no qualitative change. while a tonally-melodically static component in and of itself. thus constitutes astrong contrapuntal factor against thedrive ofthe other voices. by such techniques asfour-octave duplication in the initiating voice. heavily doubled components.to which it is obliquely related.and increasing conflict of dissonance as well. C. is the final chromatic movement of voice l-violins. celli-from F to F# against the dissonant pedal.and in itself a radical contrast to the texture of the preceding phrase. rise of the original! voice 2 against descent ofvoice l. Fl?!which builds to a really febrile state. derived enharmonically. very A acute factor in the increasing space. The senseof rigidity opposed tomovement the latter in surging chromatic successionsof great dynamic intensity! implies an impact of severe tensionnote suchdissonances as C. chordal texture accrues. as to texture. final rise of voice l against descent of voice 2 into urgently indicated. incompensatory relationto the severe dynamic and textural reduction. is in its foreground a complex interaction of conflicting tendencies: rise of voice 1. The expression ofrelease is. 9.etc.! The texture-space.! The only contrarhythmic factor is the continued. and sonority is enhanced. The vital parameter in which there is significant change in the texture is that of space. of course. 11-12. transitory resolution in m.texture 275 complex is thus one of three sharply differentiated. The pedal voice is activated powerfully timpani.with the confluence of complementary element-changes. ll. 29-37! with the allimportant. but cf mm. is of complementary effect in relation to pronounced textural change to explicit homorhythmic conditions.

which correspond to but are an extension of mm. iteration in the low voice: a subtle activation spilling over from the preceding pedal voice. l 1-12. Again. there is strong chromatic leaning. tracing the progressively increased distance between upperand lower components reveals an inflation of the spatial field from to bv i at the hierarchic level of the introduction as a whole. But mm.. this section represents a significant contrast to the preceding tumultuous. 92 ' i i5 n r 274' 3 gg _= 13-15.at the level of the section. although of course within smaller dimensions. aset oflower-level textural progressions and recessions moving. . 19! is analogous indrastic. contrapuntally active conditions. 15 is itself still more distant tonally than that of m. 9. 15-19. 18. The complementarity of linear descent and diminuendoare strikingly persuasive. there is doubling in enhancement ofsonority. etc. ll. 2 *_ -f. f a. e gg". the pitch-line rises. essentially to and from the syncopated attack at the end of m. in summary.276 texture residual.. but more significant is the inflation of texture-space cfi Section I! which is the consequenceof pitch rise. Section II is an area of relative sparsity and inactivity of texture. The abrupt dellation of space m. now motivic. The accrual represented in Ex. 2-29c. achieve moresubstantial progression: texture and sonority developin complementation to crescendo. thus. Ex. i ' "H HEI' 'C 1371 'np: " lar! . and the harmony of m.. summary effect to that of m. As a whole. 2-29c is repeated in sequencein mm. Measures 9-20are.

e I/ ~ 3 /. as areturn of thematic materials of Section I. whose materials contrast.7 1. inone of its functions. references to the movements principal thematic material.: 2 IZ I 1| 92 Q The development of progressively inflated and expanded texture and sonority in the sustainedchordal background against which the ultimately rising and accelerating line of the strings movesis representedin Ex. 2-29e. as in Section I. EX. 2-29d! is thus a recurrent technique in . determined rise of the upper stratum against a fixed pedal Ex. The main body of SectionIII mm. Exo 2'29el 2. but without the deviating subsidences enroute hence. Section III it is fundamental to the expressivecharacter of both anacrustic and subsequentportions. a large spatial inflation by which intensity is mounted and in relation to which dynamic and rhythmically accelerative progressions are again complementary. The technique of inflation of the texture-space by persistent. like recurrent patterns in the introduction. 25-28!. alsorepresents intense spatial expansion. /. 0 -If/. as dosurrounding sections. /*if* z ll. !_ '-_ ° -2- ft. it is built texturally of a compromised monophonic statement with an accruing chordal background and. 2124! contains. Somewhat like Section II.texture 277 Section III serves.2-29d.-7- I . J _. but it is condensed from eight to four measures and now is essentially an expression ofdominant rather than tonic harmony in keeping with its position in the broad functional tonal-harmonic curve of the introduction as a whole. to which the preceding four bars are anacrustic. The anacrustic portion by which it is prepared mm. the condensation referredto above!.

bassoon. imposed as well onthe originalupper voice. texture. abortive animation of generally declining textural states. against this another implied level effects the lines primary risinginfiection toa high point from which . etc. unifying principle: that of afixed element counterpointea' against two compo- nents forcibly driven in opposing directions: --""__""__"_:The fixed component IS the lower stratum of compound lme: texture thus is remarkably analogous to the very different opening of the movement. Within that line. a characteristic.!. 25-28! isagain characterized by determinedly opposed upper voices.!" It is suggested that further attentionbe givento comparison between Sections I and III. violins andflutes! andconsequent restrictions of range. it is not uncommon: at the point of quantitative decline with complementary reductionof dynamics. Brahms interposes the activating stimulus of interactions among components-the only point in the introduction at which significant imitations arise in a brief. between Section III and the following. etc. a manifestation of the shaping of texture-space like that of the monumental Section I and other segments of the introduction asdescribed in these pages. 29 a fourth section emerges. in its microcosmic projection.It levels off. Here. sonority. Here is a fascinating study in texture and textural progression at a microcosmic level. for the first time in the introduction. dynamics. The main bodyof SectionIII the recapitulative mm. clarinet motive. But note the compensatory continuing stasis oftonal-harmonic condition-static in its fixed content. hence. potent feature of Brahms counterpoint. Again there iscontradirectional relation.deceleration of rhythmic motion. Texture is again comparable to that of the first section and subsequent manifestations of the same. however. If this is paradoxical. "Reference has been made to the compound linear structure ofthe primary motive of SectionIV see the oboepart. settling of pitch-lines-horn. For this line is. and final cello line. severely contradirectional and contrarhythmicin relation. and once again there is the dramatic device of stark contrast of pitch level and range. Here.. Once again the complementarity of other elements mustbe noted.In compensation for this restriction. the illusionof consistent rise is attained byoctave transference by doubling violins at dwérent times.! With the repeated severe and abrupt change at m. and at its lower impliedlevel. 29-32!.the voicesdo not intersect as before. a pedal is established by the recurringdominant pitch. mm. likeSection II one of relative tranquillity within all e1ement-structures except that of tonal function.25. because of theformal condensation as wellas thehigher pitchof theopening m. but intensifying in the prolongation of dissonantinstability. there is significant qualitative as opposedto quantitative and spatial! tex- tural development. the originalsecond voice fails to make ascent subsequent to its initial descent.278 texture Here againis asubsidiary progression seen to have important expressive effect within lower-level functional shaping at the level of the phrase. Attention is directed to the individual components ofSection IV. against the fixedpedal beneath. between the descendinglower motive derived from the inner voice of the symphonys opening bars! and the ascending ana' compound upper motive a mirror relation freely derived from Section II ?!.

the viola descent ofm. In the progression ofimitative interactions noted above a modest one! it is to be noted that the function of stretto. is significantly supportive of the 'achievement at the same time of a peak in the linear rise beforethe final cadential settling. '|'One unison doubling: a differentiation of sonority and coloration. but in descending octave registers. a striking use of compensatory progression of higher pitch within the opposing context of recessively lowerregistral placements. thena at distance of SJbetween clarinet the entry of m. flute. the spatial relationbetween the two implied strata! recedes. The other motive is taken by horn. melodic motion and with it. to to . then bassoon andclarinet. be representedas in Ex. 2-29f. first at a distance of 3 twice!. maximal density *Symbols not in vertical ordering ofvoices. 34. 1In m. not of densitynumber. 'I'his issymptomatic ofthe extent towhich analysis can go in consideration ofa single element or characteristic of structure at various levels of progression. 34. in textural structure. All of this constitutesa lowlevel shapeof coursesubsidiary in relation to the ultimate textural-dynamicpitch releaseof the introduction broadly heard. restrained though it is.. The motive taken up by the oboe. 32 and the final hint of the motive. twounison doublings. in mm. as well asthe remarkable parallels thatcan pertainamong such levels. at then twice IJ.'" 2E ! ! 22 1 Sounding lines I curve of density-number! : 35 17-8 4 | Maximal interlinear independence. 32-33.! at effects an upward linear projection in the oboe portion and subsequently an implied linear ascent of PC. 2-2911 Ex. . A representation of qualitative progression and recession. in the succession from 1. 29 30 3| 32 33 34 35 36 37 '' !1 L éEL L3 2 L ll . and the curve of densitynumber changes. and cello imitated GJ.texture 279 A number of imitations should be traced. Section IV might. in SectionIV.

is altogether based on the three-note cellular unit formed by order numbers 1-2-3 and 6-7-8. m. and inqualitative interlinear interactions. following the cadence. it is illuminating to see this progression-recession inthese foreground details and then to stand back to see and hearl! it in its broader context as a releasearea yet anticipatory of the following Allegro. are without exception of special interest for the study of textural conditions and processes. 10. from m. so that there are constant imitative interactions on varied motive forms at close distances. with thevoices restating material in multiple counterpoint as well asin mirror relations. Primary attention is given in the present analysisto the first of these songs Ex. we should recall in broad summary the significance of all textural parameters in functional contribution in the expressive effect and character of the introduction as a whole. theimitations of Section IV are of ancillary importance. 2-30a!. Dallapiccola. in which the disposition of the row is entirely linear m. see the twelve-tone set!. Goethe-Lieder "|n tausend Formen"! for soprano and three clarinots No. with its vigorous resumption of energy. to The variation in mm. . 7-10 isessentially textural. IO to the upbeat of m. 1-4 in mirror variations and with all four forms of the row presented in a context in which imitation is free and occasional .Texture functions in complementary relation to the structuresof other elements. the secondsection. 7 cadence! presentingthe voicesof mm. with the second after the m. In relation to this fundamental technique. a release which is compensatory to the persistently static finally dissonant! tonal condition resolved only in the main body of the movement. like many of his works. as throughout the introduction. l into m. an aspect of which is the movement-against-stasis relation of pedal to moving voices. Dallapiccolas Goethe-Lieder. is divisible into two subsections. 1 . in the end achieving the release of spentintensity in a number of aspects. 14. the third section. texture included.° Brief observation suggests that the song is divisible by cadential punctuation andby disparity qf technique into three sections: thefirst. In Section IV. The works twelve-tone setwill be found within a brief supplementary referenceat the end of this chapter. a basic issueis apparent: the achievement of textural diversity by the rhythmic and especially directional differentiation of lines. 13.280 texture There is increased intensity within this subsidiary shapein densigg in space. nevertheless significantly functional within the foreground level of that section itself Finally. and in the often strikingly analogous shapes of its parts at various levels.

¢sprm. 1.E:._=:| -"" 11 ' "1 For.. U° .~ poco ¢`"I""=?¬E-?:E __ V! | '. in ni ~5."In tausend Formen"!.?.ate» V _iii gfg AXP'.! 3 Kwik _ é.-1 *5 "":EE3*r§==-"'i'=.7 ' _ I_ " .-U ' |1 o do i 92 u .f".J*.1:.men magst du dich ver.1- ' _ -5. 281 Voice ' LentoJL69! 4°f§'= l' |' || '° P.stek .kenn __i_____ ich 'ch. .=_1:::§§F?=EEiF. Doch._ l "' rg A pochxZss. -_ pp _-. in Biff` _ _ . |g '| p. espress.-==E::r. i' rn. va -._ poco espress.:. in Es -5..__ Al o» 0 Ps" '3 I -__.=""` ~ _`__i_ |-is 1 `f ` .-r. :- * *All notation at soundingpltch. -_ i ..~ __..so! 1.-1:2EE 9292|'l*:"_--lg" Il LT Pé cn. 1. . Goethe-Lieder No. 2-30a.. '= . Du W __ ___ I II 2n 'V .let .f6XfUf6 Ex.L-:7LQ_:7==_1A. -2 p.-=.5 /92 .'. Dallapiccola. 27.i'°§§: 92 ij.::: 1T Bass Cl. SOSL 1 5_ AA c1. - _ | J* V "J" _ _i m_8 [QQ] dolciss! X _ !_60! gleich er ._ *l1 ll`Y'l[lu poch !iss.lieb .ken.: L.*==r1=.

Used bypermission. texture J 69! gyp abocca sc michiusa! ! Copyright 1959byS A EdisioniSuviniZerboni.2-30a continued.282 Ex. Milano. .

Already clear in the above prefatorycomments isthe function of texture in delineating the songs three major divisions.This is a significantfactor in imitative textures. the earliest follower isin direct or contiguous!imitation while the next follower. very much suppressed in the interest of preparation for the climactic section following. clarinet parts. longer valuesat evententative cadences like m. 4. Dynamic change plays a part too: except for the punctuation at m. where imitationsonce removed are homodirectional. three timesremoved. especially where varied subject forms appear in a single exposition. When the imitation once removed is closer inshape and intervallic contentto theoriginal subject than isthe direct imitation. l4~l5 where each voice presents a given set-form in linear ordering-I'°. but the contrasting implications of texture classes and techniques are of great importance in this respect. T/zefunctiom qftextural change in cadential ddinition are particularly evident in this piece. To some extent cadential expression is rhythmic e. 9-10 and the end!.! 5°With half-closed mouth. triangular relations are particularlypersuasive. the lines ofsignificant relation assume very complex patterns in perceptible not just theoretical!interactions when the distance of imitation is not extreme. 5Vanishing. imitation. because. those onceremoved° close enough to have significant impact. P°.g.texture 283 the end! features acontinual concurrence of inversionally related set-forms Bb clarinet with bass clarinet. in this sense the first three measures where the prime form of the set is distributed in vertical and diagonal linesthroughout the three-voice texture!contrast with. etc. if the texture is of more than one voice.is at the sametime in imitation once removed with respect tothe original statement. There are at various levels important and expressiveprogressions in the textural structure and these will be summarized. then I5 in the Eb clarinet!.sa. It is significant that conditions of severe dissonance tend to be maintained at points of cadential resolution. cadence is characterized by diminuendo-particularly deliberate in the final bars. release is critically a consequence of element-changes other than that of harmonic content. and at the more decisivecadences ofmm. and voice with Eb clarinet! producing two rhythmicalbf free mirror canonsthe relations are contrarhythmic-contradirectional-homointervallic! with a considerable number of imitative relations. .. Other voicesfollow in imitation twice.. will result in some way granted that it can be elusive if rhythmic nonconformity is extreme and persistent!. with respect to the originalvoice and in closer diagonal relations to preceding voices subsequent in entry to the original. a bocca semic/ziu. Note the Dallapiccola after m. notably in the final cadence. where there isrecessive coloration denoted bysuch instructionsas psubito. for example. as compared with more proximate contradirectional imitations."° and perdendosifl And melodic descent is also palpably functional in cadential expression. If three voices ormore! participatein imitation on asingle motive. 7. 13. It is of course generally true in a serial work that where the row is deployed in horizontal distribution. 13. pit! p. mm.for example!. ppp. at m. naturally other element-changescontribute to this delineation note rhythmic or dynamic shapes. and PS. in direct imitation with the secondentering voice.resulting in triangular and multiangular relations.

2-3. And the interlinear interdependence of thefinal cadence is the most marked of all. and fifth units at a broad hierarchic level. Interlinearinterdependence as The texture-spaceconfiguration of thc introductoryphrase. Ex. fourth. thespatial shape of thefirst phrase is onein which the initial compass is that of a major 7th. the final chord achieves theworks smallest space.but it is enhanced here by the interdependent bass clarinet and singing voice. The reduction of texture-space tothe compass of a minor 6th in the final cadence is an indication of this: in fact. each of which pauses ona note of long duration. and that of its mirror. 4 is marked by the accord of all three voicesand is prepared by qualitatively recessiverhythmic association between uppervoices inmm. FI! '-a t /"/ L. . While the cadences tendto maintain a density of 4 except for the initial progression fairlyconstant in the work in general!. Comparable recessions in which the contraction of texture-spaceis an important factor can be seen in the synopsis in Ex. 5 andamong allfour voices at the start of m. That of mm. they are marked by increased interdependence component of lines-again with the exception of m. climactic progression. 6-7 is prepared by rhythmic identification between upper clarinets at m. The cadence intom. I 'Zi f. mm. mm. arcof special interest. 13. since it concludes themirror variation of the opening bars. homodirectional except for mirrored outer voices-a final surviving factor of textural vitality! conformity is again gradually prepared by qualitative recession. the superimposed pointing bracket is intendedto draw attention to composite recessive contraction of the third. homointervallic. Texture-space contraction in the Dallapiccola phrases and ata broader level. and its homorhythmic.284 texture Related to the factor of melodic descent in cadential formulation is that of the contraction of texture-space a as device in cadence. 7-10. 10 is ofcourseanalogous tothat of m. 6. In other respects too texture functions in the expression of cadence. 2-30b. the voices coincidentin attack.'92 =f` WG. andcontracting tothe originalinterval transposed but in a proximatearea. 2-30b. 4. where cadential stability is not appropriate in view of the approaching. expanding to the same interval in its compound form. The tentative cadence of m. I-4.

texture 285

expressed byDallapiccola is often marked by considerable directional and intervallic conformity as well as rhythmic. In a context of unusual rhythmic diversity, interdependences within the texture units of 2, 3, 4! have particularly strong effect and are obvious factors of shaping control. Brief attention should be given to the factor of time interval and to the considerationof possible functions of changes inthe distances of imitation. In m. IOHI, the first section in which imitation is prevalent, indeed constant, the trichordal cellular subset mentionedearlier appearsin numerous transformations. If we take its original occurrence as order numbers 1-2-3 as definitive and take as referential the IC succession 1-2: a rising minor 2nd, then a descending major 2nd!, we can note the following specific variations, with rhythmic formulations generally involving two sixteenth-notes with the third tied into a longer note or, later, eighth-notes throughout or triplet sixteenth-notes with the third tied into a longer note: mirror e.g., Eb clarinet, m. ll!, retrograde e.g., Bb clarinet, m. 12!, retrograde inversion e.g., bassclarinet, m. 12!, and occurrences in which compound and complementary forms of the intervals are used in expansion of the intervallic content e.g., bass clarinet in m. ll, or voice setting of Zauberschleiern, also a distinct augmentation!. The grouping is easily identified and the interactions among voices unmistakable, although of coursethose imitations in which two like forms or closely similar rhythmic and intervallic formulations follow directly bring the effectof imitative interaction suddenlyinto clearestfocus: e.g.,Bb clarinet and Eb clarinet, beginning of m. 13; or the samevoices in mm. ll-12. The effect isone ofdense entanglement of texture in which four voices,all of them constant in activity, project a singlelimited idea obsessively in references that relate diagonally to other voices and, if one considers imitations once removed see dottedlines in Ex. 2-30c!, a setof interlinear relations of great complexity. It is in this sense perhaps morethan any other that this section is a pronounced contrast to the others.

In mm. 10-13 the distance of imitation does not undergo significant change. There is imitation at 4 3 between between upper clarinets, m. 10! and at bass and Eb clarinets, across thebar-line separating mm. ll

and 12!, but otherwisedirect imitation.: are consistently at a distance of2 -in

one sense a preparation for the tightest stretto, atm. 13, at 105 . This does not
take into account the augmented forms of the motive in the singing voice,
which while involved in the web of interactions seem at the same time some-

what removed

in relation to the faster-moving clarinets,! Thus, the pro-

53The line of text set here,Du mags! mit Zauberschleiern dick bedekken You mayclothe yourself inmagic veils!, seems a very suggestive basis for the musicstexture.

texture 287

and lab Bb and bass clarinets!. In the consideration timeof intervals in
this sectionthere seem to be three important conclusions to be drawn regarding the functional effect of imitative distance and its changes: ! there is constant modification of the time interval-any regularity of spacing seems insistently avoided in favor of constant flux ci the preceding section!; ! the rhythms of the component lines are so contrived that absolute concurrence time interval of 0! is achieved only incadentialjormulation, as noted earlier; and ! the abruptly and maximally tight stretto with which the section begins lower

clarinets lgb! at contributes complementarily climactic toand energy, coincident is
with _/brteand crescendo, the performance direction appassionato, and other

It is noteworthy in the texture as a whole that density changes are slight; in general the four component voices arerather continually engaged apart from the progressive accrual at the beginning and the repetition of this pattern in variation a few bars later!. A charting of the texture throughout, however, reveals a series of qualitative successions in the direction of maximal diversity and subsequently in the direction of resolution; it reveals maximal textural complexity and interlinear interaction in the songs climactic measures 3-15! and the section approachingthese. With reference to the presentation given in Ex. 2-30d, we can make the following summary observations: at point a!, progressionto and through

Ex. 2-30d. A schematic representation ofinterlinear independence and interdependence throughout the Dallapiccola song. l2 34 56 78 9 10 ll°l3 14-17 18 I9-20

llll°l3.l_l.l!l_l.ll|llllL°""Lll"l'l4 liz 232 llllll Ill'-" l!ll'l`l
11 1 lll2l 1 111- --2 11 92, I /92 b /92 2 /d g/92 c

*Symbols of interlinear association-e.g., !, denote rhythmic interdependence and often directional and intervallicconformity as well.

The time interval8 of Aoccursdirect in contradirectional imitation between bass
clarinet andsinging voice across the bar-line between mm. 13and 14.

288 texture l2

briefly manifest diversity Land density 3!, recession through diversity T

to cadential accord; at b!, with density 4 constant, fluctuation between three and two real components to the cadential accord, 4; at c!, density progression from3 to 4, qualitative progression tomaximal diversity-activity in m. 8, then a recession ; at d!, quick but graduated! progression todensity

4 and diversity T, maximal diversity continuing into the cadential bar with


punctuation a function of rests-i.e., brief opening oftexture by the release of the singing voice and bass clarinet;at e!, again, quickly progressive accrual to density 4 and total diversity as above,then a recession tothree real components, followedby highest degree ofaccord at the cadence. Again, analysisat variousstructural levelsis indicated-e.g., at onelevel the considerationof the shape within a phraselike that of mm. 7-10, and at a broader level the consideration ofthe function of this shape andits quantitative and qualitative states in the course of the directed line of intensity reaching itsculmination in subsequent sections. In thebroadest view, the texture is seen to attain through the various stagesnoted a condition of maximal complexity, vitality, and density in the internal, climactic portions: the

diversity T,tentatively developed in m. 8, is increasingly persistent in mm.


The final cadence isachieved primariiytexturalbf despite the actions of complementary element-structures; it is the point of resolution of highly complex and active texturesprogressively developed, and it is characterized by almost total interdependence of components, an interdependence compromised onlyby the contradirectional relation of outer voices in a persistent but subordinate manifestation of final textural vitality.

Seria//sm and texture; texture as a product of

chance operations

What might be referred to as classical serialism has of course important implications for the content and character of musical texture: the usual avoidance ofoctave doublings,with consequences for maximal heterogeneity of simultaneous PC content, and the frequency of imitative polyphony

texture 289

induced by twelve-tone procedures are two such implications. A further implication is in the predetermined interlinear heterogeneity of PC content resulting from combinatorial applications of serialism. Densities andother aspects of texture registral placement, therefore its spatial configuration! have been prescribed in serialization as extensions of the serial prescription of PC and other elements!. Of course, therecan be no generalstatement about the methodof serialization of densitiesand other nonpitch elements; one can only cite this or that method adopted by a particular composerin a given work. The PC set or derived interval set! can be made to yield a numerical set, of course, by any of a number of means: the set of numbers representing the intervallic distances between the initial pitch of the set and each remaining pitch; the set of numbers derived from such intervallic distances between each pitch of the set and the next; the set of numbers denoting PCs as ordered in the set usually 0-l l, 0 = C and ll = B! may be used as the set, or basis of derived sets, of densities and durations; or the composermay establish an independent density or duration! set, or an arbitrary or designed set for any element ofhis work. Texture in serialism means quantitative aspects susceptibleto purely numerical analog.! One exampleof specificmethod is provided by Kiienek in discussion of his Sestina, a work for soprano, violin, guitar, flute, clarinet, trumpet, piano, and percussion.Ki'°eneks derivation of densities concerns both the original row and the rotational principle of the poetic form, sestina."
No presentation of combinatorialityis possible here, butthe reader is referred to the following sources, especially to Babbitt, whois ofpreeminent importance in the development of combinatorial principles and applications, and to other sources to which these may lead: George Perle, Serial Composition and Atonaligy, 3rd ed. Berkeley: Universityof California Press, 1972!, pp. 97-98; Milton Babbitt, Some Aspectsof Twelve-ToneComposition, in The Score, 12 june 1955!, pp.53-61; Babbitt, Set Structure as a Compositional Determinant, in _journal qfMusic Theory, V, 1 961!, pp. 72-94.Schoenbergs often quoted statement oninversion oftherow transposed a 5th below, combined with the original form so as toavoid PCduplication within each pairof corresponding hexachords, occurs on p. 116 of Style and Idea New York: Philosophical Library, 1950!. Incontrast tocombinatoriality of this kind is procedural fixing or invariance of segmental content among set associations; see, for example, Babbitt,Twelve-tone Invariants as CompositionalDeterminants, in The Musical Quarterly, XLVI,2 960!, pp. 246-59. 5°To quote Ki'°enek [Extents and Limitsof Serial Techniques, in The Musical Quarterly, XLVI, 2 960!, p. 223] :The Sestina is oneof thepoetic forms developed by the Provencal poets ofthe twelfth century, itsoriginal specimen being ascribed to Arnaut Daniel. It may well be called aserial formof poetry, and its essential formative principle isrotation. The poem consists of six stanzas of sixblank verses each. Ithinges upon six keywords which appearat the endings of the individual lines. If in the iirst stanzathe orderof these words is1 23 4 5 6, the words will appearin the second stanza in the order 6 l 5 2 43. The principle of rotation which is applied here consists in switching the positionof every two keywords equidistant from the center of the series,proceeding fromthe end toward the middle. Accordingto the same principle, the positionsof the keywords inthe subsequent stanzas are 3 6 412 5; 5 3 2 6 l 4; 4 513 6 2; 2 46 5 31. The process ends here, since the next rotationwould produce the originalseries. The six stanzas are followed by a Tornado of

290 texture

Ki'eneks consideration of density as serially determined is that of the number of components vertically coincident; in the following extract from his analysishe citesdensity-compression our word! as another parameter, the location of the tones within the gamut of six octaves designated as the ambitus of the work, subject to a different governing mode of operation. Ki"eneks twelve-toneset isgiven in Ex. 2-31, and below is further quotation of his discussion ofSestina. Ki"eneks group A is the sets first hexachord.!
Ex. 2-31 _ Twelve-toneset forK¥enek's Sestina, with derived density series. /-Group A-l-92

Derived densityseries: 6 3 5 4l 2 Reprinted by permission Bdrenreiterof Verlag. three lines in which the keywords, one ofeach pairin the middle andthe otherat theend of the line,appear in the order2, 5,4, 3,6, l. Reprinted bypermission of G. Schirmer,Inc.! Ki'°eneks self-composed text follows in quotation of the first two stanzas only,the translation as given in the cited source, butwith the rotation of keywords indicated. None of Sestinas music canbe quotedhere; Ki'°eneks article quotes from it only very briefly p. 227!. Vergangen Klang und Klage, sanjler Strom. 1 Die Schwingung der Sekunde wird zum Mass. 2 Was in Geschichte lebt, wars nurein Zufall? 3 VeU'all, Verhall, zerronnene Gestalt? 4Die Stunde zeitigt Wandel, wendet Zeit. 5 Das Vorgeschrittne ordnet sich der Zahl. 6 In Schritten vorgeordnet durch die Zahl gestaltet sich Gedanlce, doch zum Strom wird strenge Teilung, uhr-genaue Zeit. 5 Ist es vermessen, solches Mass von Mass 2 dem Leben aufzuzwingen, der Gestalt? 4 Der Zwang zerrinnt, erzeugt den neuen Zufall. 3 [Bygone are sound and mourning, tender stream. l Vibration of the second becomes measure. the 2 What lives in history, was itonly chance ?3 Decline, fading sound, vanished shape? 4 The hour causes change, turns the time. 5 What looks ahead subordinates itself to number. 6 In stages preordained number by 5 thought takes shape, but a stream is theresult of! strict division, of clocklike, precise time. Is it presumingforce to such an extent J measure on IW,on shape? Force vanishes, brings forth new chance.] l 5 2 4 3 6 1

Reprinted permission by Biirenreiter-Verlag. of The composers English translation, included in the article cited above, reprinted by permission of G.Schirmer, Inc.

texture 291

D¢nSitY is the Nxt Pa1`am¢tC1` b¢to determined serially. There are six degrees of density whose successiondetermined is by the position of thepitehes in groupA. Againthe lowestC! is called 1, the highestGi! 6_ Consequently the initial series of densities is 6 35 4 1 2.In density l the two tone-groups A andB run off simultaneously in a sort oftwo-part setting in whichthe dural1l0I'l ofthelI1dlVlCll.lal 1165 is dCtCl°II1iIlC by l [bg mgghanism dgsgribgd ____ In

density 2 the iirst and second time segments of groupA run eoneurrently with the first segment of groupB. In density 3 two Sggments of each group are developed simultaneously, and so forth,until in density 6 six segments
of each group, i.e. twelve all together, run off at the sametime_

Another parameter is thelocation ofthe tones within the gamut gfsix octaves designated as theambitus ofthe wc,r|¢_ The serialstatement adopted for thisarea reads that thetones of each segrnent should run through as many octaves as there aretones. The direction ofthe motionis determined by the d.iI`CCtiOI`l thC of COI°I'CSpOl'ld.lI`lg lfltCI'V2.l ill the originals¢|°ie5_ Since many Sgg..
ments contain less sic! than six tones, they eoyer less than six oetaves and

therefore could extend over various bands of theeornplete ambitus This too, is regulated by specialserial statements. Needless to say thatall theseserial organisms are subject torotation according to the sestina pattgrn, which is th¢ 5UPf¢m¢ law S°V¢fni8 CVCTY m0V¢ Of every variable within the whole

In thereference from which the above is taken, Kifenelr explains further devices of density serialization in hisSeah; Vernzsssgne, a set of sixpiano pieees_
A later serial work of mine is a set gf six piano pieces, ealled Sgghj Vermessene. This German titleis a play on Wgrdg, sincg vermessm German in means completely measured as well aspresuming, a pun that eannot bg
reproduced in English. While the time mechanism is similar to that gf the

Sestina, the construction differs from it in that for thefirst three pieees system a of five layers is set upin which the first has density 1 i_e_,one noteat a time!, thenext has two tones together, the third thrgg the fourth four, andthe fifth six t0I'lCS. The tiITlC II`lC3Sl1I'ClT1C!'ltS fOI` thg Varigus layers arg 3 rgsult Qf
summing up the interval magnitudes involved in the eonseeutiye toneeom-

binations. For example, the tone series of thiseomposition being;
. _

the first combination of tones in density 2

is; _


numerical values derived fromthis progression are 3 a minor third frgm G to and l. half-step fI`OI'fl E to F!. COnSCqu¢ntly first the timgSggmgnt of the firstlayer has three units, the firstof the ggggnd has fgur _|_ ]!_ As the density ofthe layers increases, the number of simultaneously sounding intervals and thus the numericalvalues oftheir sum; heeome higher_ Therefore the .$`8g77l¬l'ltS longer become , m8anS #18 Chgfdy,t0ne-¢-lujtgfs, of incfeasfng 57Ibid., pp. 225-26. Reprinted by permission of ;_ Schirrner [ne_!

2.92 texture thickness are spaced farther apart, while the single tones Uthe first layer _follow each other more rapidb. Computations of this kind form the basis of the whole composition.

In illustration of Ki"eneks basic methodof serialization of layers and densities inthe first three of these pieces, an extract is givenfrom the first Ex. 2-32! _ Although the quotation is limited, the density progression is wellunderway, as is the progression ofincreasing durations.Identifications of these are included in the example.

Ex. 2-32. Kienek, Sechs Vermessene, No. 1.

SD .


9.60 W /92 /-92 ||

_______., 2 °""

I 'ff 1:f P
|Q +l


| |2


Density 5
Density 4

"' f

+7 2 | NPC!!


+5 |


_ fi

.....-.- ----a

3:22223 ;___I" ,

*Notes withwavy stems and numbers indicate subdivisions of the eighth-note. Numbers withinslurs show divisions intoequal parts, numbers withinbrackets the groupings of the unitsof subdivision. Reprinted permission by Barenreiterof Verlag.

In another operation, procedurally opposite yet often paradoxically analogous as to effect," and commonin certain contemporary styles, textures

are theresult ofchance by which theperformers choices are made within often considerable latitudes.

53Spaced farther apart in attacks, i.e., in relativelylonger durations, not in separation by rests. 5°Ibid., p.229; emphasis added. Reprinted by permission of G. Schirmer, Inc.! °°While in the Kienek piano piecea contextually functional, palpablysignificant successionserially is predetermined the progression of densities having increasing durations!, Kieneks methodis unusually simple inconsequence, with accrual of density and temporal! values of directly increasing consecutive orders.

texture 293 Cono/ud/ng notes

The foregoinganalyses and discussions illustrate the modes of textural process as a structure-delineating element in music, and they are a demonstration of the significance and vitality of this element of structure. Although texture in music is relatively little studied albeit much referred to!, its effect is almost always an important factor in structure and expressive effect in some degree and at some level. Even a slight changee.g., theabrupt and momentary engagement of the bass oran inner voice in interaction with another melodic entity-can give significant vitality, however abortive, to the texture at the foreground level. One of the evidences of the significance of textural structure is its immediacy of effect. If this is particularly apparent in quantitative progression e.g., the graduated accrual of textural components as in so many musical works!, it is also true, although subtler in effect, in qualitative changes-for example, the overt passage from homorhythmic to contrarhythmic texture, the fleetingvitalizations of texture by momentary diversification, or the rhythmic and other devices of activation of textures of persistent simplicity of character and content. The textural class of a musical instance is almostcertainly one of the first attributes of which we, in listening, become aware; and textural progressionor recession or in static situationsthe obstinacy of unchanging texture! can be especially compelling and direct in expression ofeffective, affectivemusical process. A specific indication of the significance of musical texture is seen in the apparent fact that complexity or simplicity of texture is important in distinction betweenwhat is commonly referred to as art music as opposed to folk, popular, or commercial music. Clearly, one of the primary factors bywhich art music is,at its best, relativelychallenging andinteresting is its broad range of textural attitudes and attributes, and modes oftextural complexity. The textural uneventfulness which, in part, characterizes so many commercialand popular genres sets them clearly apart from the elaborate, provocative, sometimes monumental processive textures of Western art music. So evident is this that to cite examples seems pointless. It cannot be suggested that this factor is altogetherdecisive andconclusive insuch distinctions art music of small forms, and unpretentious intent, is sometimes relatively, even extremely, uncomplicated in texture!, but it may well be that in those instances in which art works project little vitality of texture they most approach in that respect! the realmsof popular forms. Where the range of textural possibilities is, in a great art tradition-say, that of liturgical chant-severely limited, it must be said that ! the limitation is that, a boundary which circumscribes theexpressive potentialof the

affecting and characterizing otherelement-successions is signQieantly compensatory-and probably of magniyied value ana' importance-in relation tothe imrnobility of textureseen as an independent factor. and if examples to which we have turned have. especially meter.294 texture literature by restricting the parameters within which processive development can take place. registral coloration. with respect to the various dimensions of texture. As this chapter concludes. those ofcoloration areprobably mostaccessible to analytical identification. We need especiallyto understand process better. Rhythm. dynamic intensity.only tentativeexploration inthis book. . Both of these observations are valid with respect to liturgical chant. even thoughrelative intensityvalues oftimbral differences must be attimes the basis for hypothesis of plausible sometimes seemingly self-evident! but notyet empirically demonstrated function andeffect. isthe concern of the chapter which follows. and range of expressive projection. exploring all musical eventsas to their expressionsof such fundamental structural functions as progression and recession. manifest in the functional. etc. they will have served animportant purpose. That great composers insubsequent traditionshave sorarely devoted themselves toworks of monophonic texture is evidenceof the inherent limitations of monophony and the critical importance of textural vitality in highly developed formsof art music.served to point out some approachesto this kind of understanding.!° have been much too little explored in their structural implications. it should be said again that literatures involved with the study of musicalelements other than tonality and harmony especially those independent of specificity of PC content! leave much yet to be done. referencesto functional and expressive events and processes of coloration have had. with accompanying comment. been theconcern ofthis chapter. this has of course. But of all processive functions of element-structures. Texture and color timbre. "Unfortunately. articulation. andwill have. the most obvious instance of highly expressivemusic in which texture is by definition simple. and ! the subtlety of structural delineation. proportional interrelations amongaccentually articulated groups of events.

Thus. Again. respectively.. whose first chord nevertheless contains overlappingM7s with the m3 the intervalof overlapping. theattack at m.e. 3! in what can beinterpreted as significant functional relationsin articulation of structure.the pianissimo chord of m. 2-3. standing out as the only exceptionto a prevalent normof intervallic content and distribution. _/brte.wnwe AH NOTES Study of the varyingspecific intervallic content as to relations between voices l-2. There is considerable intercomponent interaction of 'thiskind at m.Relative dissonance intensities in the chords are complementedby dynamic stress m.m3! is generally relatively consonant. 5. Or. bl tis interesting to notein theforegoing that where fluctuation is relatively static rather than progressive e.the compensatory effect ofmotive truncation-analogousto time interval contraction in effect. stands out asthe chord of broadest space and necessarily least density-compression! as well as highest dissonance value. are distinctly anomalous. Measure 6 is unique too as the only point of two consecutive chords note thedissonance progression between them!. Generally highdissonance value in the chords is underscored not only by prevalenceof the M7. l l has by far the most restricted space and necessarily greatest density-compression!. 6 projects the M7 between these inner voicesas well. ithas the formal function of launching the songs second part at midpoint. punctuatively!. although the crucialforte chord of m. The relation of PC content in the chordsto that of concurrentvocal phrases is also of interest:the degree to whichthe chords function responsively i. most ofall at m. and related _. but by its frequent occurrence between voices l-2 and 3-4 it so occurs in half of the chords!. m6.and 3-4 numberedfrom top down! in the recurrentchordal factorreveals thatthe M7 ll semitones! is always present except at m. 19-22!complementary effects of ostinatoare to be seen. The chord of m. complementary to localprogressions of pitch and hence of texture-space! within eachfragmentary unit._ ____i_i IC 1 31 31 33 configuration of order numbers 3l Fluctuations in the spaceor density-compression! of chordalevents are also of interest inevaluation of function orfunctional possibilities. device . otherwise spatial fluctuationamong chords is limited to the ambitus of 5-26-27-8 sernitones. is highlycharacteristic of Bartok asother passages in the fifth and other quartets will show!. mm. 6 is the most dissonant. g.The content of the chords is ofcourse governed in part bythe sets three equal trichords3 r_° l--1 7 if 0-he 3 3 . 6. ll .. and once only! SJ! The .2 piano!and m. which has important implications for metricstructure. with three 7ths M7s! superimposed. These two events.of 32-semitone and 19-semitone compasses. wherethe chords do seem responsive-punctuative especially in a reduced tempo in which such relations are verydistinct! in an aspect of the cadential process. which arechiefly responsible for theostinato factor. the interval between voices 2-3P4. 3. °It is noteworthy in the abovedescribed circumstances that there is a series ofveg' localbf progressive accumulations of sonority inthe strings. the time interval change is Huctuant between 2. in mm. l. less at m. is thegrowth in sonority as cello and of order numbers 6-7-8or the 9-10-ll. ll pianissimo! at relativeextremities in the form. asof many other composers of imitative polyphony in all times. 21-22. 6! or counteracted bydynamic underemphasis m. 1l.is adevice of progressive rise in the intensity curve while of progression illustrated here. on the other hand.Least dissonant chords areprobably those of m.

be referred tothe first movement of Haydns Symphony No. The factthat eachline isa linearapplication ofthe twelve-tone set indicates of course a necessary consequence of interlinear relations. although this isoften true. strict canonf f !. functional textural process in tonal works that examples for reference seem almost gratuitous. echoing the ostinato.for example.!.102 in Bl.cf. voices is the canonicweb beginning Ego autem humiliatus. for example. but sonorous and spatial growth is in the immediate surface afactor in the vitalizationof stronglyrestricted tonal-harmonic content. intensely interactive. . homodirectional-homointervalliccontrarhythmic-second viola and contrabass trombone. activated byrhythmic. of these Ahas thegreater tonalimportance.296 f6XfUf6 viola. The texturecannot be said tobe materiallyaH`ected within these low-level progressions. in 5-6 at J. Comparable examples of complementary element-successions expression in cadential of and other functions will easily befound. Rhythmic differentiation is controlled determinedly in interlinear individuation aswhen theviola voices enter atvarying metricpositions in otherwise strict imitation! aswell asby expected.236! achieved by gradualinterlinear rhythmic accord without density reduction. progressing exto tended interaction at Jfollowing 25 m.if one considers these relations as extending to. the entanglement of diagonal. gradual . etc.A caseof texture of highly individuated.Several kinds of canon are in process. articulativeand otherdevices.An instance ofvery complextexture highly diversified qualitativelyand quantitatively is found. and thehorns andtuba. The anthology whichincludes thePurcell Gloria see footnote! contains many excellent objects forstudy of textural factorsin functional processes. and of the striking usages of textural contrast in formaldelineation throughout Part III as inthe heavily sonorous butmonophonic statements which begin and end the movement!. multiangular. The example is one of truly organictextural shape and content. as well as imitations of other kinds homorhythmic-contraintervallic-first and third violas. then J. a number of element-structures function complementarily in these progressive operations. and at the metrically anomalous 2 J as well as J and 4 J! in the Final episodic development following m. 122-85 in the development. For example.however.224-H1 and 22 7H1. retrograde imitations.the factor of increasinglyintense contrapuntal interaction among episodes in fugal andother imitative forms isitself a fruitful area of investigation. there is elaborate. The reader might. and later D is added!. 219 in Part III. But last bar of the quotation!as thetwo texturalcomplexes become concurrently very active. where the delineation of formal units is very significantly oneof differentiation in extent of textural complexity. thenviolins. andintersecting lines of imitation becomes an intricate maze. whose imitationsincipient are mm. the A-C distribution is altered in a direction of instability see thelocal. retrograde canon Z !. In a process of powerful density progression out of asingle voice. In the passage there is progressive accrual of density-number and complexity. and imitations once or twice removed like that of contrabass trombone and third viola!. fSo common is developmental. tentative. usual nonduplication of PC content in vertical coincidences. with recessive process into the cadence m. including mirror canon l f !. in the remarkable canons of Part III of the Canticum. One of this movements most striking passages for studyof textureoccurs inmm.. and intense textural energy and motivation.. concentrate altogether on A. contradirectional relation between double-bass and upper strings-a slight hint of the technique ofdisplacementessentially of static PC factorswhich can contribute to the activation oftexture!. dNo impression is intended that Stravinskys textures are generally qualitatively simple. mm. this can be evident and unusually accessible in works of even minimal textural complexity. Thereader should pursue theanalysis of the canons. 33.! at m. enter.as in the Telemann movement from Sonata inE minor for two Hutes. In the ostinato texturein which the strings prevail the essential PC factors areA and C occasionally E.

within a spectrum of textural conditions extending to true contrarhythmic activity mm. a kind of invention. The third section is overtly polyphonicconsistently imitative. but analysis of concurrent element-actions should include review ofchanges in the motiveitself-e. voice 3 oftenfunctions as a nonconforming. g . The canon ispunctuated. onemight considerthe meansby which the texture ofmm. the tonal structure is one of progressive degrees of fluctuation through the Preludesthree sections. sharply delineating severely contrasted sections of a freely structuredmovement i. asserting thecontrast of relative unpredictabilitywithin the canonic regularity. JA furtheruseful example in this connection is the third of Schoenbergs Piano Pieces. andmaintaining. Considerable canonic energy spills into the c:V cadence ending this section of the development. With texturaland tempo structures. Complementary processes of otherelement-structures are of greatinterest: tonalflux is themost evident of these.. for additional exploration.! In the canonic segment. Op.In studying this example. gln this finial texturaldiversification there are several degrees intcrlinear of independence andinterdependence: heterorhythmic-heterointervallic-homodirectional relation. The second section. 2l0ffi!. 62-63! and resolving in final textural`accord in which modestdiversification even suggestive.texture 297 qualitative progression culminating in an intense canon onone ofthe basicmotives. a palpable tonal structure links thethree sections into a broad progression centering on tonic and dominant levels. in striking texturalcontrast to the extremely simple thematic statement which follows. is essentially chordal-a largely homorhythmic accompanying texture underlyingan upper voice melody sometimes doubledin 3rds! and occasionally setting off brief imitative responses in other voices.. especially rhythmically. abortive imitation! is maintainedto the antepenultimate bar. and perhaps toother passages of functionaltextural change sometimes intensely. adding density and impact.imitative and polyphonic. is an embellished upper-voice melody against which the bass voice moves ina relation considerably subservient and far less intricate! but having contrapuntal value infrequent contradirectional relation toand in occasional imitative interactions with the upper voice. 176voice 3doubles voice 2 in qualitative recession at the cadential approach. occurring. The lastsection is presumably fast.in all four phrases of which although minimally in the second! contraction in . deviant presence. are contrived toproduce.as often at more foreground levels.e. 168-69. 2 in C minor. There isthus complementarity among the various relevantelement-structures at the broadestarchitectonic level. within the imitation. for example. highly variegated. thenresumes at mm. 2-16!. Its first section.g. in the size and dissonance of its interval of anacrusis-and consideration ofthe functionsof such changes. a recessive event in which sonority is maintained. at m. slow. as at m. thecomplete motive truncated in much of the canon. nonrecapitulative! ofbroad design. often abortively. An example of textural structure in this broad sense. 27-33 partially quotedin Ex. moreover. Much further comment might be made: the textural progression andrecession partially by which thefirst fourphrases are unified arean instructive object offurther study. still strongly imitative. tempo thusemerges as the mostapparent complementary element of delineation. is thePrelude toBachs PartitaNo. thevarious structures so projected converge in function to serve parallelends of formal delineation and progressive intensification and subsequent release. 19.the section of far greatest contrarhythmic and contraintervalliccomplexity andintcrlinear independence. attention should be directed to analysis of various textural events in theseprogressive and recessive processes. or. moderately slow andante!.a momentary homorhythmic relation between the two voices inpreparation forthe variedreturn of Part I.

set inrestrained and simple texture: they arethe focus of anguished feeling outof which the entirepoem andcomposition! arises. 40-41. Moro. formis delineated by lines of text.These words I die. aspect of shape. At m. in each phrase. and intensely perceptible. The following showsthe spatial configurations ofthe four phrases withup-down distances given insemitones. I die . The important textural issue of compoundline in this movementcannot really be developed in the space available. Again. voices 3 and 5start thefirst process of diversification with homorhythmic but contradirectional relation.flies away! in Or. first part. the extraordinary contrapuntal interaction atmm.g. moro. given a rumbling activation byrhythmic andarticulative diversity. note recurrences of 37 and27. moro.and themanipulation of textural components in and out of cadential punctuations should be considered. che in gioia. Here. mm. This restraint oftexture isfunctional notonly in exposing therich chromatic vocabulary. is thetendengr of each phrase to progress to evolve! texturalbr.! are. 3. at dramatically opposed registers: l F ! . but in exposingthe crucial words of text too. as at mm. Theaccompanying fabric has tight density-compression close in spacing between double-bass and viola. the densitycompression can be significantlydescribed onlywith referenceto the distribution of events within the texture-space. I ll *In the Bartok Divertimento for stringorchestra.voices 2 and 3 are often doubled inrestraining the progressive tendencies at phrase level. and coloration. and this thick textural backdrop. is astriking foilindeed for the void. The text inducesat Corre volando. e.! The madrigal.. as compared withcadential spaces of 14. literally runs flying! functional devices of animationand texturalintensity comparable to those of Fuggesi fiees. the intense chromaticismsuggests atexture of relative simplicity-near homorhythmic. two-octave doubling of the motive. subsequent diversification of texture follows from this condition in a highly important. f if ji* b bv b*92l1'I/ If.sonority. presented in muted violins.. other instances ofprovocative texture. _. ll: Tl l. 12. As commonly.298 texture space is a significantfactor in structure andin cadentialformulation as well as in the pieces overall shape smallest spaces occur in the third and fourth phrases!.Cf. with interdependent relations qualifying these paths of progressive diversification. chordal succession. with this initiating precedent. is suggested for furtherstudy ofsimilar questions. with heavy chromaticism. for example.for example. an instance of striking verticalordering at mm. 58-61of the second movement! is attributableto texture. Aparticularly striking feature of thetextural structure of Moro. 4-6. butideally thisaspect of textural diversity should be pursued independently. both quantitatively and qualitatively. 66-68.in the same movement. Note.@4. perhaps recurrent inGesualdo.! The tendency of each phrase to progress in thedirection oftextural diversity nowhere fully contrarhythmic-contraintervallic! is associated with the setting of theintense opening words in typically arresting chromatic manner.

The occur. and intervallic opposition inwhich dissonance strongly is felt. metric instability. with interactionsof vital directional.74 starkly simple texture is counteractive. 30 a time interval of 3 .. for strings. lll. and thereare like processes and events of textural.at m.! °No. counteractive to diminuendo but complementary to extreme tonal shifts. that of the progression from m. Adjunctive to the canonic procedure are developments of the IC succession l-2as in Eb-Eh-D!. 19 isthe subjectof startling exposure lgv virtue qf the change texture. asleader.. Anotherexample of great interest for thestudy oftexture isthe Adagio of theTrio in Eb. twicea trichordal subset of IE' k' t . intense coloratione.texture 29.! Shaped successions textural of events are ofcompelling significance: for example. rhythmic acceleration. andrelaxed dynamic level. 59ff.which canbe tracedin variousstages. 9. 35.the entry of contrastingthematic materialat m. morebrilliant violin and horn registers. Understanding of this kindof concealed textural diversity and interactionis of course absolutely vital to performance.But note. 6 of the Goethe-Lieder basically is a mirror canon. 19.. Op. and especially the intenserise in the pitch-line. 2. 35. and especially dynamic level. Op. For example. tonalstability. The role of textural events indelineation ofform is vitally important throughout. ifdissonant and other interactions ofthe sortsketched above are to be broughtout. and crescendo!. on theother hand. andthe singingvoice concurrent with it.__l rences of this trichordalcellular setwill be quickly identifiedin analysis. all complementary to slowed harmonic rhythm.g. F or further studyof Brahmsin theseand relatedconnections attention is drawn. the condition ofextreme textural stasis-absolute homorhythm and nearly absolute homodirectional association of horn and violin.for example.9 In suchinstances there is truetextural diversity within ostensibly monophonic texture. Thus. and horn. for piano. continuation of the process. and textural change isthroughout an important variational device in thematic developmentand recurrence.With these recurrences. No. the motive is variedin sizeand in placement inrelation to the bar-line:complementary actions are thoseof rhythmic motion e. 2 is a strict canonbetween the singing voice and the Eb clarinetat a distance of seven bars. in quite probably themost arresting of a complex of complementary element-events. rhythmic. with the motive undergoing complementary truncationin a manifestation of intensifying metric function.40. the canon in a sense framed by the tonally suggestive pitch repetitions ofthe beginning singing voice on a! and end bass clarinets settling onc!. the texture isof greaterdiversity andgreater complexity of interlinear interaction thanthat of No. and the continuation of the leader is.D to 6 f. violin. to conditions of texture andtextural process in the shaping of phrase structure in the openingof the Quintet in G.in relationto intensifying events of pitch-line. texture remaininginsistently andrigidly uncomplicated.g. tonality undergoes compensatory stabilization but with rich chromatic embellishment maintained as in the Neapolitan harmony ofm.a retrograde ofthe original canonic subject. Some factors representative of theextraordinary range of significant textural process and functionin this movement can be suggested in hasty summary. Toward m. as wellas virtualinactivity of the bass.There isgradual recession into theoriginal themes restatement eight measures after m.With the time intervalfluctuating between 3 and 4. simultaneous with strict canon isa retrograde canon between clarinet.stringendo and increased activityin the piano!. the angles of subsidiary diagonal relations change con- the row: .t `. including that of contrapuntal interplayin which a time interval of imitation undergoes contraction from 12 . structuralsignificance throughout the movement. the retrograde canon is at 3J . fromm. achieves at m..

Theprinciple of progressive. withmelodically and tonally more static sections of simpler texture. . is functionallyimportant. In fact.30 0 f8XfUl'6 stantly even while thecanon is in course.directional. 7 nearthe middle!do immediatelyconcurrent intervallic and directional formulationscorrespond. and intervallic variants. It is strikingthat only in m. then recessive process in the framing of the very active canon and imitated cellularunits. although in a contrarhythmic relation. Dallapiccola concentrates altogether on the three-note subset order numbers1-2-3 or6-7-8! with the resultthat concurrent with the broadercanon isconstant imitationon that cellular unit--imitation in mirror andretrograde duplications and inmany rhythmic.

CHAPTER THREE rhythm andmeter /ntroductory notes All element-processesare rhythmic.Cooper and Leonard B. It may well be that rhythm and meter. Rhythm both organizes. and especially meter. 1. theactions ofthose elements producing the effects of pace.p. but questions like the foregoing are a recurrent. the study of rhythm is thus the study of all musical elements.and groupingwhich constitute rhythm. Meyer. constitute the most persuasiveand immediately perceptible quality within the range of musical effect. one of the most persuasive isthe fact that metric analysis. the points of intensity toward which others are oriented? Or. The study of rhythm. thus proceedsfrom questions which are truly indispensable to critical. While there are many compelling factors suggesting the critical importance of rhythmic and metric analysis. pattern. 301 . all rights reserved.The rates at which events changes! take placewithin the various structural parameters. where are the points and where is thepoint! to which and _#om which musical processes are directed at various levels? A related questionwhich puts the issueof meter in a different way is: Where are the true bar-lines at diverse levels in the musical structure? The present study inquires into many aspects of rhythm beyond that of meter. and the patterns into which eventsgroup themselves. underlying preoccupation in the discussionsto follow. in its proper range of implications. 'Grosvenor W. is a vital basis of construction and interpretation of phrasing and articulation in performance. In an important sense. To study rhythm is to study all of music. areof decisive significance in expressive effectin the musical experience. Some of these questions canbe stated in the following ways: What are the chief events in the hierarchy of musical impulses in a given work. and is itself organized by. all the elementswhich create and shapemusical processes. seen as a part of rhythm. The Rhythmic Structure of Music © 1960 byThe Universityof Chicago!. insightful interpretation.

302 rhythm and meter The analyses and expository materials which follow will showbeyond somewhat ancillary references made in preceding chapters-how the operationsof rhythm and meter permeate andinfluence the entire range of elementsconstituting the musical projection. In brief.3 We shall have to be continually aware that the importance of a theoretical problem is not invalidated by the dwiculties of approaches to solution 2Cooper and Meyer. climax and subsidence. Here. stabilityand flux. those of other elements to delineate musical structures at all A relatively recent effort toward comprehensive theoretical treatment of rhythm gives necessary acknowledgment to the subjectivities and complexities of rhythmic interpretation. in journalof MusicTheory. Not only do groupings vary from one architectonic level to another. Furthermore.2 Because every rhythm isunique. Rhythm too undergoes changes with functional consequences for musics intensity scale. it is this that makes performance an art-that makes different phrasings and different interpretations of a piece of music possible. the interpretation of music-and this is what analysis should be-is an art requiring experience. It has been suggested throughout this book that contrasts in the operations of various structural elements the element-structures! and the progressive and recessive linesof change in those elements underly morphology and meaning in music in one important sense. The Rhythmic Analysis of 20th-Century Music. grouping may at times be purposefully ambiguous and must be thus understood rather than forced into a clear decisive pattern. playing an essential andtelling role in the delineation of processes of growth and decline. Secalso Howard E. no selection of examplescan possibly cover the rhythmic permutations and analytic problems which may arise. 9. Sensitive. _. of a metric rhythm asthe rate and pattern of metric change. The Rhythmic Structure of Music. or a tempo rhythm in music. op. Indeed. for example.cit. There are no hard and fast rules for calculating what in any particular instance the grouping is. . In this sense.. Nor is it generally possible to classify the rhythm of a given example under a single simple category. pp. p. 60. variables do not operate singly. well-trained musicians maydiffer. becomesmore difficult once one leaves the hothouse variety of example behind and ventures forth into the world of real music. Rhythmic grouping is a mental fact. The task of organization . but particularly on lower levels changes of grouping are the rule rather than the exception. Cooper and Meyer. Contrasting rhythmic events function with levels. itis no absurdity to speak. Smither. VIII. p. 69-70. havingits own organization and hence its own particular analytic problems. not a physical one. understanding.l 964!.and sensitivity.

patterning. The awesomecomplexity of problems ofrhythmic structure and analysis canbe seen when one appreciates thatrhythm is a generic factor.the significance ofa question is at times inverselyrelated to its simplicity of treatment. not of course capricious or arbitrary. The broad basis for the present study might be shown graphically as in Fig. will be clear. Yet meter is onb one ofnumerous manyestations ty' grouping. as conceivedhere. in which rhythm is presented as a generic classof pacing. The position of meter in the graphic representation in Fig. opposing accents. 3-1 must not be misconstrued as indicative of subsidiary importance.a facet of rhythm is grouping. as opposed to the determination of right answers to the questions from which analysis proceeds. Thus. In many instances inprior studies. by an events superiority of content and projection in which surrounding anticipative and reactive! events are absorbed into an accent-governedmetric unit. and partitioning events in music. a subcategory of which is represented as meter. Inevitably. yet in which many qualities of impulse event.rhythm and meter 303 or by the uncertainties or equivocations of proposed solutions. And meter. The meanings of such words as rhythm. 3-1. with terms defined so that their use. if not standard or conventional. which are very necessary andusual in interesting music. not to mention terms like syncopation or even duration Does the duration of a rhythmic impulse include surrounding silences ?!. plausible interpretations of rhythmic structure is often of particular breadth and diversity. may be felt as syncopated against counteractive to! a prevailing. one manifestation of the complexity of rhythmic theory is the problem of terminology. functional grouping is delineated in music by accent. and the possible validity ofdiffering conclusions must be noted as an important object of analysis. and meter. the problem of the medium by which theoretical discourseis carried on in expression ofbasic concepts. The range of significant. one aspect of which is meter. The fact is that a very significant. citing criteria of analysis in support of such judgment. is dependent on accent-a phenomenon whose existence no one would deny. When accent-delineated grouping is firmly established. and in turn to questions ofmeter. precondition- . are variously usedin the literature on music. accent. which rests uponthe difficult questions ofaccent. we have had occasionin analysis to note the factor of interpretive judgment. A constant effort is made in the present study to establish fundamental premiseslinking essential terms and concepts. questions of rhythm lead at some point to questions of grouping. The subjective and often elusive criteria at the root of particular rhythmic interpretations are especially evident in the study of accentdelineated metric structure. Indeed. often perceptually immediate. attack! interact variously at different levels of structure.

V 0C tD II IL . .OV tp Cg hs V he N V lO 0 EO lg ~~ VV Ul C ! lO EO tO E La 0 O.

. it seems essential that rhythm narrowly as be viewed as both manifold and specific: the sum of a broad range of factors eachof which is in some way a manifestation of pace and grouping. 2. stimulus. pp. one of many extracts cited in which the factor of shaped degrees of eventfulness is described as essential infunctional effect. Pattern or motive cfi rhythmic mode!. underlying. the latter of their relative qualities and the means by which they are unit-ordered. and for metronomic indicationsof tempo. 2-22. Erickson states and enlarges upon his creative interest in thecontemporary relevance and usefulness of aconcept ofa Huid incommensurable! time field of which the traditional fermatais representative. functional changes in activity-tempo. notably liturgical chantof theMiddle Ages. as expressed indurational and other strong-weak combinationswhich have in a given context motivic significance at some level.g.! 2. or work can usefully be identified. 174-92. or characteristics of pattern by which a style. In the latter aspect. tempo is thus the quality of rhythmic motion and drive. some music however. which has two aspects: the eventfulness of music degree to which the temporal continuity and flow are filled with articulate impulses or related silences! andthe frequency of pulsation at some given level.rhythm and meter 305 ing. Inthis poignant andarticulate article. 250-52. pp. Rhythmic pattern is explicit Pulse will be understood as thefelt. Pulses recur regularly only at certainlevels inmost music. As to controlled. Impulse is regarded here as the event itself attack. still underlying metric basis. may bring about fluctuation in the metric structure: contiguous and concurrent units thus emerge in Huctuant. must beregarded as indifferent toregular pulsation. note the recurrent concept of a norm of tempo-e. asymmetrical relations. that of a physiological manifestation like heartbeat or stride. . Tempo.entitled Time-Relations.! We shall refer to these two aspectsof tempo as activity-tempo and pulse-tempo the degree of eventfulness andthe rate of pulse succession. The factors of rhythm can be detailed as follows. Rhythm is: l. the former a product of relative frequencies of events. see Ex. VII. conspicuously at the levelof the notated bar.at timesregularly recurrentunit by which musicstime spanis measured and its divisions feltat some specified level-the basis for counting. Or counteraccent. see Robert Ericksons discussion of his Duo for violin andpiano in_journal of Music Theory. respectively!. Fundamenta/ concepts of rhythm While it is sometimesbroadly described as ordered time or meter. 963!.integral silence!superimposed onand relatedto the stream ofpulsation. genre. or conducting. imposed against a pattern of units not referentially establishedand preconditioning. 5As to shaped control of pulse-tempo relations.

2-22. Pulse-tempo is constant.° The experience ol. activity-tempo!-the energy dispelled in relation to the extent of eventfulness in the succession of impulses-is exceedingly important and fundamental in musical structure and eifect. it is. 22 and receding toward the fermata between mm. .one of the most direct of functional devices. rate. and degreeof change. Forexample. In Ex. melodic rhythm normally seen as the rate and pattern of pitch change or attack without pitch change! within a line. textural rhythm. or deceleration signalling release. Rhythm as activity and mot/'on Although it is not to be a subject of extensive attention in this chapter.g. 3. rhythm as the motor aspect of music pace. etc.is a fact to which everyone conditioned to interesting musical experiencewill testify? An example of the shaping power of controlled changes in rhythmic motion activity-tempo! is afforded by the first movement of Weberns Op.for example. but there is a distinct progressive curve in activity-tempo mounting toward m. 22. 27 and 28. for example. 22. harmonic rhythm. one of rhythms most telling aspects. many literatures of the Baroque are marked by relatively constantactivity-tempo ascompared with. isorhythms. 3-1 °The quality of rhythmic motion can be an important and essential factor in the identification and characterization of style. activity-tempo acceleration in the direction of developmentalclimax. Grouping. an important item within this area of rhythmic effect and identity is that in which motivic units become recurrent within broader units and fundamental to the delineation of musical form e. and other element. drive.and subelement-rhythmsconstitute this aspect of rhythmic experience.306 rhythm and meter especially in the sequence of attack and changeby which the musical line is delineated. Thus. to which reference was made in Chapter 2 Exx. like tempo.!.the more romantic.or partitioning of musics time span by associationsperceived within and among punctuated or articulated unit-orderings of events. 22-23 can be complemented by illustration of composite activity. and 3-l!. The control of rhythmic activity is among themost elementalof musics shaping forces. One mode of grouping is meter. The prqfiles expressed in element-changes manifest individually and in confluence! as thesechanges involvepattern. comparable in immediacy to the control of dynamic intensity. Analyses of other element-progressionstoward the climactic mm. changeable impulses of certain otherstyles!. the subsidentaim of recessive operations following m. 4..

One factor in the quoted passage is contraction in the low-level metric unit. 3. 2. The upper line shows this by indicating the frequency of occurrence of rests separated abby distances of 3. forextracted quotations!. it can beseen thatfirst they run parallel. Compare the changes in activity-tempo as well as=.! Example 3-2b traces the process toward an accelerated Pulse 4| from 72 MM to 120 MM. often at frequent intervals./.. first movementsee Ex. tightly controlled and directed to and from relative levelsof stability. » »» R3 est |!» -1!! e eensusul-ns ~ -1 ' |! gene!: / 92 frequency 3 ll 2 if _'_ lliiil _T I6 i2 _L -ng* 3I I E »» »» » liiiniiiiii liiiiiiiii-if-iii I units -.'2.The first of these. Carter is known for a procedureof controlled change in tempo described as metric modulation by which pulse andpulse rate change gradually. . of the two aspects of tempo. 5.perhaps more a representation ofsignificant textural accrual. showsthe rate of attack of two.¢.rhythm and meter 307 there are three viewsof the rhythmic progression. ll. . 6. . pulse-tempo. 2-22. 22. Recessive and progressive rhythmic actions and relations. 1! and the lower line by indicating frequencies and durations of notes anywhere in the texture. 3-2a!. . Ex. the second and third portions of the example represent in different ways the composite motion or rate and spacing of attack.22 Motive 3 4 83 35 3 fa ?§l2f. This method of covert tempo change is illustrated in a passage from the String Quartet No. 1. 3. 15.l9 m. m. pp. in a procedure determining an aspect of tempo-structure at various levels. l Ex. can be seen in works of Elliott Carter. 22.and three-note motives which are a basic unifying material. 3-1. Representationof activity-tempo curve ina passage from Webern's Quartet. The example is characteristic. 2.251-52. Op. then while there is acceleration in pulse-tempo activity-tempo is held back before the progressive actions of m.

15 Reprinted bp permission of Associated MusicPublishers. StringQuartetNo.72 m. 3-2a. Inc. . 1. Carter.308 rhythm and meter Ex. Maestoso J . first movement.

. 3-3a.!. etc. so that tempo is rigidly controlled at that level. 3-2Q. This can be expressed very simply Ex. punctuative devices like specified silencesof specific or proportional duration. but each measure is to correspond to a metronomic pulse at 40MM. amounting to a modestlatitude of possibilitiesin which basic rhythmic structure is relatively inviolate. The element of chance in this work is. >6.by their consequent relative durations. MM 72 288 or 360 3=!! 9'. sole representative United States. 40MM~ ! 1965. e. and other shaping factors. then deceleration in a recessive cadential action of palpable functional effect. Canada andMexko. Universal Edition. differences of pitch content. Here.the rate of attack is one of acceleration. .then Ex. "Metric modulation"in the Carterexample. durations within notated "measures" are suggested only by relative distancesseparating the printed notes. is the Berio Sequenza II for harp.rhythm and meter gx. or abrupt dampening of sound. Metric units at phraselevels are controlled too. differences of intensities. Theodore Presser Company. In the first phrase Ex. 3-3a!.. within a stasisof pitch-line and opposed counterpoint of intensity changes.! i. 6 Some composershave used notational spacesbetween sounds as they are representedon the printed page as impreciseguidesto the temporal distancesby which they are to be separatedin performance. 309 J=G. Berio. then.Used bypermission of the publisher. 360 sP D 120 10 In a changed meter signature.One such example of proportional notation. in significant degree. 3-3b! as a progressive. but in which mensural temporal intervals are very specifically indicated. relatively minimal.Sequenze II for harp.

or modes.g. Ex.310 rhythm and meter recessive rateof increase and decrease in events per stipulated. its applications in music broadly viewed can easily be overemphasized. Rhythmic patterns have in various systems undergone theoretical classification.2nd ed._ Rhythmic pattern as mot/'v/'c Especially at more immediate levels of structure it is readily apparent that durational and other weak-strong combinations and distributions have great and constant importance in the projection of distinctive. spondaic . dactylic U U!. Harvard Dictionary qf Music. iambic U -!. and tribrachic U U!. Whilerhythmic modal theoryis of great importancein certain music for example. 3-3b. inthirteenth-century motets. anapestic U U . the metricformulation within the phrase clearly has to beseen as one ofvertical noncongruity between the two linearcomponents of pitch activity. . Musical situations ofreal interestpose acomplex variability of patterned associations not readily or usefully classified withina limited range of assumed referential norms.U ! are noted in some systems. or strongweak: . see Willi Apel. identifiable. the distribution of events within the mensural unit suggested bygraphic proportioning but not specifically controlled.!.!. and some bibliographical reference. Other modes e. the classifiable modal rhythmic pattern may at times be relevant togeneric combinations upon which thematic substance and structuralprinciples are based . This is not to say that analysis and identification or conjecture! respecting the substance of rhythmic pattern at various levels has novalidity. amphibrach: U . Nevertheless. andthe traditionalterminology and symbology of rhythmic modes are often useful. Number events of + per 40 MM unit: 10 22 + + 2 -2 24 66 -2 42 l _. 535-36. regularly recurrent unit of time at 40MM. 1969!.. The most common of these modesare six: trochaic long-short.U!. 8For briefdiscussion ofespecially thirteenth-century! rhythmic modal theory. 7 At the same time. the lower stratum having accent at its inception. the upper having anextensive anticipative wind-up in preparationof its later. Cambridge: TheBelknap Press of HarvardUniversity Press. Accelerative and decelerative rhythmic changes inthe first phrase ofthe Berio Sequenza ll. pp.." Comparable processes characterize other phrases. with a resultant simplistic view of what is commonlyhighly complexand diversified rhythmic organization. but it is a cripplingpreoccupation when it is taken as the end of analysis in which rhythms areconsidered invariably reducible toone ofa fewtraditional classifications. often as rhythmic modes corresponding to and derived from the classes and terminology of standard feet of ancient Greek poetic theory. where the application of such theory isoften highlysystematized!. noncongruent accent. associable motivicand thematic ideas which are exposedand developed in the music of most Western styles.

Ex. instances of applications of other systemic "modes" indeed. Reprinted bypermission of Alphonse Leaguc 8 Cie. Olivier Messiaen. in their immediaterepetitions.. and the third reiterated without change. .rhythm and meter 311 There are. Reprises parinterversionNo.prescribeddurational modifications are indicated. Messiaen. a figure of considerable importance in contemporary explorations of rhythmic technique.Owners O' Publishers for all count's. 3-4 the music is based on three Hindu rhythms two of which undergo pre- scribed transformations each attack ofthe first increased bya sII ateach repetition. In certain of his works. Man.3-4. employs rhythmic patterns derived from exotic systems. the theoretical possibilities are without limit. 1 of Livred'orgue!. durations of the second decreasedby the same value at each repetition. In the brief extract. Ped. for example. the threemotivesare circled. as might well be expected.In Ex.

80! Copyright 1937. for example.3-5.. for piano.g.312 rhythm and meter The concepts of rhythmicostinatoand isorhpthtathe latter denoting a recurrent set and ordering of durational values.Apel and Davison. for piano illustrates the isorhythmic principle: thus.'althoughmore recent applications of analogoustechniquesare of comparable interest and.Used bypermission of the publisher. Op. sole representative United States. . Every student of music is familiar with isorhythmic structures. 27. for examples. commonly in tenors of early motets! relate to another practiceof rhythm applied motivically. 204-24." in TheMusical!uarterly. the opening four bars plus one undergo immediate isorhythmic repetition. SeeHistorical Anthology of Music. pp. including discussion of remarkably consistent center-axial "horizontal" symmetries in the work and extendingto treatment of comparable techniquein other works. the initial twelve attacks are duplicated in rhythm by the next twelve Ex. perhaps. I."Machaut's Messe Notre-Dame. significance. The application of rhythm as thematic ' is again explicit and significant as a parallel to other relations in concurrent effect in the Webern example e. 1949!.Vol.third movement. That is.occurring as R" on EI in the first twelve attacks. Op.eds. that of the twelve-tone series. Cambridge:Harvard UniversityPress. 3-5!. Theodore Presser Company. Nos. in many fourteenth-century motets. Ruhigfliessend J . Canada andMexico.Universal Edition. Ex.43 and 44. then as RI on El> in the next twelve!.XXXVI.is Otto Gombosi. The third movement of Webern s Variations. 2 950!. A fascinating studyof isorhythmic andsymmetrical procedures in Machauts Messe Notre-Dame. Variations. Webern.ca.27.

or groups ofevents.underlying tendencies is invariably striking and illuminating as to function and expressive effect. and ! of relative qualities of events and event-successions-degrees distances! of change.° The rhythms of e/ement-successions We have reiterated the important principle that every structural element is. having vital and consistent significance. and a driving creseendo. These rhythmsare preeminently: ! of pacing or tempo-the rate of event articulation and change. characteristic of the theme. then. Balanced against all of this is the extraordinary poise of constant melodic and iterative motivic rhythms within a slow tempo-the entire complex of element-structures a confluence of deeply affective character. for further reference. It seems important. Of harmonic rhythm . A comparable pattern pertains in the second halfof the variation. into controlled acceleration. There is thus a rhythm of pitch-line rhythm seen ofcourse as including meter!. But concerns ofmotivic pattern are recurrent too in plentiful studies of thematic process in musical form. ! of proportions. comparative durational relations amongunits. the fifth symphony. and a rhythm of each of the other elements and parameters ofmusical events. a harmonic rhythm. dominant! values of the beginning. Let us focus briefly on mm." The extent to which element-rhythms function concurrently in complementation to or compensation for progressive and recessive. expressive qf rhythm. for example.Take. as manifest in varying durational combinations. a brief example from the Diabelli Variations of Beethoven Ex. to move on to more problematic areas of rhythmic theory. of accent. ! of pattern. some of these arenoted near the end of this chapter. or the sixth. in its distributions and qualities qfevents. sometimes chromatic. As to the harmonic-rhythmic parameter. of Beethoven as to rhythmic motive. in extreme foreground manifestations. a tonal rhythm. especially in literatures dealing with the tonal period. Men double-dotted thusmotivic! harmonic rhythm in the Beethoven example reveals action within this parameter decisively complementary to an overall rise in pitch-line.rhythm and meter 313 One could of course continue to cite relevant examples of motivicthematic rhythm at various levels ofstructure throughout the vast historical span of Western music. a tonal progression toward the mediant typical of much Beethoven. Consider. 4-8 of the variation. Quickened. 3-6a!. the reader should note in detail the progression out of broad tonic. And the entire range of techniques associated with the serialization of rhythms and rhythmic relations is of course relatedto the principle of motivic rhythm. and a variation on progression toward the dominant in the theme!.

Thirty-three Variations on a Waltzof Diabelli. as it concerns dynamic intensity. Within the element of coloration. In the harmonic rhythm the rate of succession accelerates from to etc. . and e the F-e succession relatively strong in distance!. Hence. 1 4. Grave e maestoso it can be said that all changesare pronounced in degree.Variation XIV. 5-8 ascompared with the broad pace of dynamic change in mm. Beethoven. The tonal rhythm is characterized by references to F. once a 2nd the latter in the cadential iv-V!. a brief reference to a is also crowded into thesesame bars. roots are usually a 5th apart. there is tonal-rhythmic eventfulness of strength and frequency.120. 3-6a. Op.314 rhythm and meter Ex. once a tritone. there is an increasedrate of change f so< P f P ! inmm.


. and with their interrelations-all of them projecting and the analysis of all of them illuminating! that complex. 4-8 as compared with the ascending successions by leap in the bass. and confluent element- and subelement-rhythms. harmonic rhythm functions at the level of most immediate detail but also at the level of broad changes. the essential step successions of upper voicesin mm.. and their interrelations of asymmetry or symmetry and relative strengths of projection. Ex. pulse-tempo!. relatively inactive. all element-rhythms are subject to analysis and interpretation at various levels. the general activity profile within various elements biseets the example in a manifestation of the role of shaping element-rhythms to projectgrouping in a broad sense analogous to those of meterand phraseolog_y. 78-79 ontonal rhythm.316 rhythm and meter over. embellishing changes. or in balance.on tonalrhythm in the finalmovement of Beethovens Symphony No. Ex. some may be accelerative and others decelerative or passive. and other recurrent references to element-structures as rhythmic. 2. p. 201-4on textural rhythm.the shape delineatedby space and texture-compression! is demonstrably functional: note. thus. more local sense a foreground harmonic rhythm of activating. while density undergoesonly slight changes. would deal with all element-rhythms individually and collectively.g.° The vital importance of study of the conjoined interactions of rhythmic element-structures in music is evident in references to complementary and compensatory relations of concurrent element-successions throughout this book. or static! in particular contexts. At the same time. pp. An ideal and fully comprehensive analysis. For example. 202. it must be acknowledgedthat these considerations. or in inert condition. p. many-faceted. 2-5. for example. if such were possible. constitute a fundamental aspect of felt rhythmic effect. It is also apparent that proportional groupings or units manifest in areas within individual element-rhythms. and someare clearly more applicable at lower levels of structure e. and with them the considerations of individual of this book. l-45. In summary. theessential prolongation of a dominant may represent in one sense broadly inactive harmonic rhythm and in another." require exploration far beyond the possibilities It is apparent that element-rhythms correspond in diverse ways: some are of course totally or substantially inapplicable in particular situations while others are of primary assertiveness and importance. 137. Moreover. with the weight of movement in one or another of thesedirections. 1°See pp. for example. as to certain aspects of textural rhythm. element-structure which is the rhythm ofthe musical example in question. .

duration. essentialeffect!. Butoften nointervention isindicated at all. These are vitaljudgments required in performance. moreover. The question of meteris the question of accent.as implied above. impulses of relatively strong projection. since metric units are initiated by accents. of course. the analysis of meter involves certain primary questions: ! Which stimuli are perceived as accentual? ! What is the nature of the structure effected by metric grouping and the interrelations among its units? ! What is the weak-strongorganization by which the metric group is characterized at any given level of structure? ! What is the relation of metric partitioning to other modes of grouping.especially at . subtle and restrained intervention in performance is necessary to bring out important metric functions. ! that impulses-the actual sounds andsilences of which musical projection consists-are superimposed on the established. onlythe avoidance of counterinclinations of timing. many highly important subquestions issue. and of metric structure to other element-structures? From these diflicult but fundamental questions. and commonly grouped by distinctions of variouskinds.! of the eventitself Sometimes.g. but to say thata particularimpulse event! has accentual value is generallyto makean observation respecting its inherent properties. weak-strong~weak-of significant.articulation. and ! that metric partitioning is one of severalkinds of grouping in music. we shall make the assumptions! that in the vast majority of instances musicaleffect rests upon the experienced orpreconditioned. The question of accent is a very complex one indeed. etc.the properties of accent are generally inherent in the various parameters pitch. all such questions are subject to diverse implications of different levels of structure ranging from the most immediate apparent in the smallest manifestations ofgrouping! to the most broad in which it is at least conceivable that an entire form might usefully beregarded ashaving a palpable organization-e.rhythm and meter 317 A theoretical approach to the consideration accent-de/ineated grouping of meter as An iterative or neutral! rhythm pertains among successive. anda basisfor perception of the rhythmic relations of events.higher levels ofmetric structure. that it is clear nosuggestion of overt emphasis in performance is necessarily implied.in usingthe termaccent. such pulsesreferential as a mental imagery in the musical experience. nevertheless. andpunctuation. itis an indispensable issue for the analysis of this vital aspect of rhythmic structure in music. indeed. imaginedsensation of a series of pulsespunctuating and articulating the time continuum as a psychologicalfact not necessarily manifest in physical events." In embarking on a study of meter.. Thus. "One trusts. But functional rhythmic shapes involve grouping occasioned by dWrentiations among contiguousevents. felt stream of pulsation. . regularly spaced impulses stimuli! in a series lacking parametric changesof any kind.

318 rhythm and meter Meter.defined asaccent-delineated grouping whose structural and expressive functions are manifest in proportional relations of metric units whether contiguous or concurrent! and the weak-strong associations internal to such units. and grouping of all events at all levels. and ! the accentual articulation of the units themselves. Thus." A great deal of It is possible that the term arnetric has useful applicabilityanalogous to that of the term atonal. and that meter is not to be equated with regularity. that meter is one of this classof techniquesand phenomena." The concept of meter as. involving descriptive conclusion or conjecture respectingthe role of meter. however extreme. in shaping the expressive content as well as the structural unity and diversity of music. subject to fluctuation True metric structure is neither necessarily regular nor necessarily coincident with notated bar-lines at the mensural level. is felt at various structural levels. constant concern to which analysis should ideally proceed. or ambiguous in its ordering. Metermay be symmetrically ordered. asymmetrically ordered. it may be symmetrical at one level. is not meterlessness. or otherwise demon- . and of courseindividual textural components are oftenof contrastingmetric ordering at the same level. This study will adopt and employthroughout certainterms whichrefer to classes of structurallevel in which thenotated measure is regarded as aconvenient objective point of reference: mensural refers to groupingapproximate to. it seems desirableto note again that rhythm is regarded as a generic class of techniques affecting pacing. Moreover. identification. with consideration of their proportional interrelations. by dehn/tion. and the proportional interrelations of such groups at all levels. patterning. or derived hom. If there is diiferentiation it is expressed in some parameter or complex of parameters. consists of units large and small at various structural levels! _farmed by d@rentiations in the musical events in what we shall describeas diverse impulse functions. and the functions of its varying qualities. so that metric fluctuation. then. with reference to structures of relatively extreme instability and ambiguity. is the evaluation. and/or interpretation of its two primary factors: ! pattern within the metric unit. perhaps even at the ultimate macrolevel. the analysis of metric structure. whose application in examples in various styles is the principal concern of this chapter. Meter is thataspect of structure articulated as accent-delineated groupings within the attack event! sequence. its weak-strongcomponents andassociations. like other aspects ofrhythm. The functions of meter in these respects are a necessary. that meter. asymmetrical at another. To retrace in summary the broadeststeps thathave led to this point in the consideration of rhythmic-metric structure.

There isnothing absolute. as may be the notated bar-line. Inc. Compare the increased rates and distancesof fluctuation in tonal reference.44-66].even tocontexts of highly fluctuant metersuch as those ofRenaissance polyphony and the present century. It is on this basisthat the assertion is made that in highly fluctuant contexts like those of recent stylesmeter is not extinguished. 1973!. New York: W. it induces asimplistic view of interestingtonal music.pp.The Smitherand Cooper-Meyer comments in this regard describe meter asonly primarily. "Compare. often. and weak-strong orderings strably corresponding in scope to thatof thenotated measure without ofcourse necessary conformity ofaccent to notated bar-line! . especially at higher levels. W. ry' irregularmetric grouping. ed. andof course Huctuant meter is at times considered rhythmic. 'not necessarily. meter fluctuates. moreover. One of these has to do with relations and interactions among.. concepts of meter stated or implied inEdward Cone. as weshall see. but assumesa character more often far more! Huctuant than those of certain traditions.1968!. We shall see as well that even much music commonly regarded. forexample.rhythm and meter 319 interesting and expressive musicis of irregular accentuation. Alan Tyson. and the idea of Huctuant asopposed to regular meter is absolutely-necessary to the understanding of music other than that of unequivocally regular proportions.regular denominators renders extremely problematic the understanding ofmetric structure in highly Huctuant low-levelcontexts before and afar the tonal period. . complementary motivic grouping is often relevant. in the identification ofthe mensural unit. Norton and Company. The identificationof meter with recurrent. VIII. 4. as regular in metric grouping is indeed highly variable atleast atcertain levels. In an interesting study entitled Extra Measuresand Metrica1Ambiguity in Beethoven [in Beethoven Studies. intermensural refers to broaderunits andhigher levels. Norton & Company.82. not metric. Cooper and Meyer. The Rhythmic Structure of Music. pp.and in other elements. to describe a particular unit or accent. Andrew Imbrie makes on p. Inc. p. In situations of altered interval of accentuation. inwhich heasserts that meter isnot necessarily regular. It is argued here that a concept of meter is possible and valid! which isapplicable tomusical experience in general. W. p. We thus avoid any suggestion of a terminological equation in which meter = regularity of unit grouping. or level! as ofmensural significance is tomake judgment a of comparability relations. in journalof Music Theory. in submission to the deceptive impression of the notated signature and bar-line.. or Smither. 7| and 72.The Rhythmic Analysis of 20th-Century Music. cy' In that judgment.intramensural refers to smaller units and lower levels. Musical Form and Musical Performance New York: W. regular. 53! the following statement:The idea that once an organization in time becomes flexible rather thanmechanical it thereby becomes rhythmic rather than metrical stems from the notion that meter has to be absolutely regular. whose metric structureis sooften morevaried andfluctuant than meter signatures would suggest. Meter as one manifestation of grouping in music We have systematically revieweda number of factors as rhythm-aspects of musical structure generically classified asrhythmic. in melodic line. Imbries own proposal as to a useful distinction betweenrhythm and meter proceeds from that important qualification.

events within a particular kind of textural activity e. For example. 3-6! is bisected in the marked acceleration of conjoined.320 rhythm and meter within. We might identify the following as factors ly' which. above. intensifying element-eventfulness in its second half This factor might be characterized asgrouping by the delineating effect of the composite profile of change in degreesof activity. and perhaps the most elusive of perception and penetration. events subsumed withina particular tonal system. 3. and predictable within the norms oi. which is in turn a vital aspect of rhythm. units manifest in grouping of a number of kinds. This concept isof courseclosely related in much music to item 1.g.. elaboratedevents. anticipative anacrustic!. in relation to which surrounding impulses at various levels can be seen as reactive. where it can be seen to have unity in relation to a given progressive or recessive tendency. Such grouping is expressed in the orientations of relatively auxiliary pitch events toward and around more essential ones. given systems of tonality.are grouped in this sense. within a particular timbral unity. events in music are perceived as grouped into leveled units of structure.the Beethoven excerpt cited earlier Ex. In Ex. a concentration of events an element-complex! functioning in the direction of intensity within a given. bisection within certain element-structures-e. in the line of element-rhythms.g. For example. ingeneral. a segment of that line. is a factor of partitioning. and conclusive Meter is thus an aspect of grouping. relative impulse superiority.! 2. tonality-is on this basisas wellas onthose of phraseology and other modes of grouping. The most subtle factor of grouping and partitioning. At one level of structure this can be seen asthe punctuation of broad time spans as to relative durations of structural prolongations-manifestations of predominances! of underlying. In this sense. etc. The grouping of class-ajiliated element-events is one such mode. or partitioning. for example. is an important area of grouping in this special sense. 3-6. as are. background events-the areas of hegemony of certain. One of the phenomena by which events are grouped is that of accent. or within an harmonic complex of associated factors. unified process atsome level. the sortof association much discussed in Chapter 1. The grouping ry' tendency-ajiliated events crossing distinctionsbetween elements isanother mode of unit delineation.embraced within a given tonal reference.! The unit delineated hereis one consisting ofthe essentialpitch event again.. at some . within a generalized melodic inclination. 1. but it has to do as well with grouping around structural pitch factors in melody and harmony whether or not such factorsare supportive of. imitation!. where the specific element of tonality is concerned. is the grouping of pitch structures at various levels in associations of linearfunction.

that the cadence on l. Within the concepts developed here. to the tonally centered unit!. as opposed the to metric accent with which the phrase begins. is clearly evident. linear pitch affiliations or. like the event central to the set of tonally related events. and which are commonly for example in josquin! in . Textis of particularly critical importance in much music in unit delineation at diverse levels. This mode of segmentation is particularly important to distinguish from what we regard asmeter: thus. where grouping of all kinds is often of very greatly Huctuant character and complexity. Other modes of grouping. That is to say that the cadential event is always central within the unit to which the cadence pertains! to the group definedas tofunctional. 3-7. in tonal music. too. the event which is central to the intrarelated linear complex. for example. the nature of fluctuation of meter in an important degree the outcome of prosodic infiections which often have to be decided in editing and in performance.! That the issue of textual infiuences in grouping is one of substantial complication will be evident in other examples to be cited. Ultimately. 2-14. an often assumed necessary interdependence. a point on which we shall dwell at a subsequent stage in further theoretical discussion ofthe distinction between primacy of tonal and linear function as opposed to metric accent. is often central to a specific tonal system. even determine. evenequivalence. on me at another level. See Ex. as can be seen in the example as represented at three different levels of metric structure. One literature in which this issue is of very great and not well understood! significance might be mentioned in passing-that of Renaissance polyphony. but it is often not a point of accent central in delineation of the metric unit see Exx. but the distinction between the pri- mary linear function ofGzl and I. Extramusical factors may condition. 4. but that event is by no means necessarily the bearer of accent. betweenbackground tonal and metric structures issharply denied. and by which its manifestations arelinked in passing motions.rhythm and meter 321 given level! together with affiliated eventsby which it is elaborated. 3-7 and 3-8!. are in correspondence. which has of course that degree as central to the linear-functional grouping of events preceding it. where the setting of text is functional in bringing about a recessivesuccession of units expressedboth textually and in musical meters. the grouping of musical events in still another sense. Textual accents on thou at the broadest level. Weshall find. at the lowest level are in perfectly balanced concordance in relation to musical accents of pitch and duration. the tonally-cadentially central event is metrically recessive at pertinent levels. is very often nonaccentual-recessive in the metric sense. in which textual and accentual musical inflecand on stole tions exactbtcorrespond. is by no means universal in vocal music.! The kind of condition shown in Ex.


In the Haydn excerpt Ex.moreover." The initial event is regard- ed as accentually superior for each phrase-as initiatinga metricunit at the same time that it initiates the phrase. incline. The metricand phraseological ordering the metric structure at phrase level evident in thefact thata bar-line for each phrase would immediately precede the first impulse! are inopposition to internal ordering of grouping as to linear functions. 104 in D. is simply and clearly evident in the afiiliating relations of all eventsin the Haydn theme to eachof severalelement-classes: tonality. norare theyconsidered to have any comparable practical applicability. We shall considerother examplesin which this correspondence does not pertain.fourth movement. . texture.and below. 320-21.! Group unity.»-. BT hecorrespondence of metric structureto phraseology may well be characteristic of Haydnmore than. pp. But theultimate cadential event is recessive at all but the mensural and lower levels of metric structure.anacrustic preparation of! the next unit. as in the Dowland phrase quoted earlier. l J. For the entire period. here of course tonally conditioned. and color. phraseology corresponcls meter: to that is to say that the phrase begins at the same timeas thephrase-level metricunit.Q J *See discussion of contrasting grouping oflinear functions. except that the final impulseof the metric unit is represented differently depending on its functionin endingthe unit as opposed to functionin anticipation of thrust toward. Haydn.J 2/ 3. "The symbolsused inexplication ofmetric structureat variouslevels roughlycorrespond to standard conducting gestures. at the level of the period. The symbols are in no wayprescriptions for conducting. the last note.TJJ J g .but theyare useful as away ofthinking about relations within the metric unit. I! is the essential event toward which all others. l or harmony./` oo. 3-8!. An analysis of the phrases as to orientations of tonally subordinate events to essential ones would regard the cadentialnote of each phrase as fundamental-points toward which other eventsincline in underlying stepwise descent. Mozart.rhythm and meter 323 Ex. Symphony No.say. m_3 Allegro spiritoso # J. J . the cadential Q V! of thefirst phrase a broadly viewed auxiliary. 3-8.

to which reference should be made. But at m.we believe. TheRhythmic Structure af Music. 3-2. so that a necessary question in all analysis of meter is: Are the determinants of metric grouping in accord with the notated bar-line. 1-3!. after which the normal situation resumes. A further example Ex." Meter as opposed to the notated bar-//ne It is fundamental that meter is often independent of the notated bar-line. 26 3+3 4 28 30 32 34 2+2+2+2 2+1 VF /V 3+3 Anomalies Restoration of normal mensural unit resolution of metric dissonance! in relation to which the original F and $1 units arefélt still prevailing as and referential is a question ofperception to be taken up later as to the concept of preconditioning metric structure. at thelevel of some division ofthe notated bar. It is necessary that. m. 35-36. 3-9! is shared with Cooper and Meyer. l-3. 3-2. 90. 34. 2°Cooper and Meyer.p.324 rhythm and meter A great deal of distortion in musical performance is accountable. One view of the metric structure might be represented as in Fig. An interpretation of metricstructure in the Chopin Ex. Fig. 29 the triple unit yields to a duple division in intensifying contraction of the metric unit complementary to the rise in pitch-line and crescendo to m.! 1°Feminine cadentialarrival ismetrically strong at onlya stilllower level. and if not what is the real meter? Or.Through much of this Chopin prelude the triple division of the notated bar is upheld by accentual mensural factors of various kinds including the J anacrusis at the outset!. Whether the mensural unit changes inactual as opposed toincipient metric fluctuation! or simply briefly admits an acceleration in accent frequency . where is the true bar-line ?! A simple kind of accelerating metric change is illustrated by Ex. like many examples in this chapter. pp. to failure to appreciate this usual metric function of cadential arrival. it be given in incomplete notation.

not only of the theme itself but of the whole movement as developing out of the theme. duration. definitely in triple.!. References to examples are omitted..M _ Af '592 YIMII-IQ_M11"_` = v-i I P `M 921_= 1 '= . Nor should the theme be thought of or played as metrically ambiguous or vague. Cooper and Meyer insist that the triple meter must be expressed in performance. 41in C." We shall take a very opposite view of the example. the melody is. but what of the first six notated measures Let ? us assume the thatV notated meter has no preconditioning effect. forgetting that we know the piece and its notation and ultimate metric order. Froma historicalpoint of view. Since this rhythm is normally precise. TheRhythmic Structure qf Music. Let us argue that the first two notes are anacrustic to the double-dotted a. harmonic change. is at least for a time resolved by the strong afiirmation of the downbeat of m. 90. not in duple meter. second movement. as Mozart makes clear. by texture.»":5 ~5 v 'i vI v 1 Broadened. the triple meter should be decisively articulated.':E 'i .rhythm and meter 325 Ex. However. are considerably weakened. the meaning and character. Mozart. Uncertainty. and that Mozarts 2'Cooper and Meyer. changed motion.11Mi'FMl. or by combinations of thesefactors. too.i . by dynamic intensity stress!. the rhythm is that of a sarabande. §tc. There are tworeasons for this. " . by anacrustic support. Symphony No.p. 551 Jupiter!. as between the real and notated meters.=' 3 5 . J asymmetrical unit Point of resolution What is provocative in the example is of course the accent given the second beat in every one of the first six measures:by durational superiority. K. From the point of view of internal structure. For if the latent duple organization is permitted to obscure ordominate the manifest triple meter. leaps. 3-9.: 33 VV '' °3 VV cantabile AAndante ` IIHIQMMI EM'1llllI. with its typically heavy secondbeat. B? P M II' I 1 1: E:=:*=-§»=. by superiority of pitch. it would be stylistically wrong to perform it ambiguously. initiation of new motivic idea in complementary group- ing.3+2! V QV ' . 7 intensity of dynamic level.

conjunction! of function? We shall take a fundamental position that musical events. are capable of classification on the following exclusive bases of functionalidentity and djzrentiation. a factor ofmetric dissonance and resolution is essential. while faintly recalling the preceding irregular accent with harmonic rhythmic change underthe Bbof m. metrically initiating impulses. Mozart has created a provocative structure involving recession out of a condition of metric ambiguity dissonance! and it is vital that this be expressed. and by which weaker impulsesare grouped in relation to strong. What is expressed isnot a latent duple meter but a triple meter which is temporarily displaced in relation bar-line establishing a subtle countergrouping!. m. andto noother type. The entire point of the metric structure the of passage seen inthis light is asa succession toward metric resolution in which the shift in real bar-line and consequent asymmetry of the unit just described are stabilized and brought into accord with the notated bar-line! at m.7 arrives as a point of emphatic clarification resolution!.In the unfolding discussion of meter.stimuli! differ in character. It is now clear that meter and metric here refer only toaccent-delineated grouping. nor should the real metric anomaly be thought weakening. thedistinctions by which somemusical impulsesare felt to be strong and others weak. Cnly harmonic rhythm accords with the notateél size of the unit just preceding m.. and function? Can such functions apply analogously to silences? How might these functions be classifiedand.326 rhythm and meter anomalous accents do shift the bar-line-i. In the concept of meter developed here. questions like the following arise: How do impulses events. Mozart makes this very persuasive by continued melodic descent. There is asymmetry in the to the notated bar-line. 6 partitioning the 5 3+2 unit as'O !. In these connections. strength. this essential understanding is no longerexplicit. do impose a real meter out of accord with the notated bar-line. not of course decisive for the entire movement. Dynamic stress must not be overlooked as contributively meterconditioning. perhaps.symbolized? Canan impulse have more than one function-a duality elision. 7. which include silences through which established pulsation continues and whose functions are preconditioned by established grouping.e. 7. . this concept is perfectly illustrated in the Mozart. /mpu/ses and the/7 functional different/ations The analysis of meter requires the evaluation of differences amongmusical events.

tonal !. An impulse may initiate a metric unit cf. accentdelineated thrust motion. 3. An impulse cf. The presenceor absenceof anticipative impulse the question of iamb or trochee. at the level at which it is anticipative.rhythm and meter 327 l." 4. within the unit. The initiative impulse determines the position and occurrence of the metric unit. An impulse may conclude a metric unit: a conclusive impube..etc. or. The concept of impulse thus expands to the extent that the level of referenceis broader.eactive impulses relatively passive. 3.. "upbeat" or anacrusis! may direct energy toward an initiative: an anticipative impulse.The anticipative impulse is weak at the level of the unit initiated by the impulse it prepares.is tempting. in systemicrelatione. 24The physicalanalogyof an object set in motion. absorptive! are increasingly weak within the unit. energy!. thereby supportive of. Essential to the foregoing theory of four impulse functions is the idea that "impulse" at a higher level is a complex of lotverleveleven-ts. The meaning. impelling another object. An impulse may simply carry forward. in actual articulative aftiliation e. when a series beginseI ~.g. the diminishingforcein sucha series seems distinctly parallel to that perceived in the relationsof impulses within the metric unit.etc. put another way. "downbeat"!: it is then an initiativeimpulse accent!. or by established precedent e. which sets in motionanother. reacting to its accentual "energy" and predominance: a reactive impulse R..The conclusive impulse.!. the latter stronger!: in temporal proximity of attack cf. is weak at the level of the unit which it concludes. Contrarily.g. 3! and. in a senseabsorbing the force of the initiative impulse. the absence of this anacrustic-thetic! relation means that in some way the two impulses are functionally separate. of the opening two measuresof Brahms' third symphony: each of the two chords is metrically strong in the most local sense. or sense. . the nature and number of associated. yet clearly anacrustic to m. 2.weaker impulses condition its character. anapest or dactyl is fundamental in determining the character of the metric unit..Think. The initiative impulse is strong at the level of the initiated unit.! Whether a particular impulse is seen as weak or strong greatlydepends on the level within which its positionis viewed its position in the structural hierarchy taken as the context of reference.g. for example.of the anticipative-initiative anacrusis-thesis! relation is that the former weaker! impulse is in someway allied to. probably only contributive. the last in a "reactive" seriesat a given level..

here the anticipative impulse is an extended complex of events consisting of metricunits at several levels. The principle goesfurther in theextended anticipative impulseto thephrase-level initiative at m. In Ex.first movement. An initiative impulse may initiate more than one unit at different levels !. conclusivet !. . the initial group of four sixteenth-notes is clearly anticipative to m. Or an event may be initiative at one level. for piano. 3-10. elisions! of the samelevel too. the multiple. or conclusive andinitiative at thesame level ~. as when the final impulse of a metric unit is both conclusive and an- ticipativeat thesame level Q. 1. 3-10. Conclusive and initiative impulses are thus exactly conjoined in formal elisons. functions of impulses!. 4. see Ex. reactive .e.situations in which the inherently weak conclusive assumesvicariously the accentual strength of an imposed initiative again. while subsumed within an anticipative group at another ~!. Beethoven. reactive~-"!.-~!.. 3-17!. or initiative at one level. symbols are varied in representation of impulse functions of such different levels. There are functional dualities conjunctions. We can seein the foregoing a modest illustrationof the ambivalences of impulse functionsat digeringlevelsof metric structure i. Sonata in B!. Op. But the entiregroupis anticipative. At the level of the. the groupformsa low-level intramensural!metric unit of four events: initiative s !.22. while subsumedwithin a conclusivegroup at another !.In Ex. thus the "anticipative impulse" at the mensural level consists not of a single event but of a complex of four events.328 rhythm and meter We can illustratethis very simply by referring to an anticipativeimpulse beyondthe foreground level. Ex.3-17 and others!. or multileveled. 3-10. Ex.


but it can also bemetricalbr weak. I1 ff " i. v . I o1.. as at the end of a metric unit at phrase level see Exx..__'-!--I---uf |-'/ --1 l. Allegro vivace I= 00 oo v '_" Z_` rn»z1.Cfi'HI1l 1 l22_12!!|1__]2l!-1-1-I I 1§l..l.Cfiii31111111-1ll1l1'Ill-1114.1 "Il-lf?-QQ! H_. is simultaneous with initiative accent!.. despite its tonal primaqy. apart from rise in the upper voice a discrete parameter!..first movement.1 /__1' r *~ |1i1 qv *-1 00 '1 00 »'92 _ Iii 11 .. 102in BL. The I l! orcan be initiative. resolution! as metrically strong. the example suggeststhat the cadence ismetrically recessiveexcept when it has the vicarious accent of elided interjection i..1 Y .41u===1=111:_.!!-H!-_ YTI*-»_ ul 92 The Haydn phrase isa metric unit analogousto that of the level of the notated measure..92 9292 '|lI$_§ll11l11l1§_I.The phrase begins with a strong anacrustic thrust toward the highest pitch: from that phrase-level metric initiative impulse there is consistent descent decline within the melodic parameter! in a pattern in which it seems inconceivable to interpret the cadential recession settling..330 rhythm and meter Although tonal function can of coursesupport metric function as in the Beethoven motive!. more or less plausible gR l J than cf e !.l..|.?. metric structurein the consequent phrase: Z'*§.l_-I I l U/ .. Again... or is-as rarely-the actual point of superiority within its unit. as when preceded by anacrustic factors or otherwise accentually superior. and .e. '_ 5 Y * l_1 ' li 11l11lI111Z111. Symphony No.a._l1 I. Haydn.L.1 I- II *v . e.L. 3-l l!. 3-11. it is in and of itself metriealb neutral: is not.I.l.llIl -I2--lm 92|| `°¬ iu V I 0 / ..J I or I--II-2-I--1.3-7 and3-8! _ The allegra theme ofthe Haydn Symphony No. 102 is a useful further case in point Ex.} 11.Il'$.§_.92iYil-_1!-!--92|'_l`.l.l. Ex.l I .

it is recessive metric in function. or they convey an active quality in cadential expression-a sense of instability occasional even in Hnal cadences.rhythm and meter 331 except that it commonly occurs within a preconditioned scheme of intermensural units so that it initiates a unit at a lower level as a means of local enforcement. after all.] Central to the concern enunciated here is the concept of downbeat. Ex. the culmination of a process in which element-actions of decline necessarily surpass thoseof growth. canperhaps bestbe further amplified in treatment of a situation which is exceptional to the stated principle. second movement. recessive tendencies prevail.and cadential action is normally strong at only local levels ifmetric structure. Beethoven. indeed they do.e. A further way of regarding the cadential arrival as metrically recessive is to consider that it is. 13. Let us point to one final example in which this principle is manifest Ex. 3-ll! is initiative at the local mensural or intramensural level. 3-12. amply illustrated in accompanying and earlier examples. by the entire complex ofpreceding events within the phrase!. which is contradictory. to the extent that thecadence stable is and conclusive. This does not mean that progressive forces do not often attend the cadential process. more broadb. But it means that in balance. of metric accent. and they often lend compensatory emphatic affirmative force to cadential resolution. Whenthat situation pertains. for example. unless this balance is effected in the sumof cadential actions. and the foregoing discussion. when the final event in the phrase canplausibly be interpreted as the object of anacrustic thrust on the part of every preceding event i. [The Haydn cadence Ex. Sonata in C minor. 3-12!. considering the extent to which misconception of the arrival as metrically strong would result in grossinterpretive distortion. Op. .e 11 nil é f'92--* /'%-Y No principle of cadential metric function can be conceived inflexibly. forpiano. thereis compositethrust. as initiatingthe metric unit.. There are times. Adagio cantabile m5 uv t.r l .

. Ex. third movement./ ' Y¢YfIPl' 92an:. Op. Adagio l'¢Y1./ ` -V 1. 2 for cello and piano Ex. »-_ s __ ee dam.. " l'.'lS -11 vI 111 _ l"§ H4 _ Qlf I¢ -2 Q . 2in D.in! ._'_=1_ -H II ¥.... the slow movement of Mendelssohns SonataNo. i' sempre arpeggiando con Pedale "/ m. -_nli 11 =' izjrfj-11:55 V1 / _ll _-s in/i Zz 1 " = _1 71 Z1 l -ii .1Y1 LVQZL.often an anticipative group of parallel content in the phrase following.l'-'1!'_T ' __ .1. Sonata No.5 [1122 Bn: " _ _ '' | _ _ 'ITD ml Ill L . 3-13a. ._ l'92YII_ I YUII¢f1"*2'1. for celloand piano. . 7 X Ulf? " __ | _' _ 5 171 Y. Consider.I _. Mendelssohn._ ll _ uw 1 _.il I ¬'='-'Q QW Qlll 2| li.lllnl it .-'_ e -- -I /_ I _ . 1 li ?"C i!11'l4l 2c 1. mcg M W _92 m' fappmszonato edanimato .¢il 1 _ H.114 _ 92.Z 1275 .|-`:§lll. 1:1 1 ! :nm inA-ll 1Q. for illustration. _ I .332 rhythm and meter it is to be expected that the late phrase-level accent in an end-accented phrase! setsin motiona balancing metric unit. 58.1 _ X' _ -I _ Q- 111 # g_/ . 3-l3a!./ h A »°92 1721 I 92 /5 Y' $~ Ki? _ 92.92~ 941. cre .

. and Mendelssohn brings into increasingly sharp focus its metric function in an end-accented phrase. and dynamic accent.its repriseat m. The anticipative complex can thus be regarded asa strong preconditioning factor throughout the theme.. anumber of possible answers might be suggested arethese: Where is the primary initiative accent in the first phrase? Does the theme phraserecede from an initial accent? Doesit advance toward. In others e. the latter quantity maintained to the end of the initial thematic statement.e. An underlining inflection can be in timing asmuch as.g.and in place of.. construction of that event as primary would seemto require for its projection somekind of intensification or other deliberate underscoring. In the first phrase of the Mendelssohn firstof four antecedents inan enlarged period!. phrase 4 undergoes reductionin dynamics "Let it be emphasized again thatno interpretation of metric structure impliesgratuitous. if it is decided thatthe first beat ofthe second notated measure is not ofinitiative importanceat any level. in analysis. 29! the final impulse isalso longer in duration. where the concluding impulse has agogic. 29 hasthe concluding bass moving decisively. in an extended anticipative gesture. and in some respects e. On the otherhand. and it will also be noted that apparently like events havevarying placement in relation to the notated bar-line. embracing a recession in metric unit sizes i.articulativc emphasis. bruteaccentuation of attack. Its specific form in phrase 3 where there is a four-note motive repeated in powerful ascent to the high point! has especiallydetermined preconditioning effect in structure of the succeeding phrases. what are the relations between metric structure in the first and thoseof succeeding phrases? An interpretation with respect to these problems is essentialto illuminating performance. a broadening! from 3 to 4 to 5. especially the third phrase. At this reprise m. While the firstphrase unlike the others! has a relatively static character. 3-l3a! could then be viewed in analysis as given in Ex. texture! it is simple indeed.rhythm and meter 333 The theme has a guileless quality of great simplicity. The accentual value of the concluding attack is of course severely compromised in phrases 4 and 5.. End-accent of the first phrase isalso supported by its recurrence atm. and pitch. The basic questions towhich. 3-l3b. beginning and ending on the same notes throughout the texture. the sense of redundancy at the cadence thereby lessened in expansion of the texture-space. The entire Part I of the ternary Ex. theperformer mighthave to underplay that attack. orunderplaying of potential accents not considered metrically valid. initiative impulse at its conclusion?! And. Interpretation of the phrase as end-accented is supported by less equivocal structure in the units which immediately follow. not merelyavoid itsintensification.g. meter! it is intriguingly problematic. which should be consulted. although slight underlining infiection. That its units at phrase level are asymmetrically related is immediately apparent in their varying lengths. experimentation in varying modes ofgrouping will render immediatelyclear the fact that profound differences of structuraleffect can be effected by even slight differences of intensification and timing. might be appropriate. 29.

an interpretationoffluctuation in the locusof phrase-level downbeatcannotbe ruled out. and it undergoesdiminuendo. End-accent at phrase level may nevertheless be preconditioned in the final two phrases.334 rhythm and meter Ex.while maintaining the inherent motivic grouping of phrase 3.3-13c. and phrase 5 assumesa background linear stasis now on g'! comparable to that of phrase 1. . 4 +1! 5 +S! I' 5 broadening intervals separating phrase accents! Weaker. Ex. can perhaps best be seenin a notational diminution of representative phraseswithin appropriately ordered. its concluding impulse forms a simultaneousinitiative for the subsequentunit. Representation of phrase-level meterin the Mendelssohn asend-accented. 3-13b." The notion of extended anticipative grouping. A renotation of the Mendelssohn first phrases.and confirmingtendencies logically deduciblein all. Moreover. but conceivably preconditioned as phrase accents and linear recession. soWhile the analysis sees phrases 2 and 3 asconditioningothers. revised bar-lines. and a balancing subsequent unit containing the analogousgrouping in preparation of the next initiative impulse at the samelevel.

e. The mensural units in the Haydn phrase in conformity with the notated bar-line! are clearly delineated by relative accentual superiorities at intervals of 2. 7 YQYTI __ Yf1fI92f1"i1f. There are of course times in music when accentual impulses are of relatively unequivocal effect and function. third movementBreitkopf and Harte! No.-._ _ 121'-2!'!l'! 1T . be felt in some degree in their central referential functions. Ex. no one. ma non troppo §'§[. Is it. Presto. mode of grouping. : accent here is expressed in anacrustic thrust. presumably. Haydn. 37!. metric structure emerges in a purely neutral interpretation in performance-i.J!l_ 1 IQll ~ -- -» 4 I 2? A' ' -I '_ 1I / ` -l _ | _I 2 2 . form a metric unit at a given level. In fact. pitch. qualitative strength of a given impulse ascompared with others which precede andfollow it and.. whether in accord with notated bar-lines or not. the Haydn theme requires some interpretive thought as to the question of metric functions at the level of the phrase: it is not clear. In some degree.]l1-11 LV' ' 92_.f. accents which are the result of such factors assuperiority of pitch and duration will. often counteractive. More subtle factors of texture. would dispute or fail to appreciate the mensural metric structure in Ex.! But music is by no means universally so explicit even at mensural levels. part of an anticipative complex underscoring superior accentual value of a subsequent impulse? The question concerns metric structure internal to the phrase-not formal delineation of the phrase by cadential punctuation at four-measure intervals in another. presumably. could also be noted. and duration. 3-14. and in the Haydn probably simpler. rather. and such complementary factors as harmonic rhythm. with it. that the initial downbeat al is metrically initiative for the phrase-level unit. .li92=92Qa _ Yll|fi|-I I |l.. Sonata in D for piano.rhythm and meter 335 Criteria of accentuation Accent is a theoretical term denoting the relative projective. for example. 3-14. and there are many instances in which metric grouping. and surely not at higher levels of structure._ ' 92 I -.

l Fall 1962!.g.l4. fn. and that few studieshave approached the problem of accent perception in Cooper and Meyer. in music. by the slightest hurrying of the anticipative impulse toward the subsequent accent. he must also decide. by understating the conclusive impulse. I. stating p. p. creating a perspective inexposure ofanother event. the extent to which explicitness of metric structure is stylistically appropriate compare. the kinds of decisions and judgments a performer must make.axiomatic concept which is understandable as an experience but undefined interms ofcauses. at higher levels intuitively. usually no more than a kind of gentle urgency in projection. [Some Problems in Rhythmic Theory and Analysis. which may be a low-level accent.336 rhythm and meter derives from inherent accentuation of such clarity and decisiveness thata neutral approach is clearly in order. it must forour purposes remain a basic. It is true that relatively little can beunequivocally known about accent. asymmetries of necessary vitalizing function! at times require awarenesswithin proper restraint. unfortunately.. The Rhythmic Structure qf Music. which is marked for consciousness some in way3°-and it is hard to imagine a more suitable one-we must then endeavor to understand the means by which. difiiculty. cannot be explored fully. The above comments and questionsare indicative simply of the kinds of problems encountered in performance. and scope.7! that .183. but it is important that we recognize their ultimate significance and something of their nature. in Perspectives qf New Music. The authorsdo not go far in developing the issue of criteriaof accent. and by comparable means whichhave been implied but which. 8.] . p. or Stravinsky and Webern!. of course. subtle performed intervention is more likely to be indicated at broader levelsof structure. unlessin parody. certainstimuli are so markedor are perceived as emphasized as subjects ofaccentuation. _ . overt accentuation. . at no level is the analysis of metric structure to be understood assuggesting gratuitous intensification of any attack. Although intramensural groupings of particular importance e. since accent appears to be a productof a number ofvariables whose interaction isnot precisely known. . Wagner and Debussy. When it seems necessary to bring out the metric structure in instances deemed of relative ambiguity!. bythe feel of theharmony. No meter at any level calls for crude. If we accept the Cooper-Meyer definition of accent as a stimulus . How much isprecisely known about interactionsof any musical events?! Peter Westergaard notes thatCooper andMeyer aresubject tothe relatedconcern that in their analyses analytic choice at lower levels isevidently largely determined by metric position even though originally meterwas defined as being produced byaccent!. for example. We are obliged to put aside any extensiveinvestigation of these problems. by nearly imperceptible adjustments in timing of attack. it is done in a variety of discreet ways: by slight intensification of accentual attack.

Mursell. Chaps. 6 911!. making thistype of organization the simplest. while he concluded that pitch differentiationproduces neithera group-ending nor agroup-beginning effect. Theodore M. Those that exist dealwith the problem of accent and grouping in only relatively primitive contexts i. In exploration of durational and intensityaccents. in Proceedingsthe of Music Teachers National Association. in addition to Mursells. and while such actions cannotbe objectivelymeasured and comeasured. Chap. etc. too. The Role of Pitch in Rhythm. and in significant degree to. referring back as faras. in Archives of Psychology. Inc. A Quantitative Study of Rhythm. p. by preconditioning. Woodrows studies concern grouping as perceived in seriesof stimuli variously differentiated induration. all rightsreserved. Or. Nor can we with present understanding hope to deal objectively with the question of the influence on thesefactors of various degrees of preconditioning-the preconditioning structure of the musical work as a whole. Within the concepts presented inthe presentstudy. theissue is one ofexistence of anticipative impulse or lack of it.] The notion of preconditioning structure. Schoen. since accent is defined as metrically initiative. James L.the classic experiments of Herbert W. are: Woodrowsreference in the first of the abovelistings. in Pqchological Review. 104. rather. by definition. Mursells bibliography on the psychology of rhythmic experience is auseful source of reference. Sources of relevant bibliography. I! to still earlier experiments. and those ofthree pulses. 524-2 7. he concluded thata subjectinterprets theaccent ofintensity loudness! as group-beginning and the accent of durationas group-ending. W. andinterval ofspacing. pp. stronger ode. there is no way out of the need to evaluate their cqfunclioning if metric "See. Gestalt approaches are also the basis for the ideathat ultimately indivisible metricgroups are of only two orders-those of two. ed. by articulative relating. 14 909!.... arises later in the present study. No. of course.but because a previouslyestablished grouping tends to perpetuate itself. V. as in J I J IJ I J . andM. and The Role of Pitch in Rhythm. Finney. beginning withaccent. in circumstances concerned with rhythmic grouping as conditioned by few parameters of accent usually operating singly!. p. in the pattern l f*'! or &!| l &.! Woodrows findings arefundamentally qualifiedand disputed inlater research. 32 Accent in real music usually involves many element-actionsoperating together. then. or the preconditioning understanding most percipients have in some degree of the particular musical rhetoric and its norms.. XVIII. one of thefunctional affiliation by temporal proximity. every metric group. The issue of iamb ortrochee is. Bibliography of Experimental Studies in the Psychology ofMusic. [Leonard Meyer. pitch. 54-77. Emotion and Meaning in Music© 1956by TheUniversity of Chicago Press!. thatstudies of psychoperception of grouping seem often to be impaired by a failure to accountfor the perhaps potentially decisive! manner in which a series of differentiated stimuli begins. Woodrow: for example. all of which appears to becomparably far removed from the complexity of real musicalconditions.rhythm and meter 337 laboratory conditions. Norton and Co. The Psychology of Music New York: W. not because of any particular distinction whichit possesses per se. the trochee differs from the iamb in that its weaker component is somehow functionally discrete in relation to the following accent.December 1940. 77. It shouldbe stated. for example. intensity. whichhas itsbasis inGestalt concepts of psychological perception. the question of accent is not oneof group-beginning or group-ending.e. pp. . 32A toneor groupof tones may appear to beaccented. 1937!.! of animpulse to a subsequent. IV.

e. thelist of potential accentual criteria is long and comprehensive..e. 320-22! expressive of other modes of grouping such nonmetric or gxtramusicalfactors. notedearlier. It is of course imperative. the list excludes mentionof factors S¢¢ pp.hence. Nonmetric factors of grouping e. In approaching such a statement of accentual criteria." At the same time. gspgcially in the listingof abstract criteria. . reasoned hypothesison the basis of demonstrable features of the experiencein question where empirical verification is unlikely gr attainable in only limited degrees. etc. to remember that the necessity gf their contextual evaluation in real musical situations is ultimately decisive indeed. cadentially punctuated phrase. As often in seeking to understand the musical experience.g. as text. that any change within any parameter of musical events can be significant withrespect to accent-delineated grouping in an atmosphere of rglative parity of events. of CQUISC.. but it may also be of styleor of genre. We must point ultimately too to the necessity of evaluation of accentual impulse in relation to a given structural level tj rehrence. motivic resumption!. The necessaryconcern with contextual relativity of accent means. It can be argued that everychange withinany parameter of structureis metrically initiative i. The effort to understand accentual criteria in the experience ofmusic is. No penetrating approach to the studyof rhythmi¢ structure is conceivable without insistent efforts in the direction of a wmuprehensive statement of criteria by which accent is evaluated. the energy of the accent having a kind of radial impact of diminishing _!%rce through the reactive and conclusive impulses which follow within the mgrfic unit. The following list of accentual criteria is punctuated by brief examples which are contrived for the purpose of focus on individual parameters in artificially simple conditions.. may give the impression of _hrtyfying the accentual initiative impglse and intensifying its quality of accent.338 rhythm and meter anajlysis isto be carried out. one strives in metric analysis to achieve plausible. context is normally viewed as thatof the Worx in question. relatively nonxccentual events! can affectmeter atonly verylow levels of structure. Within the above two essential concerns. when conformant in relation to mgfric grouping. it is important to recall the concept of accent initiative impulse! as initiating the metric unit at some level. although relatively minor changes i. criteria can onlybe seen or expressed as tocontextual relations!. apart from the problem of incommensurability. ¢¢¢_!. the effort to enumerate famvrs which appear to contribute to and condition the perception of grouping by aa-entuation certain of impulses as metrically initiative. accentual! atsome level. thesemay be mitigating or counteractive at times in concurrent cxpressions of grouping notstrictly metric in nature.

3-15b. Less commonly. again. . it accents theevent following the leap. or a particular tempo event as the object of accelerative drive.rhythm and meter 33. approach by leaps in lines. 3-l5b!. _ _ _ . Pronounced change ej pitch : high pitch especially is of accentual effect. | I t. or a tempofollowing ritardando. most often in a rising inflection. I. must be seen as potentially accentual.9 I. 4. but pitch exposure is an accentual value involving uncommon projection by reason ofpitch. or relatively low-level piu mosso. l. Ex. : in inumerable examples.l 2. l-3 7!. Q| 0 35 i l` I 3. especially leapsupward: compare thc factor of anacrustic approach. note. 3-l5c!. Related to the above. Element-changes toward accentualb' superior valuesconstitute aprimary class of criteria of accent. 3-l5d!. high or low Ex. changeto slowertempo may have accentualeffect. 3-15a!. Longer duration agogic accent! . in the broad formal pattern with slow introduction. superiority of pitch denotes the usual accentual factor of higher frequency. or contributes to that accent Ex. piu in--' §"' rit.atempo ls -". 1.that the longer impulse in the iam- . in a context of lesser change in pitch-line. but the exposure of an event-distinctly high or low in pitch-by reason of pitch. Ex. 3-1 Bc.° relatively long impulses often have initiating effect Ex. 3-1 Sa. may have metrically initiative effect Ex. seeEx.. Changeto faster tempo evident. EX. if a leap has accentuatingeffect.

. 3-16d. high.g. or any relatively loud attack.asa factorin meter! whereelaborative prolongation is over very broadspans of time.e.g. e.. 32021. 61-69. Ex. duration of an event beyond its immediate locusat a broaderlevel! may haveaccentual significance. and in someconceptuallyopposed to! that undertaken here. penetrating timbre e..g.notedon pp.e. ' Ob. Comparelinear functional association asa nonmetricmode of grouping. changes in orchestration from relatively neutral timbre e. 3-16e.. 3-16f. . but this factor is of unlikely relevance as felt accent i. may function initiatively with respectto metric structure Ex. s Smitherdiscusses relativeagogicvaluesasto particular kindsof contextualassociations.340 rhythm and meter bic foot is regarded as initiative of the metric unit. treating "absolute"and "relative" agogicvaluesand implicationsof the positionof a note preceded and followedby shorteror longernotes.! re In somecircumstances.The perfectlyjustified qualifications in Smither'sappraisalof variouskinds of contextualpositionand relation for agogicaccent indicateagainthe complexityof the problemof analysis of metric structure. the goal of crescendo. 5.. pp. VIII.evenwithin the concerns of a single parameter hereof duration!. Change to moreintensetimbre: i.g. Articulativestress:e. " The Rhythmic Analysisof 20th-CenturyMusic. muted trumpet.! . even moderately loud. The readermight well referto Smither'sdiscussion of accentualcriteria asa supplement to in somewaysan extension of." Ex. 6." in Journalof Music Theory. 3-15f!. Ex. which contains the impulse anticipative to the next agogic accent. 3-15e!. clarinet in medium register at moderate dynamic level! to more intense. Ex.

in the following instances upper voice risein pitch. p. by virtue of intensity and instability.a neutralfactor with respect to accent." s~Specific tonal-harmonicor scale-degree! contentin a harmonic eventhasbeennoted as. 3-15g!.thus.. ?? 8.its potential for accentualsignificance is readily submissive to more dominant factors: for example. 3-15i! contributes. to its accentual value.Evenwheredissonance is involved.. a verymodest factor. Change to denser or otherwise noreintense texture. seems clearlyof preempting significance: seems "naturally" strong-weak.cit. both implicationssubjectof courseto counteractingor preconditioning opposing forces.g.3-1$g. 3-15h! may impart accentual significance to the second event in such succession. 66! groupsaccents of timbre andtexturewith "dynamicaccents. 3-16h. Ex.apart from suchqualitiesasimplicit dissonance intensity. .rhythm and meter 341 7. chromatic progression Ex. Tonal or harmonic change of unusual degree or distance: e. Dissonance in a given harmonic event Ex." +Smither op. accompanying voices or other voices <nay influence the feeling of accentual impulse in "underscoring" one event over another Ex. 9. while seems weak-strong." Ex.

other factors being equal.because it is second. Ex. Certain associations of impulse functions constitute a distinguishable class of accentual factors. thus._ "l' 92-1/ ' '° 2. impulses at whatever levelsingle attacks. Temporallyvery proximate events following the initiative..' ¢ 2 I 3" I l ' III. One might suppose that. 3-1 Bj.3-15k. Ex.! is in this sense superior. must be accounted for in any comprehensivelisting. etc. 3-l5j!.phrases. subordinate in accentual value.and elaborating it. as the Or perception of V V V V where the two accentsare equal! as a group of four would derive from the sense of the first accent as primary. bgt he rgight well perceive the two stimuli trochaic. and subsequent equal stimuli may thus be perceived as increasingly recessive redundant!. A metric initiative is signilicantly enforced in its accentual properties by a preceding anticzpative anacrustic! impulse orcomplex. -O ! and meter II. the second in a pair of identical phrasesappears weaker. Similarly.342 rhythm Ex. 3-1 Bi. the first in a series of identical units e.g. contribute to accentual effect Ex. it is unlikely that a percipient would sense an anacrustic or iambic! pattern two in equal stimuli divorced from any larger context. . * IL. and by any ornamentation analogousto that of anacrusis Ex. 3-l5m! . 3-15k . Accentual factors of particular conjecture.elf the possible durational impact of repetition and elaboration of a pitch event near enough its immediate level to be perceived as a factor in its agogic value!. For example. §§ 31 e' .2 i. but of very probable significance. 1.! . as in certain kinds of ornamentation. 1. primacy of accentual valueaccrues to the jirst in aseries of contiguous eventsEx.

:li "_ in ti-rf-» I I 3. that is. An exceedingly diflicult but necessary point. accentual force maybe mitigatedin its effect bythe sheer proximity of a preceding unit by which animpulse is absorbed in some degree-a question related to that of the delineation and perception of levels of metric structureEx.rhythm and meter 343 Ex.3°160» I 'Q I I aa. 3-150!. one to have further ./9292 = |0 me . for example. : Il I I u I II 'I 2. 3-l5n!. Ex. 3-15m. EX. °7 I t |f|. 3-1 Bn. Any quality in an event which is in a particular individual or stylistic! context unexpected-the sudden intervention of an event in a context in which it is not likely-may have accentualsignificance. accentual value presumably accrues to an event which intrudes upon the normal or establishedcourse ofevents Ex. The relative proximity qf unitsmay be a factor.-¢ I I 4.

e. 5. The problem in the analysis of meter i. general characteristics relative to accentual effect might be usefulat this point. is necessarily of primary effect.it is an issueof evaluation of usually many coincident factors by which contiguous and concurrent eventsare differentiated. even of stress or duration. a broadening and thus decelerative tendency. 3-3!. whetheraccent is in a given context considered to delineate meter or to function counteractively in relation to somehow otherwise established metric structure. succession of units of increasing size. very brief chart of some of the broad. therefore. and not merely enumerate the various factors as objectively as possible in the terms of context. to accentual inflection in musical successions couldbe extended and qualified in various ways. invulnerable to the preemptive or preconditioning! action of another. and relatively high final event is clearlyfelt ascompromised in accentual force by the preceding metric recession. and however strong and persuasive they appear to be. whether decisively or modestly. if No doubt the list of factorscontributing.e. 3-l5p! the loud. In the illustrated contrived successionEx. whatever the apparent accentual qualities of an event. preconditioned and/or preconditioning. but it must not be read as in itself a sufficient statement of criteria see Fig. i. cf. except in the most blatant cases. The analysis of accentuation must weigh. it would seem that the position of an event as the object rj' accelerative progression is a strengthening factor while the position of an event as object of a decelerative recession mitigates against accentual value. .344 rhythm and meter understanding whenand whether a given unit is.. Finally. long. such a list of premises isin any case a necessary basis for the analysis ¢y" metric structure. A summary. the location of real barlines at various levels! is of course not merely one of the identification of accents. It is unlikely that any accentual factor. Rather.

the introduction and exposition taken as wholes! in many works. For analysisof anticipative. or the first part of binary design in relation to the second. that the broadest metric shape of many most ?! musical structuresis as summarily and simplistically! represented in Fig. 3-l6a!. entering after rests seem. mayexist in this relation very broadly seen. initiative. the bass of a portion of the movement quoted in Ex. in fact. The first impulse could be seenas initiative for the entire unit: highest pitch Q' the essential line.a ubiquitous device of thrust toward and support of the metric initiative! The anticipative function extends of course to all levels. tentative. unexpected Common Object of acceleration Object of deceleration First Second. As to initiative impulses at lower levels. most unequivocal of all rhythmicmetric functions-weak.rhythm and meter 345 Fig. contrasting interpretations of the phrase are discussed presently. As opposed to Strong Weak Intense Relaxed Unresolved Resolved Active Reactive High Low Loud Soft Long Short Unique. 3-4. It seems likely. 3-3. we take as subject a single phrase from Corelli Ex. it can be observedthat ! is strong.g. 2-10. A briefsynopsis of some qualities of accent. andreferring to the numberedevents.. subservient. beginninga descending essential recession from tonic to tonic. reactive. pp. noting the accentual criteria which seem applicable. ll of Ex. third Preconditioned Uninfluenced by prior events Anacrustically underscored Unsupported by associated impulses ornamented! Exposed Assimilated Dense Sparse Further comment concern/hg d/'verseimpu/se functions The anticipativeimpulse isthe clearest. 2l4-15. . so that ultimately an entire form may be seen tohave broad anticipative-initiative relations: e. and conclusiveimpulse functions and determining factors.


Impulse 0! is the longest note of the phrase. 2! is conditioned as a mensural initiative by the preconditioning precedenceof the 9-10 motive. In connection with this question.rhythm and meter 347 unit of F which includes The !.E in Ex.t![ 4 + 5 ] *Accent-to-accent grouping. Proportions in the resultant metric structure might be represented as Ex. An interpretation of metricproportions in the Corelli phrase. further." II I + §-4 1.! Impulse emerges ! a further assubsidiary ingiative ¢y"plau. EE i i 4* :-|. but unifying symmetriesand balances should benoted too.9 from which the internal 4 unit has significant registral separation! are of important balancing $0 and close interrelation.Thus. it is supported by a strongly tending anticipative impulse 9!. |'Segments including anticipative impulses.3. and the preconditioning effect of the 3-4-5 grouping is a factor in support of the anticipative function of !. first five impulses form subunits of 2 +3 3 -|. + g-9 4 -I '|_'|~ 4 I ] 'il' +4`! . Moreover. Impulse' ! is comparable to !. Asymmetrical featuresare of great importance in expressive. characteristic? to consider is the regularly spaced mensural-level accents following Vaantioqzative complexinterpretation an discussed below! as yielding the pattern in Ex. 3-16b. in which the first impulse is anticipative! and the outer units ty' 8 and . as well as by duration and pitch superiority within final the of unit . ZF [s . there are severalmotivically related units of 4 + 3.activating effect.V subunit ofthe first V by ! virtue of duration and strong approach by dissonant leap.sible high 3 level function it initiates a final . 3-l6c.|` |I |l F [2+ 3+ 3] g F . The question of chief accent structural downbeat! at the level of the phrase should be carried further. 3-l6b. another way of regarding the asymmetry-symmetry . ! seems distinctly anticipative in its durational inferiority and position prior to leap.

the halfnote A. In the second construction. leap the first!. reasonable metricinterpretations implied in the above discussion. dissonance. low-level metricprogression withiiz this anticipative group as compared with the relative rigidity of all three alternate writings!. 3-l6e provides asketch pointing out the two different. 5+4+4+4+! and meter note the two essential streams of pitch succession f-F .g. A? In considering a question of this sort it is sometimes useful to speculateon relative effects of hypothetical varied transformations Ex. !* ! QJ ll 11 ! poco acceL ? !g 2I §E°*r@J §'¬rrb@J 22 22 *Results intotal phrase symmetry. 3-1 ee. No doubt other interpretations could be argued. the second ofthem construing the first five impulsesas an anticipative complex at the phrase level. Ex. In testimony to the range ofconclusions towhich evidenceof accentual criteria and impulse functionsmay lead.348 rhythm Ex. is interpreted as phrase-levelinitiative accent. start of the chromatic stratum in the compound line. . and agogic value in its immediate context. Consequences for correlating tendenciesin performance e. its accentual qualities those of departure from diatonic precedents. and the chromatic succession A-Bb-Bll-c! as well as usual criteria of accent. The expressive value of Corellis solution is evident in its less predictable. 3-16d. less symmetrical result as compared with No. Ex. treatment of the first note as up or down ?! are crucial indeed.. 1! and in the intensifying 2-2-l. 5 An essential question for performance follows: Is the first group of anticipative in its functional relation to the first skip accent. 3-l6d! for the light that can be shed on functional relations and actual creative decisions.

--' lower stratum . hence specific as to level . aecentual impulse and ! the aeeentual initiative rj a largerunit in which subordinate accents preceding and following are subsumed as anticipative and reactive!... and accents. impulses. as indicated in a given context of reference.. 2: /I l ¢--/ "'92. no objective. and generally of regular. As we proceed. Pulses are a psychological frame of reference-undifferentiated. absolute specification of structural level is possible. To identify a higher level of metric structure is to identify in analysis l! a stronger. stimulus!. Leveled metric structure thus has. in the course of a piece. 3-1 Ge. vital and necessaryanalytical judgment concerns theeomparabiliq qfunits. it can change. or integral silence. from the phrase to the largest formal divisions. and othersestablished.. to grouping and weak-strong associations.e. The beat is the pulse of the mensural level-the denominator of the meter signature admitting aswell as D in compound meters!. it is a matter of level-i.essentialf-Fmotlon---°--" °O ' °° ~f el e 1. and it is of great importance in the consideration of meter. it is the factor subject. it changes in relation to the level of structure to which reference is made. like other element-structures. Two interpretations of metric structure in theCorelli phrase. In determining levels of structure in meter.in theory... 1:1 "" [--.chromatic motionof . Thepulse isthe felt unit of counting as identified!. but when that is the case a common denominator relating the two beat values can often be identified. Theimpulse at higher levels is an entire formal unit two or three of which constitute the level of reference: 26 these range. by differentiation and preconditioning. Metric unit canrefer to the grouping at any level. evenlyspaced occurrence except in anomalous situations or at higher levels of structure.rhythm and meter 349 Ex.-- ---.implications both of breadth . someterminological clarifications should be recalled. I Levels of metric structure and 308/YSIZS The concept of levels of structure has been treated at every stage in this book. more fundamental and far-reaching. The impulse is the event itself attack. to be sure.

Examples differ. 3-4.! Figure 3-5 is a set of symbol distinctions representing impulse functions and bar-lines! applicable to graphic representationof metric functions and structure at various levels. Fig. in the number of levels relevant or selectedfor reference. The principle that a pulse seriesat a higher level is roughly analogous to the accent seriesof a lower level is useful in construction of the concept of metric levels. structural downbeat! for an entire structure: it is thepoint to whichenergy is directed andfrom whichit recedes in lines punctuated by lower-level metric initiatives. as demonstrated in examplesin this chapter. See Fig.350 rhythm and meter as to the temporal span over which a given primary accent prevails! and of depth in the penetration of a primary event's metric function through more foreground levels!. Bar-line Accent etc. There is nothing hard and fast about these. . A higher-level accent conditions and delineates a broader unit. It is theoretically and experientially valid to refer to an ultimate primaryaccentprimary initiative. 3-6. and any ordered selection can be applied to analytical representation in a given example.But such symbolic distinctions are of great usefulness in the analysisof meter. and it is initiative as well for all lower levels throughout the structural depth. Symbolic modes of representation of metricfunctionsandstructure at hierarchically relatedlevels. and analytical ranges of inquiry differ.

. or principal subunits of reference. Conceptsof pulse.e. or a phrase at the levelofthe measure. of the hemiola. This method of terminology yields such references as these. on aTheme of Haydn. On the other hand. of the period. 3-l7a!. of three eighth-notes.or mensural unit . but this mode of reference isextremely problematic at higher levels. of one-half notated bar. as initiative for the phrase. the other suggests the possibility of anticipative function for the initial group. I I ' -~-~» lair? Two interpretations are suggestedin Ex. intermensural or hypermetric! the lowest are of course. in approach to the higher. are necessarily subjective and especially diflicult beyond low levels. longer eb as phrase-level accent. 56A. The Haydn theme usedby Brahms for variations will serve as a useful. 3-173. of the motive. theme.rhythm and meter 351 The question of a terminology of reference toparticular levels of metric structure as to levels in other element-structures! alsoarises. of three notated bars. while .of Part I . We could in theory refer to a period or other phrase complex as metric at the level of the phrase.where the term following of is the broadest formal unit defining the given level frame! of reference-the most comprehensive metric unit of reference: level of the phrase. the question of phrase-level initiative is not at all unequivocal. whose units are divisible in various ways at various subordinatelevels. Brahms.The analysis which follows adopts the first of these interpretations. of the ostinato. mensural. In the theme. Ex. parenthetical subject of reference Ex. a measure at the level of the beat. of the sequence pattern. of two half-notes. i. 'once thescope ofthe unit at the level of reference itself is identified. and the like. of the notated bar. recognizing the essential structural importance of the d and its validating immediate recurrences in prolonga¢ -0--__ tion : _ `¢ In the following representation of metric levels intramensural. it becomes possible to refer to that level Qyr¢:rence to that unit. not immune to alternate interpretations. Op. d. of the talea. 3-l7a: one of them regards the first impulse. Variations. of the whole.

Le ~ . and of the weak-strong relations of impulses at broad levelsa question pursued further as discussioncontinues. and is a recurrent device in this chapter. 3-17b!. The renotation in diminution facilitates the apprehension of this idea. 3-I lb. and it is viewed as parallel in weak-strong associations.352 rhythm end meter theoretically demonstrable and analogous in weak-strong associations even internal tothe/. looel ofwhole! level ofphrase! level of2 notated bars! S omdp rI level of l notated bar! level of$ notated bar! etc. ofno real experiential orpractical significance. they are representedfor comprehensivenessEx. Renotation of the Haydn-Brahms theme.But let it be noted that the consequentphrase in the initial period represented as one "measure" in the renotation! is Ex. Meter at the level of the phrase is revealed as a magnification amplification! of a five-unit mensural structure.with impulse functionsat variouslevels symbolically represented. The question of the recessivefunction of cadencearises here.

87...-__ -__-_.:__==_==-_._!=_==A -g -LJ a . violin....ig fa get @~ i V# il ....E=::= i§iEiEEE5EE $3/o_o 4 ali. although the latterhas an elided interjection of renewed phrase-level initiative lending it vicarious accent. _T Z"".343 /_#F /~92 /""'*92 Allegro .." 'Ei gif ... Ex. first movement...»? ..i. forpiano. m.. e I r`| l" "V Ffej ¬iE E:E::.Trio inC..... 3-18a! provides the basis for some extremely absorbing questions of metric structure and process.. as is the final phrase. 3-1 Ba.rhythm and meter 353 recessive tonaliy and melodicalb in relation to the antecedent. Brahms.. and cello./ .... m..3-1.. e 4 is . A chamber work of Brahms Ex. Op..../_9292J/92'_ EE V/-9 Y...-_-__ _92 ' ="f' ei If /92 li dr -.

m. 3-18a continued.Ex.349 .

. Ex. 5.!A representation of metric structure in the entire cited excerpt is given in Ex. TPiano bass reiterates phrase accents against upper voicesyncopations. . In the present example there is one has only to conduct the first Eve measures at o to senseit! a strong intermensural unity with acceleration in rhythmic motion! in the first phrase. in the bass. Ill. l w@f~ f~ -~» 2A 4_ 2§ _I n. intermensural units are ofvery clearly delineated both in metric ordering and in phraseology. §Second unit at halllphrase level accentually equal tofirst in piano bass! or stronger in violin. 3-18b. 351 and 358 might well be felt as phrase-level syncopations. 343 344 345 946 947 848 349 Sw 35| I 3f . 343-46. This initial four-! regularity becomes the 4. Against this preconditioning.§ Il f 2E Ti? II 2 4 r""" *'i_92 ri* +1 l . IConclusive impulse now renderedpowerfiilly anticipative at phraselevel. but the piano at these points maintains.. Example 3-l9a_ is one whose metric structure involves important questions of level beyond the mensural. 3-l8b. . a second intermensural initiative begins the theme of m.rhythm and meter 355 In Ex. Al sw L lf 4 I . irregular agogic and registral prominences ofviolin and cello betweenmm. 3-l8a. fl f" i L a i V gn. 351-54 as compared withmm. 852 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 *Violin-cello phrase-level meter very explicit againstpianos basssyncopations. but with First and third impulses equal-an accelerative tendency in more frequent equal accents. cello! at mm. the preceding intermensural shape 4 with strong accentthe at start of the unit.! ! 2g ~» l cf.

. Mozart. Hn. Ob. first movement. Vln. 218. inD Solo Vln.Db. Vc. Allegro 2 Obs. Vln. 3-19a.Concerto in D.2 Via.. l Vln. l Vln.D . K.for violin andorchestra. 2 Hns.2 Via.358 rhythm and meter Ex. Vc.

1 _ ___ VC-.. fP ___ ___ V.P ___ .§ '1='|5"1'°'-`§|_§-='. VI..J _. =?._ '* P .1.=E:. Y] 0 J ' ..~ . E cnsc.':" ___ _J .9 _ ob.E. 4 :k.-Q1 V92l.!l._ .=... nl ___ » 92 Q"l`i92-£531 92 mI_¥l ml I. ' '_ "92 ° v.: U 1.. Ll l.L11.0 1 °_ 1.: _° _1 Q - "nn 'il' v.?. _ 1 ___ f.4 V :=: 2_5 ' Q_ ° /92 _§==gi===l.Q !.m.DM / / ob. Oj . .. . Hn.. .'.rhythm and meter 357 m.' I _ ._.. __ ' mu I? 92 cnsc. _ 1 V .= P! . ll-if-i~. iii l92..1 l..1==-. =?.=?.?.:.1 1 'Q F _ - 2_ I' _' -7 _ 11- I0QI .J I-H H ll '1= i 1 'l=ilr1|i'i. 9 1 _yill j ... f_ f .=E".1 »° _° 11 LI--I ll-.

that the subsequent theme of m. E 1 . ' / Q 1 lisgii-__i'_i§=g Hn. Fr F r Hn.-=§. E 1... syncopated. 6 is felt.. 6. anacrusis. byvirtue ofhigher pitch.Q f_ §. like itscounterpart two bars later. " *=§§§§i5' 3l§£?5iFE§ .'i.=ss:E '_ U vu. in looking ahead.5E. and striking exposure as a piano. .% f°~ IE f basis for provocative divergences: the dynamic-texture accent of m. W I_ P _ mf] _ ig .heard assyncopation within the established four-measure unit. -° - 1. m. Pj Vc..l " " __ _` v»»»2l §§§f§$ ___ _ § s s§§z¢=5a:§.m. 3-19a continued.. Vln. The initiative accent with which the phrase begins a measure before is.. quite apartfrom the question of preconditioning in mm. a strong perspective against which thesyncopation of m..Db. 19it has four-measure intermensural units! features an analogous. dynamic-texture accent . Ob..ll _' ° .. I5 and meter - r"r F fn n 0.§g.358 rhythm Ex.therefore contrasting! thematic beginning.*-==:======='§ = Www » . ' -r W"-11' i5= _ .§ H_ v¢. "I t is interesting to note. 1-4.

8. We have argued that tonal resolution is.. leading into a recessive-conclusiveintermensural impulse at m. 3-ll.g. a recessive process while accentual impact is rather associated with tonal distance and dissonance. ternary. 16.rhythm and meter 359 Measure 8 poses a more complex question.f§`6&§'_2 The . Ineach case the anomalous accent isin a context ofdecline in pitch--a factor which contributesto its perception as syncopation in relation tothe phrase-level initiative of the barpreceding. . and 3-17 are clearly of strong-weak . first. 8 initiative at its counterpart in m. 15 beginsa process of reassertion of the notated bar-line by aooenting by upward leap and decisive pitch superiority! the corresponding motive at that measures jirstbeat. but the variation at m. binary. 10. An asymmetrical horizontal noncongruity of Qi. third !Jthus turns out to be f. 372-76. in tutti. The entire passage is outlined in Ex. the beginning of m. and on techniques of syncopation. Measure ll is recessive inrelation to the accent at the middle of m. notated bar-line powerfully is reconiirmed at m. in itself. ll with its counterpart in the repetition. One is inclined to comment again on sometimes relatively obscure! asymmetries in Classical works. etc. and of metric dissonance and resolution.and that the factor of specific tonal-melodicharmonic content is relatively indecisive and submissive asto accent. incapable of conclusive objective resolution is the weakstrong relation between antecedent and consequent factors in periodic relations and extensions ofthese-e. 15. Exx. but because of the strong senseof resumption conveyed by introduction of a new motive. Compare.U ! structure evident in the weaker at thepoint of its second measure second o pulseof thephrase!. and the recurrence of the irregular m. This theme unfolds in consistency with its altered intermensural placement: note the corresponding initiative at the half-phrase level at the middle of m. 8 is compelling as anew mensural and intermensural! initiative not only because of the sheer strength of accent and consequent disruption of 3 phrase meter. Syncopation as to preconditioning structure is discussed on pp. observed at early stages inmany movementsf A problem. Of references cited up to this point. l7H`. is I so far established. The metric structure of the irregularly placed theme from m. 10. a motive which occupies one measure crossing the notated bar-line. 3-l9b as to primary events in the phrase-level meter. 3-8. at m. 12. The extreme thrust of pitch accent. 3-12.! having tonal resolution in the second part. at the middle of m. The restoration of conformity with the notated bar-line a recession! is of equal interest.

chromaticism. The prolonged V of the formal introduction like its analogs atlower levels! requires for anticipative function such nonaccentual properties as practice demonstrates: textural sparsity and simplicity.360 rhythm and meter Ex. activity! factors largely extrinsic to thatof specific tonal content. l 1! II II II lntermensunl syncopation cf.. pitch accent m.in fact.-T"I I3 2 57 46 IS 2 l5 I7 I4 I6 IB New th¢m¢s conformant initiative _ I9 20 2| II II P . etc. tempo!!. the universal downbeat character of the consequent part is a product of accentual conventions beyond the tonal content as such:stress... Exx. coloration.° The concept of the metric neutraliyof tonal content apartfrom factors of dissonance. Phrase downbeats at middle of bar.f II II II II II I-. m. or 'shaping towardsuch conditions. Even in so conventional a procedure as massively amplified V-I. etc. A representation of phrase-level fluctuations in the Mozart. 3-6 and 3-13 appear to project the opposite relation. creating symmetrical level units Phrase downbeat lestued to conformity with notsted bl~ line: strongly asserted lr: in sgogic value and mscrusls i "t.Phrase-level syncopation: texture-dynamic accent cf.in principle.land preconditioning of m 4! I Alterationmotive of to establish pitch accent at notatcd bar-line cf. introduction-allegra high-level anacrustic-thetic impulses!. rather than the necessarily resolving. 3-19b. 2-29!. etc. slow tempo. the accented V is not less plausible ornatural than the accented I. just the reverse might be dcmonstrated.6! properties of the consequentimpulse. its rhythmic understatement heightened in relation to an accented consequent see Ex. distance. It must be remembered that in situations of broadly weak-strong or strong-weak relation the conception of impulse is that of the entire con°We have stated that. . gives rise to important corollary conclusions. texture. m.given theusual dissonance of V. The issue of weak-strong association internal to higher-level hypermetric units in tonal contexts is thus dependent on accentual intensity. lower dynamic levels.5 of m. releasing action oftonal movement toward I..

low-high. "Cooper andMeyer.moreover. broad impulses. while possessinga shape and structtue of their own. so in music individual tones become groupedinto motives. manifest finally in the recessive cadential action in which initiative energy isultimately dissipated.not to mention those of tonality or tempo. Actually.e. subsidiaryevent. even. Most of the music with which we shall be concernedis architectonic in its organization. or recession. we accept and further promulgate the view that even at the broadest levels structural relations long-short.! in which stronger metric accent inheres in the second. It is equally important in the analysis of rhythm and meter. whenaccentual value resides inthe second of two. words into sentences. Far too little is known about the range of musical perception. That is. In reasserting such a principle. what does theultimate initiative accent initiate ?-a necessary question especially at the highest level. or the extent to which macrorhythms are perceptible and intelligible. As a piece of music unfolds. etc.! Yet. but as an organic processin which smaller rhythmic motives.! constitute significant metric order. p. binary. phrases into periods. functional is inthe course ofthe impulse. just as letters are combined into words. we are in part regarding rhythmic effect apart from the problem of its perceptibility and intelligibility in the musical experience." In discussion of leveled metric structure. but thisis aperceptually significantfeature only at levelsin which impulses have significant duration. solo-tutti. motives into phrases. the inherent process of decay has time at higherlevels in which to function. additive way like beads. and so on. This is a familiar concept in the analysis of harmonic and melodic structure. Sachs alleged limitation in a twelvesecond period of distinct and immediate awareness would in itself preclude In formal relations of two parts period.rhythm and meter 361 st°t 1 uent umt: t h eH accent73 is ' an entire antecedent or consequent segment. In the following. The Rhythmic Structure of Music. I. not of course itscadence orany other single. the appropriateness of theterm initiative accent might be questioned. 2.The possibility within longer timespans forthe impulseto havesloped recession within its own duration isa majorand vitaldistinction in the natureof impulse functions at difl`erent levels. thick-thin. and at whateverlevel-declines Mthin its own duration except when deliberate progressive intensification is imposed.. its rhythmic structure is perceived not as a seriesof discrete independent units strung together in a mechanical. etc. the process and fact ofdecline. sentences into paragraphs. soft-loud. also function as integral parts of a larger rhythmic organization. fiuctuant-stable. etc. Yet expressed doubts regardingbroad rhythmic experience apply equally to the question of relations of any kind over the broad expansesof a large work-relations of theme. anyimpulse-accentual or not. . or orchestration!. asone conceives of impulses as ofincreasing breadth at higher levels one becomes aware of a principle by which theaccent theinitiative impulse!with its function over a longer time spancontains the process of its own decline: it is a sloped event within andof itself. Thus.

then. 17. 3-13. and others!. the concept of multidimensional metric structure is developed here as of entirely conceivable practical significance. Rhythm and Tempo New York: W. of great expressive importance. in a very general sense. Thus. agreement! in precise parallel to the geometric sense having to do with the potential for exact alignment or nonalignment! of figures in superposition. . The present concern is with fluctuation and asymmetries ofvarious kinds. 3-19.. But there are important exceptions tothis principle: in surfacesof apparent symmetry. p. it fails to allow for the capacity of memory. further illustration will follow..! Metric irregularity: horizontal and vertical noncongruity We shall refer to metric asymmetriesas horizontal and vertical nonoongruities and to symmetry as eongruity: conformity.. The principle of the variability of metric content and proportions at different levels ofa multileveled structure is. See Ex. memoryas it applies even to inarticulate feeling as well as cognition. Norton and Co.which is the reason why the ancient Greeks limited the length of a verse to twenty-five time units.of course. not as mere theoretical artilice. and others... even the four movements of a symphony . Curt Sachs. Noncongruities in metric structure have much to do with musical effect. and the sense of hypermetric structure at intermediate levels can surely not be disputed. But the accessibility to the senses is open to doubt. 3-16. Everybody is entitled to call the ABA of a da capo aria a rhythmic structure or. 1953!. To an appreciable extent.362 rhythm and meter deep assimilation of any temporal work of art.intermensural and intramensural! meters reiiect the characters of mensural meters within a given style. Inc. a primary aspect ofinstability in metric structure. asymmetrical intermensural divisions are more likely in styles in which irregular mensural units are prevalent. critical asymmetries are often imposed within overall metric structures of considerable variation. Examples of asymmetries among contiguous units horizontal asymmetry or noneongruity! are evidentin someof the preceding citations Exx. as in certain of the most stimulating of Classical literatures. That is to say that. For any longer piece is very definitely at variance with' the findings of modern psychology that the maximum filled duration of which we can be both distinctly and immediately aware is twelve seconds. There is much testimony to meaningful rhythmic experience even at ultimate structural levels. W. if he so chooses.

e.of course. And again. talking about real meter which. The homometer-polymeter spectrum of possibilities applies to concurrent metric units at various levels. 6 In all of these connections we are.rhythm and meter 363 Disparities among metric units occur not infrequently at simultaneous and overlapping points in the musical texture.that is the sense in whichthey are adopted here. and The terms pobrmeter and homometcr must apply asextensions of the termmeter and are generally understood to haveto do with texture. and the like. it is necessaryto emphasize that we are treating as meter organizations which may be irregular in unit relations and. In polymetric situations. or diversity. that is to concernvertical relations. in journal qfMusic Theory. For example. or in any combination of these tendencies. The nature of noncongruity typically varies in ways that constitute progressive or recessive tendencies of functional significance. in discussion of an example from Blachers Ornamente _fiir Klavier. organizations which do not rely upon a constant beat. as thus.Smither notes Blachers prefatory reference to variable meters and says: Meter for him evidentlymeans either regular or irregular groupingof a constant unitof measurement. The Rhythmic Analysis of 20th-Century Music. like the groupings of chant. rather than regularity of accentuation. ! in real time durations calculated from initiative to initiative. and at a lower level within these units there would be noncongruity of size too. with reference of course to the same unit of pulse in the units compared. there is instability and almost certainly asymmetry as well. ! in the relative numbers of active pulses i. aswe haveseen. Such proportions relative durations! of metric units can be reckoned in a number of ways: ! in total real time durations. again. creating polymetric structures the opposite might well be termed homometric-conditions ofparity among concurrent. Smither makes a number of relevant observations based on theproblematic equation of meterwith regularity. Disparity and aiiinity of metric unit concerns. 80 and 82. a particular aspect ofHuctuation which remains to be discussed. certain kinds of recitative and declamation. VIII. pulses marked by events!.. is frequently not in accord with notated bar-lines and signatures. accounting for tempo changes.! . pp. 37. _. At this point it should be notedsimply that metric instability. improvisatory passages.not only the size. manifest at some given level s! of structure-an effect of metricdissonance in many styles.or duration. Op. of the metric unit but its content well. even. for example. The nature of relations of proportion among metric units is allimportant in the structure and rhythmic life of a musical work. can be manifest through the texture or contiguously from unit to unit. vertically related metric units at comparable levels!. and to their relationsof contentand size. voice combined with V a meter in another would correspond in size at the mensural level! but not in content. a Dunit in one 3.

Meters two primary facets weakstrong associationswithin the metric unit and relative proportions among units! can be distinctly functional in a context in which the regular pulse succession is interrupted. in free. cadenza-like situations. except for the factor of tempo change!.'-4. Beethoven..J l' . regular pulsation and no sensitive performer would do so. Ex.. naturally. . andthe functional meaning of such devices is invariably of interest. ."$ JlJ=ldfJ=iJ=|' ¢=!YEJ. 3-9! subject to later resolution. 4. then. In that view."1¬. ." * " i -'__ °4+2l of! _ + S! f}1". 93. 8in F." "7==!==f== O CO O Il I0 IUCO .. all of potential significance in metric function and relations. 3-20a. This movement begins in a situation.. Allegretto scherzando . . | Q O I UI ?T~45-= II 2 3 ==== i'li'L11. ! by comparisonof numbers of such pulses whether active or not cf l.4 ." i*'_:"'=l!:=!3 '==1'!!=='=.-In ' '=="-3==':" i'=f= '. F ermatas and other phenomena involving indefinite durations are obvious examples of asymmetry among contiguous segments.. 0. Op. 3 31 :L == S = U ='='='}'=='========= lr 3. Such disparate modesof calculation of proportional content and relations yield information of different kinds. + ""'.second movement. it defeats demonstrable functional purpose to project a continuing. it has been approached in analysis in many ways. and in other ways.1 . 8 is a celebrated instanceof contiguous asymmetry horizontal noncongruity! in conflict with the notated bar-lines. It is of special interest to carry somewhat further the interpretation of the middle of m. .. 2 as mensural and phrase-level! initiative.¢q2-.17-. ' Wi=£:£:':=== il1==&'-=§==i'{=£££$=¢===£ eH 7. Moreover.. above.364 rhythm and meter discounting held as distinct from reiterated impulses-in a sense ameasurement of activity-tempo.-¢5m_-_ilrvw .+2! + 3 Mcnsural units . Symphony No. of metric dissonance cfi Ex.$. Of course meter does not cease toexist in such a context. second beat!there isclearly fluctuation of some kind in some degree. The opening of the second movementof Beethovens Symphony No. assuming they are not interpreted as even multiples of established units.-. In view of asymmetrical relation between clearly corresponding eventsoutset andm.

Other factors are representedin summary in Ex. but in general in most music other than of unsophisticated genres. 3-20b.rhythm and meter 365 a corresponding initiative is heard at the beginning of m.|-1 lr! . Ex. 7d Higher-level horizontalnoncongruities often not immediatelyapparent! are exceedingly common in music..° these two 7. :r I ' '* . --~... 4.r r *Extends toevent corresponding to that of middleof m. TCL strong accent later. 6. 4. especiallybeyond period levels in tonal music. 3-21 the diyunct nonperpendicular! bar-lim can be drawn at a very low level with Reference to measure numbers is alwaysto notated bars. The concept of vertical noncongruity. _ If ' e |_l. .20b. 3.¢ 1 nl mf Iran! ~' II-Ill-I III-li "'~ il' 3 92 .J»l l_1 I'ff If _ -f |n_i-17-===v 1 F1 fi l?*1$""'__'_ l* .J ?I *_gr . . leveled metric structure in theopening of the A//egretto of Beethovens eighth symphony. ». Dissonant. _ '~_ e_ .|-_l_|lI:!lZ. including some resultant questionsof performance. the temporal span by which the beginning iteration is separated from its resumption at the middle of m.. accents are separated by the asymmetrical interval of -. is that of a real bar-line which is disjunct. 8 not shown!. |. notperpendicular to the line of temporal succession.__-ni I1-_llf ' ||lISll_lll1»»l~*'l""S ' 1_ L `-1 'L I' Ii I1 1-7 _1 . Of chief importance in the two phrase-level accentsare agogic and anacrustic factors. In the extract from Stravinskys lHistoire du Soldat quoted as Ex. in which structure is polymetric. and by which the latter is separated from the corresponding event at the start of m.L¢A..|92.___ I 71 /" l 1 I~ 1~ .

n. The reality of resolutionof metric dissonance is also strikingin Ex.¢_` | » 92 -___ I9 `l ' I Hn mfg._|Q_Q'_.l 1u1||i1|1||7i|»_: 221|-1lJ1|lll1|l1§1l ' Y-1§§1_i2I1* 1 nl! Z V niililti ° A* I/Q _ IIQ '_H . 3-21.-__l°!§$. Stravinsky.Alu1.lI¢"'r*l-1 KL§l1"lf92Q. not only is much unknown about performance There arisesin these connections the intriguing andtroubling issue of thesignificance of the conductors presence. The questionsofthe exact nature of fluctuation.1i.' 0 °o |' OI |' |I OI | '92 |* 1.1 Db ° LltI1h. ~ . if not often as unambiguous in mensural ordering. Ltd.I Cl !". it reveals a highly diverse.366 rhythm and meter relative unambiguity. depend on interpretation of the low-level grouping of the double-bass motive. m.lZllQ22._ Z .7lniiilu17 U-Il.92 _ u o _ 921|» 92¢ . theconductor oftenimposes in polymetric situations the appearance of conformityand compromises. lsiliq ln mv.|-|2o .i"".' .|l » :lo _ sl -1111 'up ' .66.-IQ" lTt1." Ex. . his gestures an indicationof a given notated!metric structure where fluctuation is an expressive desideratum highly functionalin the structure.while other motives are relatively unequivocal in metric structure. 66!.i4l_1uil. .""'K 1:11 ~ * =92. ' I' `| l¢rx1_l_.I_|-_92I'-|lll_f-ll-l°_§YT--|ill92.-QQ-... In lo _ |PP . W.'1i'li11¢92ll|o_l'. Metric analysis is of particular complexity in music before Baroqueinstrumental conventions.I -. i Q-liulblijjili1i§1_ij1l§I'1i§2lJ1§i .A . Chester. with interpretive consequences as to shaping of the motive itself and the precise nature of total polymetric interplay. and resolution of metric dissonance. presumably. |' .60 : | ' .pp k | 92` la 92` ° lZZ. the experience qffiuctuation. or he may in some degree have thateffect. *All parts sound as written. activesituation resting on J and eb pulses of fixed durations.1121-1l_Ql|lll11ll_1`921l_ilJZ'111lll11' 'fu-I' __ _'Taz' _IT--1| -!AYUII _---!" |/at Ziilli _Ili intuiui 11| ihmi ii lnlnqml ll1l|l mv.Jillu./'Histoire du Soldat.!l1l |l._llni1l$llu11--_!l71ioi1ll»ix-92 lI 1I . EPP : I-ll Restoration Ii of perpendicular bar-lineat as m.J!.D1li_'1'i1n7l1r1n1il_:'.0 '. that of the bass poses possibilities Qv rv I /"" of or i. 3-21 . Reprinted by permission qfj.-1-QIOQJIKIIQ l. IDA ' 1. noncongruity.r-Quilt!! lf. The foregoing is a very common situation in polyphony. with the nearly perpendicular bar-line at which fluctuation converges there is full convergence at m. PetitConcert.1u _ n:~l_l »_ _ rivlm ZKil|'*l lirringm :'l_l|r'uni....

metric structure in the initial subject. results in a remarkable vitaligr of metric _/lux. The agogic value of De is suggestive oflow-level initiative accent-a manifestation of the works strongly assertive. whose second syllable is the normal recipient of emphasis. ultimately. presumably. The extraordinary rhythmic fluctuation of this music. lends superiority. unexaggerated fidelity to accentual values. dissonance. etc. ! the functional resolutionin the occasional concurrence of perpendicular! bar-line. almost constant noncongruity in horizontal and vertical relations-a frequently disjunct real bar-line. Let us.decisive beginning-but the textual importance of prqfundis. would. punctuative practices! of earlier styles. . clarnavi. including those of textual inflection. consider metric structure in the initial exposition of the De prqfundis subject in superius andaltus Ex. at a slightly broader level. It has relative agogic accentand pitch accent in its immediate context. l! the considerable irrelevance of notated bar-line. explainsas muchas anything the fascination and arresting power of much of it. related question of activity-tempo rhythm asmotion! wouldinquire intothe tendency of phrases to beginwith relativelylonger values.in shortest durational values! and otherforces ofintensity rise in pitch. a likely. The _]osquinDe prqfundis setting cited for previous analyses Exx. assuming expressive. Especially in contexts in which preconditioning metricinfluences arehighly unlikely we are often dealing with meter which is almost constantly nonoongruentall in directions..g. to the initiative of the second notatedbar. but the metric meaning of a musical language in which no norm of bar-line regularity can be assumed is elusiveand problematic. and 2-17! is of further interest in connection with metric structure. while cadentially punctuated by areas of relative stability and felt against a perspectiveof often steady succession at the level of the beat. It would also seek to answer the question of complementarities between faster rhythmic motion i. 3-22!. A just consideration of rhythmic motion would consider its role inshaping increasingly large segments and. is beautifully A comprehensive analysis of the important. for example.l-26. reproduced in Ex.even though the starting note is longer and equivalent in pitch. The frequent presence oftext is a complicating factor in metric fluctuation in pre-Baroque polyphonic and other genres. functional significance in relations of Huctuant to more stableareas. its functions in determining the entire tempo-structure of thework. and then restore longer values at cadences-a matter closely linked to that of texturalfunction.e.! Setting of the following word. the in De view of its textual subordinacy interpreted! as/¬"!. in which a discreet.. 1-26.! as well as textural interdependences and other compensating factors ofkinds treated in prior discussion." The analysis of meter in _]osquin proceeds from certain basic considerations: .rhythm and meter 367 especially articulative. accelerate. give superior accentual value to the syllable zfun. and ! the crucial implications for performance. ! the decisive importance of text e.

-ma.----' 'elif cls "dna ZITI!.. cls -2 me -vi. l5 : FF - : _ nn. vi. establishing aforeground mensuralunit.== 13= -ma . 3-22. ne. asymmetrical metric structure._$-= =l=.F .fun . °i 'l!f__.--. in a broader sense. 3-22 reveals somethingof an apparent coniiict between textual and purely musical influences in the . Assuming the editors underlay of text.dis Reprinted _fiom the Sm§ers edition.ne. is : i _J vi.'°°° lDe pro De pro .-"" pro. Bilthoven. and this opening subject exposition is one of relative simplicity.vi.===='l===. with typically fluctuant. Ex.ful3_-. 3-22. in relative agogic superiority and in pitch. In a very local senseacccnt-determining units are as expressed inEx. = De pro .dis :els: .els ms - .?. :ad i te 4 in 1°+s! VI Area of resolution of upper voices against contermetric relation g_ of lower voices.Alsbach and Co. acl . Netherlands. published by G.368 rhythm and meter Ex._ p te Do Do - .appears in its purely musical parameters as well as in its textual importance a centralpoint of initiative orientation in meter. i _.mi .0 If s .fun. expressive of normal accent on the second syllable... by perrnission q/`Creyghton Musicology-Musica Antiqua. els Q ms mi - J = =' *-::== l -:==': . and at a higher level of metric structure.. ' 5 2 l1'|.. The extremely fluctuant character of the music is already vividly apparent. Mensural and higher-level accents deriving from musical and textual factors in the Josquin. although the first syllable has agogic value as well.6 l FV 32 .-"=-". Amsterdam.-».`h'== »2 F -:fun : .

of Stravinsky!. or the further irregularity in ordering of the motive in the bar see the violin. the irregular five-ordering of eighth-notes an aug- mentation the of fourab motive of the horn the in preceding bar!. or ! instances in which the underlay of text is subject to question. articulative and low-level metric! grouping of the horn in mm.in the upper voices atm. There is sudden initiative accent onDo. for example. while te is subordinated musically in every instance exceptone-that of altus in m. In any event. cf. but throughout the first part of the quoted excerpt numerous potent means of mensural variation can be seen even while the notated bar-line retains steadying support: the motivic. 3-23! illustrates many highly interesting techniques ofmetric and rhythmic diversity and controlled fluctuation.e. 5. pp. settings of Domine inmm. textual-musical aeeents are inconsistent through the course qf the work i.rhythm and meter 369 setting of ad and te. A very visible instance of noncongruity at the level of the notated measure is evident at m. 9 and ela-in the tenor of m. 26. 23-24. is one of very decisive significance.. as it concerns theseinfluences of text. 10. if that can be done! critically affects the experience of metric structure in such a work. even though the extent to which performance violates or underscores natural textual inflection or projects words utterly indifferently. 7. with its hemiola!. Moreover. there are . I-26. although this prosodicallyimportant syllable fails to have emphasis in the tenor of m. only suggested here. Moreover. 12 quoted in Ex. and others. asis sometimesthe case one has only to think. It is significant that. that would suggest consciously fluctuant treatment on the composers part. where itis the object ofa slightlift in pitch andof melismatic elaboration. it is the former that has musical accent supported by leap to higher pitch. 88-89!. -vi has emphasisin its musical setting in the upper voices ofm. accents of musical inflection vary. These apparent discrepancies in musical realization of normal textual inflection can only be discussedas ! instances in which the composer deliberately subordinates textual to musical impulses. no interpretation could possibly beliethe fact of pervasivediversity and vitality in _]osquins metric structures and processesas delineated in textual and musical qualities! It is important to make an effort to see somethingof the sources and nature of the inexhaustible rhythmic vitality of Brahms. again given Smijers underlay. 25. The slow movement of the Horn Trio Ex. One imagines that these are issues rarely consideredin performance. The problem of metric structure. as indicated. ll-l2!. in recurrences of words. and piano right hand. in the violin at m. and the experience of complementary and counteractive groupings governed or conditioned by textual accents. and in agogic emphasis!.

29 . 40. Brahms.Ex.third movement. Adagio mesto Hn. 3-23a. piano.and horn. Trio in E!. in E Piano m. 23 Vln. Op. for violin.

Note. Items of comparable rhythmicmetric interest arise throughout the movement. Potential superimposed for grouping D motive at in level the Brahms passage. 27-30 there are many factors of rich interest in the metric structure. with its subtle potential for 4. All of theseare mattersof significant potential for diversity in the metric structure and all require careful consideration of structural function and interpretive consequences. . manifest at one. . the same four-note. Especially in mm.mottvtc entity ! __ __ /nvnnigi to which we have called attention often crossesthe notated bar-line see especially thepiano part of mm._ .. 23-24!. during the p1anos .g. Brahms ingenious exploitation of the same four-note motive discussedabove. I P |r O . 4 5 4i U 7 etc.3 hemiola opposition . Ex. a superimposed D inan intriguing.rhythm and meter 371 instances inwhich vital interpretive decisionshave to be made and worked out in performance. v1tal_ context of constantly fluctuant polymetric organization see Ex._ . 3-23b. involving possibilities of underscoring implicit metric noncongrutty-e.. F! r Fl f rr V. 3-23b!. W rr r ] . with consequent fluctuant.and two-measure levelsl!. accelerative effect. for example.

in composite metriceffect. Useful analogy can be drawn tothe problem of thesignificance a considerably subjective matter!of tonalfluctuation intraditional music theory. Moreover. to what extent does it precondition the sense of accent in subsequent events and their groupings? Does apparent metric divergence in a given instance-vertical or horizontal-constitute changedmeter or simply counteraccentuation against a prevailing. for example. in another extremely diiiicult and complex. persistently manifest. as well as factors of punctuation and articulation. precondition the perceived groupingin the other? Suppose meter. to the established meter of another ? Or.and on the applicability of other kinds of accentual forces-that of pitch. the question of the presumed absence of preconditioning regularity is especialiy important in situations rj initial metric dissonance and instabiligf see Exx. does one of them. then. 3 ofis well established and may be assumedto have preconditioning force. not really eclipsing the established unit.In one sense it is an extremely simple factor in the determination of accentuation. not itself becoming referential. theview ofsyncopation developed here is ofa kindof incipient fluctuation-noncongruity of unit not really achieved. established meter ? Moreover. But the weighing of evidence in particular. remembering that this issueis of recurrent general importance. given two meters in concurrent voices. this dependsin any given context on the stability of other voices and of other temporal areas in the preceding or surrounding preconditioned scheme. we shall have a look at examples in which preconditioning structure or the lack of it! would appear to be a factor in the expression and effects ofmeter. The basicquestions are these: With a particular metric structure established. . Might sarabande!rhythms like JJ l J J then shift the real bar-line at some point. a the at mensural level. let us state some of the questions involvedand someof their implications. in fact. This discussionshould take place in two stages:first. agogically stressed half-note taking precedence as themetric initiator? Presumably.one in more or voices. like so manyproblems ofrhythmic perception resistant to comprehensively objective treatment. the longer. to what extent does apparent metric opposition in one voice yield.372 rhythm The prob/em of preconditioning syncopation and meter metric structure and The concept of preconditioning metric structure must now be taken up beyond its incidental references inforegoing pages. 3-9 and 3-20 in this connection!. complex situations is a problem of great difficulty and great importance in performance and critical understanding of structure. But it is an essential consideration in any analysis ofmeter. depending in part perhaps on its position in the texture and other differentiating factors.

For example. l.effective determinant.rhythm and meter 373 Throughout these issues thecrucial significance of interpretive judgment is evident in the fact that the performer can fortify or attenuate preconditioning Wet and its functions by even restrained interventions. But the relation of the half-note to surrounding impulses-the position of the half-note as endaccent or beginning-accent-would lack its functional ambiguity were "One very important factorin that consideration of context is the extent of unanimity throughout thetexture atpoints ofchange and points ofreference see Ex. It is very doubtful that there areconditions ofpreconditioning meter that can be stated as generalprinciples. questions of preconditioning effect must be considered withrespect to the particular context involved. And what about traditions e. or the possible preconditioning implications of earlier movements in a multimovement work? As basisfor continued discussion. we shall understand theseas syncopation.e." 2.opposing accentsare commonlyasserted ininteraction with preconditioned meter. anapesticdactylic issue!. 4.its significance i. the theme of the slow movementof Schuberts Quartet in D minor Death and the Maiden! is perfectly clear in the function of recurring longer notes asmensural initiatives. governed by preconditioning circumstances the iambic-trochaic. surely applicable to levels of motive and phrase in much music. These areexamples ofthe kinds of essential questions whichinvolvethe issue of preconditioning structure.g. weshall assumethat in some degree an opposing meter countermeter. is probably of diminishing relevance and complexity at higher levels. . or contrameter! is at least ineipientbv established by confiicting accents. obvious instances ofthis can be seen inlater stylesof very fluctuant meters. and in early music in which the bar-line is largely a notational convenience. whether it constitutes syncopation or fluctuation! to be evaluated on the basis of specific conditionsof context ultimately a matter for reasoned judgment. And the issues are still more complex when cast in other dimensions: what is preconditioning in the particular musical work might be affected by factors of preconditioning in the style. Where preconditioning is an insistent.where _fewer units over longer time spans areless likely to precondition metric experience. Where preconditioning may be of relevance. dance!. 3-9and others!. not to mention what is preconditioning in the listeners experience... even decisively. The perception of anacrusis is often significantly. The issue of preconditioning. 3. In many instances there appears to be little or no significance in stated mensural meters aspreconditioners. we shall make a number of assumptions. 5.

again dismissing the implications of the listeners prior familiarity all listening to music that one knows requires an overt submission toits terms!. The question of preconditioning arises ina different sense inthe example from Beethoven Ex. but this can onl occur in situations in which a basis or anomal is lard-1. But it may be that even ultimately a disjunct bar-line is felt in some lingering sense as expressively counteractive to relative regularity in the lower voice. 3-24. What is especially intriguing in the applications of this theme throughout themovement is the increasing ¢ct cy" preconditioning. . In the matter of fluctuation or syncopation there is a broad range of possibilities circumstances : in which presumablyanyone willfeel theprecondi"While it ma seem contradicto . 52Compare the Cooper-Meyer discussion in which stress on the secondnote is regarded as distinct frommetrically significant accent The Rhythmic Structure of Music. normally. Andante con moto . second movement. rather. given the Bbs agogic and intensity values. Even in the second bar the grace-note anticipativesupport and the articulation begin to have accord with the notated bar-line. 3-25!.-1l_l1§IfI_!l-*-11 | M2-H-IZ! 1/ Vln. The point of the anomalous accent is its expression of incipient noncongruity. it is interpreted as an end-accent. 3-24!.Cfill _ 1_-1'--1 Y VlnC 2C 1I * Vln 2 _ -1 _ __ _` ! Qi.---~-2 ' _' 'll' . 810 "Death andthe Maiden"!. p. . it is conceivable that the initial note of the upper voice has some effect-in the theme melody-as anticipative.l there an anticipative approach cf the second phrase! at the beginning Ex.14 in D minor. in II II I I yi I II II II y situations inwhich the anticipative-initiative relation is firmly preconditioned. String Quartet No.requiring slight punctuating articulation at the middle of the first bar. N oissue couldbe of greater moment to the performer in making interpretive decisions of articulation. while syncopated against the bass regularity and against increasingly prevalent perpendicularity of bar-line.e. Iit should be notedthat the anticiP ative ulse IY ry I I IimIp can on occasion have stress and a arent accentual value su error to that of the initiative to II I II II IP II II I which it relates.374 rhythm and meter Ex. 30!.D. itself a preconditioning factor.. Schubert. and of coursethe prevailing mensural structure is quickly established sothat subsequentappearances ofthe theme becomeclarified cfi the resolution of metric dissonance! as to increasingly distinct syncopation in relation to a preconditioned 3 0"6 . The first note it begins the movement! can scarcely beheard asan unequivocal initiative impulse.

for while syncopation isnot anindependent metric manWstation. the question can beone oflevel of reference where conflict of contiguous .for pianoand orc hestra. Beethoven. some illustrate incipient vertical noncongruity. Thus. there ncipient?! is fluctuation at levels of3V and. Throughout this spectrum.and of course manyin which the effectof preconditioning as a determinant of syncopation seems virtually inconceivable.iinrii I1-I _ _Z A° * Metric dissonance . the insense of internal ordering involving lower-level groupings. others in which such effect seems doubtful. 3 unitsconcerned...I-»i » | *T I1 .upper voice ornament. 3-25. . Again. infavor of the syncopated grouping. Of examples of syncopation.§'°:l-1-_IU Luv o 'QI -'H ' I _il 31 ' . tioning effect of established metric grouping. the preconditioning meter may ultimatelybe disrupted. it is functional and expressiveas assertinga kind of shadow unit challenging the The question of classificationis not idle. example. too.V but not the at level of unitsV of except . compare theproblem of tonal fluctuation. the common hemiola interposed intoprevalent a menV __ 2 sural structure. ina fluctuantcontext.'l_--. * r '' .! And.. third move ment. and others incipient horizontal noncongruity. In a sense.e. governing basis with preconditioning meter felt as referential in relation to counteraccentuation! as opposed toone of actual shift of unit size and/or content. as in polymeter or true noncongruity between contiguous groups. a preconditioning context! is improbable of cognition.Op. where there is frequent change of metric grouping. uppervoice articulation.¢ _ _ l. Molto allegro 4' :' |' 27.¢|-l-|*-*"' . 19._ lifji ll. TStabiIizing factors: continued conformity of lower voice organization. it is the quesprevailing metric context. incipient disjunct bar-line. is for In. wherea patterninitially felt as syncopation within a preconditioned context is highly persistent. not justdisturbed. which then becomes in its turn the prevailingstructure.11. .rhythm and meter 375 Ex. r. uppervoice agogic accent onc2. Concerto No. tion of eject: there is a vital functional and expressive distinctionbetween metric opposition felt against a preconditioned. it If I I/g" vit I1 ammoT . one is dealing with real or incipient metric fluctuation in some degree. with stronger projection and persistence anycould result in true metric shift or fluctuation Terminology here rests upon the ideathat wherethere issyncopation there is relative uniformityof prevailing. a consistent frame of reference i. preconditioned meter. 2.


Control of meter within such extremes is a fundamental factor in the articulation of musical structure. and asymmetry with fluctuation.rhythm and meter 377 Stabri/'ty and Hux.so that it is possibleto speak of a metric rhythm in music-a rhythm conditioned by the qualities and frequency of changes in metric relations e. changes in meter like those involving any element! are structurally functional.e. there is a vast breadth of possibilities with extremes of metric stabiligf on the onehand constant. the meter signature or signatures! suggests those conditions of normalcy at the mensural level. In many works. the judgment of comparability in these respects animportant part of analysis.There is again no possibility of absolute objective specificationwithin these concerns. compensatory and complementary functions in re/at/'on to other e/ement-structures To say that a unit of structure is symmetrically ordered is to say that its constituent subunits are at some level possibly not at others! unvarying. As with any structural element. temporal distancesbetween points of metric resolution!. etc. metric progression and recession. As the concept of shaped and shaping! metric fluctuation-that of recessive and progressive process within the metric structure-is approached. it is vital to keep in mind that any theory of such recessive and progressive operations must have reference. Metric rhythm in this sense like tonal rhythm. in applications. to comparable units normalbt initiated bycomparable accents at a given level. The spacingand frequency. some prevailing unit of meter constituting a basis of variation.. To saythat there is fluctuation is to observe a relation between a unit and those which follow or are con- current at a corresponding level. 3 2 2 3!. For most works there is thus a condition of normalcy whose characteristics are at a given level referential.g.. degree ordistance! of metric change constitute a rhythm like those of other element-changes..and the quality i. and uniform in level. while usually consistentwith. associated with the condition of stability. The potential . and some point in the range of possible states between extreme constancy and extreme fluctuation. norms of its style. Except in random musical situations. The notion of symmetry is.unchanging intervalof initiative accentuation at all levels -in all textural components! and of instability on the other total avoidance of like contiguous or concurrentunits in the metric structure.g.! is an expressive determinant in music. yet at times anomalous in relation to. continued Huctuations ofmeter at all levels!. Any given work projects its own norms ofmetric stability or flux. but it is clear that any analysisof compared relations and controlled metric change must have reference to units interpreted as comparable. within a given level. or in someother balancedrelation e.

Common situations in which meter is functional as afactor of great importance can be listed in the abstract. metric indecision may involve uncertainty or suspension of regular beats or pulses often coincident with dissonance! or a suspension of activity fermata.g. 1. progressive effect is of acceleration. 5. 3. constitute asymmetry of an important kind whosesignificance of effect and function could well beexplored. it should be noted that variation in unit orderingwithin apparent constancy of size wouldnormally denotefluctuation in size at some lowerlevel. or erratically fluctuant series. in such works as theme with variations or rondo or other recapitulative forms. after which we shall turn our attention to some exam- ples of shaping metric change in works of various styles. or indeterminate pause! in an effect of momentary temporal hiatus unmarked.g. often a factor in introductory and cadential processes. indirection of a! shorter unit and b! increased instability.mensural units of fouras opposed to phrase-level units of three.crossing structural levels. 4. recessive metric broadening occurs only as a final event. The factor of ambiguityuncertainty. In the latterfunction it is often complementary todissonance.Note that reference is alwaysto relation to a norm for a given context of level and temporal span. is one ofadimension ofdepth in the musicalexperience. indecision! of meter cannot besaid Disparities at different levels-e.!" As to unit size. 6. one aspect by which normalcy is characterized. in directions of increased stabilityand longer units note frequencyof temporetardation and fermata!. Metric instability. recessive effect is of deceleration. The fermata has twobasic functions: it can contribute asthe ultimate broadened unit to recessive process e. 'I'hefermata as emphatic. often a factor in the process of thematic statement except of course wheremetric flux is a thematic attribute!. in the latter circumstance itseems likely that the fermata is stabilizing ineffect. unpunctuated or empty time. Interesting is the possible relation of metric indecision to states of relative tension. Metric recession. Relative stability.378 rhythm and meter for shaped rhythms of change in metric relations between levels. . recessive.could well constitute a provocative further area of concern. 2. Metric progression.. often a factor in developmental and transitional processes. such a relation. Whether its effect complements finality or intensifies instability seems to depend on other element-characteristics to which it is allied as well as on its position in relation to other lmits comprisinga progressive. while not explored here. finalcadence!. Fundamental variational changes in metric unit at mensural and intramensural levels. often significant in a processof mounting intensity. and it can intensify the feeling of instability in fluctuant circumstances by theinterjection ofa unit of ambiguous length. measure-free time! unlike the time of unit measurements the time of quanta--of punctuating events!..

Departure from unit norm instability! bility! *Including incipient fluctuation. 3-6. . noncongruity. 18. Some important progressive and recessive tendencies of metric structure are summarized in Fig. has it anacrustic and agogic "T he symbolJ etc. In this representation. Similarly. 3-27b. Increased constancy of unit size 3. one of the cadential processes cited earlier. The initiative event at m.rhythm and meter 379 clearly to contribute to intensification or resolution. Larger units at common level 1. in study of metric structure as complementary to elements ofcadential processalready discussed Ex. etc. 9 . denotesal or§ J!. can be expressed as in Ex. ¢h= or s 38 l'|*92 5 l"5'_I id . 23. in the summary an effort is made to identify parameters of meter subject to processivemanipulation in the two broad tendencies noted. Fluctuation in unit size greater greater horizontal congruity! horizontal noncongruity! at at common level common level 4. Increased vertical congruity 4-. resolution! polymeter. The recession composite in r/yrthm.2.! or E. 3-27a. the process by which the metric structure is projected in broadening units. is of broad significance-interpreted as the primary initiative impulse for the entire piece. A summary of recessive and progressive tendencies in metric structure. dissonance! 5. In the Schoenberg example. beginning with m. Features/objectsrecessive of change* Features/objectsprogressive of change* l. pp. one in relation to which allearlier events are broadly anticipative. Increased vertical noncongruity homometer. a mensural F group" is sharply defined. syncopation!. reference is to the sequential pattern. 3-6. Relatively asymmetrical unit relations tions 3. 107-l l!. Smaller units at common level 2. Relatively symmetrical unit rela. l-37. Fig. 108!. quoted in Ex. 18-19 see p.¢l7=%¢l. asymmetry. should here bereemphasized tempo . 17. Op. Recessive or progressive inclination in metrically ambiguous situations dependson how such situations are perceived asto greater or lesserfrequency of accent at a specified level. Attention is directed to the Final cadence of Schoenbergs secondof five piano pieces. changeis a factor within that rhythmic aspect. Restoration of unit norm sta5. In mm.



1 1 T 1 . 59 3 .1 lr Q.382 rhythm Ex.. 3-28b. and of preconditioning of phrase-level meter. and meter .=. 4/5 rf' 1 ~ f' V. Ea ' "*=. culminating in a tonic cadence eight measures later. 3-zab.! .¬ %2!F-. with three metric levels represented.. :2. 3-28: continued. Ex. m.::=:=: ll do TE *If E . $=_.This phrase. which first appears in this form at m.1 ix xi JJ ._ __ E1 °i it *? The issueis one of agogicas opposed to pitch accent. 59.`] -. is shown asEx. Q rJ VJ I _4 J/`d g JM 1 1' J/'wi x1 _ ' The concluding phrase ofthe Scherzoportion of this movementdeparts in variation of the theme at the typical tonal level of the 3rd above.

`_/Y :: "' lin _ CVCSC."'° JT f 'k lt t OJ II k EQ. r Wr . 2 appliesthe practiceof variablemeters extensively. Again. one has only to imagine the cadence withoutthis expansion." Blachers method can be illustrated in brief reference to Ornaments fzir Klavier. in predominant movement toward tonal resolution. the effect of ultimate expansion in the phrase-level metricunit is especially strong in view zy' thepreceding contractive accelerative! succession. 37. with persistent unitsof two. 3-28c. as isquickly apparent if one notes that from the point of its inception m. with initiative impulses ofincreasing frequency. A composerwhose workhas been of interest in the direction of particular very overt! solutions to rhythmic-metric problems is Boris Blacher. ! repetition of only the last four measures. who has developed a practice of variable meters-the employment of planned sequences of _measures of varying lengths. The process is represented in Ex. The stagesin metrically progressive cadential approach are the following: l! repetition of all eight measures. The prefatory note identifies the kinds of numerical series SA cadence of greaterfinality-increased recessive tendencies of element-structures in greateraccord-could be imagined as a reversed metric process.lt In the cadential development of this phrase there is considerable fluctuation in grouping as delineated by phrase repetitionsand truncations. i.d in two distinct modes of graphic illustration. ! repetition of only the last two measures.compensating recessive tendencies have to be seen inharmonic rhythm and. 59! to the conclusion of the Scherzothere are twenty-six measures. the steadyingfurwtion of jinal metric expansion out of 2! is highly important. . All in all. Thehorizontal noncongruity at the phrase level is thus immediately visible. 5°Blachers Piano Concerto No. typically unequivocal. On the other hand. especially. Op. the progressive action of dynamic level is intensifying. but within the metric process itself..rhythm and meter 383 . the cadence ismetrically relatively active while emphatic in other parameters.e. The pattern is thus one of metric contraction. a progression lending an activating influence of increasing urgency. Moreover.

d.e e/ / / .| "' . 3-28c. Acceleration u' I | 3 IL' | ' A I I e 3 92 92 92 Deceleration 92____F___. ho C. Representations metric of process in the Beethoven Scherzo.___/ 92 e Q_ l92__.d.384 rhythm and meter Ex. s_ I £1 . A 1 20 F F 4_ .

3 employs the series 2 34. Thus.!. and No. 3 45.3-29. 4 56. etc. 5. the first and secondemploy a simple arithmetical seriesand its retro- grade.No. 5 employsan additive series series!.!.37. Blacher. etc. Op. illustrate theseprocedures. Nos. 4 employs a "cyclical" or "rotational" series 5632.rhythm and meter 385 adopted for the pieces inthis set..No. No. Ex. Fibonacci 6 3 2 4 5. 3 6 4 5. Ornemente fiir Klevier. with a basic unit ofP for allthe pieces. Allegro J -96 No.quoted as Ex.3. etc. No.5 Allegro J -92 . and its retrograde. Brief extracts from three of the pieces. 7 follows the distribution 87 876 8765 ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ 8 7654 32 65 654 6543 65432 4 56. 6 applies24 permutations of the four integers 3 45 6 3 4 6 5. 3-29. 3 5 8 13 the 56324. 6. and its retrograde.

./ _ ° /_ ' Moderato = J 104 92 '92 1 T 'T "1 '1 1 /` r No. in general. 4. and otherwise shaped Huctuant element-changes thus have in Blachers methods a strict systematization at times surely simplistic!. Processes of active. . An intensifying progressive process is followed by recession at the mensural level. -7.. Blachers accents are. and meter 9292i.-. 3-29 continued._. Inc._:l--I _. articulative. static. the recession a rztardando acts expansion in the of larger. where motivic V units have been prevalent. 2 Luv I -C Q _g I' _ ! D' .:» .Q. in which a process of metric progression andrecession can be seenin a relatively simple context.and in . and often underscored inmotivic grouping and recurrenceof readily identifiable ideas. of pitch. of duration. The example occurs at the conclusionof an active middle section in the parallel minor.e . I.386 rhythm Ex. etc. comesfrom a piano piece of Chopin Ex..6 PP_ ._V Q' I_ If Y.expressed unequivocally: textural. 3-30a!. V unit as the formal 6 . An example of minimal difficulty.1 Ei liQ 1 | &-I 7 7-2! F 92_! 11 Reprinted by permission qf Associated Music Publishers. ll. recessive. There is in the quoted excerpta complementaryfunction of dynamic changes.. _ If _ .|. progressive.

3-30b. are as summarized in Ex. Ex. referentialnorm.rhythm and meter Ex. Chopin. rn. No. whetherperceived asa shifting interval of real bar-lineor asincipientfluctuationagainst a preconditioned.41 49 45 2+2 progression recession Although the location of initiative accent in the motive might other- wisebe subjectto debate in view of the agogic superiorityof the arrival . Op.Nocturne in F. Metric processes in the Chopinexample. The metric changes. Con fuoco 387 repriseis approached. 15. 1.3-30a.3-30b.

the earlier works of Stravinsky are a landmark in the evolution of increasingmetric flexibility. we are of course limited to discussion of a few relevant techniques in selected examples. sometimesunequivocal metric structuresoften asymmetrical and noncongruentto a degree startling for their time.the impact of textual prosody is here. higher note tends to clarify the issue. yet of great evendecisive!importance in metric effect: the extent to which accent is projected in textual inflection as opposedto purely musical factors where the two are not in consistentaccord! dependsof course to a great extent on interpretive choice. all of these stimulative of a range of inquiry. It is apparent that low-level metric structure is one of extreme asymmetry and fluctuation. While any of theseor comparable literatures could be the basis for extended thesis in itself.slowing of tempo. The metric formulation of the chorus parts is thussubjectto textual inflection asinterpretedia performance and realized in subtle emphases! an area of crucial decision making for the performer. 2-13a. 225 32!.. by way of illustration of approaches to metric analysis. the constantly altered and nonconformant metric grouping of the repeated motive of the third voice. In a substantial degree.recurrent organ theme. less pronounced at phrase level. Such anomalies as the noncoincident hemiolas. Chopin's articulation ~ ! throughout of the first. contributing to a generaleffect of great vigor and mobility. Metric functions in the final cadence of Canticum are chiefly but not entirely! decelerativein complementation to such other element-recessions as pitch-line descent.a factor of difficulty. pp. the first. In Part V as a whole. yet it occursin a context of polymeter of rich polyphonic vitality in which the lowest and highest voices project hemiola at diferenttimes in a composite structure of disjunct bar-line. metric and other aspectsof rhythmic. subject of inquiry in earlier connections see Ex. as are the works of Bartok" and Webern in different ways. and the 82 or ~ but noncongruent meter of the fourth voice.and creative impulse by which rhythm and meter have undergone profound transformations in the earlier twentieth century and up to the present. 2-13.' The following references are to Stravinsky's Canticum Sacrum. and total dissipationof contrapuntal . the hemiola of the organ refrain of Part V see Ex. resource. make for a con- siderablerange of metric effect even within the relatively unassuming. tempo! change from section to section constitutes a higher metrical structure. 226ff.. accentednote is also intensified by dissonance.388 rhythm and meter note!. p. 327 35! is an instanceof this. mm. e. as in certain prior examples. large sections recur in a rondo-like manner.g. Because of the enormousimpact of persistently variable. level of asym- Metric noncongruity is of courseat times asserted by very conventional means.

rhythm and meter 389 textural interactions in the final events. and factor the radical of change.for eachof which unfortunately only brief comment regarding prominent factors-and questions-of metric structure can be given. although the stress atm. 18. the final three. 8 in F. 229. defined on the basis of attacks initiating the descending motive of m. Meter inthe finalcadence of Canticum. 3-7. p. 341 and the final three chords. punctuating chords are separated by slightly increasingintervals of time. The attack on the final chord isseparated by lld! from that of the preceding which chord. line. Let the examples serve as a kind of summary recitation of devices by which Beethovenrenders themetric structure expressively variable and off constantly engrossingasymmetries.but only slightly so: that is. aswell as functional in its controlled changesin the various processes of statement and climactic development. texture. 329 concerningthe Quartet. shows a still fluctuant metric structure. tempo which by the rest is governed. Inclusion ofthe final rests as a specific quantity defining the final mensural unit is of course problematic. Example 2-l3a. involving more diiiicult questions of preconditioned structure. represented at mensural level. 93." Beethoven. . Op. meter is recessive at the mensural level. An analysis of meter at the mensural level. also in The first twelve measures of the movement fall easily into a 4 + 4 + 4 intermensural grouping 3-3lb!. 10 its basis "Interpretation of the quarter-rest at the middle ofm. and tonal gfntlzesis. includes the cadence. first movement A further look at Beethoven is afforded by several excerptsfrom the iirst movement of the eighth symphony.! In one sense. Its vacillation betweenasymmetrical unitsexplains inpart the cadences active quality. 341as initiative is based on considerably %-Q preconditioned units. 1. No.follows the first of the three by 9Even the slight broadening represented in the 9-ll relation is felt as contributive to the more persuasive. which interprets the rest which begins Fig. functionalrecessions in tempo. The example. is asshown in Fig. fitting in culmination of the movements restlessly fluctuant metric structure. Op. Example 3-31a poses a question of interpretation comparable to that on p. 3-7. ll-9-ll-9 U the adagio as part of the first adagiounit. Symphony No.

.93.occurredat the inceptionof the motive in mm.relative agogicvalue.ive higher note has up 'The interpretationof m.first movement." A continuation of the thematic element maintains this relative sym2 metry inan eight-measure component ofIs units toand beyond m. but cf. yet the first note asserts insistent initiative functionin significantpart because of the preconditioningeffectof the original motive from which itis derived!. !Pitch accent. ~ phrase-level metricunitsin the openingof the Beethoven laid in the agogic accentinterpreted as subordinate at phrase level at mm.but discounting any accentual significance in merefact of arrival on 1. 6. Beethoven. 10 is a questionof the preconditioning validity of the ~ structureof the basicmotive Ex. 3-31c!. 20Ex. Symphony No.2. etc. 3-31a. 10 addeddynamicthrust!. 8. 62A syncopating textureaccenton the lowerof the two notes. 4.. A representation of eighthsymphony. 4 «a 3-31b. the two-measuremotive continues with its establishedequilibrium pitch accent on the higher. 2 and 6! creates a provocative intermensural syncopation. and the important pitch accentof m.390 rhythm and meter «. Op. OF A «Agogicvalue. 13. 13-14. 3-3 lb! with which the movement begins. accentualvaluesof impulses at mm. feeling of downbeatphrasebeginning. 21 see Ex. initiative note but soon reachesa stasisof pitch level after m. 23! and subsequentlycontracts from ] to inttclimactic metric progression The initiat. havingimplicationsshort of real fluctuation. the precedence ofIsunits of which m. 13 is a preconditioned initiative!. 3-31d!.8 in F. At m. 3-31a! 4 and that of theIs units Ex. with implications for the interpretationof m. 9 asanticipative to a shiftedphraseaccentat m.


while Beethovengives it dynamic accent sf ! at the sametime in confirmation of its accentualsignificance?!. 23. 3-31d.after which the motive now contracted to two impulses! is transposeda 9th below. piano. the point at which the motive becomes static in pitch-line. Ex. .The entire progressionis followed by a measure of silence.rhythm and meter to now been in accord with the notated bar-line. This is no doubt perceived as syncopation in counterpoint to a bar-line preconditioned in thestyleas well asin theworkitself. from m. The incipient metric asymmetry of the five-unit is a further jarring event in a climactic progressionoccurring only twenty-eight measures into the exposition. but the effect is nonetheless an acceleration of implied grouping in incipient fluctuation in 6-5-3 . lacking the disruptive accents.

:Dynamic accenton first impulse abandoned.! Ex. 70 a decisive initiative accent in accord with that bar-line 2. an indication of the force with which metric process hereapproaches disruption of the notated . 28-32 and 7072! Beethovens textural components are in full accord.92/ Z. 3-3le. is mea 92|'-B-.34 92/ - I 92/ m. repeated to form four contracted units. 34.-92 I -. See Ex. only with the new theme. regular texture accents of accompanying chords.28 . _. 64111 in Ex.ao m. At another point.92/ CO *U P T _? m. 3-3le. and its unequivocal. 3-31 o. Possibly themetric dissonanceis resolved fully.. -_ -_ . Transformationsof motiveand theirmetric implications in the Beethoven. intensifying metric contraction occurs in a context of total textural unanimity see m. ==:"92|'L&=cf. It is significant that in both of thesecontractions mm. the sensitive conductorwill not do so! and in the absenceof gratuitous stresses on the notated downbeats of mm. At m. m. maywell be felt as a downbeat. the motive now clearly transformed from trochee to iamb-its first impulse upper note! now clearly anticipative. §Dynamic accent now occurringin support of transformed metric implication. 3-3lf Horizontal noncongruity grows out of a passage of strong accents inconformity with the notated bar-line-a final step in the transformation of the motive as represented in Ex. if temporarily. 34-36.e1 _§ -If tf 0' *Relation confirmed by motivic expansion with stronger pitchaccent. launches In motive a which sequentially is . following the silence.rhythm and meter 393 The initial impulse of m. an extremely vitalizing asymmetry before a further thematic entry again restoresthe bar-line without equivocation.§E== :" J 92/ m. but it is interesting to think about the experience of this passage in the absence of a conductor signalling every notated downbeat indeed. TResidual pitch and now dynamic! accentconfused byplacement in relation to notated bar-line.

. the movement hasto be left with these fewsuggestions of areas of potential exploration see also Ex.e. Unfortunately. =_ : LI __ 1 ll |o . No. l92YilQ-ll » X511-jlll V . The Prelude in E is reproduced in part as Ex. 9 The vital theoretical question of the relation between intermensural grouping asmanifest in phraseology cadentialpunctuation and resumption! and grouping as delineated by metric accent is of recurrent importance. 1 `1 2 := 4 J- 1 *As to agogic accent and anacrusis.64 and meter a n-l llnil II. of phrase grouping as opposed to accent-to-accent groupingat phraselevel-arises in many works of Chopin. 3-31 f. Such an issue of possible noncorrespondence between phraseologyand meter-i. ofcourse. 28. 68.lU--1lTl'1 §_lZlF` R i. ~ A' _.394 rhythm Ex. including the piece which is now to be fairly comprehensively treated. and brief summary extracts given in the following series shouldmake the discussion comprehensible. concerning the second movement!. p. l-18. ideallythe readershould havereference tothe entire piece. m. especially sincethe latter clearly requires the knowing involvement of the performer while the former is morelikely to be explicit in the phenomenon of cadential punctuation itself.I _I =_ iI k 0I I. Chopin.1 ' ll! ---1. Nvli i-lvl.iil|'92'J H LITl=_= EE _1 DTI: k =L'l§1I-== = lin--1. metric dissonanceis followed by resolution. . Op. '| » _ il .1 1I »U l1 I 92 3I H W * '_ an __ W T p Q1 Q eratl 0 c nter I 0 et e lm ' v .1 pr we0 'cisnon d h Mi 1 * lf 1 Ylfi-1l. does not permit maintenance ofthe Huctuant tendency: invariably.I 92 2 Us _:u in 1 I 92 2I 92 2 i 1 _I I . bar-line. pitch accent..H. Prelude in E. The style.-*_*=l_ 1 1_ 92 3 _: 0 _1 = 92». 3-20. '|'As toinitial anacrusis.and preconditioned bar-line.

-_--1_.rhythm and meter 395 In instances of formal phraseological! symmetry the problem of organization of higher-level metricunits can of course be elusive and difficult. 3-32b. then. the question is inescapablein arriving at interpretive decisions. on the other hand.. Prelude in E.. should the metric structure be thought rj as beginning with an anticipotive unit of three impul. ____. 28._. also a point of powerful pitch-texture accent? If so. twelve notated bars fall into three phrases conspicuously felt in cadential punctuation and resumptions ofcommon initiating material at mm. l: ' _ I _| °° | P """'*.°° It would be easy to assumeparallel metric structure in which phraselevel meter corresponds tothat of the normal four-beat measure. see Ex. yet. Ex. 3-32b. f|?|wi¢. the representation shown in Ex. consequent phrase again.1 groupings creatingmetric orders counteractively associated with Ex. The question of anticipative function inphrase beginnings in the Chopin. .Op./7°I`--=-P "TJ7 Some hard questions areimmediately apparent: ! Is the forteinitiative of the first phrase a preconditioning frame of reference in which the piano-to-fortissimo dynamic progressions ofthe secondand third phrases are understood asresistant syncopations at phrase level? If so. Chopin. last two phrases renotated in diminution. a seriesof phraselevel 3 -|. _$_ .in which phrase-level impulse functions directly reflect those of the mensural unit. 4 4 . 1-l8!. In the Chopin Prelude in E. the quotation is in renotation in diminution.No. uf: '' _ ."_ . each ending on the primary dominant harmony but with some striking tonal diversions in the accelerated tonal rhythms of the second antecedent and in the final. 9.! ! Should the intermensural bar-line. 5 and 9: the entire form is an enlarged period with two antecedents. 3-32a could have validity.. ____ 1.4 Ill All ' etc. be associated with be thought of as prior to! the climactic fortissimo. in effect. 3-32a. whetherthe three phrases are ina v 92/ .Such a view would see the last two phrasesas shownin Ex.! ! Is there. but with metricorder internalto phrase-level units. l il-_-_--_-=1:=:?192__"= 11 1 92l:_*l`1f'1'Y'1lY |' _ lo92 |31 1 'I i.ses? See Ex.e. 3-32a.relation!.l||~l. I i`/ /-l _» _. We are concerned here not with metric orderat thehighest level i.

extreme tonal distance. And if these interpretations are dismissed in favor of that of metric structure in compliance with phraseology Ex.QJ J Q' . or a flnctumt phrase accent? ! _. ii ll. pitch. gli. phrase-level bar-line to bar-line. such questions are imperative to an understanding of this piece. in which various interpretations of metric structure are represented in addressing the basic questionof the location of higher-level accents ultimately. .° meter J= . A representation of the Chopin as to broadmetric structure in whichhigher-level accents are seen as noncoincident with phrase beginnings.396 rhythm and meter the symmetriesof formal phraseology? Does not the representation givenin Ex. maximal textural expanse. 3-32b bring into focus some kind of truth about metric structure in the experience ofthis piece?! ! Does phrase-level metricorganization location of phrase-levelaccent! perhaps fluctuate from phrase to phrase? If dynamic stress is meter-determining accent. *C-ll grouping as to phrase punctuation inception to cadence! and.isa -it 1 accent of stress. t riff. counteractive metric structure. Phrase-level renotated.gyncopation in resistance to a preconditioned organization. 3-32c.associated withinitiative function in the metric organization or with . 3-32c!. _ .L_ ablqlhl.Dil al £152 . etc.! 9 ll U". Although these interpretations embody metric units of largely symmetrical relation. These questions are reflected in the following sketch Ex. despite the symmetry of formal phraseology.tlw structuraldownbeat!. such a relation should of coursenot be construed as a necessary assumption. as we haveseen. on theother hand. whoselow-level regularities are opposedby higher-level.

Then. ll can be seen as anexample of what is sometimestermed nonmeter. subsidiary? Comparable questions are the basis for the following inquiry into metric structure in examples fromWebern. But. no series of differentiated soundevents canfail to assert metricgrouping. analogous questions might appear in discourseabout music in forms like these: What are the central points in the piece.97 initiative impulses at phrasebeginnings!. The third of the cello-piano pieces of Op. No. at times. And it would be argued here that in Webern meter is palpably functional if not immediately apprehensible!. 11. with its inevitable implications for structure of relatively stable or fluctuant orders: in these conditions meter may well assume a very unstable and. Op. it is easy to see them. and very constant ones in analysis and performance. for cello and piano. again.rhythm and meter 3. motion. an influence reaching dominantly across the century. 5. Webern: Three Pieces. directions ofactivity! are aimed? Whatevents inthe pieceare of special moment. significance. suspended meter. And it is very possible that Schoenbergs vast influence with respect to the organization of pitch content in post-Romantic music. fourth movement Weberns'meters are generally thought to be more fluctuant and noncongruent than those of the other two of the three great figures of early twentieth-century serialism. it is impossible to conceiveon what basis abroad. Op. primary accent might be deduced. thereby rhythmic. metric structure is'shaped in telling configura- . and in general the applicationsof rhythmic factors in the functional and expressive shaping of music-are significantly discernible and important in Weberns music. antimeter. vitalizing noncongruities. Five Pieces. The familiar.the primary events towhich succcssionslines of intensity. as very familiar questions. 3. 3-33a!. or ameter Ex. ambiguous character. ultimately. with thought. Berg and Schoenberg. Although the particular formulations of thesequestions mayhave the appearance of unorthodoxy. for string quartet. what is the point in relation to which all others are. of particular centrality of rhythmic function and interpretive projection? Or. metric functions of the kinds to which we have devoted much attention in these pages-progressive and recessive functional changes. couched here in terms that direct attention to musical events as qf metric. motivic meter. it does not ceaseto exist. The sense of relative suspension of meter isunderstandable inview of what might be described as verytenuous articulationat a predominantly subdued dynamic level in this very short piece. is equalled by Weberns influence in certain of his works especially! in the direction of increasing metric flexibility. Moreover. it exists in a particular state.

Theodore Presser Company. 3-33a..! hi j Copyright 1924. with consequent considerable distances between articulateevents. . Universal Edition.398 rhythm and meter Ex.92 I-3? H 1-I . P ef _ h g ll °92. Webern. contextually arbitrary. tions far from the erratic./"""'$ M W. q /¥ P nm E5 = . Thisis true in a sense comparable to that in which music of great eventfulncss.ff |_ . i | me 7. 'Q' "_"r`3`l aa Q | PP. especially in a texture of constant. Canada and Mexico. Three Pieces for cello and piano. apparently aimless state in which change cancease tohave functional effect.1' PP PP Q 1L PP Q _' -"Z -.6 m A cd VX [3 . Used by permission the Q' publisher.. : . Op. sole representative United States. No. It is true that in a music of severe dynamicrestraint and minimal eventfulness with embodied silencesof constant relevance! nearly every attack may be felt as initiative of a metric unit at some appreciable level.-~ H ppp ~ ls r1m_ ti Es. especially in an atmosphere of slow tempo. Ausserst ruhig l!-ca 50! mit Diimpfer =gi. 3._ 13 73 7P l Ti. complex . ab .. 11.' YQYII aiu Stcg..

" The anacrusticpreparation of the pitch g. pointwhile a!. and in relation to the subsequent intensity recession and silence. whose metric unit is of course indefinitein length. seems to convey the sense of function as anticipative impulses in relation to the agogically stronger and higher pitch of the final note. is clearly anticipative V-like approach. recipient of the directed thrust of the preceding. 11 as to qualities and implications of many of the attacks. 22. these impulses. along with their relative pitch inferiority. point e! and the note following. final . is the highest pitchthe in piece. lend this event. quite possiblythe longestin duration. anticipative wind-up! trill. and of striking coloration-a relatively high harmonic on the cellos highest string-and it is not unthinkable that all preceding events might plausibly beregarded as its anacrustic preparation i. with subsequent rests.Point b! embraces the following two notes as a mensuralgroup. Point g! initiative is a further of 3 unit. ll _ _ Point in c!the piano initiates a noncongruent U unit since second the a component. andits pitch superiority throughout the piano part. dynamic reduction! harmonic interval EE.. striking coloration.as designated by lowercase letters in the foregoing quotation. they at the sametime form low- level. conveysan impression of dense meter ty" continually variegated and competing implications. recessive inrelation to it. as well as its position as point of highest dynamic intensity in the piano part. and the subsequent silence. With the recessive lower pitch. as doesthe first movement of Weberns Op. initiative at the low level of the F unit. pitch.point f! is initiative of another of unit Elfé ! in the piano cfl size the the of preceding one!!. . erescendo! in relation to the accent g of the pianos upper voice. eb! which follows immediately. unit. cited as Ex. subsidiary D units. this factor.99 interactions. and strong in its . A s A number of references to the pianos gof m.e. just described. Let us consider the example from Op.gf attack. 5 mustnot beconfused with the attack labeled g! in the cello. In view of its extreme dynamic and pitch inferiority even considering the limited dynamic potential of the subsequent harmonic!. 2-22 and referred to again in the present chapter.rhythm and meter 3. is anticipative in relation to the more important event b!. Points i! are relatively brief. labeled f!. as having the highest-level function of preparing the final sound!. constituting in the celloitself part Ea f2+F! unit. 3 Point initiatinga j!. a feeling of major initiative function and centrality for the entire piano part.

are too little understood in real depth. 3-4 as anticipative preparation of a leaning toward! m.400 rhythm and meter final unit is initiated point h! by an event of maximal density-number and -compression. Study ofthe pieces structure from thestandpoint of textural-spatial shape illuminates one qf its most palpably perceptible aspects. 3-33b!. or treatment of the pianos f if-G# of mm. sions. That Weberns music isa languageof subtle metric flux and polymetric structure of often elusive definition is apparent in almost any of his works. The unit taken as denominator has the value of course of avoiding fractional expressymbology of Ex. 5 includes. like the Canons. or upon some comparable. Compare Stravinsky. but in that works unusual decisiveness of accent. taking ab! 5 as smallest a common denominator. Op.that so twelve units per notated bar J ! provide basis a accommodating for the in . and fluid rhythmic surfaces. the cello f1. the questions which are the basis of inquiry in the foregoing analysis are very critical ones." The final piano event is. enormous subtlety of projection but firm awareness! in so tenuous and vulnerable a context of restrained articulation. grouping influences are often especially interdependent-motive often very influential. for soprano and clarinets. maximal textural expanse for the entire piece-a factor in its accentual primacy.withdrawing articulation of the concluding three attacks. shapeddecline through the b-bb of the cello after the accent of m. 16. ~5.and sixwithin the notated measure. recessive inrelation to the initiative accent of m. Seeing thecello and piano parts as metrically noncongruent. in conditioning meter in atmospheres of considerable equivocation of accent. its chief accentual eventsoccurring as balancing rwrential points just Q#center. broadly. Again. relatively indepqndent structures. is significantly exceptional-not in the common equivalence of motivic with metric unit. justifiableunderstanding. In this respect.yet of unmistakable progressive-recessive functions and overall poise. we arrive at the following summary Ex.whose accents are in general somuch lessequivocal. three. of course. Any interpretation requires. The pivotal spatial expansion of m. Point f! has. an occasional work. interact- ing. as are the conclusions to which they lead: for example. 5. And the suggested conception of the metric centrality of the cellos f at point g! points to a delicately recessive. even essential. 2. 3-33bdivisions of four. It is evident that critical interpretive decisions rest upon understanding yielded bythe above approaches. of course. with the harmonic interval entering below the attack on g.! At the same time." is a It structure of pervasive asymmetry. There emerges animpression of noncongruent meter in which a high-level bar-line for the two strata of events is disjunct at an only slightangle near the pieces center-a circumstanceof splendid equilibrium in the structure. Weberns meters. with constant asymmetries andfluctuation at the same time.

3-34-c. all of these are examplesof metrically clarifying events relating to the notated bar-line and the beat. Metric proportions in theWebern piece. the initiative attack of the cello in m. .! Another Webern excerpt is given as Ex. there is the omnipresent device of anticipative impulse at every level. Moreover. the overall. by which events underscore the notated bar-line and the J pulse: on-the-beatof attacks mm. similarly. 3-33b. third beat. 4-. Example 3-34b is a sketched representation of implications and questions of metric order and ambiguity at the mensural level in its opening bars. 1-2. 7-9. 3. it is a short movement of much intrinsic interest for the study of meter and other structural elements. 3-34a. of2. A few of these clarifying anacrustic events are given in Ex. the bracing effect of viola Hguration the first violins initiative b in m. emphasizedby anacrustic approach.with typical understatement ofcoloration and rhythmic nuance. al subject to various divisions.¢92 iv *so +? evident in the first piece of the set. in mm. There are many devices. L 92_2 12 + 30 '' i r 5$6 9 +9 I| f= 120 junitsz: IS! I9 I4 40 32 rr . with the viola attack m. general steadiness of articulation the of . normally preparing attacks on the beat and/or at the notated bar-line. part of the clarifying tendency in relation to the relative metric indecision of m. 9 is steadying asthe viola rhythm is scattered!. 6. initiative attackthe of violin 2 in m.rhythm and meter 401 Ex.

ca. Webern. Op. Vc..4 .402 rhythm and meter Ex. for string quartet. FivePieces.. m. Sehr langsam J=.-- Vln...5. 3-34a.58! am Steg Vln. fourth movement.l zogernd im tempo am Steg.lI Vla...

..92i111.10 pk 1 L_# ll .. -__ .. 'L |__3_| ...I .o I 0 RM %l o0 o *| pizz° . -1 _ ..=l fl-» _ '- tempo é| __ _ __ __ _ I' _ . --...111lh.=1_._. i `` il A am V HP Steg Pizz_ Copyright 1922.__.QT . 0 |»...' K _.------. 1 = _ _ .:=!:f. am /» Steg ` L I pizz." `&'usserst ruhig _ ui »-92 :_ fliichtig pnzz...' bo o .-3 'I am li*§ i'i=ECl|'J= If#=¥IT_'£If&= on V ..ff -O J *n 111. Theodore Presser Company sole representative United States.ii.F ' /I? 1 °/ ~ 1 7' G5 ml :_-=_ -. arco Ili]--{ll§Y*lJ11-111| l1 _ viii:/' M -l ' .rhythm and meter 403 rit._-2-7 8 3__| . Universal Edition.. Canada and Mexako._92 verklingend am_Steg-. -. Used by permission the of publisher..==: Stag e al-co .li l|[ i li* _4--i "J 9 33 I3 0 °o l' r _.r --'-$:::..' :- -` -1 H? --tem rit. ---- _/m'7 zart so rnéglich als IF E .o I' r ._..-_ ..i1. l|`!lY§i-QFHZQZZCF--_F--_ 7 .4 . ' : I 'mf ...* tempo !b.-92 } am Ste ". .


. 7-10. evident in these motives and in purely specimen extracts quoted in Ex. with some ambivalences. Each of the sections so delineated mm. 14 + 4 of rest + internal rit. yet.as amore decisive punctuation subsequent to the cadentialbroadening consummated just before. Additional examples of anticipative impulse can readily be identified. etc. unifying motives are thus punctuative! and 92 anticipative /P! . asnoted earlier. Ex. l-2. There is a suggestion of linking. 3-34c. conjunctive.. extremely epigrammatic sections on the basis of ritardando zogemd.! and a tempodelineations. It is in this perspective that eventhe linal appearance of the motivecan be felt asa kind of curiously anomalous up impulse a quasi-anticipative gesture expecting but unfulfilledby thetic response!. 10 D+ fit. 24 D+ fit. in feeling. III. IV. Relative proportions among four tempo-delineated units in theWebern. 24 J!-P fit. their highly expectant qualities looking aheadwhile other factors especially tempo alliliations and subsequent rests! seem punctuative of prior events. although if the opening rest is included aspart of I When does thepiece begin?!-which seems more problematic than the concluding rests. Let us consider proportional relations in the movement as to two di:tinct modes ofgrouping. is relative The proportions expressed eb in values! are shown in Ex. and these rests are felt as parts of the sections II. IV! which follow rather than asymmetrical extensionsof preceding material in view of ! relatively consistent preconditioning of the notated bar and ! the a tempo in which each of the rests question in included. shortest rhythmic values.rhythm and meter 405 persuasive anticipativefeeling. . 3-34d. functionally ambivalent conclusive-anticipative! tendency one associates even with the finalstatement of the motive. more easily felt as incorporated on the These recurrent. III. ll-13! begins with a rest. Onebasis ofpartitioning is the capacity of the piece to be divided into four.e. marked jiuehtig! sets itapart. I. 3-6." The general importance of anacrusis inexpression of metric structure is thus. its more precipitateaction fastesttempo. + opening rest2of J5 ?! II.IV is slightly longer while both are significantly shorter than the equivalent II and III!. 3-34d. Of the outer sections. i.

. its more active pace of tempo change accelerated tempo rhythm!.. again of 12 . 5 the crescendo. and its final a tempo motive.e. All three of these accents affirm the notated bar-line and emerge inthe experienceof the movement aspoints of downbeat focus of more than local significance. The issue is againgrouping byaccent to accent or bar-line tobar-line! asopposed to other modes of groupingnoted.etc. the shorter duration of the first section appropriate to its introductory function. but all voices in concurrence!. 3-34e!.. more modest anacrustic approach..e. that of accentdelineated grouping. and m. related in the ratio 2:3. Proportions. 4-4_3!. mmmm 2443 In approaching the issue of broad metric structure.°° Ex. but dynamically stressed as compared with the c following. except for the anomalous eighth-rest of m. 12 high pitch. a casual. for example. some dynamic emphasis. A further expression ofrelative proportions numbers of measures in tempodelineated sections!. different for eachsection!. Thus. can be seen as temporal intervals qfseparatzon of these important intermensural initiative accents. 3-34e. It seems reasonable.12 -9 . and the conclusivefunction of IV served by its slightly broader length than I! but compromised byits brevity in relation to II and III. and of strong anacrustic preparation!. 'T . one can plausibly interpret as primary downbeats defining intermensural units the initiative accents of m. too. . the relative ambiguities of these measurescoming into relative focus following their It is interesting that this mode of partitioningagrees with others: thatof articulation by rests each total silence.to interpret mm. 12. precipitate.406 rhythm and meter basis prior of structure-we have proportions of I = 12 nb and IV =l8|D in addition to uncertain added quantities occasioned byslowing of tempi!.!. The segmentation in the relation 2-4-3 is thus deducible as the numbers of measures inthe four tempo-delineated sections Ex. flanking the symmetrically related internal units are the shorter I and IV. extended anacrustic preparation and immediate thrust in complementary outer voices. 9 expressed in violin 1 only.punctuative gesture. begins one of thefour sections! and thatof relatively fixed registral locus for each section i.setting offthe final motive. l-4 as of anticipative impulse function at the broadest level: consider. m. the core of essential activity for each isa tightly restricted ambitusof pitch events.


Some twentieth-century and practice problems /h rhythm and meter? recent developments in seria/ism of durational un/'ts-theory The severity of changein approachesto and concepts of rhythm in twentiethcentury music has provokeda breadth of theoretical concern peculiar to the present time. including some of theimportant literatures cited in foregoing analyses. asin certain contexts ofrandom succession. It is possible that the principle ofuncertain significance in notatedmeter isespecially applicable to certainliteratures ofthe present century. and other elements! in extremes of fluctuation. 5 and m. ! occasional inapplicability of the referential unit of regularly recurrent beat. . predetermining serialization or other premanipulation! of rhythmic durations and metric grouping. forexample. key points in the metric structure!. an enormous volume of significant twentieth-century practice. and in some music! the prescribed.408 rhythm and meter tonal and harmonic rhythms and relationsof PC content-e.g. since the composerchooses among an infinite range of possibilities of procedure and permutational principle. Certainly rhythm in twentieth-century music is often of particular difliculty." Problems of meter in the twentieth century center as with melody. those of m.any factor by which numerical sets are conceived or derived may yield a basis for serialization of durational quantities. Of course. tonality. problem. ! an increased fragmentation of metric structure resulting from increased tendencies of the motivic surfaceto relate to and condition meter and grouping. The analysis of meter in recent music often reveals ! an increased asymmetryand noncongruity in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. more often asignificant clue to realstructure.. The field of possible techniques inthe serializationof rhythmic elements is of course endless. There is. 12. The composers precise techniques in rhythmic often an aspect of total! serialization canbe a very elusive. Butit is also possible that the reverse is sometimes true-that in tradition metric changewas conventionally eH`ected in devices of changing pattemsof initiative accent without generally altering thestandard of notated bar-line consistency. but that in many more recent styles change of notated meter has itself become a convention. as well as motivic-thematic relations beyond their ancillary mention in the foregoing study. in which the notated bar-line has practical importance in representing mensural structure. toward better understanding of rhythmic-metric structure and effect in all music. serialization of any ele"Nevertheless. even at all levels.sometimes virtually indecipherable. the problems oftwentieth-century meter are easily and often!overstated. and one hopes thatthis concernwill eventuate in an accelerating rate and range in the study of rhythm.

one of Quatre Etudes for piano!. 1944!. l-51! usesseries the 2 3 5 l 8 13 the so-called Fibonacci series.l5 Or. EX. . since meter is the outcome of variously differentiated element-eventsand rhythmic durations. Leduc. the series is applied to sets ofnote durations in which it is expressed invarious permutations. for example in Mode devaleurs et dinten." "Quartetjbr the End qfTime. Messiaen.4_-. 3-35.D. interval content of the twelve-tone set the IC set! may yield a series ofnumerical values Ex. its retrograde-13 8 5. Of great importance in the evolution of serially-orderedrhythm is the composer Olivier Messiaen.DF. then J!./ 92 . etc. 921-1. then nb .. Messiaen uses arhythm series in his music as early as 1940. derives of sets durations simply twelve as even multiples of . Luigi Nonos Canto Sospeso Ex. in his Quatuor pour lafin du temps. some examples of these aredetailed on the following pages. employed as a kind of mode in permutations analogous to those of classical pitch serialism. See Messiaens own discussion of his rhythmicprocedures in the book.rhythm and meter 409 ment has repercussions formeter.sités. a durational set is invented conceived or derived from some extrinsic source! as a predetermining concept subject to variation as is a twelve-tone set in classical serialism!. after its thirteenth-century originator: each integer after the initial consecutive pair the sum of the two preceding!. Technique de mon langage musical Paris: A. Most procedures in rhythmic serialization are based in durations derived directbfom numerical parameters inherent in the PC set itseU'. 3-35! as basis for a set of durations.1 ii! Or! é¢_. L withas ohunit! . notonly becauseof proceduresembraced in his own music but becauseof his influence on a very great number of younger composers. For example. for example. | IC: `__4__.1 ' etc..

ten such permutations punctuated by a recurrent .as shownin Ex. in all. with the principle ofrotational permutation shown. 3-36c. included is its first permutation. 3-36a. include rests!. concurrent permutation. This rotational principle of ordering durational values is as seen in Ex. following.e.spacings qf attacks i.?89l0lll2 `§'*./_!¢t¢. At Interversions I-IIsee Ex. followed by similar representations ofthe ordering of durations in the upper and lower voices. 3-36c. quoted in Ex.'_. Set for Messiaen's /le de feu 2 and its first. There are. Durational values are as to . 3-36a. the upper voice has the duration series in the order 6-7-5-8-4-9-3-10-2-l l-l-12. intensities !. in which a graphic representation of pitch ordering is given. the series occurs in the lower voice in the order 3-9-10-4-2-8-11-5-1-7-12-6.Q l lz:| 76 he Q 85 lw 94 3 by 10 3 ' ll 2 _h l2 l a IC l23456. thesimultaneous statement of Interversion Permutation! I and Interversion II. Ex. and durations also 12!. The twelve-tone set is shown in Ex. 3-36b.410 rhythm and meter Messiaens Ilede jeu 2 the second ofthe Four Etudes forpiano! employs sets ofattack qualities !. lu ¢ I3 l2 34 b 56 L_' I 78 Ih 9 I0 ll 12 .3-36b!. 64 2l The duration series simply is set a of values extending fromcb l to 12 ob _ The permutational applied principle it is to analogous thatto which on the twelve-tone sets lower voice variation is based. 7/ 928/5929/ 920/392ll/ 922/ which appears as a lower-voice counterpoint at the point of initial application of the various sets. PCs 2!..


Rotational principleo ofordering o s '>n t Nieseiaea.rhYthm and meter Kx. 12 Uppervoicepitches: 34 56 78 9 10 11 12 Lowervoicepitches: Uppervoicedurations: 7 5 8 4 9 3 10 2 11 I 12! Lowervoicedurations: 4 510 2 91 t! 3 25 46 67 89 10 11 12 .3-3B PCand durationset he -3Bc.

1 I 12 29 X.5 2 11. lv. DURATIONS etc. . 2 a 11.rhythm and meter 413 Ex. Continuation of rotational principle in Iledo feu2.5 ln. /-"etc.2 .l etc. /. 3-386.92 . /"" 47 10 12 96 3 . Z"-.:`. Z"" etc. v 56 etc. 92`:/ lv.2 ll l 12 * ' 42 ew. butbeginning with6 since pitch rotation begins with 7.T` 45 67 89 IO I 1 12 1 `92 10 59 etc.2 se 3 . 8 Il 51 7 12 6 92`_`. 1. . 4 10 3 ll 2 12 I il 91 etc. 31 47 10 V 1. 7 PITCHES etc. 84 93 10. 6 etc.2 ac 0 . /"'*` 15 28 12 61 7 W 11 12 96 92g. 83 ll *A rotation from thecenter of the originalrow.7 ll' 2.S nl.

! are subject to prescription according to a predetermining system.has employedpervasive serial operations. dynamics. etc. 3-37. isa procedure of constant renewal sought in many works of this kind. #I ' 9 10 he I ll l2 S | In 7l [H . presenting in 1955 the following general description of procedures for the serialization of nonpitch components. Then. The Boulez is thus an example of a totally serialized work in which all elements pitches. I0 3 etc.. it is necessary to associatewith each note the ordered number couple-order number. durations.. in contrast to the Messiaenexamples. and retrograde inversion is complementa- .414 rhythm and meter or Thisbasic set reacts modifications to the inPC set. applied in such a way that for a particular pitch there is never a recurrence of the same intensity. pitch number 4 becomes pitch number 8 . The twelve-tonestructuralization of non-pitch componentscan beunder- stood only in terms of arigorously correct definition of the nature of theoperations associated with the system. in works as early as 1947-48. In characterizing the prime set. Ex. as transpositionis revealedto be mere addition of a constant to the pitch number. |Q I2 P1 34 E] 56 #ZI 78 7. yields dh with a as unit!: 71 10 3 ju dh L45 etc. 3-37. 12 of the pitch number. retrogression iscomplementation of the order number. ! Likewise. inversion-in the twelve-tone sense-is revealed to be complementation mod. a new sequence oforder numbers is derived. pitch number. measured from the first note as origin-required to defineit completely with regard to the set. as shown in Ex. duration. Milton Babbitt. this new sequence of order numbersthen yieldsa permutation of the original time set. basedon the changed positionsof the twelve PCs. if the PC set is transposedup a minor 2nd. Principle of derived duration set in Boulez Structures see also Ex. etc. registers. In other words. 1-31 !. for example. P0 i E.. This.

= 1. [The set abbreviated!..0 1. 109-18. Some Aspects of Twelve-ToneComposition.2 11. and retrograde inversion are uniquely defined. e. 8 +8= 4. l 965!.1 C. .D H 0 1 numbers whose linesintersect at-whose 1 [Addition and complementation in a mod. 8 and 4! are complements. or register-can be.1 9.bbitts Composition for I2 Instrurnents. and consequent associations of order and pitch numbers. 3!is 2. M.9 1.gutemz drawn lines from two numbers 12 23 34 35 4 :s 5» 67 9 1° 'I intersect at the number which is their 6 7 s _ 10 11 0 sum e. rhythmic inversion.g. in The Score and I. in Perspectives New of Music. 7 8 9 . Illustration of permutations by addition and complementation mod. can be structured in precisely the same way. 3-38. A. are illustrated as Ex.] a constanthere. and related properties are analogously applicable to the durational set.0 0_ lzl s ` the 0 .2 *i _ added toeach pitchnumber." These operations.10 9. Peter Westcrgaard refers to these procedures and discusses their applications in Ba. second is the pitch number C = 0. the first number 10. Any set of durations-whether the durations be defined interms of attack. for example. 12 44 56 79 55 67 s 10 3 34 56 I 8 9lo I 0 I 2 sum is-0 e. like the pitch set. retrogression. ofthepairisthe ordernumber to ll!. 60. as the pitch component. as indicated!.11 2. p.rhythm and meter 415 tion of both order and pitch numbers.4 -' 0. 3-38. and combinatoriality. in Some Problems Raised bythe Rhythmic Procedures in Milton Babbitts Composition forTwelve Instruments.g.5 11. Thus. ' 0. with the modulus most logically determined by a factor or a multiple of the metric unit. 12 asdesclibed by Babbitt. pp. Ex.. IV.3 "3NIilton Babbitt.c_!_] l [Transpositionz 10. Magazine june 1955!. pitch. derivation. the rhythmic component. uniquely pennuted by the operations of addition and complementation. by the identical operations. 00 11 22 7 0' 2 3 1 5 6 7 9 '° U .dynamics. 10 11 1 2 3 ] 11 0 1 2 34 66789l1l0|1345 77s9101o12:145e 567 99l01l0l2345678 10l0l10l23456789 11110l23456789l0 ~.

their compositional use is highly independent in view of the variability of the number of pitches per attack or attacks perpitch. .] [lnversionz transformation of the series ' *J 9.9 of ll!. above!.ll 0. in many serializations ofrhythm.3 1.] order numbers as in retrograde.however derivedand applied. .l l0. Procedures forthe serialization of nonpitch factors arethus established on the basis ofnumerical values paired order and pitch numbers in which C = 0! derived entirely from the row and its conventional alterations. . . pitches.0 . combinatorial applications. one that is reiterated in this book. . yield proportional relations among units at all levels. Numerical values. rotated e. noting p. 114! thatwhile the precompositional construction of pitchand duration sets is rigorously parallel. By these procedures. p.10 9. 3-38 continued.10 11.1 2.416 rhythm Ex.to the extent that durations. so is meter significantly predetermined. etc. as in deriving retrograde of basic set. as to those of all other elements. functional interactions of such units are. still operativein Webern.11 °°'Pl°°°°] l numbers plus--i. andother elements are preestablished in serial operations. problematic. . of control ofthe specific qualities of sound events and their interrelations in and "Westergaard SomeRhythmic Problems .3 or complementation of order numbers of inversion. ll.0 2. or totally predetermined where there is total serialism except when predetermination is precluded within a particular parameter by such practical impediments aslimited ranges of instruments!.1 0. by-a factor l.! are applicable to the derived set of durations.2 of pitch numbers into the series of its 10. all serial operations permutations of sets. and meter 0 "" 0 0.. He raises thepoint that in certain textures the rhythmic ordering perceived a as resultof these operations may not bethat intended." Since rhythm and meter are in every sensethe consequences of differentiations amongthe qualities therefore the functions! of sound eventsas shaped byall parameters one of these duration!. 115! comments on the problem of controlof interaction of pitch and rhythmicfactors and the question of what happens to the traditional differentialrole ofrhythm .l0 L* [Retrogradez complementation of order '» *J of pitch numbers of retrograde series [Retrograde inversion: complementation H.2 9. 10.0 2. Such procedures thus raisethe question.2 1.

We have seen that in dealing with problems of rhythmic analysis.rhythm and meter 417 as toparticular contexts and contextual alignments. they must be seen as comparable tothose of overtly random operations inconsequent Wet of arbitrary aftiliations of events. To the extent that serial prescriptionsshaping the various parameters of a work set in motion governing. and in situations of least artistic value. operations that in no way foresee contextual. they are evenmore random in that the influenceof spontaneous. it has sought aswell to illustrate various kinds and applications of structural techniques-functional and expressive-within the parameters of meter and other aspects ofrhythm. while acknowledged by others who consider the consequences of unpredictability a desideratum to be sought. But even to the extent to which contextual associations may be controlled and foreseen in any given procedure. in any functional sense with which these studieshave been concerned..Significant ambiguity in metric structure. are definitely precluded to the extent that events are predetermined. the question mustarise asto the nature and depth of functional signiticancesof such associations in the experience of works whose unfolding is prescribed in this sense. functional relations and associations. seeing meter as the accent-to-accent grouping of events delineated around musical projections of relative strength. I The validity of the supposition of blind predetermination of associations of events in total serialism is denied by some composers. However. and the analysis of weak-strong associations and relations internal to those units. To some extentthis is due to inconclusiveness and uncertainties of knowledge about perceptual responses to musical eventswhich result in groupings at different levels of structure.andconsequences. one is often led to relatively equivocal conclusions in circumstances of some ambiguity. or significantly conditioning. intuitive responsesof the performer. unambiguously expressed. usually signiiicantly applicable to chance operations in music. especially inits concernwith meter and other manifestations of grouping. Concluding notes This study has sought to provide a basis for the consideration and analysis of metric structure. asnoted in analogous contexts. of total or nearly total predetermination by systemic procedures which do not foresee. the identification of units at various levels. apart from . but the equivocal nature of analytically derived information is also to be traced to the fact that rhythmic structure is only rarely. conlluences of eventsare capable. particular contextual associations. inserial operations of these kinds.

real music bespeaks.and in the elusiveness of understandingof complex structure and of the relations of structure to experiential effect. even when the complexity of real musicis suchthat the evaluation of such evidence-the facts explicit in the notation of music and in general or particular discernible responses thereto-cannot more than rarely lead to perfectly unambiguous conclusions. It is a question not of simple comeasurement of absolute values.e.in the score andin the experience. confluent element-structures. We have sought in this study to identify some ofthe objective data and circumstances bywhich rhythmic and metric structures canbe understood. it is a matter of making difficult judgments respecting their relations of effect. a study of rhythm is an appropriate vehicle by which to conclude an exploration into musics structural functions. andso on! are citations of fact. Moreover. texture. but of evaluating contextual relations dwrrent _hr ez/eg! musical situation. suggest resort to a passive. in rhythmic processes we are reminded powerfully of the interrelations and interactions of element-successions in development and resolution. can be adduced in support of interpretations of structure. and rhythm and concerning such further dimensions as color. articulation. dynamic intensity. density. space. since all musical eventfulness is-usually functionally-rhythmic!.418 rhythm and meter conditions of gross accentuationand obvious impulse function. We see hereagain that only in simplest situations are elementactions in clear convergence of functional direction.. in a real sense. Many of the observations we make in analysiswith respect to tonality. all of music i. and the evaluation of relative accentual values is not just a matter of discerning and listing those factors. melody. it is extremely unlikely that a purely objective evaluation of metric structure can be achieved for anything like a comprehensive scope of real musical situations. however. That complexity is evident in the breadth and diversity of problems and approaches inmusic theory. The difficulties of rhythmic-metric analysis do not. in the projection of cooccurring. is unavoidable. a miraculous and continually absorbing complexity that no musician would deny. dissonance. or abdication of the effort to understand rhythmic structure according to demonstrable evidence:plausible evidence.For accentual values areof a scope potentially involving everyelement of musical structure. harmony. irrational insistence on purely subjective criteria. and by which such understanding can illuminate the decisions that have to be made in performance or in critical or stylistic analysis!if interpretation is to be more than mere execution. but the farther we move beyondsuch . Hence. it is for related reasons that the penetrating study of rhythm engagesquestions of the natureand functional-expressive consequences cy" change in all theelements of musical structure. given the extreme range andcomplexity of relations amongthe many parameters ofmusical accent. Since rhythm is.

Thus. In a further example. p. 163.. . 'P *PP @ t_ bRecessive change in rhythmic motion is of coursenormal as a facet of cadential function. 312-21 a 4.9 facts into the evaluation of interrelations of eventsand their functional-expressive rignyicance. and other cases. Note too the parallel fluctuationin pulse-tempo: the lateritardando.+ 6 unit!.. and final fermata. the analysisof music and of the musical experience becomes. Complementation of this tempo-structure by dynamic changes. l. mm. the five-measure unit of theHaydn theme employed by Brahms inorchestral variations is motivic in this important sense.. The 2. But see Ex. plausible interpretations whose relative evaluation is the analysts further. tempo deceleration complements an explicitdynamic succession of release: éi *.. from Weberns Op. 282-93.rhythm and meter 4 1. 151-56. But what is strikingin this movement is Beethovens employment of six-measure units at crucial points throughout. . l39-4-3 and therepetition. for example. 21027. an excellentexample ofactivity-tempo curve applicable tothe entire piece-progressive. 7. thisis strikinglyevident incomposite rhythmic activity in so many examples that furtherillustration hardlyseems indicated. Or. the more difficult. An instance of this at the level ofthe phrase!may beseen inthe final movement of Beethovens Symphony No. down! activity curve is as follows: fit. and the five-organization is at . NOTES The twelfth part ofSchoenbergs Pima! Lunaire Galgenlied! is astriking example of the delineation of an entiresmall structure in significant part by controlled progression in tempo as to both its parameters! in a line of acceleration qualified only by moderate cadential recession in the ultimate measure. 84--89. challenge. 19.Related actions of otherelement-changes. some of them treated elsewhere in this book.. texture.. Op. Nor do we demeanin any way the understanding derived in analysis when we submit demonstrable facts of musical content to varying. 26 the theme introduced here!.. shouldbe considered... initial themegg ! is itself a period of sixmeasure phrases. that composite up. See. 290-95.. the character and ordering ofgrouping in the above having to do mainly with unit size as opposed to internal ordering! may be functionallymotivic. and pitch rise isimmediately apparent and of potent functional eB`ect. 300-l l . No. and the more important. 92"'3"92l*"92*92 r_J-ar-3-1 113+ °/ r I1 * Ill Ill lllll !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! 71 W 4 °Metric and other typesof groupingcan in themselves assume motivic significances. perhaps most exciting. The activity curve is instructively seen in arbitrary isolation.the third of Schoenbergs Piano Pieces. then recessive. 165-70 or166-7l!. 1-49.

In one sense. For example. Op. 29 includedin Ex. as to fluctuations inharmonic and. and causing the entiresequence to end with a stronger impulse. Chopins Etude in EI. °Element-rhythms can be symbolized and represented by conventional rhythmic notation as is harmonicrhythm very commonly! or.especially. While this situation is cited as equivocal manycomparable analyses raise questions of this kind!it is clear thatthe interpretation arrived atwill radically govern performance and afrct thenature qf the resultant asymmetry. . the first notated beat of m. is conditioned by the nature and degree qfehange. consider. 10. On theother hand. or by chosen symbols to represent such items as tonal-harmonic events involvingstrong factorsof chromaticism. With specific regard to harmonicrhythm it should bereemphasized that the qualitativeaspect. Even insituations of relative stasis. 3-10!has its own distinctlower-level metric structure is the powerful opening gesture of StraussDon juan:the accentit prepares an upper-voice g#3! is strong inpitch. in anothersense. Op. by lines of` varying lengths. in another sense subtly active: the feeling of tightly restrained eventfulness. and theharmonic-rhythmic change. 3-6b-e. harmonic rhythm is in one sense inert almost entirely I!. 29as amensural downbeat. and the like. The question of where the duple division is initiated is more difficult than it may appear. duration. yetan important one for the performer to resolve. as with other element-rhythms.g. the following beat is initiator consider its approach by leap inboth outervoices. Examples for study are of special interest when particular element-rhythmic functions are concealed beneath a surface of apparent regularity of too narrowly conceived! rhythmic eventfulness.-l|'il:f_$2l|'l'Y'b Q---_-32-__ l. 3-IO. is beautifully expressive within.g.as it is in the concluding ostinato form.I' S ' "' ' P* I | tion the of second alternative render will beginning them. 117. etc.3-6a!._ 4 g. No.and noncadential tonal change of strikingchromatic thrust: .. requiringarticulation of the second beat ofm. asto any number of devices analogous to or extensions of those ofEx.The questionmight be summed up:Do sequential motivic! and metric unitscoincide? See Ex. 32 and 33. 28.. Representation of proportional relations of event-groups can be shown by any graphic device ofmeasurement-e. graphically. 32. Afurther example in which a fairly low-level anacrustic complex cf. l-3! is the initiator: supporting thisview are the preconditioning effect of this pointas mensural downbeat in the contextual norm. Ex. tonal rhythms.420 rhythm and meter points inthe variations a primary and essential factor ofthematic relation. among many. regrettably limitedreference is afforded bythe Beethoven example Ex. is considered weak. for example. If the first alternative is regarded as correct m. f il f ll. and a resultantstrong-strong mensural pattern throughthe barline separating mm. Qualities of events can be symbolized as. in varying inverted positions of the prolonged I. thirdbeat. l. §¢& 'Z f II { |J '|`}'1hI' l-iIf_f_Ll1l1-ill-. a rhythm of harmonic inversion!can of course beinduced. or by numbers representing any quantifiable factor texture-space. a kindof harmonic change e.. Exercises in analytical and graphic illustration of element-rhythms and their interactions can be greatly instructive._|-Ll'-l--_ . No. As to all of these factors. -7' 1_ Q U' Y' 'D _l1_1 li' _ |:v. distance.!.g. assumpunit in the realmeter commencing with m. 29 of effecting aF . weak. inthe opening phrase of Brahms Intermezzo inEb.dissonance. for example. and its pitchsuperiority inrelation to the impulse following!. and it can be delicately movingin functionalefl`ect. minor.avery narrowspectrum of movement.. 6. p L 1. by numbersof events within any given unit of time the smallerthe unit the morespecific the representation!.

-'The concluding bars ofthe motetsfirst part project one of twohighly diversified textures the other is the approachto the m. are supportive of broadeningeffect. all in all. the initiative accentual character of its first impulseis a product of strong factors of pitch-high upper voice.it is approached a process of metric in acceleration the pattern . andthe subsequent increased stability and symmetry and correspondence to notated bar-line! in accentual patterns of thematic statement after m. in asingle limited instance. as in comparable later stylesof greaterflexibility.2 -2 . Note. theAndante of Mozarts Symphony No. 54-cadence! whichare focal points for progression of many element-structures of directedintensities. supportive accelerando and trattenuto in performance? Such interpretive questionsare of special relevance in Brahms. 3-9! in this regard. 4-l in C. 139 is a downbeat of broadstructural importance. F complemented by retardation in harmonic rhythm. a matter subject qf course interpretive to control.as in mm. adevelopmental area. there progression is the in pattern of J beats!: -6 6 . but the entire movement should ideally be explored in all of these connections. 19. duration. is also a splendid example of intensifying metric progression in the passage following original thematic statement. is established by insistent motivic recurrence.'I'here is renewed metric acceleration soon after. 28. the reader should consider factors of recessive approach to cadence following the progression noted above.again amatter consi subject toperformance control on the basis ofanalysis offunction. a truly rich resource for the study ofmetric structureand process. mensural progressive fluctuation ofgreat intensityat mm. 19-20. Beginning at m.rhythm and meter 421 Only one example can be treatedin the above discussion. and others.The factthat the two mostcomplex segments in the work are at immediateapproaches to major cadencesone of them the final cadence! is significant and striking. In the Brahms 3 example given Ex. This textural diversity is manifest in part in me-tricnoncongruity inthe final bars. 551 f]upiter!. One important factor wouldseem tobe therelative accentual forces of low-level impulses initiating the and second Jthird units: #V F or E E . With the metric contractions of such palpableeffect in m. Do these processes suggest slight. 'One of the movements cited earlier Ex. Most important in this sense is the steadying influence of . andit would be amatter ofgreat interest to know the extentto which this is true in works of josquin. Themovement is.2. forte dynamic level . Inconsulting thispassage for supplementary analytical thought. big leaps. 129-39.in and following the peak of this progression underscored by dynamic and pitch-line 23 changes! isthere recessive a actually -hemiola!. low bass voice. 'I`he unit of6 r. whereduple andtriple units establish divergences throughout the texture and amongcontiguous segments in an atmosphere of extraordinary flux. 3-l8a!. _]osquins Sanctus from the Mass Faisant Regret: isa further useful subject of reference: its voices influence one another and interactexpressively in the extentto which downbeats are felt. K. 2351 harmonic rhythm is accelerated. The questionof the accelerative as opposed to decelerative effect of hemiola comes up here-the questionas towhether itis perceived as three shorter units of two or onelonger unit of six.2. hence broad texture-space . Theinitial attack at m. the decisively stronger accent initiating F the unit. and complementary recessions of harmonicrhythm andpitch-line descent.

pp. progressive metric process. 3-4. emphasis the half-bar to initiative impulses in the rhythm lJ J! J J . Immediately following thisarea in the work there is metric structureof broadenedbut vertically noncongruent units. for example. strongly asserted regularity of mensural order. as againcan be felt with imaginary conducting of notated measures as impulses forming groups of two. or comparable processes involving functional progressive and recessive metric structures... p. etc.422 rhythm and meter the derivedphrase inthe tenor. ascan beseen in progressively contracted intervals of recurrence of the viola-cello accent of m. No doubt this is felt assyncopation against apersistent.7 _ only at the end. For further illustration of metric progressionin which tempo.or eight!. l-13. ifhe listens carefully tothe bass. or the to stronger accent following. in a sense superimposxng D units in trochaic rather than iambic patterns as rhythm to pitch of change: ! at pointsof out joint with the notated.metric acceleration in the series 6 . 218-20! is a caseinpoint. An evidence of beautifully expressive noncongruity. 1The Finale of theHorn Trio is music of supreme rhythmic energy and drivein a context ofrelative textural simplicity. should be considered as to metricconsequencesevents of as they take place. 57.3 . as is evident inthe quotation from oneof the Transcendental Etudes. One ofthese is manifest in the irregularstresses of mm. will be found in analysis to have significant correlative features of metricacceleration and deceleration as a fundamental expressive and stylistic trait.5 . occurs in the conflicting tenor and bassus attacks at m. The uniformityof the metric structurein the tenor is compromised _.with the agogic value of the Eb expressed as anote followedby rest.or four.or . that thesame rhythm is there expressed in the underlying pattern of pitch change. given inEx. 5 in the bars following. . crescendo. for example. Atthe outset the rhythmof pitch change brings agogic The bass of the piano carries this out in a different way.92. 2-l l ./ In ?! the first five measures of the Etude. Its opening bars. . . with counteractivechanges in dynamic intensity. and continuedrecessive process in cadentialpreparation. The opening of the StringQuartet No. without regardto preconditioned accent andassuming no arbitrary bar-linestresses in performance. which recur later.4 . 5H`. and dissonance function complementarily and static harmonicrhythm in counteraction! see Debussys lAprés-midi dun Faune. otherwise supported. 170 at ifégiz-ll '8 4 '8 ' !.there are striking syncopations in theopening bars at intramensural levels. discussed in Chapter 2. Is the 92_ motive perceived vas . precipitate. The fourth Etude of Elliott CartersEight Etudes and aFantasy for woodwind quartet is excellent for study of opposite.where itsfinal unit is broadened into an asymmetncally related o~1n recessive action toward thefinal cadence._ restrained complexity as compared with the De przyfundis. *Comparable displacements of the bar-line are of great interest in Liszt.5 see Ex. Another of manyexamples in the same movement is the approach to theimportant hypermetric accent m. Within this apparent regularitythere isregularity atintermensural levels too.whose uninterrupted and unperturbed intermensural meter o» -sanc-tus! is a foil for the fluctuations of other voices inonly relatively 4l . bar-line. .2 . 42-46. Examples of textural process in Bartok. but the reader will appreciate.l takes place in unmistakable intensification. mm.

Conliict between these twofactors.. the lirst eight-measure phrase in renotationin diminution- 4 ---z§1. the polyphony of Section V is a restatement of therhythmic-metric content ofthe linesof SectionII. makingan forintense feeling conof traction complemented by pitch rise andprolonged dissonance. m. fifth m. As to the practiceof extrememetric-motivic contractions.rhythm and meter 423 °An interesting application of the principle of rhythmic-metric content asthematic arises inStravinskys Variations for orchestra.__-"i VH-ll?" ff' I .EAt units mm.g.! Consider.l 11121-L.the Eb.g... formingthe severest unit contraction relation to which pitch-line descent is counteractive.Thus. tonal-harmonic stasis! relatingto these procedures would be importantin continuedstudy. etc. Discussion of these elements of rhythmic-metric recapitulation.23-28. IV. and eleventh m. but in which intensity isagain increased byunsettling. dissonance! orcounteractive events e. I 92 ff -if of all just beforethe normal bar-line accent is againdecisively restored at m. Op.p. in this process there is strongbar-line conformityyielding at mm. 180. in others ofthe Preludes-e. l84H`.! Such matters as the proportional relations of unit segments at higher levels. °The matterof correspondence between metric unit andphrase can be explored. is included inSpies. where a kind ofmetric acceleration occurs with piled-up elisions of themotive. A I » in _Z "iII:1':i1'f_'Ii'III ct. 62-74..l]-l-_l-if `-iiili--2--2 I .. I4-3-52 there metric is progressi in after 167.a process in which. 23!.whose second m.g. 164 there is enormous stress on the second beat of everymmsure tom. 2-4.. andcomplementary actionse. its metricasymmetry is a product of horizontal rather than vertical noncongruity in a context of extreme textural simplicity at the works inception see Ex. l Fall-Winter 1965!. and in the double-bass! of minor dimensions. first movement. whilethere arechanges in viola 4-.. 118! sections are a recurrent refrain of contrarhythmic twelvevoice polyphony in which the factof thematic recurrence is chiefly as to rhythmicmetric content. 180.j--?".2 . 197!. the opening of the development. contradirectional imitations the inbass at ld! are conflicting in assertion qf the notated bar-line. syncopated reactive impulses. Rhythmic-metric content thus is motivic asa basis for recapitulative form in theVariations.'T-in 'l if lm Q["l. A further intensifying factor isBeethovens employment of a threenote fragmentof the motive in metric progression in the upper voiceafter m. for example. following m. 47!.. 112-15!to startling ambiguity in ac- celeration mensural into of . too. 9292| 92 l92 _n . compare the Sonata.i'§T1---2_**-Z_ i_l. and of metric scheme of the twelve-voice polyphony as indicated inits meter signatures.which is characterized by phraseological groupings of eight notated bars throughout whilethere isgreat fluctuationin metric structure expressed in Shmiflg points qfphrase-level accent. The metric structure of theopening six bars is also the subject of recapitulative procedures. 53. mm. one implying symmetryand the other asymmetry. for example. Notes on Stravinskys Variations. other instances of progressive contraction.92lI1§_l. in Perspectives qf New Music.¢ 3 *' TY _- . PSee. seems a chief expressive point in this piece. pp.

.424 rhythm and meter or in relation to the followinggraphic chartingof likely phrase-level and lower-level accents: 92 I __ 'Q | 'Glu I0 *. Such questions as the relations of actual mensural meter to the notatedsignatures and bar-lines. forexample. are of importanteffect ina pieceof compellingly active qualityfrom beginning to end.g. maticism. ! progressive approach to m. in this regard!. culminating in the m.V . 7-9. I aI II 1' II II I-° The same question can be carriedto a higher level:How do the two fomially synunetrical and symmetrically related thirty-two-measure sections compare in internal metric organization? 'The Preludein F minor. 64HI!. tothe Five Orchestra Pieces. and areas of relative resolution. 17 involving the succession . 16. pitch roles chrorise. l6. !_ 21% complementary of crescendo.metric diversityan essential aspect of that activity. polymeters e. ultimately across the whole expansesupport in the of l at the second beat of m. No. a representation of By no means is this to say that the worksof Schoenberg and Bergare not of great interest as to rhythmic structures. and ! background successions involving PCs F-Bb-Al»-C-F andincluding the horizontal expression of f :i in mm. Op. and in general the functionaleffects of continuous changes in metric structure. underlying succession V -V/iv -iv.for example. ! the broad.of Schoenberg. 15. arerewarding bases of inquiry in this piece.. ! lower-level progressive and recessive changes as evident in such anacrustic groups e.i. . The reader is referred. with noncongruities in horizontal andvertical relations manifest in an exceptional clarity of unit delineation by accent and motivicdefinition. The first piece of that set. tonal flux.ci mm.. 18. higher-level tendencies in metric-rhythmic shaping. isin a different waya veryvaluable basis for study of the questionmetric of structure at the highest level.g. l7. 9-17. Such study a would consider ! the recurrences of Z Q ' at many levels. l. 17 accent-the highest pitch. m. Progressive and recessive tendencies within that structure. is of constant metricfluctuation. etc. 3-5.

These are of two types: references to supplementary examples within a particular concern. etc. asconventionally. andalterations inscale degrees may beshown as l. and the ll lv 425 . A system conceived bimodally may be referred to by the conjunction of both symbols. I also use uppercase and lowercaseletters to denote tonicizea' degrees or harmonies: T or t for tonic.!. as in F minor. respectively. as in C. While mostfootnotes appear on the pages of reference. IV/ii! : for example. The Arabic figure with caret is used to represent thescale degree itself l. thus.Appfrvmx owe editorial nofes Certain editorial and notational practices adoptedin this book require brief explanatory comment. major and minor tonics and tonal systems F. 5. SD/SD/T for the harmony on Bb where it is in the relation subdominant of subdominant in the systemon C. Q.m to denote the bimodal system asa generic concept!. I use the uppercase roman numeral where reference is to the generic. it is tonicized. sm/T or SM/t for submediant. with the diminishedtriad representedby the symbol ° as inii°! and the augmented by the plus sign as in III*!. as a concept apart from any specific tonal identity!. otherwise. or supplementary comment with respect to cited examples. while I normally rely on the qualifying sense of context in distinction between half-diminishedand fully-diminished 7th-chords. etc. The symbols M and m are occasionallyused torepresent majorand minor systems in general or M. uppercase and lowercase roman numerals denotemajor and minor triads. Uppercase andlowercase lettersdenote. The major or minor structure of the fundamental triad governs the roman numeral usage with regard to 7th-chords. as distinct from IV/IV. Secondary relationsare expressed as with roman numerals V/V. abstracted harmonic element IV.or f ! except when the word minor is used as part of the reference. mziv may stand for the subdominant harmony in the minor mode without respect to any individual system. somedesignated by superscript lowercase letters!appear at the ends of chapters. Often the term /T is omitted as understood.c. nonparticular. D for dominant or D/T where it is necessary to distinguish it from the pitch-class D!. and where.

or in music of styles more recent than those of tonal conventions. A symbol such Llgiyas denotes fluctuation a fixed over harmony which is concurrent. Al. There are outlined in Chapter l various symbols andtechniques forrepresenting pitch structures and affiliations in synoptic sketchesof diverse kinds see pp. in the symbol C-Cll the hyphen stands for the preposition to C to Cil. In such expressions as Bb. respectively!. whereV. etc.B. etc. may be felt as functional despite modifications of interval content and structure!. G. W.426 editorial notes like. for example. a succession!. cooccurring. and confluentto describe the interactive relation between discretely identifiable. And throughout the book I employ such words as cqfunctioning. . I adopt the terms anacrustic and thetic. Pitch-classes are named asuppercase letters. In the discussion of rhythm. or a factor of questionable significance or other uncertainty. g. The symbol V. pitch-class complex PCC!. g' a 5th above middle C. or over a pedal implying such fixed harmonic function against Huctuation. 114-l6!. or iv?! often indicates an uncertain. such symbols as §/5 may denote particular a scale degree as to a secondary system or scale here. speculative./Gil. as distinct from that on the primary l cf ii/V!.M7. and many devices for graphic and other representations of textural and rhythmic factors and processes are explained asthey occur in Chapters 2 and 3. yet concurrently operative elements in parallel or different ways contributive to structural process. item of functional identification. or the like. or c!. Intervals are identified as to class. Enharmonic equivalents are represented as. A symbol in parentheses. orare symbolizedas m2. I-l-V! is used to denote a kind of hybrid function. or accompanied by the ? symbol as in AP. Where a pitch-class complex PCC! expresses more than one discernibly functional harmony simultaneously the symbol I-I-V or. for example. g. Where specificpitches are cited I use the symbols GG. adjectival forms of anacrusis and thesis upward-anticipative and downward impulses.C# the comma standsfor the conjunction and . An underlying bracket or brace as in ` e '§_" A '! embraces asuccession of local harmonies essentially prolongingand embellishing one of broader significance. and interval-class IC! are explained at appropriate points. expresses a quasi-functionalharmonic elementhaving appreciable tonal meaning in some demonstrable sense as often in modal contexts. N ?. Attimes. on5! occurringas referential in some localized sense. Concepts of pitch-class abbreviated as PC!. perhaps.

p. 427 . in thee I conhde. Domine. Lord and redeemer. in thee I hope. te verum Deum adoro. O Lord. If thou. the true God. pp.Domine.2-2. Et num:redernptor Domine. Now. Thou refuge of the poor. sustain me._f07litUd0 laborantium. Tu pauperum refugium from Motet. via errantiurn. ad tesolum confugio.and 2-16. support for the heavy-laden. De prqfundis clamavi ad te. that my soul may never reposein death. spas 6X. Lord. My salvation. Fiant aures tuae intendentes in vocem dcprecationis meas. hear my voice. truth and life. _]e.190. 46-47. p.su Christe.pp. NocH`ort is made tomaintain meteror rhyme in the English renderings. in te spew. 368. O Lord. exaudi vocem meam. 238-40!. De profundis clamaviExx. hope of the exiled. Domine Exx. tu languorum remedium. 1-7. inte canfido.APPENDIX Two translations' Josquin. Let thine ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications. Lord. Domirw. translations are by theauthor. and3-22. jesus Christ. Si iniquitates observaveris. qui:rustinebit? Out of the depths have I cried unto thee. shouldest mark iniquities. Verybrief examples are notincluded. veritas et vita. Salas mea. 88-89.l`|ll1lm. PP. 1-26a. Domine. to thee alone I flee. Josquin. remedy for the weak. who shall stand? Except where otherwise indicated. while those translations given here appear inthe orderof their occurrence in the book. path for the wandering. quoted only inpamtranslation as in theKing James version!. Tu pauperum rqfugium.Magnus es tu. Psalm 130. aa§uva me. ne unquam obdormiat in morte anima mea. I adore thee.

Though my lifes course hastens toits end. 1-44a. ist doch der Geist wohl angebracht. "Draufschliess ich mich in deine Hinde' from Motet. 1-46a. 121!. Bach. Inhabit the hearts of thine own. eh die Stemlein schwinden. dass ich dak Nacht von dir getrdumet habe. zu guter Nacht! Eilt gleich mein Lebenslazgf zu Ende. Veni creator spiritus Ex. Wolf. Jesu. muss Feuer zanden. so kornmt der Tag herano ging er wieder! ." text by E. "Dasverlassene Méigdlein" "The Forsaken Maiden. It would soar to its creator. I yield myself. for jesus is and remains the true way to life. pp. Trane azgf Trane dann stdrzet hemieder. poet unknown!. 139-40!. muss :ch am Herde stehn. into thy hands.Komm. Choral aria. Pervade with thy supernal grace The souls by thee conceived. then. Mentes tuorum visita : Imple superna gratia Quae tu creasti pectora. Veni Creator Spiritus. wanndie Hdhne krahn. 1-41 a. Creator Spirit. Er soll bei seinem Schripfer schweben. weil Jesus ist undbleibt derwahre Weg zum Leben. Welt. Fnih. Morike. in Leid versunken. Pl6tzlich. komm Ex. Sch5n ist der Flammen Schein. 127-29. Come. dakommt es mir. ich schaue so darcin. treuloser Knabe. and bid the world good night. p. yet is my spirit well prepared. pp. Ex.428 trans/ations Gregorian Chant. es springen die Funken . Draqf schliess ich michin deine Hdnde und sage.

but that he believed he was only passing from one branch to another. and so the day beginsif only it were ended! 429 6cheur" from Histoires Nature//es. Nous navom° pas doiseau plus éclatant. _fe ne respirais plus. Tear after tear then drops down. Laperclw pliait sous Ie poids. Suddenly. We have no bird more resplendent. Comme je tennis ma perche dc ligne undue.143-45!. And I feel certain it was not fear that made him Hy away. ce sair. He seemeda great blue flower at the end of a long stem. "Le Martin-P text by Jules Renard. toutjier ¢l¬tre pri: pour un arbrc par un martin-pécheur. mais quil a cfu quil nefaisait que passer d un¢brandw 5une autrc. un martin-pécheur est venu :fy poser. As I was holding out my rod. Ravel. Nothing nibbled this evening.sur quil ne s¢. a kingfisher appeared and perched on it. it unfaithful lad D that I have dreamed of you in the night. yet I take home a rare emotion. I must be at the hearth to kindle the fire The glow of the flames 18 beautiful. so proud to be taken for a tree by a kinglisher. Qa na pas mordu. Il . 1-47a pp.sl pas envolé de peur. Et je suis' .translations Early 9 when roosters crow _ 3 before the stars disappear. . I stopped breathing. The pole bent under his weight. comes to me. Ex. as the sparks fly about _3 I stare into the fire _3 bowed in sadness .semblait une grossejleur bleue au bout ¢lun¢ langue tige. maisje rapporte une rare émotion.

"Denn das Gesetz des Geistes.Jesu. 281 -82!. che in gioia credea viver contento from Madrigals. still I know you. hat mich _/ici gemacht von dem Gesctz der Szindc und des Todes. You may clothe yourself in magic veils. Book 4. Yet. faints away. I believe to live content. meine Freude E x. pp. 265-66 text fromRomans 8 :2. 1.430 trans/ations Gesualdo. pp. der dalebendig machet in Christo jesu. M apre la gioia il Jeno. Omnipresent one. translation as inthe KingJames version!.PP. Dann das Gesetz des Geistes. 2-30a. and my heart. Or. . 2-28. most beloved. Fuggesi lalma el cor. 2-268. Doch. Bach. _I oy rends my breast. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death. Ex. gleich efkenn ich dich. Allgegenwdrt ke. Goethe-Lieder No. Du mags!mit Zauberschleiem dich bedqcken. Allerliebste. chein gioia credea viver contento.|n tausend Formen". In tausend Formen magst du dichverstecken. text source unknown Ex. in happiness. oimé. Or. vien meno." from Motet. My soul flees. Dallapiccola. I know you. gleich erkerm ich dich. Now that. You may conceal yourselfin a thousand forms. alas. 25a_s9!.

indexes .


309-10 Blacher. 42411 Concerto for violin and orchestra. 4. 2541: Sonata. first movement. l83n Quartet No. for piano. No. for clarinet and piano. 264-66. Op. 217-21. 5. l8ln. 3. meine Freude. for strings. 2 for strings. 359 Sonata. 5. third movement. Jesu. Var. 6. 383-86 Boulez. 34-35 Symphony No. l. Op. 328. No.Denn das Gesetz des Geisler. 182n Quartet No. first movement. 2. Op. first movement. 22.428 Partita in C minor. 329. 55-57. 120. _/esu. No. second movement. 388 Divertimento for string orchestra. on a Waltz of Diabelli. 217n Quartet No. 3. 423n Symphony No. Op. first movement. 90-93. 313. 423n. 313 Symphony No. first movement. No. Pierre b. 38311 Omamentefzlr Klavier. 74. 380-83 . third movement. second movement. 38-40. Béla 881-1945!. 102-3 433 . 134-38 Symphony No. 389 Sonata. third movement. 2. first movement. 63-67 Bartok. 420n Sonata. first movement. 18. third movement. 12 7-34. 376.430 Motet. 372 Variations. 2 for piano and orchestra. Op. for piano. 1925!: Le Marteau sam' Maftre. first movement. Drauf schliess ich mzbh in deine Hdnde. Alban 885-1935!. 30-34. _Iohann Sebastian 1685-1750! : Motet. XIV. Op. third movement. for piano. 8. second movement. Ludwig van 770-1827!. fourth movement. 234-36. Boris 903-75!: Concerto No. Op. 4 for strings. 3. 297n Well. 13. fourth movement.380 Concerto No. Nos. 374-75 Quartet. Luciano b. 37. 42211 Beethoven.index of musical examples and citations Bach. I. komm. 5. 320. 313 Symphony No. 295n. 313-16. for harp. 363n. for piano. 147-62. 166-68 Berio. 6. 389-94. 5 for strings. Komm. 173 Four Pieces. 364-65. 298n. 53. Prelude in C. Prelude. 397. 360. 1925!: Sequenza II. Op. 331. 2 for piano and orchestra. 2.Tempered Clavier.420n Berg.

Veni creator spiritus. 336 lApr2s-midi dun Faune. 421n Trio. 97-100. 4-0. 118. 1908!: Eight Etudes and a Fantasy for woodwind quartet. 28. Op. 105-7 Prelude No. 2. No. 4. for piano. Moro. 351-52. Op. first movement. first movement. 60. 359 Symphony No. 321-22. Op. 1.! Structures for two pianos. 420n Nocturne. 120-24. Theme. 3. 353-55. 2. 323 Fischer. & H. 1. violin. 183n Intermezzo. Op. 3. for piano. Accenti. Francois 668-1733!: La Bondissante from Ordre 21!. 117. 1904!: Goethe-Lieder. 266-80. 299n. 1. second movement. third movement. Frédéric 810-49! : Etude. 3. Johannes833-97! : Alto Rhapsody. l8ln Debussy. 28. che in gioia credeaviver contento. ` 200. 254-55 Dowland. l0mbre des Arbres. No. 1. 335 Symphony No. 411. and cello. and horn. 394-97 Prelude. 422n Qpartet No. No. for two violins. 369-71. 280-88. 430 Gregorian chant. 1. first movement. and cello. 169n. 125-27 Carter. 102. 19. 94-96. for piano. first part. 1665-174-6!: Ariadne Musica . Op. 101-2. Prelude. Part Ia. third movement. 2. No. 324-26. john 563-1626! : Come. 37!. Or. 419-20n Couperin. and cello. 28. 18. 183n Intermezzo. No. No. No. 299n. 414 Brahms. Arcangelo 653-1713!: Concerto Grosso. 386-88 Prelude. 182n. 3. fourth movement. 204-6. Op. 253-54 Haydn. 307-9 Chopin. first movement. No. 6. No. 299n. 104n. Luigi b. 56A. lll. 323n Sonata in D for piano B. 424n Prelude. 38-39 Variations. No. No. Op. 360 Symphony No. first part. 1 for strings. 1450-1521!. 118. 6. 3 for harpsichord. 213-16. Don! Carlo 560-1613!: Madrigal. 359 _losquin des Prez c. third movement. 87. Op. 422n Ariettes Oubliées.434 index of musical examples and citations Boulez cont. 359. George Frideric 685-1759!: Suite No. Claude 862-1918!. 321-22 . 296-97n. 180-81n. 422n Trio. Healy# Sleep from First Book of Airs!. 327 Trio. No. first movement. No. Op. 298n Madrigal. for piano. 118-19 Dallapiccola. Preludes in D minor and E phrygian!. 362 Gesualdo. No. 420n Intermezzo. Op. on a Theme of Haydn. 323. fourth movement. _Iohann Kaspar Ferdinand c. 101. first movement. 257-59. Op. 430. 420n Corelli. No. No. 34549. 9. 328. 94 Quintet. Elliott b. violin. 104. 330-31. third movement. 117-19. Op. 246-48 Symphony No. two violas. No. violin. 35-36. 428 Handel. 10. 15. 2 for piano Book I!. Op. Op. moro. 68-69. Franz! joseph 732-1809!. 6. 299-300n Quaderno Musicale di Annalibera .

K. first movement. Felix 809-47! : Sonata No.369. 409 172-76. 414 107-1 1. 1300-1377!: Messe Notre-Dame. 422n Ravel. 324-26. Quartet in D minor. Wolfgang Amadeus 756-91!. 179. third movement. Op. Darius 892-1974! : Schubert. 1532-94!: Chanson.. No. 74-75 . 388-89 schoenberg. 1924!: Canto Sospeso. ment. 237-40. 23. Bonjour mon coeur. 424n . 1. 332. 362 Don juan. 1908!. No. No. 87-90. No. Roger b. 323n Sessions. 2. 241-44. K. 4. 397 Concerto for violin and orchestra. Tot.for piano. 312n Mendelssohn. Galgenlied. Modes de valeurs et 182n. 379-81 Livre dOrgue. Richard 864-1959!: 59. 206-9 Gloria Patri. Franz 811-86!: Transcendental Etudes for piano. for strings. 33a.289n Purcell. 738. Fugue. 388. Guillaume de c. K. 1900!: Eight Piano Pieces. 182n Sachs Vermessene for piano. 394. Reprires par Piano Piece. Igor 882-1971!. Quatuor pour la _/in du temps. 48. 427 Motet. 19. 311 Pierrot Lunaire. Franz 797-1828!: Six Sonnets for mixed chorus. No. 119-20. No. 225-32. Stravinsky. Faitant regretz. first moveCanticum Saorum. 336. 360. 4201: Fantasy and Fugue. 77-78 296n. 2 for cello and piano. No. 551 ]upiter!. 289-91. Maurice 875-1937! : Histoires Naturelles.index of musical examples Mass. 297-98n.Op. K. 41-45 Part V. 2. third movement. Henry c. 218. 173. 4l9n Qudtre Etudes for piano. 211 Milhaud. Le Martin- Ploheur. 810. Olivier b. for piano. 200 Liszt. 339. 172 interversion. 427 and citations 435 Symphony No. 222. No. l80n. Surgi de laoroupe et du bond. Domine. 45-47. 16. Ile de _ku Six Pieces. No. second movement. D. 409 Kienek. 297n. first movement. Magnus es tu. Op. for piano. 4l9n dintensités. Tu paupefum re/izgium. Ernst b. 367-69. 3. 429 Trois Poemsde Mallarmi. Op. Op. 296n. 3. 355Strauss. 189-90. 57-58. 3. Orlando di c. 1.373-74 Mozart. Part III. 244 orchestra.400 Sonata. 373n. 321 Lasso. 177. 232. 410-ll. for orchestra. De prqfundis clamavi. 244-45 Five Pieces. 41. 332-34. 409. 3. 291-92 Sestina. Messiaen. 42ln.182-83n Machaut. first movement. for 186-89 strings. 180n. second movement. for violin and From My Diary. 421n Nono. for piano. 233-34. 421-22n Motet. 3. 142-47.232. No. 372. Arnold 874-1951!. 409 Three Songs. No. 362 Five Pieces. 12. 1896!: Concerto. Luigi b. 1659-95!: Fantasy. Sanctus. Z. 4.

254-56 Symphony in Three Movements. first movement. first movement. Op. Op. No. 5!. Georg Philipp 681-1767!: Fantasy No. I. 4l6n Canons. No. l83n Symphony ofPsalms. No. 428 . 176. 249-50. 196-99. Op. Op. for orchestra. for violin and piano. for cello and piano. No. 365-66 Symphonies of Wind Instruments. 93. 336. 4 for violin alone. first movement. 254n lHz1¢toire du Soldat. 257-64. 250-53. 1. 162-65. Vol. 22. 401-8 Five Pieces. ll. 400 quartet. Op. 202-4. 211-13 Quartet. Vol. 296n Wagner. 85 Selig ihrBlinden Italienisches Liederbuch. PetitConcert. I. 222-25. Hugo 860-1903!: Der Mend hat eineschwere Klagerhoben Italienisehes Liederbuch. No. 388. third movement. 181-82n Four Pieces. 336 Webern. 305-7. for piano. l99n. 25. 41911. 5. Op. first movement. 312 Wolf. saxophone. 3. 399 Stravinsky cont. No.436 index of musical examples and citations Five Pieces. clarinet. 397-400 Three Songs. 4. 7. Wie bin ich jiohl. 27. l. first movement. Op. for piano. and violin. 85 Das verlassene Mdgdlein from Gedichte von Mdrilce!. 7!. 250. 9.! Concerto for violin and orchestra. 295n Variations. 3. No. 295-961| Variations for orchestra Aldous Huxley in memoriam!. No. for string Telemann. 6-7. Richard 813-83! . Op. 423n Six Bagatelles.Op. 16. 176-77 Three Pieces. 1. 1. for soprano andclarinets. 298-99n Sonata in E minor for two flutes. Anton 883-1945!. for string quartet.138-42. 10. No.

harmony. only selected references are given. 213 of tonal orientation. 277. 376. 355-59. W. 417-18. Within items of very broad. 63n. 136-4-0. 397 Anacrusis see Metric functions. 393. 149. 380n. recession! Accent.index of subjects. 324. 63n. 100. 365-69. 377. 264n.376. 418 see also Metric functions! ambiguity of see Ambiguity. 3l0n. A reference to individual elements concerns any or all of the following:color. 394-97. 367n. 44. 372-76. 150-51. 392-95. 179-80. 326. 420n. 378-83. tempo. anacrusis! Analysis: as interpretation. 373 preconditioned see Meter. 70n. 35051. 379-80. 339. 22. 313-16. 2l3n. 342 conjectural factors. 61.350 Apel. 328. 48-51. 334. 371. 355. texture. 333-49. 126. 344. Metric functions. 66. 418-19 symbols. ll. 323n. and terms l Acceleration. 210. melody. 325. 71. 154-58. 423n of pitch. structural downbeat! of superior values. 78. 397. 40011. 76.303. 4l9n.in metric structure! of associatedimpulse functions. 418. 103-4. 136-38. 342-44 counter-.420-21n equivalent to higher-level pulse. 306-10. 344. 339-41. 31811. 2l5n. 134. 103-14. 350. 344. passing references. 326. 348-51. 379-82. 123. 92. 178. 337-38. The symboln isnot usedwhere acitation is to a footnote as well as text on the same page. 248. 313. 329. andtonality. 318. 188. 406. meter. 368-69. recurrent concern. 420n. 400-406. 388-89 Ambiguity. 303. 267. 422-23n seealso Metric fluctuation. 373-79. l8ln Ametric structure. 437 . Progression. 86-87. 154. 136. 364-77. 250. 66. l01n. 170. 352. 310n 1 The index omits names of someauthors andeditors ofworks citedin very minor. 399-400.386- 95. 421-23n see also Motion. 47. 425-26 types. dissonance. density. 317-61. 386 textual. l75n. l20n. 390-92. 358-61. 90-95.. preconditioned. syncopation! criteria. l0n in metric structure. preconditioning structure! primary. 305. 379n. 386. names. 76. 302-3. 243. metric initiative impulse. 9. structural downbeat see Metric functions. 114-16.

299n. 29511. 244. 10n. 306 formal! Diatonicism see also Tonal system. l88n. 234-37. 189. 209-10. 340 217n. 28. Levels of structure! Beat. l9ln. . 107. names. 205. 102. 378n see also and perception. l80n of linear auxiliaries. 68. 348. l9n. 290. 138-47. G. 296n. 293. 341 Cadential process see Process. 257. 298n Cognition: of ambiguous states. 275. 13. 186. 232. 287-88. 84. 315 and dissonance. 209-13.211-13. 107-9.298n diatonic!: and multimovement form. 86diatonic technique! in pitch successions. 336. leveled. 361-62. 49. 299n.400 60-61. 183n. 209-13. 20. 284. 185. 11. 294n. 9. 119. 77. 299n. 34-4. 36. 184-85.. Depth of structure. 301. 401. 3l9n. 234. 24-6-48. Levels of relative immediacy in certain elementstructure! actions. 107-8. -number. 215-16. l82n. 232-37. 296n. 182n. 361. 205n. 301-2n. 278. 81. 104. 204. 136-38. Color coloration!: as aspectof sonority. l9ln. 131. 58. 313-14. 378-89. 274-80. 68. 42011 267. 287. 205n.. 71. E. 87. 225. 18111. 349. 67. 306-9. 361-62 255. 211-13. 283. and terms Cone. '52. 86.408 Bitonality. 70 64. 11. 185. 324-25.. 257-60. 168. recessive fluctuations. 56-59. 248. 350. 176-77. 236 Deceleration. 68. 11. 132-33. forand coloration. 367. 41. 164-67. 72. 278. W. 182n. 249n. 232. 85. 395. progressive. 316. 250. 184. l9ln. 400 in modulation see Tonal fluctuation. in expansion of tonal system. 298n. 18811. 257 209-13. 184-85. 183n. 146 structural functions. 20915 incipient. 15 in modulation see Tonal fluctuation. 3l9n Convention s! in triadic tonality sec Tonal conventions! Cooper. 374n Counterpoint see Textural relations. 155-59 Density. 169. 170. l04n. 244-46. contrapuntal! Asymmetry. 210 mal! Chromaticism : -compression. 47. Dissonance. recessive actions. Metric relations. 195. 158. 81. 406 in metric structure seeMetric Huctuation. of noncongruity! Atonality. 305. 2 Hierarchy. 30-37. 3l8n Babbitt. 181n. 275-80. 201. 172. 367n. 56. 48-51. 15-16. 279. 140-41. 5. 225n. 129. 204. 56n. within various parameters. 422n.438 index of subjects. 201-4 of broad structures. 297n. 98. 278-80. 192. 419n. 283. 199. 414-16 Background of structure see Hierarchy. chromatic technique! progressive. 283. 109-11. 103. 292-93. 237.375n rhythm of changes. 421-22n Deceptive tonal-harmonic succession. 157. in pitch successions. 134-42. 203-4. 111. leveled. 424n 79-80. 241-48. 160. 316. M. Developmental process see Process. 257modal implications. 289n. 171-72.

96 see also l82n. 395. 98n. 418. 294. 4. 275-80. 199n. IV. 295-99n. 61-67. 71. 176. Process. 292n. 118. 378. 160-61 introductory see Metric functions. 146 see also Tonal fluctuation. 313. 299n. 364 functions of. 87.. D. Forte. 182n. 54-55. 42311see also Resolution. Process. 419n 5th succession see Succession. 266-67. 267. function. 58. 25-26 tonal and linear. leveled. 331. 335. 63n. 305n. 372. 225. and tion. elision! Harmonic motive. 4078. chromatic!. 67.seeTonal function. Randomness. and cadential pitch structures. 63. 213. 117-19. 62-63. 22. 129-34 Eventfulness in music seeTempo! structural. Levels of structure! of succession diatonic. expressive. 388. 345. 3. Serialism.. 4-9. 359. 185. leveled. 158. Levels of structure! Form s!. 316. 90-91.Function. progressive sion. 388-89. 185. 4-13. 62. 324. 150 . 378-79. 313-16. 113. 3l2n Groupings of structural events. 275. expository seeProcess. 295n. 315. 369. 386-89. and terms 43. formal! complementary and compensatory 103-4. 155. 302. 79. 320-24. 417-19 mal! Extramusical association. 375-77. in 5t. 313. as grouping! Grout. A. 76.9 326. quasi. V-primacy. 199-205.4. 341 Harmonic elision. 419-24n contextual. 107-11. 76. 423n Gombosi. names. 17. counteractive!. 423n 78. 260. 225. tonal and linear. 147-48. 248-50. Erickson. 359-61. Process. 378. 277-80. 299n. Dominant. and contextual function! 306. Downbeat seeAccent! 367n. 62-63. 171.hs! F oreground of structure see Hierarchy. 231-36. 181-82n. 388. 137. 101-2. Elements of structure. 367n. O. 262-64. 24-25. l69n Harmonic distance. 373. 86-87. 280-83. 416-17 see also 232-36. tota1. 420-2ln developmental seeProcess. 416-17 and isolated or random events. 9. formal! enharmonic technique! multileveled see Hierarchy. 73-75. 16-17. 23-24. Tonal function. 201. quasi-! 297n. 20915. 180. 23-24 see alsoLinear func94. 23-24. 306. 109. 283. recessive fluctuations in cadential see Meter. for180. and under individual elements! actions! progressive. 233. 295n. 340n. 178. 293-94. 275-80. 338.. 204-5. 178-79. recession. 363-66. anacrusis. 30511 of. 158. 341. 179 Fermata. 286-87. 302. Expository process see Process. 56. 264. 236-41. 378-83. 83-84. formal. 95. 302. 185. 393. 275 I. 231.. 73-75. R. 42011. 297n. 405-7 see also Rhythm. 294.136. 301-3. 141-42. 29-37. ll. in modulation see Tonal fluctuation. 12. 189. 380-83.352. 333n. 84n. Progresindividual elements. 286. 147. 241-55. 1l3n 374-75.217. 199. 129. formal! Enharmonicism. 381. 138-40 67. 260Leading-tone relation! forms. 378n.index of subjects. l32n. formal! 149. 94.

302. 257. 422n Interval classIC!. 201 foreground. in metric structure! and relations among elements.285-86. l13n Leading-tone relation. 286.285 content in texture. 15.373. 5 qualities states! of. 267 time interval. 295-96n. 216. 102n. P. 206-9. 164-65 see also Tonal function. 156-58. 100-101.262. 86-87. 264. 275-78. 109n Homorhythm seealso Texturalrelations.339. 178-79 in textural structure. 16. 216-17. T.15 and fluctuation. 60. 262. 280n as opposedto dia1ogue. 9-11. 266. 267 in tonal and linear functions see Levels of structure! and tonal fluctuation. 71n secondary see Tonal system. 313-16. 296-97n. 67. T.secondary regions of. 216-21. 243. 40. 28588. 4-12. 421n Harmonic rhythm. 278-79. l13n Ki"enek. Tonal function!: analysis in later styles. 112 and dissonance. 171. 103-12. 322.326. 61-63. 283n. 100. 70. 170. 225. H. 160-61 Hemiola see Metric fluctuation. recessive actions. 299n. 420-23n Harmony see also Linear function.. unique content of. 148-69. 38 criteria for in linear functions. 37 and chromaticism. 393. superseding tonal function! . 283. 54-57. 285-86. 245. 397 and motion. 182n. 38. 103-4. 193n. 274. 319n Imitation. 221. 255. 233-34. 257. 164-65 quartal. 70-71. 360-61 functions seeMetric functions! Intensity sea also Progression. 379-89. formal! Isorhythm. 232-34. 380. 170 Horizontalization see Linear function. 280-83. 315 types. 295n Introductory process see Process. multiangular relations. 299n. 14-16. 237-40. 264. 93. 26. 243. Tonicization! tonicizing. A. 267. 2l6n.. 84-87. 67-71. 257. 189-90. 36. 14-n. l02n. hemiola! Hierarchy. 312 Katz. 186. 320. ll. 37. 112-13 criteria in nontonal styles.315 in diagonal. 83. 342. hierarchic ordering in! Hindemith. 63. 289. 383. 248.298n and tonal conventions. 317. 2l 7n in multiple counterpoint. 327. 213. 349-62 see also Levelsof structure. 310. 216-21. quasi-! progressive. generic content of. 141 in metric structures. triadic and other tertian horizontalizations! Iamb. 279. 86. 297-99n. 349. 306. 289-92 Krueger. 110n. 275-80 and harmonic as opposed to tonal significance..440 index of subjects. 76-79 of tonal system see Tonal system. l32n.. 233n. 299-300n Impulse. and terms Imbrie. 337n. 186." 14-15. 243. 232-34. names.. 14-15. 255. 326-34. 122 cancellation ol. 408. leveled see also Levels of structure!: background. 299n harmonic interval. 96. 131 and minor mode. 112. recession!: curve. homorhythmic!: and chromaticism. E. 335. 367n. 37. 305n. 103-12. 46. A. 175n unfulfilled see Linear function. 79n. 285-87. 200. 216-21. 243. 84n. 48. 49. 70-71. 307.

348. 49. 276-78. 129-33. 63n. 146 prolongation. 107. 138-47. IV. 96. 211.96. 138. of linear auxiliaries! as encirclement. hierarchic ordering in! Ligeti. 44-45. G. 129-33. 152-53. and related entries!: as accent-delineated grouping. 52-69. 34962 seealso Hierarchy. 69. 122-25. 241-43. names. 330-34. and terms 441 Levels of structure. 382 triadic and other tertian horizontalizations. 423-241: step relations. 18ln compound line see Texture. 394-400. 419-24n in multileveled tonal and linear functions. 113. V. 378 in textural structure. 146. 13-16. 164-65. 29712. 275-76. 234.323 I. 152-53. 100. 24911 cognition. 388-89. compound line! progressive. 321-24. 167. E. 333-34. 117-19. 29912. 126. 118. leveled! background. 14142. 29.. 164-68 rhythmic implications. 38891. 14. 293. 11. 338. 123-24. 120-24. 421n. 31719. 230-31. foreground. intermensural see Levels of structure. 38-40. 61-66. 317-20. 10. 179. 47n Melody : analysis. 107.85. 29-40. 329-34. 12024. in metric structure! . 404. 181n.. 159. 45. 2930. 138-47. 394-97. 30-38. 267. 406-7. 355-61. 105. 52-53. 87-93. 87. 351 superseding tonal function in nonfunctional elaboration!. 130-31. 122-24. 122-25. 63n. intramensural. 117-18. 188-89. experience of broadest. 253-55. 138-47. 90-92. 165-66. 150. 352-53. 4l9n. 171. 117-18. 29. 180-81n. as-87. 320-21. 342. 129-33. 375n. 90-93. 322-26. 351. 103-5. 171 see also Leading-tone relation! multilateral. 96. 320-21. 96. 158-62. 85. 303. 141. 309. 118. 61-66 chromatic seeChromaticism. l30n multileveled see Levels of structure. 283. 113. 249n. 68n. 359-61' and disjunct bar-line see Metric relations. 343-73. 148-62. 15-16. l23n. 323. 267. 147-48. 30n. 13. 257-60. 122-34. 221. 138-68 as to temporal spans in meter. 201. 36-37. 267. 411 Linear function. recessive actions. 323 Meter seealso Accent. 29-37. 122-34. 92. 376-83. 327-36. compared to tonal. 193-94. 316. 5561. 29611 in tonal systems see Tonal system. tonal and linear! of tonics embellishing tonal system components!. 373. 338. 386. 87-103. 167-68. 62-63. 324-26. 76-79. 209. 361-62 as toformal units. 117-18. 100-103. 162. 306. 134-41. 305. in metric structure! mensural. 288. 118. 92. 66. 95. 129-34 passing auxiliary. 164-68. 37-40. 351 see also Metric functions. 424n Lowinsky. 344. 231. 123-34. 353. in multileveled tonal and linear functions! neighbor auxiliary. 179 and tonal function see Function. 36. 32411.index of subjects. 158. 102. 232-34. 406-7 and cadential function. 5-7. 45. 278-84. 7679. 69. 340n. 351 in metric structure multileveled metric functions!. 34. 322-23. 313-15. polymeter! levels see Levels of structure. 255. 263-67. linear! structural essential! as opposed to auxiliary embe1lishinS!» 29-38. 34. 63n. intermediate grounds. Metric functions. 30.

331-34. 303. 374-75. 359. 305. 365-67. 379.53. 335-40. 345-49. 400. 375. 363. 338. 379-80. 420-24n polymeter. 359. 335. 361. 421-24n homometer. 407. 359-60. 404. 334n. 389-94 Metric functions. 406-7. 396-400. 392-93. 323n. 327-29. 404-5 see also Meter. 372n. 420n. 373n. 419-20n.442 index of subjects. 232-34. l82n . 371. 376. 320. 341n. 324-25. 363-75. 380. 161. 317-22. 274. 336-37n. 420n. 377-79. 324-26. 327-30. 322n. 359-61. 345-49. 63n. 277. 355. 1. and terms conclusive impulse. 374-75. 373-74. 377. 405-8. 318. 362-71. 353. 347-50. 324-25. 355. 373. 409 Metric rhythm.343-4-4. 336.337n. leveled. 362-71. 333. 349. 304-5. 399.Levels ofstructure! Mode: ambivalence of. 374n Middlegrounds of structure see Hierarchy. 333-34. 397-400. 11. 318-19. L. names. 338. 379. 347-48. 397. 336. 395-96. 15. 377 Metric unit. 4247! compared totonal. 358n. 377. 424n syncopation. 405 initiative impulse see Accent! multileveled see Levels of structure. 355.423-24n and other modes of grouping. 349. 322. 401. 388. 376-78. syncopation! in opposition to stability. 372. 321-24. 266-67. 346n. 395-96. 63n. conjunctions!. 382. 388. 193n. 389-9ln. 42211 progressive. 408n. 45. 126. 3l0n. 387. in metric structure! reactive impulse. 340-41n. Metric relations. 390. 23.! motivic. 32830. 423n calculation of durations. Meter oont. 321. 387. and cadential function! dualities elisions. 408. 352-53. 345-53. 355-58. 377. 379. 342. preconditioned. 347. 371. 42ln. 334. 320-21. 421-24-n Metric dissonance and resolution.372-76. 299n.359-61 372-76. 347-48. 121-22. 397-400.32 7-36. progressive. 379 of noncongruity asymmetry!. 339-42. 345. 3l9n. 333.326. 418 anacrusis anticipative impulse!. 423n in multimovement forms. 3l0n. 303. 170. 373 and notated bar-line. 392 see also Metric functions. 424n preconditioned see Meter. 303-5. 376-94. recessive actions. linear. 346-51. 280. 42324n as parameter of rhythm. 408. 320. 393-94. 383-86. 404. 345-51. 324-26. 301-2n. 423n of silences. 360. 346n. 405-6 structural downbeat primary accent!.375-93. 348. 338. 4241: Metric fluctuation. 317-19 preconditioned. 340n. 359. 326. preconditioning structure. 422-24n see also Meter. 35960. 324-26. 404-5. 307. 362-71 between levels.. 363-64. 337. 401. 378 of congruity symmetry!. 387. 390-92. 400. 172. of noncongruity! hemiola. 371. 362-400. 276. recessive actions. 422-231: Metric relations. 303-6. 309. 363-67. preconditioning structure! in seriesand permutations. 375n. 330.320. 326n. 321-22. 327. 318. 378 Meyer. 363-64 Metric variation. -322-23n. 420ri.42ln incipient. 302. 318. 359. 365-66. 379.406. 393-407. 39011. 363. 326-34. 19n. 363. l48n. _324-36. 406.

4-9. C. 302-3. 185. 18. 4-13. 340n. U. 417 Resolution. 313-16. 125-26.Deceleration!: aspects. 283. 6-7. recession! in space. recession. 267. 201-2. 321. 379-80.401 Randomness. 20". 295-99n. 193. Function! Progression. within various parameters. 180-82n. 367n. 364-74. 275. 418 see also Elements of structure! Parrish. 98. G. R. 305-8. 374. 107-8. 70n. 205-6. prolongation! Pulse. 172. 320. 244. 42ln see alsoAcceleration. 17.. 318. 5-7. 219. 307-9. 363-64. 399-400. 117n Rhythm seealso Acceleration. 344. 288. 418. 318. 378-81-. 200 Motion see also Stasis!: and directed change. 203. 80-81. 388. 177 Process. Intensity. 2' relative immediacy in certain elementactions. 397. 419n. 260. 306. 201. passing auxiliary! Pentatonic relations. 353. 310n. 277. 267. 366-69. 378-89. 61-62. 400.index of subjects. 63n. 422n see also Form. 16-19. 299n. Deceleration. 215-16. 397. . 348-49. 92. 364-67. 372-73. 313.. 408. 393-97. 337n Neighboring linear function see Linear function. 8-9.408. 317n. 306 Performance problems. H. 200 Polyphony see Textural relations. and individual elements. 267. 121n. 274-80 in time. 7-8. l8ln. 33638. 206. 400. Resolution. 302. in modal practice! Monody. 363. 49. 267. 23. 292. 405n. 422n complexities. 98-100. and terms interchangeability of major. 264. R. 305n. _]. 331. 266-67. 23.2. 294. 257. 326. L. 24. 232-48. 189. 289n Pitch-class PC!.. 66. 359. 136-38. 201-2. 301-2. 318-24. 134 modal systems see Tonal function. 349-51. 11. 158. 10-13. 260n Passing linear function see Linear function. 27n Pitch-class-complex PCC!. 45-46. 398. and under individual elements! Projection. 213. 76. recessive actions! Reti. 23-24. 358n. 419n Mursell. 27n Plagal action. 176-77 Parameters of structure. polyphonic! Pousseur. 63n. 216. 3. 84 in tonic elaboration. 5. 26. 301. neighbor auxiliary! Nelson. 292. 84-87. 84-87. 303 Prolongation see Linear function. 138 443 Pointillism. 345. 366. expository. 339. 193. 107-9. 20. 377-89. 190. introductory. 294. 26. 241n Nonfunctional elaboration see Linear function.. quasi-. 232-34. formal: cadential. 180. 104. 418. 147 Perception: and cognition. 5. 293. 200 Pantonality. 352-53. 5-6. 7-8. 299n. 267. 419n see also Progression. 98-100. 331.. minor. 283. 388. developmental. 162. 236-37.. 306. names. 301-8. 324-36. 393-94 see also Dissonance. 326. superseding tonal function! Organum. 361. 379. 317. 420-21n Perle. 301. 417-18 of element-changes.

192.. 310-13. 29911. and terms Rhythm cont. 289. 101.408-17 Sessions. 305n. 299-300n. 52. ll3n 57. 54Salzer. A. 369-71.. 204 combinatoriality. 422n Style: and metric preconditioning. tonal significance of. 204. 397. 260. 323. 221-22n. 320. 420n. 338. ll3n Smither. 195. 320 see also Progression. 288-89. 317 as pattern. 289-92 and derived quantities. 392 proportional notation. 11. 405. 408-17 and tonality. 340n. 293-94 Rhythmic ostinato see Isorhythm! and tonal fluctuation. 171 tonal system of. 322-23. 363n Sonority. 318. 361-62 in 5ths. recession! iterative neutral!. 9 lamb. tern! 243. 295n. 66. 3771388. 170. 280. 53 Succession. 367. 289n bols! . 304-6. 309.274-79. 312. 9. 278. 178-79. 98-100. 1441. 200-201. 313. 18-19. 171-79 tota1. C. H. 94. 400. 367-69. 217n... 296n. 373. 92. 338. space and spatial relations! Spies.316. 14n. S. 379. 23. 304-6. structural downbeat! 386. 59. 221-25. 113 Symbols of analysis seeAnalysis. 47n. 63n. l99n. 40. 364. 267. 200-201. R. 348. 376-77.16. 400. 318. names..419n see also Tempo! actions to. 329 Slatin. 2l6n. 351 see also Linear functions: rhythmic implications! grouping of class-afliliated events. 180n. 255. 394-97. 7-8. 379-80.444 index of subjects. symSchoenberg. 132-33. Trochee! of pitch or PC! change. 243.! of element-changes cont! 313-16. 320-23. 289. C. motive. 304-6. l4n. 338.. 83-84. 394-97. 63n.313. 319n. 248.. 291-92. 42223n see also Motion! Stretto seeImitation. 117-18.383-88. H. 221-22n. 171-77. 326. factors in. 63. 86. 423n Stasis. 393 Serialism. as patand texture. 84 Sachs.. 169-70. 297-98n Space see Texture. 210. 1619. 36-37. 373. 305-6. 405-6. 19. ll3n Schachter. 236. 355. l4n. 416 of densities. 217n. 93. 280. 335.406n grouping as to extramusical factors. and contextual function. 234. 405-7 grouping. 330. 313-24. 423-24n grouping of tendency-aiiiliated events. F. 12. 420n.. 40. 378 319-21. 309 relevance of particular elementas tempo. 275. 199. 388 grouping in formal units. 314 Schenker. 352-55. C. 4-22n Rhythmic mode see Rhythm. 320-24. 48-49. 359. 118. 340-41n. 47. 422n see also under individual elements! as grouping. 338. 388-89. 424n see also Structure. time interval! Structural downbeat see Metricfunctions. 405-7 grouping as accent-delineated see Meter! grouping of associated linear functions. 23. 362-63. 196n. and unpunctuated time Held. 394. 408-16 of pitch-class twelve-tone procedures! . 409 of time segments. mode. 390-92. Sequence. 321-22.

333. 222. 305-7. Process. 192. 286-88. 225. 18411 density see separate entry! imitation see separate entry! independence. 243. 213-15. 42371 contraintervallic. 236. 29811 classifications and terminology. 176. 246. interdependence see Textural relations. 196n. 41911 aspects. 29611. 316. 298-9911. 257. 193-96. 302. 184. 243. 275. 284. 192. 299n. 176 of tonal relations. 234. 45. 363 see also Textural relations! components real. 240. 56-57. 231. and terms Symmetry: 445 formal. 388 Tempo-structure. 267. 398. 296-9911. problems of. 191-93. 237. 16-1711 see also Function. 405-6. 101. 236. 264. 264.333 contradirectional. 293. 136-37. 274.index of subjects. 296-98n. 243. 275-77. qualitative! levels seeLevels of structure. 194-96. 388. 297n Text. sounding!. 41911 pulse-. 22225. in textural st1'ucture! line. 277. 192. 29711 heterophonic seeheterointervallic! heterorhythmic. l99n. of congruity! in space. 193-94.196.29611 monophonic. 192. 261. 192-9311. 278. 379-81. 307. 216 homorhythmic. 193-94. 192-96. 393 mirror. 225. 189. l99n. 241. 200. 167-68. 253. 296n. 28311. 297n . Progression. 296-9711. 236. 280n Texture. 27811. 278. 348 concurrence of lines. 225. 192-96. 192-99 chordal. 19195. 241. 419n in multimovement forms. 243. as component. 237-40. 380-81. 29811. 300n. 288 compound line. 286. 274-75. 237. 192. l99n. 192. 36711. 283. 124. 222. 41911 Tempo rhythm. 196 heterointervallic. 225. 15. 305-9. 29711 homodirectional. 241. 192-93. 267 motivic-thematic. 221. 230-31. 300n homophonic. 395-96. 293. 26311. 298n in multimovement forms. 284. 192. 192-9311. 199. as tempo! progr ive. 283-84.406 in metric structure see Metric relations. 305 as parameter of rhythm see Rhythm. 285. 260-61. 222-32. 156. 274-75.388-89. 388-89. 263-64. 2. 262n. 194-96. 274. formal. 267. 283. 246. 280n. 36711. 202.264. recession! Tempo: activity-. 29697n contrapuntal. 367-69. 243. 186-91. 192-96. 199. 366 Textural rhythm. 200. 296-9711. 201-4 Textural variation. 21516. 196-99. 364. 29711. 260-61. 191 activation of. 192-93n. 222. 293. 321-22. 296n. 222. 263-64. 293-94. 254-55. 275-76. 11. Texture. 18011 Syncopation see Metric functions. 267. 278 contrarhythmic. 185. 306-10. 267. syncopation! Syntactic relations. 388 Textural relations. 299300n homointervallic. 274 hcterodirectional. names. 193-94. 297-9811. 423n of doubling. recessive actions. 285n. 23. 29911 polyphonic multivoiced!. 29711.

62-67. 399 Texture cont. recessive actions. 196. 111. Tonicization. 278 see also Harmony. 162. 85n. 7-8. 28n. 234. as rhythmic factor see Tonal rhythm! in recent styles. V. factors parameters! in. Tonality.446 index of subjects. 267. 68. 55-57. 77-79. 262. 66. 421n see also Textural relations! qualitative relations. 132. 148. l83n. 85 in Classical development. l96n. 199. 232. ll. 249-53 and value in art music. 59. 204-9. 155 in modal practice. 185-89. Tonicization! chromatic technique. 50-51. 71. 280. 171. 69. 75. 34. 172. 213-17. 295n. 204-22. and related entries! and linear function see Function. 84. 153-57. in multileveled tonal and linear functions! quasi-. 154-59.85n and direction. as component. 295-300n. 29-37. 280. 293 voice. 73-75. 4-00 and style see Style. 120-26. 62-63. 6779. minor! between relative keys. 296n. 18590. IV. 299n. Tonal system. 204-13. 264 Timbre see Color! Tonal conventions. 314. 171-77 Tonal function. 204-5. 234-36. 92. progressive. 90-93. 140-41. secondary regions of. 42-45. 16465. 284-87. 204n. 59-60. 181-83n. 129-33. 297n.75-76. 24346. 72-75. 16970. 176-77. 293. 79-86. 41-45. 333n. 382 diatonic technique. 28. 44-45. 241-54. 28. 45-47. . 199. 297n. 48-51. 191-95. 75-79. 375n rate of. 195-96. in recent styles. 230-32. 341 criteria of measurement.372n. 39. 170 chronology of reference. 176. 56-60. 262-63. 180n quasi-. 62-63. 307. 262-64.248-55. 299n. in multileveled tonal and linear functions! I. as structural factor. 129-34 seealso individual entries! primary. recessive actions. 234-36. 74. 232 progressive. 210-13. 53-54. 141. 225.! multiple counterpoint. 260. 14668. 213-17. and terms 183n. 102-5. 298n.2 75-76.87-90. 72n. 389 qualitative interlinear relations. 192-93n. progressive. 53n. intersecting diagonal relations see Imitation. Tonal fluctuation.297n see also Tonality. Levels of structure. 225. 58. 40. 146 distances of see Tonaldistance! elision. 267. 232. 172 Tonal distance. 47. 100. 250. 276. 244-48. 80-81 Tonal elision see Tonal fluctuation. secondary see Tonalfluctuation. 293. 278-80. 141. 130-32. 132n between parallel keys see Mode. 146. 264. 75-76. 275-88. tonal and linear! multileveled see Levels of structure. 293. 257. elision! Tonal fluctuation. interchangeability of major. 28. 232-37. 72 enharmonic technique. 146. 257-67. 206. 131-32. 266. 41-47. 153-57. 232-37. 80-84. 58. 363 quantitative aspects. in multiple counterpoint! pitch-class displacement transference!. recessive actions. 75 in opposition to stability. 296n poly-. 24-6. 185200. 12934. 169-70. 284. 79. and texture! symmetrical space. 56. 119-20. 45-47. 244. in modal practice. 171-76. 274-75. 341 see also Density! space and spatial relations. names. 262-64. 11. 316.

59-61. Tonality. 147.index of subjects. 373. quasi-! and serialism. 164. 57. 118. chromatic technique. 71-75. 353. 337n parenthetical components of. W. 166 see also Tonal Huctuation. 71. 129-38. 424n see also Tonal fluctuation! quasi-tonal orders see Tonalfunction. 129-62. 178 triadic conventions see Tonalconventions! Tonal range. 27-29. 46 see also Tonal system. 310. 56. R. andrelated entries! conditions oi] 172. 41-47. 141 see also Tonal system. 41-47. 48. 38. 441: diatonic. 1801: embellishing componentsof see Linear function. 11. recessiveactions. 422n . 52-53. 41. 129-50. enharmonic technique! Travis. 78-79 functional orderings. 46. secondary see Tonal system. 29. 18-19. 164-65. 327. 103-7. 47n Trochee. 389. 336n. 33-38. 41-47. 160. 67-68. 162. 27-29. 40. 134-36 symbols. 27-29 chromatic expansions of see Tonal fluctuation. 41. 87. 225. 50-53. 146 primary. 67-68. 105. names. 67. 59. 27-28. 164-68. 173-75 see alsoTonicization! specific particular!. expanded! secondary see Tonal system. chromatic technique! component of.231 progressive. 222. 52-53. 170. 132n. 159-68. 6671. diatonic technique. 136-38.secondary regions of! techniques. 41-42. 147. 53-54 quasi. 125. 48-51. 84-87. P. 337n.. 415-l6n quasi-. of tonics! expanded. 171. 420n accentual strength of tonicization. 72 201 hierarchic ordering in. 34. 393. 172. Westergaard. 149n. 34-35. 47-51. 3435. 147. 49-50. secondaryregions of! Tonal rhythm. 40. generic. in multileveled l82n tonal and linear functions. 68. 173-75 secondary regions components! oi. 118. 27-28. 13-14. 55-56. 117. of structure. 204n Tonal regions.. 131 Tonicization see also Leading-tone relation!: in inliation of harmonic content. 67-69. 342. 313. 168. 141. in modal practice! Woodrow. 134-36 Tonic. 76-79. 71n. Linear function of tonics! of modal practice seeTonal function. 60. 171-77 significance of. quasi-! substitute. 204n Voice-leading. 112. H.see Tonal function.41-53. 314 and terms 447 Tonal system. 134-38. 395. 105. 76-78. 41.. 134-38 seealso Levels 119-20. 408. 79 defined. 55-59. as harmonic determinant. 161. 66. 40n seealso related entries! forms.

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