A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH

A Project Report on “A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH”

SIDVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE-85

Under the guidance and supervision of
Mrs. SRILATHA “Submitted to the SIDVIN School of Business & Institute of Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirement of Second Semester for the award of”

“Post Graduate Programme in Management”
Submitted By

PRAKASH KUMAR RAI JUNE 2009
SIDVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE-85

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BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

SIDVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE-85

This is to certify that the project work entitled

“A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH”
Carried out by “PRAKASH KUMAR RAI” has been completed and submitted in partial fulfillment for award of Post Graduate Programme in Management of SIDVIN School of Business & Institute of Technology during the academic year 20082010. This project has not been submitted to any other university for the award of any Degree or Diploma. Date Reg. No. : (Prof. K. ASHOK ANAND) :520873553 (DIRECTOR)

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project work entitled

“A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH”
Carried out by “ PRAKASH KUMAR RAI ” Has been completed and submitted under my guidance in partial fulfillment for award of Post Graduate Programme in Management of the SIDVIN School of Business & Institute of Technology during the academic Year 2008-2010.

This project has not been submitted to any other university for the award of any Degree or Diploma. Date Reg. No. : (Mrs. SRILATHA) :520873553 (FACULTY)

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DECLARATION

I declare that this project titled A STUDY ON TURISUM IN UTTAR

PRADESH completed in the academic year 2008-2010 is my own and I
have not copied the project from any source. This project is submitted in partial fulfillment of for award of Post of Graduate Business Programme & Institute in of

Management

SIDVIN

School

Technology. This project has not been submitted to any other University for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Date: “PRAKASH KUMAR RAI” Place:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would, first & foremost, like to thank God Almighty for his perpectual blessings and guidance throughout this project. I am extremely grateful to Mr. Ashok Anand , Director of Sidvin , for his co- operation & support. I am very much thankful to my faculty guide Mrs. SRILATHA , for her encouragement & guidance throughout this project work. I am highly thankful and express my gratitude to my friend SHWETHA V B for providing me a good working environment and also valuable guidance at every stage of my project work. Last but not the least, I thank my parents & Well wishers for their encouragement and support without which this project report would not have materialized.

With sincere regards, “PRAKASH KUMAR RAI” (2008-2010)

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CONTENTS

Chapter No.
Chapter - 1
• • • • • • • • •

Topic Name

Page No
7

Introduction
Definition Domestic and international Tourism World Tourism Most visited Attraction History Growth Latest Trends Tourism In India Historic Monuments

Chapter - 2

Uttar Pradesh
• • • • Introduction History Economy Tourism & Hospitality

50

Chapter - 3 Chapter - 4

Conclusion Bibliography

62 66

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Chapter – 1

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Introduction
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited". Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2007, there were over 903 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2006. International tourist receipts were USD 856 billion in 2007. Despite the uncertainties in the global economy, international tourist arrivals during the first four months of 2008 followed a similar growth trend than the same period in 2007. However, as a result of the economic crisis of 2008, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months, while growth from January to April 2008 had reached an average 5.7% compared to its 2007 level. Growth from 2006 to 2007 was only 3.7%, as total international tourism arrivals from January to August were 641 million tourists, up from 618 million in the same period in 2007. Tourism is vital for many countries, such as the U.A.E, Egypt, Greece and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These

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service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxis, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, various music venues and the theatre.

Definition
Hunziker and Krapf, in 1941, defined tourism as people who travel "The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity” In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, shortterm movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its "Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism", which involves residents of the given country traveling only within this country; Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country. The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the three basic forms of tourism: Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound tourism; National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism. Intrabound tourism is a term coined by the Korea Tourism Organization and widely

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accepted in Korea. Intrabound tourism differs from domestic tourism in that the former encompasses policymaking and implementation of national tourism policies. Recently, the tourism industry has shifted from the promotion of inbound tourism to the promotion of intrabound tourism, because many countries are experiencing tough competition for inbound tourists. Some national policymakers have shifted their priority to the promotion of intrabound tourism to contribute to the local economy. Examples of such campaigns include: "See America" in the United States; "Truly Asia" in Malaysia; "Get Going Canada" in Canada; "Peru. Live the Legend" in Peru; "Wow Philippines" in the Philippines; "Uniquely Singapore" in Singapore; "100% Pure New Zealand" in New Zealand; "Amazing Thailand" in Thailand; "Incredible India" in India; and "The Hidden Charm" in Vietnam

Domestic and International Tourism
Usually, a distention is drawn between domestic or internal and foreign of international tourism. In domestic tourism people travel outside their normal domicile to other areas within the country. Barriers like language, currency and documentation are not in the domestic tourism. But in India, since difference estates have different languages, ones own language may not serve a medium of communication. Domestic tourism has no balance of payment implications. When people travel to a country other that which they normally live in is known as international tourism, the distinction between domestic and international tourism is now diminishing. The reasons being:

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• • Language barriers are reduced by improving language skills Currency and customs unions are developing in many European countries. • With globalization the free movement of people is growing.

Considering the greater multiplier effect in domestic tourism, domestic tourism would have received greater emphasis in India. Reliable data on the growth of domestic tourists traffic are not available as not extensive survey has been conducted on a national level by any agency, government or otherwise not given the numerous festivals celebrated throughout out the year, the innumerable tourist's centers in the country, the geographical expands and the resource constraints, estimates of documents tourists' traffic through an executive survey is considered impossible. Domestic tourism if considered separate from the travel for religious and commercial purpose. It is a post-independence

phenomenon. Industrial growth, improvement in the standard of living, rise in disposable income and most importantly the improvement of tourist infrastructure search as hotels, air, train and road transport has contributed to the impressive growth in tourist traffic. The definition of a domestic tourist is a person who travels within the country to a place of residence and stays at hotels or other accommodations establishments run on commercial basis or in

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dharmashalas, sarais, chaultries etc. for duration of not less than 24 hours. The factors that govern the magnitude of domestic tourist traffic are the religious and cultural importance of a place. The extent of manufacturing, business and trading activity, the climatic conditions, the infrastructure facilities available and the geographical location etc. the current rough estimate of domestic tourism in India is ten million a year.

World tourism statistics and rankings Most visited countries
The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in 2007 by number of international travelers. When compared to 2006, Ukraine entered the top ten list, surpassing Russia, Austria and Mexico. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European continent.

UNWTO Rank Country Regional Market

International International tourist arrivals (2007) 81.9 million 59.2 million tourist arrivals (2006) 79.1 million 58.5 million

1 2

France Spain

Europe Europe

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3

United States China Italy United Kingdom Germany Ukraine Turkey Mexico

North America 56.0 million

51.1 million

4 5

Asia Europe

54.7 million 43.7 million

49.6 million 41.1 million

6

Europe

30.7 million

30.7 million

7 8 9 10

Europe Europe Europe

24.4 million 23.1 million 22.2 million

23.6 million 18.9 million 18.9 million 21.4 million

North America 21.4 million

International tourism receipts
International tourist receipts were USD 96.7 billion in 2007, up from USD 85.7 billion in 2006. When the export value of international passenger travel receipts is accounted for, total receipts in 2007 reached a record of USD 1.02 trillion or 3 billion a day. The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2007. It is noticeable that most of them are on the European continent, but the United States continues to be the top earner.

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International International Tourism Receipts (2007) Tourism Receipts (2006) $85.7 billion $51.1 billion $46.3 billion $38.1 billion $33,9 billion $33.7 billion $32.8 billion $17.8 billion $16.6 billion $16.9 billion

UNWTO Rank Country Regional Market

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

United States Spain France Italy China

North America $96.7 billion Europe Europe Europe Asia $57.8 billion $54.2 billion $42.7 billion $41.9 billion $37.6 billion $36.0 billion $22.2 billion $18.9 billion $18.5 billion

United Kingdom Europe Germany Australia Austria Turkey Europe Oceania Europe Europe

International tourism top spenders
The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2007. For the fifth year in a row, German tourists continue as the top spenders. A

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study by Dresdner Bank forecasts that for 2008, Germans and Europeans, in general, will continue to be the top spenders, because of the strength of the Euro against the United States dollar, with strong demand for the U.S. in favor of other destinations.

UNWTO Rank Country Regional Market

International International Tourism (2007) $82.9 billion Tourism (2006) $73.9 billion $72.1 billion $63.1 billion $31.2 billion $24.3 billion $23.1 billion $26.9 billion $20.5 billion $18.2 billion $18.9 billion Expenditures Expenditures

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Germany United States

Europe

North America $76.2 billion $72.3 billion $36.7 billion $29.8 billion $27.3 billion $26.5 billion

United Kingdom Europe France China Italy Japan Canada Russia South Korea Europe Asia Europe Asia

North America $24.8 billion Europe Asia $22.3 billion $20.9 billion

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Most visited attractions
Forbes Traveller released a ranking of the world's 50 most visited tourist attractions in 2007, including both international and domestic tourists. The following are the Top 10 attractions, followed by some other famous sites included within the list of the 50 most visited. It is noticeable that four out of the top five are in North America.

Most visited attractions by domestic and international tourists in 2007 top 10 ranking tourist attractions

Number World's ranking Tourist attraction Location Country of visitors (millions)

1

Times Square

New York City

United States

35

2

National Mall and Washington,

United

25

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Memorial Parks

D.C.

States

3

Magic Kingdom

Lake

Buena

United States

Vista, Orlando

16.6

4

Trafalgar Square

London

United Kingdom

15

5

Disneyland

Anaheim, California

United States

14.7

6

Niagara Falls

Ontario & New York

Canada United States

& 14

7

Fisherman's Wharf San & Golden Gate

Francisco,

United States

California

13

8

Tokyo

Disneyland

& Tokyo DisneySea

Urayasu

Japan

12.9

9

Notre Paris

Dame

de

Paris

France

12

10

Disneyland Paris

Paris

France

10.6

Other selected famous destinations

11

Great

Wall

of Badaling

China

10

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China

15

Louvre

Paris

France

7.5

18

Eiffel Tower

Paris

France

6.7

24

Hong Disneyland

Kong

Hong Kong

China

5.2

28

Universal Studios

Los Angeles

United States

4.7

31

Grand Canyon

Arizona

United States

4.4

36

Statue of Liberty

New York City

United States

4.24

37

Vatican City

Vatican City

Vatican City 4.2

38

Sydney House

Opera

Sydney

Australia

4

39

The Colosseum

Rome

Italy

4

42

Empire Building

State

New York City

United States

4

44

London Eye

London

United

3.5 18

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Kingdom

47

Giza Pyramids

Cairo

Egypt

3

50

Taj Mahal

Agra

India

2.4

Most visited cities
Euro monitor released a ranking of the world's 150 most visited cities by international tourists in 2007. The following are the leading 15 cities, according to Euro monitor’s ranking: However, other sources report Paris as the most visited city in the world with 30 million visitors.

History
Wealthy people have always traveled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, and experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae, were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourism was used by 1811 and tourist by 1840. In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as "someone travelling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.

Leisure travel
Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the

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increasing industrial population. Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758. The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers. Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to the tropics, both in the summer and winter. Places often visited are: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Thailand and North Queensland in Australia and Florida in the United States.

Winter tourism
Major ski resorts are located in the various European countries (e.g. Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland), Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Korea, Chile and Argentina.

Mass tourism
Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people began to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.

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In the United States, the first great seaside resort, in the European style, was Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York. In continental Europe, early resorts included: Ostend, popularized by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians; and Heiligendamm, founded in 1797, as the first seaside resort at the Baltic Sea.

Adjectival tourisms
Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include: 1. Culinary tourism 2. Dark tourism 3. Disaster tourism 4. Ecotourism 5. Heritage tourism 6. LGBT tourism 7. Medical tourism 8. Nautical tourism 9. Sex tourism 10.Space tourism 11.War tourism

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There has been an upmarket trend in the tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have higher levels of disposable income and greater leisure time and they are also better-educated and have more sophisticated tastes. There is now a demand for a better quality products, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the mass market for beach vacations; people want more specialised versions, such as Club 18-30, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. There have also been changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourism products. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse. There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost and many tourists died. This, together with the vast clean-up operation in place, has stopped or severely hampered tourism to the area. The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used

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pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.

Sustainable tourism
"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization) Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

Medical tourism
When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism".

Educational tourism
Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the

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classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.

Other developments Creative tourism
Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travelers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences. Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by highprofile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place. More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.

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A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH Dark tourism
One emerging area of special interest tourism has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism poses severe ethical and moral dilemmas: should these sites be available for visitation and, if so, what should the nature of the publicity involved be. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.

Growth
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 %. By 2020 Europe will remain the most popular destination, but its share will drop from 60% in 1995 to 46%. Long-haul will grow slightly faster than intraregional travel and by 2020 its share will increase from 18% in 1995 to 24%. With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet. Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops. It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between Tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 25

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degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future. Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap. Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities.

Latest trends
As a result of the economic crisis of 2008, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. The Asian and Pacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated during the boreal summer months, while the Americas performed better, reducing their expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January to August 2008. Only the Middle East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17% growth as compared to the same period in 2007. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reports a slowdown, as room occupancy continues to decline. As the global economic situation deteriorated dramatically during September and October as a result of the global financial crisis, growth of SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 26

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international tourism is expected to slow even further for the remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth is forecasted to continue into 2009 as recession has already hit most of the top spender countries, with long-haul travel expected to be the most affected by the economic crisis. However, some travel destinations have experienced growth during hard economic times, drawing on low costs of living, accessibility, and friendly immigration laws permitting tourists to stay for extended periods of time. Recession tourism, a phrase coined by Matt Landau in his research about Panama, has evolved as an alternative escape option for nervous crisis-goers in 2009.

Negative impacts
Tourism is the issue that nearly every city faces. It is worldwide and a threat to beaches, famous landmarks, holy areas and also resorts. Attracting a high volume of tourists can have negative impacts, such as the impact of 33 million tourists a year on the city of New York, or the potential to impact fragile environments negatively, or the impact of the December 26, 2004 tsunami on the tourists themselves. The environment can be affected negatively by cruise ship pollution in many ways, including ballast water discharge, and by pollution from aircraft

Tourism in India
India attracted about 4 million foreign tourists in 2006 that spent US$8.9 billion. The tourism industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate. The Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency for the development and promotion of Tourism in India. It maintains the Incredible India campaign.

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According to World Travel and Tourism Council, India will be the world's leading tourism hotspot, having the highest 10-year growth potential. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007 ranked tourism in India 6th in terms of price competitiveness and 39th in terms of safety and security.

However, India's tourism sector currently lags behind less endowed countries and faces serious challenges including shortage of hotel rooms. In 2007, there were only 25,000 tourist-class hotel rooms in the whole of India. Among other factors hindering the growth of the tourism industry in India are stringent visa requirements and congested airports. Despite short- and medium-term setbacks, tourism revenues are expected to surge by 42% from 2007 to 2017.

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India has geographical diversity, which resulted in varieties of nature tourism.
• • • • •

Water falls in Western Ghats including Jog falls (highest in india). Western Ghats Kerala backwaters Hill Stations Wildlife reserves

Rural Tourism in India
India is a country of rich culture and heritage. With above 70% population residing in around 6 million plus villages, real India has its roots right inside this simplistic structure. Rural Tourism in India takes you to a journey of not so known – the land and people which is the back bone of this country. It is a journey to explore diversity and hospitality from nook and corners of India. Rural tourism attempts to take you away to a dream land full of peace, simplicity and innocence. Connect with nature, unlearn luxury, and spend time with people who support your life by providing the raw inputs for complex city life needs. From agriculture to sericulture, they do it all. What you explore during these tours is a unique experience and an eye opener to the basics of a developing economy in the country. You not only get to see rural life closely, but also get a chance to connect and open avenues for rural India by interacting with people closely. India has a growing medical tourism sector. The 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi are expected to significantly boost tourism in India.

Government Initiatives
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According to the Tourism Secretary, Mr Sujit Banerjee, the government is offering attractive packages to foreign tourists and has organised road shows in major markets such as the UK, Canada, Australia, Singapore and Malaysia.

The ministry is offering free air ticket for companion, travel to additional places and extended stay at hotels. Now, foreign medical tourists will be offered one additional treatment for free. Apollo, Manipal, Moolchand, Fortis and Wockhardt among others have forwarded their proposals for the same.

The government has also taken a number of steps to minimise the impact of the slowdown. This year has been designated as the ‘Visit India’ year. The ministry has increased financial support to tour operators for promoting India in international exhibitions. To involve more operators, the ministry has doubled the upper ceiling of foreign exchange earnings of applicant companies to US$ 4.05 million under the market development assistance scheme.

All issues including uniform state-level tax structure, luxury tax and free-movement of inter-state tourist vehicles are being reviewed by the empowered committee of state finance ministers.

To

strengthen

the

Indian

tourism

sector

ahead

of

the

Commonwealth Games in 2010 and to double foreign tourist arrivals from 5.37 million in 2008 to 10 million by 2010, the ministry is taking measures such as rationalising taxes, increased focus on infrastructure and easy visas.

India's tourism revenue up
Tourism has been an important segment of the Indian economy contributing substantially to its foreign exchange earnings. The foreign

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exchange earnings during 2003 was Rs. 17,049 a significant amount for country exchequer. During first two months of 2004 the amount was about Rs. 3912 crore, an increase of 29% over the corresponding period of last year.

Tourism by state
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has a rich cultural heritage and a variety of tourist attractions. The state of Andhra Pradesh comprises scenic hills, forests, beaches and temples. Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrimage centers, one of them being 'Tirupati,' the abode of Lord Venkateswara, which is the richest and most visited Hindu temple in India. Hyderabad is known for its rich history, culture and architecture representing its unique character as a meeting point for North and South India, and also its multilingual culture, both geographically and culturally. Also known as The City of Nizams and The City of Pearls, Hyderabad is today one of the most developed cities in the country and a modern hub of information technology, ITES, and biotechnology. Hyderabad offers many attractions to the tourists. It is famous for its delicious Hyderabadi Biryani. It is India's second largest metropolitan. Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centers. Tirupati, the abode of Lord Venkateswara, is the richest and most visited religious center (of any faith) in the world. Srisailam, the abode of Sri Mallikarjuna, is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India, Amaravati's Siva

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temple is one of the Pancharamams, and Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for some fine temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centers at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka. The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year old

limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona, are some of the natural attractions of the state. Kailashagiri is situated adjacent to sea in Visakhapatnam, it is one of the beautiful sight which shows the entire beauty of Visakhapatnam having other side sea. A beautiful park is developed on the hill top of Kailashagiri, the city boasts of having a park on hill top that has a luxurious toy train, ropeway and beautiful view of beach front into which Eastern Ghats merge into the sea. Further, Visakhapatnam is home to many tourist attractions like INS Karasura Submarine museum (The only one of its kind in India), the most beautiful and the longest Beach Road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley (Known as poorman's Ooty , a lot of movies are shooted here), VUDA Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens,etc. The weather in Andhra Pradesh is mostly tropical and the best time to visit is in November through to January. The monsoon season commences in June and ends in September, so travel would not be advisable during this period.

Places to visit:

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Hyderabad: The capital of AP, it is a melting pot of various cultures, known for its historical monuments as well as modern marvels. The places to visit are-Charminar, Mecca Masjid, Salarjung Museum, Hussain Sagar, Lumbini Park, Snow world, Ramoji Film city, Water world, Hitech city, Golconda, Paigah tombs, Falaknuma palace.

Visakhapatnam: Undoubtedly the most beautiful city on the east coast, it boasts of natural and man-made beauties. It is fast emerging as the country's best tourist and party destination. The places to visit are- Kailashagiri, R.K.Beach, Rushikonda beach, Simhachalam temple, Vizag-Bhimili Beach Road, Bojjannakonda, Thatlakonda, Appikonda Beach, Yarada Beach, Bhimili Beach, Gangavaram Beach, Borra Caves, Araku valley, Tenneti Beach Park, Ross hill church, Dolphin's nose mountain, Submarine Museum, Aquarium, Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens, Duduma waterfalls and Red sand hills.

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Tirupati:

India's

most

famous

and

richest

temple.

Lord

Venkateshwara temple, Tirumala, Deer Sanctuary, Horsley Hills, Sri Kalahasti Temple, Lepakshi.

Vijayawada:

Commercial

hub

of

AP.

Places

to

visit

are-

Kanakadurga Temple, Gandhi hill, Prakasham Barrage, Krishna River bank, Mangalagiri Temple.

Assam
Assam is the central state in the North-East Region of India and serves as the gateway to the rest of the Seven Sister States. Assam boasts of famous wildlife preserves – the Kaziranga National Park and the Manas National Park, largest river island Majuli and tea-estates dating back to time of British Raj. The weather is mostly sub-tropical. Assam experiences the Indian monsoon and has one of the highest forest densities in India. The winter months (October to April) are the best time to visit.

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It has a rich cultural heritage going back to the Ahom Dynasty which governed the region for many centuries before the British occupation. Other notable features include the Brahmaputra River, the mystery of the bird suicides in Jatinga, numerous temples including Kamakhya of Tantric sect, ruins of palaces, etc.

Bihar
Bihar is one of the oldest inhabited places in the world with history of 3000 years. The rich culture and heritage of Bihar is evident from the innumerable ancient monuments that are dotted all over the state in eastern India. Bihar is home of many tourist attractions. Bihar is visited by scores of tourists from all over the World all the year round. Around total 6,000,000 (6 million) tourist visits Bihar every year.

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In the earliest day, tourism in region was purely based Educational tourism as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda University & Vikramaśīla University Bihar one of the most sacred place of various religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism & Islam, Many tourist travel to Bihar to visit their pilgrimage. Mahabodhi Temple, a Buddhist shrine and UNESCO World Heritage Site is also situated in Bihar. Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna, is one of the longest bridges in the world.

Delhi
Delhi is the capital of India. A fine blend of old and new, ancient and modern in every stream of life is the soul of Delhi. A melting pot of cultures, religions and castes makes Delhi a diverse place. Delhi has been the capital of India from the mythological days. The rulers left behind their trade marks in the architecture. Delhi currently has many renowned monuments and landmarks such as the Tughlaqabad fort and the Qutub Minar, the Jama Masjid and the Bahá'í Lotus temple, the Humayun's tomb and the Red Fort, and India Gate and the Magnificent President's house (Rashtrapati Bhavan). Delhi is famous for its wide roads and crisp winters.

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One of the few places in India where colours of nature changes with the seasons. From Kerala to Kashmir and from Gujarat to Assam all the mouth watering delicacies and shopping goods are found in Delhi. The cosmopolitan nature of the city has only added to the beauty and glory of it. Big gardens, wide roads, ancient structures, and power of politics is what Delhi is all about. Delhi is popularly known for its monuments. Most of them which are built by the Mughal Emperors.

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The state of Goa is situated on the West Coast of India, between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka and is better known to the world as the former Portuguese enclave on Indian soil. With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of the Latin culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than any other part of India. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and Hindu temples. The Bom Jesus cathedral, Mangueshi Temple and Shantadurga are famous attractions in Goa. Recently a Wax Museum (Wax World) has also opened in Old Goa housing a number of wax personalities of Indian history, culture and heritage.

Himachal Pradesh
Home to the some of the most popular Hill Stations, and home also to some exquisite alpine & Trans-Himalayan destinations, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh is a major product in the Indian tourism market. Himachal is famous for its sweet apples.

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Among the major crowd pullers in Himachal Pradesh are: Shimla, the state's capital Manali, Dharamshala, Dalhousie and Kasauli.

Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu is noted for its landscape, ancient temples, Hindu shrines, castles, gardens and forts. Hindu holy shrines of Amarnath and Vaishno Devi attracts tens of thousands of Hindu devotees every year. Jammu's natural landscape has made it one of the most popular destinations for adventure tourism in south Asia. Jammu's historic monuments feature a unique blend of Islamic and Hindu architecture styles.

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Tourism forms an integral part of the Kashmiri economy. Often dubbed "Paradise on Earth", Kashmir's mountainous landscape has attracted tourists for centuries. Notable places are Dal Lake, Srinagar Phalagam, Gulmarg, Yeusmarg and Mughal Gardens etc. However, the tourism industry is severely affected by the insurgency. In recent years, ladakh has emerged as a major hub for adventure tourism. This part of Greater Himalaya interpreted as "moon on earth" comprising of naked peaks and deep gorges was once known for the silk route to High Asia with the sub continent.

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu or "the land of Tamil" is a beautiful state nestled in the southern Indian peninsula, on the shores of the Bay of Bengal and the deep blue Indian Ocean. Many great rulers including the Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas and the Vijayanagara Empire ruled over parts of Tamil Nadu. The state is known for its cultural heritage and temple

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architecture. Tamil literature is amongst the oldest in India. Much of the ancient culture of Tamil Nadu is still alive. We have Carnatic music, an Indian classical tradition. Bharatha Natyam is its twin dance form, always accompanied by this music and the rich tradition of folk music continues to inspire people.

Karnataka
Karnataka, the eighth largest state in India, is a veritable treasure trove of tourist delights. By virtue of its varied geography and long and rich history, Karnataka boasts of numerous spots of interest for tourists. Karnataka has been ranked as fourth most popular destination for tourism among states of India. With its 507 out of the 3600 centrally protected monuments, Karnataka has the second highest number of protected monuments in India, next only to Uttar Pradesh. The Kannada dynasties like Kadamba, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Vijayanagara Empire, Hoysala, Ganga, Ratta and many more they ruled Karnataka particularly North Karnataka and other parts of India. They built great monuments related to Buddhism, Jainism, and Shaivism. The monuments are still present at Badami, Aihole, Pattadakal, Hampi, Lakshmeshwar, Sudi, Hooli, Mahadeva Temple (Itagi), Dambal, Lakkundi, Gadag, Hangal, Halasi, Galaganatha, Chaudayyadanapura, Banavasi, Belur, Halebidu, Shravanabelagola, Sannati and many more.

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The great Islamic monuments are present at Bijapur, Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur and other part of the state. Karnataka is famous for its waterfalls. Jog falls of Shimoga District is one of the highest waterfalls in Asia. This state has 21 wildlife sanctuaries and five National parks and is home to more than 500 species of birds. Karnataka is a rock climbers paradise. Yana in Uttara Kannada, Fort in Chitradurga, Ramnagara near Bangalore district, Shivagange in Tumkur district and tekal in Kolar district are a rock climbers heaven. Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia. Karnataka has two World heritage sites, at Hampi and Pattadakal, both are in North Karnataka. Karnataka has many beaches at Karwar, Gokarna, Murdeshwara, Surathkal and many more

Kerala

Kerala is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. Nicknamed as one of the "10 paradises of the world" by the National SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 42

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Geographic traveller, Kerala is famous especially for its ecotourism initiatives. Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, has made it one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Growing at a rate of 13.31%, the tourism industry significantly contributes to the state's economy. The Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, the government agency that oversees the tourism prospects of the state, has adopted the brand "God's Own Country" for its campaigns. The slogan holds global Superbrand status.[citation needed] Kerala is gifted with 42 rivers running as the life stream of the culture. This state has a variety of land scapes which can attract the tourists such as coastal regions,backwaters,Nilgiri mountaing on one side,malabar highlands,and so on.

Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh is called the "Heart of India" only because of its location in the centre of the country. It has been home to the cultural heritage of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and Islam. Innumerable monuments, exquisitely carved temples, stupas, forts and palaces are dotted all over the State. Madhya Pradesh is also known as Tiger State because of tiger population in MP (Madhya Pradesh). Many Famous national parks like Kanha, Banthavgadh and Pench are located in MP. The natural beauty of Madhya Pradesh is equally varied. Consisting largely of a plateau, the State has everything. Spectacular mountain ranges, meandering rivers and miles and miles of dense forests offering a unique and exciting panorama of wildlife in sylvan surroundings.

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A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH Maharashtra

Unlike most other states in India, Maharashtra boasts of a large number of popular and revered religious venues that are heavily frequented by locals as well as out-of-state visitors. It also boasts of the City of Mumbai with its Bollywood fame, ancient cave temples at Ajanta and Ellora, the Tuljabhavani temple at Tuljapur, the Mahalakshmi temple in Kolhapur, the city of Pune the seat of the Maratha empire, the fantastic Ganesh chaturthi celebrations and much more.

Orissa
Orissa has been a preferred destination from ancient days for people who have an interest in spirituality, religion, culture, art and natural beauty. Ancient and medieval architecture, pristine sea beaches, the classical and ethnic dance forms and a variety of festivals. Orissa has kept the religion of Buddhism alive. Rock-edicts that have challenged time stand huge and over-powering by the banks of the river Daya. The torch of Buddhism is still ablaze in the sublime triangle at Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, on the banks of river Birupa. Precious fragments of a glorious past come alive in the shape of stupas, rock-cut caves, rockedicts, excavated monasteries, viharas, chaityas and sacred relics in SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 44

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caskets and the Rock-edicts of Ashoka. Orissa is also famous for its wellpreserved Hindu Temples, especially the Konark Sun Temple. Orissa is the home for various tribal communities who have contributed uniquely to the multicultural and multilingual character of the state. Their handicrafts, different dance forms, jungle products and their unique life style blended with their healing practices have got world wide attention. Punjab is one of India's most beautiful states. The state of Punjab is renowned for its cuisine, culture and history. Punjab has a vast public transportation and communication network. Some of the main cities in Punjab are Amritsar, Chandigarh, and Ludhiana. Punjab also has a rich religious history incorporating Sikhism and Hinduism. Tourism in Punjab is principally suited for the tourists interested in culture, ancient civilization, spirituality and epic history. Some of the villages in Punjab are also a must see for the person who wants to see the true Punjab, with their beautiful traditional Indian homes, farms and temples, this is a must see for any visitor that goes to Punjab.

Rajasthan
Rajasthan, literally meaning "Land of the Kings", is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Northern India. The vast sand dunes of the Thar Desert attract millions of tourists from around the globe every year.

Sikkim
Originally known as Suk-Heem, which in the local language means "peaceful home", Sikkim was an independent kingdom till the year 1974, when it became a part of the Republic Of India. The capital of Sikkim is Gangtok, located approximately 185 kilometers from New Jalpaiguri, the nearest railway station to Sikkim. Although, an airport is under SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 45

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construction at Dekiling in East Sikkim, the nearest airport to Sikkim would be Bagdogra. Sikkim is considered as the land of Orchids and mystic cultures and colorful traditions. Sikkim is well known among trekkers and adventure lovers, as West Sikkim has a lot to give them. Places near Sikkim include Darjeeling also known as the Queen of hills and Kalimpong. Darjeeling, other than its world famous "Darjeeling tea" is also famous for its refined "Prep schools" founded during the British Raj. Kalimpong is also famous for its Flora cultivation and is home to many internationally known Nurseries.

Uttaranchal
Uttaranchal is the 27th state of the Republic of India. Blessed with magnificent glaciers, majestic snow-clad mountains, gigantic and ecstatic peaks, valley of flowers, skiing slopes and dense forests, this Abode of Gods includes many shrines and places of pilgrimage. Chardhams, the four most sacred and revered Hindu temples: Badrinath, Kedarnath, the plains. A picturesque state, with a breathtaking panoramic view of Himalayas, Uttarakhand promises its tourists a visit full of fun and unforgettable moments. It contains the most fascinating and beautiful part of the Himalayas and provide watershed for Gangetic River System spanning 300Km from Satluj in the west to Kali river in the east. Nanda Devi (25640 Ft) is the second highest peak in India after Kanchenjunga (28160 Ft). Dunagiri, Neelkanth, Chukhamba, Panchachuli, Trisul are other peaks above 23000 Ft. It is considered abode of Devtas, Yakashyas, Kinners, Fairies and Sages. They all are present here on Gangotri and Yamunotri are nestled in the Mighty Himalayas. Haridwar which means Gateway to God is the only place on

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glittering peaks, roaring rivers, beautiful hills slopes and valleys in one or another form. It boasts of some old hill-stations developed during British era like Mussoorie, Almora and Nainital.

Uttar Pradesh
Situated in the northern part of India, Uttar Pradesh is important with its wealth of monuments and religious fervour. Geographically, Uttar Pradesh is very diverse, with Himalayan foothills in the extreme north, the Gangetic Plain in the centre, and the Vindhya Mountain Range towards the South. It is also home of India's most visited site, the Taj Mahal, and Hinduism's holiest city, Varanasi. The most populous state of the Indian Union also has a rich cultural heritage, and at the heart of North India, Uttar Pradesh has much to offer. Places of interest include Varanasi, Agra, Mathura, Jhansi, Prayag, Sarnath, Ayodhya, Dudhwa National Park and Fatehpur Sikri.

West Bengal
Kolkata, one of the many cities in the state of West Bengal has been nicknamed the City of Palaces. This comes from the numerous palatial mansions built all over the city. Unlike many north Indian cities, whose construction stresses minimalism, the layout of much of the architectural variety in Kolkata owes its origins to European styles and tastes imported by the British and, to a much lesser extent, the Portuguese and French. The buildings were designed and inspired by the tastes of the English gentleman around and the aspiring Bengali Babu (literally, a nouveau riche Bengali who aspired to cultivation of English etiquette, manners and custom, as such practices were favourable to monetary gains from the British). Today, many of these structures are in SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 47

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various stages of decay. Some of the major buildings of this period are well maintained and several buildings have been declared as heritage structures.

Historic monuments
The Taj Mahal is one of India's best-known sites and one of the best architectural achievements in India. Located in Agra, it was built between 1631 and 1653 by Emperor Shah Jahan in honor of his wife, Arjumand Banu, more popularly known as Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal serves as her tomb. The Golden Temple is one of the most respected temples in India and the most sacred place for Sikhs. The Golden Temple is located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. The Bahá'í temple in Delhi, was completed in 1986 and serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. It has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. (It is also known as the Lotus Temple.) The Victoria Terminus in Mumbai was built by the British and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Taj Mahal Palace is an icon of Mumbai.

Wildlife in India
India is home to several well known large mammals including the Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard and Indian Rhinoceros, often engrained culturally and religiously often being associated with deities. Other well known large Indian mammals include ungulates such as the domestic Asian Water buffalo, wild Asian Water buffalo, Nilgai, SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 48

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Gaur and several species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family such as the Indian Wolf, Bengal Fox, Golden Jackal and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. It is also home to the Striped Hyaena, Macaques, Langurs and Mongoose species. India also has a large variety of protected wildlife. The country's protected wilderness consists of 75 National parks of India and 421 Sanctuaries, of which 19 fall under the purview of Project Tiger. Its climatic and geographic diversity makes it the home of over 350 mammals and 1200 bird species, many of which are unique to the subcontinent. Some well known national wildlife sanctuaries include Bharatpur, Corbett, Kanha, Kaziranga, Periyar, Ranthambore and Sariska. The world's largest mangrove forest Sundarbans is located in southern West Bengal. The Sundarbans is UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Hill stations
Main article: List of Indian hill stations Several hill stations served as summer capitals of Indian provinces, princely states, or, in the case of Shimla, of British India itself. Since Indian Independence, the role of these hill stations as summer capitals has largely ended, but many hill stations remain popular summer resorts. Most famous hill stations are:
• • • • • • •

Araku, Andhra Pradesh Gulmarg, Srinagar and Laddakh in Jammu and Kashmir Darjeeling in West Bengal Munnar in Kerala Ooty and Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu Shillong in Meghalaya Shimla, Kullu in Himachal Pradesh

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• • •

Nainital in Uttaranchal Gangtok in Sikkim mussoorie in uttarkhand which is the queen amongst all of them

Chapter – 2

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Uttar Pradesh
Introduction
Uttar Pradesh , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as

U.P.] is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 190 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity. With an area of 93,933 sq mi (243,286 km²), Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain. It shares an international border with Nepal and is bounded by the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar. The administrative and legislative capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow and the financial and industrial capital is Kanpur. The state's high court is based at Allahabad. It is home to many historical cities like Agra and Varanasi. The area now known collquially and officially as UP has undergone several different definitions and demarcations since the early 19th century. In 1833 the then Bengal Presidency was divided into two parts, one of wihich became Presidency of Agra. In 1836 the Agra area was named North-Western Provinces and placed under a Lieutenant Governor. In 1877 the two provinces of Agra and Oudh were placed under one administrator, who was called Lieutenant Governor of the North-Western Provinces and Chief Commissioner of Oudh. In 1902 the

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name was changed to United Provinces of Agra and Oudh with Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh as administrator, in 1921 Lieutenant Governorship was elivated to Governorship when once again province was renamed as United Provinces of British India. In 1935 the name was shortened to United Provinces. On independence in 1947, the staes of Rampur, Banares and Tehri-Garwal were merged into the United Provinces. In 1950 the name of United Provinces was changed to Uttar Pradesh. In 1999 sperate state of Uttaranchal(now Uttarakhand) was carved out of Uttar Pradesh.

History
Legend and ancient periods
The known history of Uttar Pradesh goes back 4000 years, when the Aryans first made it their home in 2000 BC. This heralded the Vedic age of the Indian civilization and Uttar Pradesh was its home. The Aryans, who settled in the Doab region and the Ghagra plains, called it with various names: Madhya Desha (midland) or Aryavarta (the Aryan land) or Bharatvarsha (the kingdom of Bharat, an important Aryan king). In the ages to come, Aryans spread to other parts of the Indian subcontinent, reaching as far south as Kerala and Sri Lanka. The ancient Mahajanapada era kingdom of Kosala in Ayodhya - where, according to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned - was located here. Krishna - another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatara) of Hindu god Vishnu - was born in the city of Mathura. The aftermath of the Mahabharata war is believed to have taken place in the area between the present Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishtira, in what was

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Kuru Mahajanapada. The revered Swaminarayan - mentioned in the Brahma Purana and Vishwaksena Samhita as the manifestation of God was born in the village of Chhapaiya. Most of the empire building invasions of North India, from the east as well as the west, passed through the vast swathe of Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Mauryan (320-200 BC), Kushan (100-250 AD) and Gupta (350-600 AD) empires. After the Guptas, the Ganga-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire was at its zenith: it covered an area extending from Afghanistan and Kashmir in the west to Bengal in the east and up to the Vindhyas in the south, with its capital at Kannauj. Even today many communities in various parts of India] - from Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Bihar to Bengal - boast of being descendants of migrants from Kannauj, reflecting its glory in the past.[citation needed]. The state is also important to Buddhism since its early days. The Chaukhandi Stupa marks the spot where Buddha met his first disciples. The Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath commemorates Buddha's first sermon. Also the town of Kushinagar is where Gautama Buddha died.

Medieval
Causing the fall of post-Harshavardhana Rajput kings of north India came the Turko-Afghan Muslim rulers and what we call Uttar Pradesh today once again became the catalyst for things to come; much of the state formed part of the various Indo-Islamic empires (Sultanates) after 1000 AD and was ruled from their capital, Delhi. Later, in Mughal times, U.P. became the heart-land of their vast empire; they called the place

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'Hindustan', which is used to this day as the name for India in several languages. Agra and Fatehpur Sikri were the capital cities of Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor of India. At their zenith, the Mughal empire covered almost times the from entire Delhi, Indian Agra subcontinent Allahabad. (including But, when present the day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh), which was ruled at different and empire disintegrated, their last territory remained confined to the Doab region of Hindustan and Delhi. Other areas of Hindustan (U.P.) were now ruled by different rulers: Oudh was ruled by the Nawabs of Oudh, Rohilkhand by Afghans, Bundelkhand by the Marathas and Benaras by its own king, while Nepal controlled Kumaon-Garhwal as a part of Greater Nepal. The state's capital city of Lucknow was established by the Muslim Nawabs of Oudh in the 18th century.

Modern-colonial
Starting from Bengal in the later half of the 18th century, a series of battles for North Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over this state's territories, including the last Mughal territory of Doab and Delhi, also Bundelkhand, Kumaon and Benaras divisions. Ajmer and Jaipur were also included in this northern territory and they called it the North-Western Provinces (of Agra). Today, the area may seem big compared to several of the Republic of India's present 'mini-states' - no more than the size of earlier 'divisions' of the British era - but at the time it was one of the smallest British provinces. Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.

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Mangal Pandey is widely seen as the starting point to what came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After its failure and turmoil settled, the British made a major revamp, in desperation: they truncated the Delhi region from NWFP of Agra and merged it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Merwar region was merged with Rajputana. At the same time, they included Oudh into the state. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP. In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress on April 11, 1936 with the legendary nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President, in order to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and thus sparking the Farmers' movement in India. Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian culture and politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of both the Indian Independence Movement and the Pakistan Movement.

Post Independence
After independence, the state was renamed Uttar Pradesh ("northern province") by its first chief minister, Govind Ballabh Pant. Pant was known and close to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and was also

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popular in the Congress Party; he established such a good reputation in Lucknow that Nehru called him to Delhi, the capital and seat of Central Government of the country, to make him Home Minister of India in December 27, 1954. He was succeeded by Dr. Sampoornanand, a university professor and classicist Sanskrit scholar, who was chief minister till 1957, before becoming governor of Rajasthan. Sucheta Kripalani served as India's first woman chief minister from October 1963 until March 1967, when a two-month long strike by state employees caused her to step down.After her Chandra Bhanu Gupta assumed the office of Chief Minister with Laxmi Raman Acharya as Finance Minister, but the government lasted for only two years due to the confusion and chaos which ended only with the defection of Charan Singh from the Congress with a small set of legislators; he set up a party called the Jana Congress, which formed the first non-Congress government in U.P. and ruled for over a year. Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna was chief minister for Congress Party government for part of the 1970s. He was dismissed by the Central Government headed by Indira Gandhi, along with several other nonCongress chief ministers, shortly after the imposition of the Emergency, when Narain Dutt Tewari - later chief minister of Uttarakhand - became chief minister. The Congress Party lost heavily in 1977 elections, following the lifting of the Emergency, but romped back to power in 1980, when Mrs. Gandhi handpicked the man who would later become her son's principle opposition, V.P. Singh, to become Chief Minister. On Nov 09, 2000, the Himalyan portion of the state, comprising the Garhwal and Kumaon divisions and Haridwar district, was formed into a new state called Uttarakhand, meaning the 'Northern Segment' state.

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A STUDY ON TOURISM IN UTTAR PRADESH Education
The region of Uttar Pradesh had a long tradition of learning, although it had remained mostly confined to the elite class and the religious establishment. Sanskrit-based education comprising the learning of Vedic-to-Gupta periods, coupled with the later Pali corpus of knowledge and a vast store of ancient-to-medieval learning in Persian/Arabic languages, had formed the edifice of Hindu-Buddhist-Muslim education, till the rise of British power. Aligarh Muslim University is a Residential Academic Institution. It was established in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and in 1920 it was granted a status of Central University by an Act of Indian Parliament. It is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Modelled on the University of Cambridge, it was among the first institutions of higher learning set up during the British Raj. Originally it was Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which was founded by a great Muslim social reformer Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (known as IIT Kanpur or IITK) is one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, set up in the thenindustrial city of Kanpur in 1960. IIT Kanpur has grown into one of the top technological institutes in India[citation needed], primarily focused on research in engineering and science, and the teaching of undergraduates

Economy
Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state economy in India after Maharashtra, contributing 8.17% to India's total GDP. Between 1999 and 2008, the economy grew only 4.4% per year, one of the lowest rates in India. SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 57

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The major economic activity in the state is agriculture and, in 1991, 73% of the population in the state was engaged in agriculture and 46% of the state income was accounted for by agriculture. UP has retained its preeminent position in the country as a food-surplus state. The largest shoe-manufacturing centre in the country is Kanpur. Uttar Pradesh is home to largest number of Small Scale units in the country, with 12% of over 2.3 million units.

Labour efficiency is higher in UP (26) than the National Average (25). The state is one of the top tourist destinations in India, with more than 71 million domestic tourists (in 2003) and almost 25% of the All-India foreign tourists visiting Uttar Pradesh.

Agra was visited by more than 8 million domestic and 825,000 foreign tourists in 2006, followed by Varanasi, Lucknow, Allahabad, Vrindaban and Mathura

Lucknow and NOIDA are among the top IT destinations of the country. Meerut is regularly listed among the top tax-paying cities in the country

Tourism
Uttar Pradesh attracts a large number of visitors both national and international. There are two regions in the state where a majority of the tourists go:

The city of Agra, which gives access to three World Heritage Sites: Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri.
o

Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It is

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cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."
o

Agra Fort is about 2.5 km northwest of its much more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more accurately described as a walled palatial city. Fatehpur Sikri was the world famous 16th century capital city near Agra, built by the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great, whose mausoleum in Agra is also worth a visit.

o

The holiest of the holy cities of Hindus on the banks of sacred rivers Ganga and the Yamuna: Varanasi (also considered world's oldest city), Ayodhya (birth place of Lord Rama), Mathura (birth place of Lord Krishna) and Allahabad (the confluence or 'holysangam' of the sacred Ganga-Yamuna rivers).

In Agra itself, Dayal Bagh is a temple built in modern times that many visit. It is still under construction and would take an estimated one century for completion. Its life-like carvings in marble are unique in India. Agra's dubious modern attractions include Asia's largest Spa as well as Asia's first and only 6D theatre. Every year, thousands gather at Allahabad to take part in the festival held on the banks of the Ganges, the Magh Mela. The same festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the Kumbha Mela, where over 10 million Hindu pilgrims congregate—the largest gathering of human beings in the world. Varanasi is widely considered to be one of the oldest cities in the world. It is famous for its ghats (bathing steps along the river), that remain bustling year round with devotees from all over India and beyond, who want to take a holy dip in the sacred Ganges River.

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From Varanasi are the historically important towns of Sarnath and Kushinagar. Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath after his enlightenment and Kushinagar is where Gautama Buddha died; hence both are important pilgrimage site for Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Pillars of Ashoka and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, both important archaeological artifacts with national significance. From Varanasi, a distance of 80 km Ghazipur is famous for Ganga Ghats and Lord Kornwalis Tomb maintained by Archeological Survey of India. Dudhwa National Park is one of the best tiger reserves in the country. Lakhimpur Kheri is a must see location - home to the Tiger Reserve - and another sanctuary, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, the most concentrated sanctuary in India, with a large population of tigers, as well as leopards, situated in Bahraich and bordering Nepal is also worth a visit. Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit.

Tourism and Hospitality
Last Updated: April 2009

India offers myriad exciting experiences to tourists. Tourism industry in India is being utilised as a powerful tool to facilitate international understanding and enable building of broader cultural horizons. According to the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009 brought out by World Economic Forum, India is ranked 11th in the Asia-Pacific region and 62nd overall in a list of 133 assessed countries in 2008, up three places since 2007. In terms of travel, India stands 9th in the index of relative cost of access (ticket taxes and airport charges) to international air transport

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services, having almost the lowest costs in the world. Also according to the report, India has been rated well for its natural resources (ranked 14th) and cultural resources (24th), with many World Heritage sites, both natural and cultural, rich fauna, and strong creative industries in the country. India also has quite a good air transport network (ranked 37th), particularly given the country’s stage of development, and a reasonable ground transport infrastructure (ranked 49th). India is ranked 7th in terms of number of World Heritage cultural sites, according to a UNESCO report (2008). India is ranked 1st with regard to tourism fair attendance. Also, according to the International Congress and Convention Association, India is rated 33rd in terms of number of international fairs and exhibitions held in the country annually (average for 2006-07). The World Travel and Tourism Report for 2009 for 180 countries worldwide also ranks the Indian Travel and Tourism economy 14th in absolute size worldwide, 144th in relative contribution to national economies and 5th in long-term (10-year) growth. The contribution of travel and tourism to gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to be at 6.0 per cent (US$ 67.3 billion) in 2009 rising to US$ 187.3 billion by 2019.

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Chapter – 3

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CONCLUSION
The outlay for tourism development was Rs.8 crore in the third plan Rs.186.46 crores in the sixth plan and Rs.326.16 crores in the seventh plan. It was during the sixth plan that a tourism policy was formulated and presented before the parliament. The sixth plan is an objective envisages optimum use of infrastructure, regionalizing tourist traffic and increase in accommodation and so on. However, the plan turned out to be a very mere blue print for action for tourist development. The seventh plan (1985-1990) set a target of 1.5-million tourist arrival by 1990 and 3 million by 2000 AD. It also recommended according industry status to tourism in order to encourage private sector investment in tourism. It was also recommended that public sector would focus on basic infrastructure development, and the private sector would be in encouraged to develop tourism. For the first time domestic tourism was sought to be encouraged for promoting social and cultural cohesion and

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employment generation. The national committee on tourism presented a comprehensive report in 1988,which provided the basis of a long-term perspective plan for tourism in the country. The committee set a growth rate of 7% per annual for international tourists. Arrivals by 2000 AD. Recommendations also included the following: 1. Set a tourism finance cooperation to extend financial assistance for tourism project. 2. Developments of select tourist destination and circuits diversification of tourism arrival of cultural destination to the leisure and holiday tourist. 3. Markets, exploration and development of new tourism generating center. 4. Increase the hotel accommodation by cent percent by stimulation investment through appropriate package of incentives. The committees major recommendation expects that of setting up a national tourism board wherein accepted. In April 1989, the tourism finance cooperation of India was set up. A working group of the state tourism secretaries in July 1985 identify incentives for the industry. About 14 states and 3 union territories have declared tourism as an industry however, despite the efforts during the seventh plan for diversification of tourists for cultural destinations to the leisure and holiday destination, India still remains as a cultural destination. Budget SIDIVIN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 64

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outlays where diverted towards facilitating trekking development of beach resorts, building shopping plazas, wildlife tourism, facilities for conference is skiing etc. It is reported that the profile of the average overseas and domestic traveler is changing. In the current plan period as well one of the principal thrust areas would be modification of the Indian tourism product by adding the concept of India. As an adventure and leisure tourism destination to the present cultural tag. Trekking, winter and water sports wild life and health tourism will remain as the major thrust areas in the forth-coming area.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

- www.google.com

-www.wikipedia.org

-www.altavista.com

-www.yahoo.com

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