Organizational
Behavior

Kerem
Koseoglu

Bu
dökümanda,
OB
yeterlilik
sınavına
yönelik
çıkartılmış
notlar
bulunmaktadır.


Yeditepe
Üniversitesi


Fall


08


2


TABLE
OF
CONTENTS

Science
In
General................................................................................................................................................... 6

OB
In
General .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

OB
Basics ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

Basic
Business
Functions
and
Principles ............................................................................................................. 6

Approaches
of
OB ............................................................................................................................................... 6

Historical
Development
Of
OB ............................................................................................................................ 6

Classical
Theories
(traditional) ........................................................................................................................ 7

Neo
Classical
Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 7

Modern
Theories............................................................................................................................................. 7

Values,
Attitudes..................................................................................................................................................... 8

Values.................................................................................................................................................................. 8

Attitudes ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

Job
Satisfaction ............................................................................................................................................... 9

Job
Involvement.............................................................................................................................................. 9

Organizational
Commitment........................................................................................................................... 9

Organizational
Citizenship............................................................................................................................... 9

Personality
&
Emotions........................................................................................................................................... 9

Personality .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

Personality
Traits .......................................................................................................................................... 10

Self
Esteem.................................................................................................................................................... 10

Person
–
Job
Fit ............................................................................................................................................. 11

Psychological
Capital..................................................................................................................................... 11

Emotions ........................................................................................................................................................... 12

Perception
&
Decision
Making.............................................................................................................................. 12

Perception......................................................................................................................................................... 12

Decision
Making................................................................................................................................................ 13

Motivation ............................................................................................................................................................ 14


3



Motivation
Theories.......................................................................................................................................... 14

Content
Theories........................................................................................................................................... 14

Process
Theories ........................................................................................................................................... 15

Applications
of
motivation
theories.................................................................................................................. 15

Behavior
Modification....................................................................................................................................... 16


Groups................................................................................................................................................................... 16

Roles.................................................................................................................................................................. 17

Group
Dynamics................................................................................................................................................ 18

Teams................................................................................................................................................................ 18

Communication..................................................................................................................................................... 19

The
Process
of
Human
Communication ............................................................................................................ 19

The
Message ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

Listening ............................................................................................................................................................ 21

Leadership............................................................................................................................................................. 21

Leadership
Theories .......................................................................................................................................... 22

Trait
vs
Behavioral
Theories .......................................................................................................................... 22

Contingency
Theories.................................................................................................................................... 22

Contemporary
Theories ................................................................................................................................ 24

LMX
Theory ................................................................................................................................................... 24

X
–
Y
Theory .................................................................................................................................................. 25

Management
Philosophy .................................................................................................................................. 25

Ancient
World ............................................................................................................................................... 25

Calvinism,
Protestant
Ethic,
Max
Weber....................................................................................................... 25

Capitalism,
Marxism...................................................................................................................................... 25

Christianity .................................................................................................................................................... 25

Culture .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

Ethics............................................................................................................................................................. 26

Contemporary
Issues
of
leadership .................................................................................................................. 26

Trust .............................................................................................................................................................. 26


4


Power
&
Politics .................................................................................................................................................... 27

Power ................................................................................................................................................................ 27

Politics ............................................................................................................................................................... 28

Conflict
&
Negotiation .......................................................................................................................................... 28

Conflict .............................................................................................................................................................. 28

Negotiation ....................................................................................................................................................... 30

Organization
Structure.......................................................................................................................................... 30

Corporate
Governance...................................................................................................................................... 30

Organizational
Culture .......................................................................................................................................... 30

Culture
in
General ............................................................................................................................................. 30

Culture
vs
Climate ............................................................................................................................................. 31

Culture
Theories................................................................................................................................................ 31

Hofstede........................................................................................................................................................ 32

Schein............................................................................................................................................................ 32

Denison ......................................................................................................................................................... 32

Queen............................................................................................................................................................ 32

GLOBE
Project ............................................................................................................................................... 33

HR
Policies
and
Practices ...................................................................................................................................... 34

Recruitment ...................................................................................................................................................... 34

Job
Analysis
&
Evaluation.................................................................................................................................. 35

Compansation
Systems ..................................................................................................................................... 36

Training
&
Development ................................................................................................................................... 36

Performance
Appraisal...................................................................................................................................... 37

Organizational
Change
&
Stress
Management ..................................................................................................... 38

Organizational
Change
&
Development............................................................................................................ 38

Organizational
Change .................................................................................................................................. 38

Change
Models ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Organizational
Development ........................................................................................................................ 39

Stress
Management .......................................................................................................................................... 39


5


Learning
Organizations ......................................................................................................................................... 40


6


BASICS

SCIENCE
IN
GENERAL

Bilimsel
bir
çalışmada
4
özellik
aranır:




Measurement

Repeatability

Observability

Testability


OB
IN
GENERAL

OB
BASICS

OB,
örgüt
içinde
insan
davranışını
inceler.
Input
(emek
+
toprak
+
yatırım
+
girişim)

üretim

output
vardır.

OB,
emek
ile
ilgilenir.


BASIC
BUSINESS
FUNCTIONS
AND
PRINCIPLES

Basic
business
functions:





Accusation
(satınalma):
Input’larıtoplar

Production

Marketing

Finance
&
Accounting

Management

o Planning

o Organizing

o Directing

o Controlling


Business
principles:






Economy
(Elimination
of
waste)

Productivity
(output
/
input)

Efficienct
(our
prod.
/
ideal
prod.)


Profitability
(profit
/
capital)

Effectiveness
(extent
of
reaching
business
goals)

Rationality


APPROACHES
OF
OB

Systems
approach
(open
system),
Contingency
approach


HISTORICAL
DEVELOPMENT
OF
OB


7


CLASSICAL
THEORIES
(TRADITIONAL)

Friedrick
Taylor

Invented
productivity:
Max
output,
minimum
cost

Founder
of
scientific
management.
Before
him,
methods
were
transferred
from
father
to
son.
He
brought

scientific
approach
to
management.
For
example,
“How
heavy
should
a
shovel
be?”.

Span
of
control.
Bir
organizasyon
ağacında,
her
bir
pozisyonun
altında
en
fazla
6
pozisyon
olmalı,
yoksa
kontrol

azalır
ve
conflict
artar.

Specialization.
Herkes
belli
bir
işte
uzmanlaşıp
hep
onu
yapmalı.
Bu
fikir
departmanları
ve
job
description’ları

doğurdu
ve
ortaya
training
kavramı
çıktı.

Motivation.
Job
satisfaction
=
High
performance
so
workers
should
be
motivated
with
money.

Training’I
ilk
kez
gündeme
getirdi.
Conflict’I
kaldır
dedi.

Today,
Taylor
is
being
critisized
because
he
evaluates
human
beings
like
machines.
Because
of
him,
syndicates

exist
today.

Fayol

Functions
of
managers:
Planning,
organizing,
yürütme,
koordinasyon,
kontrol.

Weber

Bürokrasi
gereklidir.
Boreacracy
=
standardization
&
rules,
no
exceptions.
Red
tape
değil.
3
kinds
of
power
–

lgeitimacy
relations:
Traditional
(kral
güneşin
oğlu),
Charismatic
(üstün
özellikler),
Legal
(bürokrasi).

İdeal
bürokrasi:
Specialization,
hierarhical
authority,
impersonal
relationships,
strict
procedural
rules,

recruitment
on
the
basis
of
ability,
differentaiation
of
private
and
official
income,
written
communication
&

documentation


NEO
CLASSICAL
THEORY

Hawtorn
Studies

Bir
elektrik
firmasında
yapılan
“İş
şartlarını
iyileştirirsek
performans
artar
mı?”
araştırması
sonucunda
ortaya

çıkmıştır.
İki
grup
çalışanın
biri
aydınlık,
bir
karanlık
odalarda
çalıştırılmıştır;
aydınlık
grubun
daha
iyi
çalışması

bekleniyordu.
Ne
var
ki,
sonuçlar
öyle
olmadı:
Karanlık
grup
daha
iyi
çalışıyordu.
Sonradan;
bunun
sebebinin,

karanlık
odadaki
araştırma
görevlilerinin
çalışanlara
daha
iyi
davranması
olduğu
ortaya
çıktı.

Bunun
sonucunda
yeni
Leadership
fikirleri
ortaya
çıktı;
farklı
bir
lider
modeli:
Humanistic
management

approach.
Conclusions:


Work
is
a
social
activity
as
well
as
physical

Informal
social
organization
creates
its
own
norms,
helps
define
the
status
of
members
and
determine

behavior,
helps

fulfill
the
needs
of
members
for
recognition
&
self
esteem
&
belonging.


Hawtorn
Effect:
Biri
seni
izliyorsa
başta
işini
daha
iyi
yaparsın,
sonradan
alışıp
tekrar
yaymaya
başlarsın.


MODERN
THEORIES


8


(Post)Modern
Age

Eski
çağlarda
conflict’in
engellenemeyeceği
görüşü
hakimdi.
Group
dynamics:
İnsanlar
grupların
parçasıdır

dendi
ve
grup
çalışmaları
araştırılmaya
başlandı.
Şimdi
ise,
yeni
yeni
yöntemler
ve
yaklaşımlar
var.
“Conflict
is

good,
as
long
as
you
know
how
to
manage
it”.






Total
Quality
Management

Downsizing

Delayering

Network
Organizations

Learning
Organizations

Outsourcing


THE
INDIVIDUAL

VALUES,
ATTITUDES

VALUES

Values

Attitude

Behavior

Sağlık

“Sağlık
önemlidir”

Spor
yapmak
(Positive
behavior)

Namus

“Namus
önemlidir”

Namus
cinayeti
(Negative
behavior)

Özgürlük

“İsteyen
sigara
içebilir”

Sigara
içenlere
karışmamak

Aile

“Ailem
sağlıklı
olmalıdır”

Sigara
içen
oğluna
karışmak

Bu
gibi
durumlarda,
Cognitive
Dissonance
adı
verilen
çatışmalar
ortaya
çıkar.
İnsan
bünyesi,
bu
gibi
çatışmaları

çözümlendirip
kendi
içinde
çelişmeme
yönünde
eğilim
gösterir.
Çözüm:
Change
attitude,
or
change
behavior.

Çalışanlar
arasındaki
değer
farklılıkları
organizasyonun
hedeflerine
zarar
veriyorsa,
değiştirilmelidir.
Aksi

takdirde
bırak
kalsınlar.

Convivence:
Living
together.
Management
should
know
how
to
live
with
differences
and
get
+’s
out
of
them.

Workforce
Diversity:
Şirketlerin
farklı
ırk,
din,
dilden
insanları
bir
araya
toplaması.

Self
fulfilling
prophecy.
Bir
insana
akıllıymış
gibi
davranırsan
bir
süre
sonra
hakikaten
akıllıca
davranmaya

başlar.
Aptalmış
gibi
davranırsan,
bir
süre
sonra
aptallaşır.




Zencilerden
çok
suçlu
çıkması

Köpeğe
ısıracakmış
gibi
davranırsan
ısırır

Elemana
tembelmiş
gibi
davranırsan
tembellik
yapar
(X)

Elemana
güvenip
sorumluluk
verirsen
sorumlu
olur
(Y)


ATTITUDES

Evaluative
statements
or
judgements
concerning
objects,
people
or
events


9


Degree
of
(un)pleasurable
feelings
toward
job.

Socio‐Technical
Systems:
İnsanın
adapte
olabileceği
yapılar
kurup,
job
design
içinde
participative

management’ı
yapabiliyor
olmalı.
Örnek:
Volvo,
takım
kararlarına
ödül
veriyor.


JOB
SATISFACTION

Satisfaction

performance
goes
in
both
ways.
Ama
bazı
çalışmalarda
bu
ikisi
arasında
hiçbir
bağlantı

bulunamadığı
da
olmuş.
Çünkü;

Performance
=

 motivation



x


Capacity



x


(ability,
training,
technology,
etc)


Opportunity



x


(loc.
educ.
Backg,
connect.,
etc)


Environment


(Supervision,
culture,
etc)


Affects:
Productivity
(vice
versa
da
olabilir),
absenteeism,
Turnover


JOB
INVOLVEMENT

The
degree
to
which
a
person
identifies
with
his
or
her
job,
actively
participates
in
it,
and
considers
his
or
her

performance
important
to
self‐worth.


ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT

Belief
in
the
goal
and
values
of
the
organization.
Results
in
extra
effort
and
desire
to
stay
in
organization.
3

types
of
commitments
(according
to
Meyer):



Affective.
Şirketi
aile
gibi
görmek.
Sevgi.

Normative.
“Şirketim
bana
çok
şey
verdi
ben
de
kalıp
karşılığını
vermeliyim”.
Minnet.

Continuance.
Dışarıda
iş
yok
veya
istifa
tazminatı
var
diye
kalmak.
Korku.


ORGANIZATIONAL
CITIZENSHIP

İş
sorumlulukları
dışında
da
şirketi
desteklemek.
Dimensions:


• Helping
behavior:
Başkalarına
yardım
etmek

• Sportsmanship:
Kendi
istediği
olmayınca
huysuzlanmamak

• Organizational
loyalty:
Spreading
goodwill,
defending
organizational
objectives

• Organizational
compliance:
Kimse
bakmıyorken
de
kurallara
uymak

• Individual
initiative:
Volunteering
on
extra
responsibilities
and
encouraging
others
to
do
the
same

• Civic
virtue:
Participating
actively
in
fovernance,
monitor
environment,
look
best
interest

• Self
development:
Kendini
isteyerek
geliştirmek


PERSONALITY
&
EMOTIONS

PERSONALITY

Personality:
The
sum
total
of
ways
in
which
an
individual
reacts
and
interacts
with
others.


10
 

Why
is
OB
interested
in
personality?
Because
Person
–
Job
match
is
needed.
You
have
to
be
careful
about
this

when
recruiting
and
promoting
someone.
Personality
is
a
relatively
set
of
characteristics
that
define
our

behaviour.
Determined
by
2
factor
sets:


Nature.
Heredit
specs
of
us
which
come
by
birth.

Nurture.
Specs
which
were
gained
from
the
environment.


PERSONALITY
TRAITS

Enduting
characteristics
that
describe
an
individual’s
behavior

Machiavelists:
The
Noble
adlı
romandan
almıştır
adını.
Mach
Type’lar,
etraflarındaki
insanları
amaçları

doğrultusunda
“Herşey
mübahtır”
diyerek
kullanırlar.
İkna
kabiliyetleri
yüksektir
ve
iyi
pazarlık
ederler,
politik

oyunlarda
başarılıdırlar.

Self‐Monitoring:
Nabza
göre
şerbet
verirler,
çevreleri
ile
uyumludurlar.

Big
Five:
Bu
modele
göre,
5
kişilik
özelliği
vardır.





Extraversion

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Emotional
stability

Openness
to
experience



Type
A
is
aggressive,
struggle
to
achieve
more
in
less
time

Type
B
never
suffer
from
sense
of
urgency,
can
relax
without
guilt



Type
A
vs
Type
B


Locus
Of
Control:
İki
tür
insan
vardır.
Internalizer,
olayları
kendisinin
idare
edebileceğini
düşünür.
Externalizer,

olayların
dış
faktörler
tarafından
kontrol
edildiğini
ve
kendisinin
pek
etki
edemediğini
düşünür.
Internalizer:




Tasks
requiring
complex
analysis

High
motivation

Piece‐rate
workers

More
freedom
from
supervision


Mobbing:
Organizasyon
içi
duygusal
terör.
In
a
mobbing
situation,
the
ringleader
incites
supporters,
cohorts,

copycats
and
unenlightened,
inexperienced,
immature
or
emotionally
needy
individuals
with
poor
values
to

engage
in
adversarial
interaction
with
the
selected
target.

Bullying:
Organizasyon
içi
fiziksel
terör.
Bullying
is
persistent
unwelcome
behaviour,
mostly
using
unwarranted

or
invalid
criticism,
nit‐picking,
fault‐finding,
also
exclusion,
isolation,
being
singled
out
and
treated
differently,

being
shouted
at,
humiliated,
excessive
monitoring,
having
verbal
and
written
warnings
imposed,
and
much

more.


Role
conflict:
Rol
çatışması.
Sınıf
öğretmeninin
öğrencisi
olan
oğlunu
sınıfta
bırakamaması.

Rol
bulaşması:
Bir
öğretmenin,
tanımadığı
bir
çocuğa
sokakta
“İn
bakayım
o
duvardan”
demesi.


SELF
ESTEEM

Self
Concept
kavramının
daraltılmış
halidir.
Self
concept,
insanın
kendisini
bir
nesne
olarak
ne
kadar
değerli

bulduğudur.
Self
esteem
ise,
kendini
ne
kadar
sevdiği
ve
kendinden
ne
kadar
memnun
olduğuyla
ilgilidir.


11


Low
Self
Esteem’e
sahip
birine
yöneticiler
çok
dikkatli
yaklaşmalıdır.
Böyle
birine
doğrudan
eleştiri
yaparsan

herşeyi
kendine
yıkıp
kendini
kötü
hissedebilir.
Negative
Feedback
verirken
dikkatli,
Positive
Feedback
verirken

cömert
davranmak
gerekir.
High
Self
Esteem’e
sahip
birine
hatasını
söyleyince
kabul
eder
ve
bunu
kendini

geliştirmek
için
bir
fırsat
olarak
kabul
eder.

Self
Esteem’i;
Heredity’den
ziyade
çevre
şekillendirir.

İnsanlarda
Self
Esteem’in
Low
hale
gelmesini
önlemek
için
savunma
mekanizmaları
çalışmaktadır.






Rationalization:
Bir
olayı
akla
uydurmak,
genelleştirmek.
Bu
şekilde
suçu
kendi
üzerine
almamak,
veya

genelleştirmek.


Negativism.
Patrona
kırıp,
gizlice
bir
ofis
eşyasını
kırmak.
Bir
nevi
intikam.


Replacement.
Patron
sana
kızıyor,
sen
de
eşine
kızıyorsun,
o
da
çocuğa
kızıyor,
vs.


Withdrawal:
Olaydan
uzaklaşma.
İstifa,
kendi
içine
çekilme
gibi
yansımaları
vardır.


Compensation.
Terk
edilen
birinin
beste
yaparak
duygularını
ifade
etmesi
ve
rahatlaması.


Projection.
Kendi
zayıf
yönünü
herkeste
görmek.


PERSON
–
JOB
FIT

Holland’s
typology
of
personality:






Realistic:
Prefers
activities
that
require
physical
skills.
Mechanic,
farmer,
etc.

Investigative:
Prefers
activities
that
involves
thinking
and
understanding.
Mathematician,
reporter,

etc.

Social:
Prefers
activities
that
involve
helping
others.
Social
worker,
teacher,
etc.

Conventional:
Prefers
rule‐regulated
activities.
Accountant,
corporate
manager,
etc.

Enterprising:
Prefers
verbal
activities
and
opportunities
for
power.
Lawyer,
public
relations
specialist,

etc.

Artistic:
Prefers
ambiguous
activities
that
allow
creative
expression.
Painter,
musicial,
writer,
etc.


PSYCHOLOGICAL
CAPITAL

1

Psychological
capital 
has
its
roots
in
positive
psychology
(Larson
&
Luthans,
2006).
It
is
defined
as
the
positive

and
developmental
state
of
an
individual
as
characterized
by
four
constructs:
(Wikipedia,
2008)



Hope
 is
 defined
 as
 a
 positive
 motivational
 state
 where
 two
 basic
 elements
 interact.
 These
 elements

are
successful
feeling
of
agency
(or
goal
oriented
determination)
and
pathways
(or
planning
to
achieve

those
goals).

Self
 efficacy
 is
 defined
 as
 people's
 confidence
 in
 their
 ability
 to
 achieve
 a
 specific
 goal
 in
 a
 specific

situation.

Optimism
 was
 defined
 by
 Attribution
 Theory
 (Manusov
 &
 Spitzberg,
 2008).
 An
 Optimistic
 person
 is

defined
as
one
that
makes
internal
attributions
(West
Virginia
University,
1996)
for
positive
events
and

external
 attributions
 (West
 Virginia
 University,
 1996)
 to
 negative
 events.
 Optimism
 in
 Psycap
 is

thought
as
a
realistic
construct
that
regards
what
an
employee
can
or
cannot
do,
as
such,
optimism

reinforces
self
efficacy
and
hope.







































































1

Also
mentioned
as
Psycap


12
 


Resiliency
is
a
positive
way
of
coping
with
danger
or
distress.
In
organizational
aspect,
it
is
defined
as

an
ability
to
recuperate
from
stress,
conflict,
failure,
change
or
increase
in
responsibility.


To
improve
psychap
in
an
organization,
HRM
should
work
on
selection,
training
and
performance
evaluation.



EMOTIONS

Emotions:
Intense
feelings
that
are
directed
at
someone
or
something.
Moods
are
efelings
that
are
less
intense

than
emotions
and
that
lack
a
contextual
stimulus.

Felt
vs
displayed
emotions.
Çatışırsa:
Emotional
dissonance

Emotional
dimensions:
Variety,
intensity,
frequency
&
duration

External
constraings
on
emotions:
Organizational,
cultural

Affective
Events
Theory:
Theory
that
employees
react
emotionally
to
things
that
happen
to
them
at
work.
This

influences
their
job
performance
and
satisfaction.

EI
(Emotional
Intelligence):
The
ability
to
detect
and
manage
emotional
cues
and
information.





Self
awareness:
Being
aware
of
what
you
are
feeling.

Self
management:
The
ability
to
manage
own
emotions
and
impulses.

Self
motivation:
The
ability
to
persist
in
the
face
of
failures.

Empathy:
The
ability
to
sense
how
others
are
feeling.

Social
skills:
The
ability
to
handle
emotions
of
others.


OB
Applications:
Decision
making,
motivation,
leadership,
conflict,
customer
service,
deviant
workspace

behavior


PERCEPTION
&
DECISION
MAKING

PERCEPTION

Perception:
A
process
by
which
individuals
organize
and
interpret
their
sensory
impressions
to
give
meaning
to

their
environment.

Perception
Process



Selective
Perception

Organization

Interpretation


Attribution
Theory

When
 individuals
 observe
 behavior,
 they
 attempt
 to
 determine
 whether
 it
 is
 internally
 or
 externally
 caused.

The
determination
of
whether
the
cause
is
internal
or
external
depends
on
three
factors:


Distinctiveness
 refers
 to
 whether
 an
 individual
 displays
 different
 behaviors
 in
 different
 situations

(Robbins,
2005).
If
the
person
being
observed
exhibits
the
same
behavior
in
a
variety
of
contexts,
then

distinctiveness
is
low;
if
they
have
different
behavior
depending
on
the
context,
then
distinctiveness
is

high
(Simmering,
2006).


13


If
everyone
who
is
faced
with
a
similar
situation
responds
in
the
same
way,
we
can
say
the
behavior

show
 consensus
 (Robbins,
 2005).
 If
 the
 observer
 sees
 others
 acting
 the
 same
 way
 that
 the
 person

being
 perceived
 acts,
 then
 consensus
 is
 high.
 However,
 if
 others
 behave
 differently
 in
 the
 type
 of

situation,
then
consensus
is
low
(Simmering,
2006).

Consistency
describes
whether
the
person
being
observed
behaves
the
same
way
when
faced
with
the

same
 set
 of
 circumstances.
 If
 the
 person
 being
 observed
 acts
 the
 same
 way
 in
 the
 same
 type
 of

situation,
 consistency
 is
 high;
 if
 they
 act
 differently
 each
 time,
 then
 consistency
 is
 low
 (Simmering,

2006).


Usually;
 external
 attribution
 is
 caused
 by
 high
 distinctiveness,
 high
 consensus
 and
 low
 consistency.
 On
 the

other
hand,
internal
attribution
is
caused
by
low
distinctiveness,
low
consensus
and
high
consistency.


Fundamental
 attribution
 error:
 The
 tendency
 to
 underestimate
 the
 influence
 of
 external
 factors
 and

overestimate
the
influence
of
internal
factors
when
making
judgements.

Self
Serving
Bias:
The
tendency
for
individuals
to
attribute
their
own
successes
to
internal
factors
while
putting

blame
for
failures
on
external
factors.

Common
Perception
Errors







Stereotyping

Halo
Effect

Primacy
Effect


Selective
Perception

Contrast
Effect

Projection:
It
is
the
tendency
of
attributing
one’s
own
characteristics
to
other
people

Self
fulfilling
prophecy


Applications
in
OB:
interview,
performance
expectations
(self
fulfilling
prophecy),
ethnic
profiling,
performance

evaluation,
employee
effort.


DECISION
MAKING

How
individuals
make
decisions
and
quality
of
choices
are
influenced
by
perceptions.

Steps
to
rational
decision
making:
Define
the
problem,
Identify
the
decision
criteria,
Allocate
weights
to
the

criteria,
Develop
the
alternatives,
Evaluate
the
alternatives,
Select
the
best
alternative

Intuitive
decision
making:
An
unconscious
process
created
out
of
distilled
experience.

Decision
problems
as
person:






Overconfidence
bias:
İnsanlar
%50
haklı
olmasına
rağmen
%70
kararda
Confident
olur.

Anchoring
bias:
Tendency
to
fizate
on
initial
information
as
starting
point.

Conformation
bias:
We
seek
out
information
that
reaffirms
our
past
choices
and
disciont
info
that

contradicts.

Availability
bias:
Tendency
to
base
judgements
on
info
that
is
already
available

Representative
bias:
Assessing
the
likelihood
of
an
occurrence
by
trying
to
match
it
with
a
preexisting

category

Escalation
of
commitment
error:
An
increased
commitment
to
a
previous
decision
in
spite
of
negative

information


14
 



Randomness
error:
Decision
making
becomes
impaired
when
we
try
to
create
meaning
out
of
random

events

Hindsight
bias:
The
tendency
to
believe
falsely
that
we’d
accurately
predicted
the
outcome
of
an

event,
after
that
outcome
is
known


Decision
problems
in
groups:



Group
Polarization
Phenomenon:
groups
are
more
extreme
in
decisions.

Çünkügrupiçindekilerbirbirinidestekleyipgazagelebilir.

Meselagençgruplarıbiraradasaçmakararlarverebilir.

Groupthink:
Grup
olarak
karar
veriyorolmakbazençokkötükararlarayolaçar.
Şudurumdaortayaçıkar:

Grupkendiiçindebütün,
karşıtgörüşhiçyok.


Persuasive
Arguments
Theory:
Before
meeting
in
a
group,
members
of
the
group
will
develop

arguments
to
support
their
positions.
To
sway
others,
the
arguments
will
tend
to
be
more
extreme.
In

the
end,
one
argument
will
win
and
the
group
will
find
itself
supporting
an
extreme
decision.

Risky
Shift
Phenomenon:
groups
take
either
more
or
less
extreme
risks.
Grupiçindealınan
risk

üyelerarasındabölünüyorgibigözüktüğüiçin,
tekbaşınaalacağındandahaçok
risk
alırsın

2

OB
Implications :
Performance
evaluation,
reward
systems,
formal
regulations,
system‐imposed
time

constraints,
historical
precendents


MOTIVATION

Need

Drive

Behavior

Incentive

Satisfaction

Need

…

Motivasyon
=
willingness
x
ability.


MOTIVATION
THEORIES

Motivation:
The
processes
that
account
for
an
individual’s
intensity,
direction,
and
persistence
of
effort
toward

attaining
a
goal.

İki
tür
teori
var:
Content
(needs)
ve
Process.
Bu
teorilerde
Reward
önemli
bir
yer
tutar.
Intrinsic
Reward:
İçsel

ödül.
Uzun
vadelidir.
Motivators
of
Hereberg
/
higher
levels
of
Maslow.
Extrinsic
Reward:
Dışsal
ödül.
Kısa

vadelidir.
Routine
/
Piece
rate
Task’lerde
işe
yarar.


CONTENT
THEORIES

Maslow:
İhtiyaç
piramidi.
Fizyolojik

Security

Social

Esteem

Self
actualization.
Üst
seviyedeki
bir

Need’de
başarısız
olursan
bir
alt
seviyeye
düşebilirsin.
Eleştiri:
Çin’de
sosyal
ihtiyaçlar
fizyolojik
ihtiyaçların
bile

önünde.
Bu
sayılar
hep
aynı
değildir
ve
yer
bile
değiştirebilir.

APA:
(McClelland)
3
tür
ihtiyaç
vardır:
Power,
Affiliation,
Achievement.

ERG:
Aldorfer
ortaya
attı.
3
tür
ihtiyaç
vardır:
Existence,
Relatedness,
Growth.
Bu
Maslow’unkini
temel
almıştır;

ama
farklı
ihtiyaçlar
paralel
bir
şekilde
doyurulmaya
çalışılabilir
demektedir.

XY:
(McGregor)
XY
tipi
liderlik.







































































2

Bunlar
Decision
Making’I
etkileyen
şeyler


15


Two
Factors
Theory:
Herzberg
ortaya
attı.
Dissatisfaction
ve
Satisfaction’u
birbirinden
ayırdı.
Job
Content:
No

Satisfaction

Satisfaction
yaratabilir
(Motivators).
Job
Context:
Dissatisfaction

No
Satisfaction
yaratabilir

(Hygene
Factors).
Eleştiri:
Her
kültürde
farklı
olabilir;
bir
kültürde
Motivator
olan
bir
diğer
kültürde
Hygene

olabilir.

Cognitive
Evaluation
Theory:
Allocating
extrinsic
rewards
for
behavior
that
had
been
previously
intrinsically

rewarding
tends
to
decrease
the
overall
level
of
motivation.


PROCESS
THEORIES

İnsanların
düşünebildiğini
ve
belli
bir
şekilde
motive
olup
olmamaya
kendilerinin
karar
verdiğini
savunur.

Expectancy
Theory:
Beklenti
teorisi.
Motivation
=
Valance
x
expectancy.
Expectancy:
“If
I
show
effect,
will
I
be

able
to
perform?”
Valence:
“Reward
bana
ne
ifade
ediyor?”
Valence

Needs

Goal
Setting
Theory:
Elemanları
serbest
bırakıp
“Çalışabildiğin
kadar
çalış”
demek
yerine
belli
hedefler
koymak

daha
iyi
sonuç
verir.
Ancak;

Hedefler
ulaşılabilir
olmak
zorunda.
Goal
çok
yüksek
olursa,
ona
ulaşmak
için
kaliteyi
düşürebilir
eleman.

Fazla
yüksek
Goal,
isteği
ortadan
kaldırır.

Çalışanlara
sonuçlarla
ilgili
Feedback
vereceksin

Hedefleri
koyarken
çalışanlarla
birlikte
karar
vereceksin.
“Söz
verdim,
yapmalıyım”
diye
düşünür
o
zaman.

Equity
Theory:
İnsan,
Input
ve
Output’larını
başkalarıyla
karşılaştırır
sürekli.
Eğer
denge
yoksa,
kişi
dengeyi

sağlamaya
çalışır.

Eğer
kendi
Output’unu
yüksek
bulursa
(Overcompansated),
Input’larını
arttırmaya
çalışır.
“Benim
maaşım

fazla
yüksek”
diyen
birinin
daha
çok
çalışması
gibi.

Eğer
kendi
Output’unu
düşük
bulursa
(Undercompansated),
Input’larını
azaltmaya
çalışır.
“Benim
maaşım

çok
düşük,
bu
kadar
maaşa
bu
kadar
iş”
diyen
birinin
işi
azaltması
gibi.

Consistency
Theory:
Self‐fulfilling
prophecy.

Job
Design
Theory:
Job
Characteristics
Model






Skill
variety:
işi
tamamlamak
için
ne
kadar
çeşitli
aktivite
gerekiyor

Task
Identity:
Tam
ve
tanımlanabilir
bir
işi
tek
başına
mı
yapıyor

Task
significance:
Diğer
insanların
hayatına
ne
kadar
değer
katıyor

Autonomy:
Zamanlama
&
plan
yapmak
konusunda
ne
kadar
özgür?

Feedback:
Performansı
hakkında
ne
kadar
cevap
alıyor?


APPLICATIONS
OF
MOTIVATION
THEORIES

Management
By
Objectives:
Goal
Setting
Theory’nin
organizasyon
içindeki
uygulamasıdır.
Individual
Goal


Department
Goal

Division
Goal

Organizational
Goal
şeklinde
farklı
hedefler
vardır
ve
bu
hedeflerin
hepsi

birden
göz
önünde
bulundurulmalıdır.
Ama
pratikte
hep
böyle
olmaz
(Örnek:
Satış
–
üretim
çatışması).
Goals

should
be
specific.
“Masrafları
kısacağız”
değil,
“Herkes
masrafını
%7
kıssın”
gibi.

Employee
Recognition
Programs:
Reinforcement
Theory’nin
uygulamasıdır.
Employee
of
the
month
gibi.

Employee
Involvement
Programs:
İnsanları
sürece
dahil
edip
karar
ve
önerilerde
onlardan
da
faydalanmak.

İnsanları
çok
motive
eder
çünkü
kendini
firmaya
ait
hisseder.
Özellikle
Stock
Option;
Flexible
Benefits.

Job
Redesign
and
Scheduling
Programs


16
 






Job
Rotation:
Birinin
başka
departman
/
görevlere
kaydırılması.


Job
Enlargement:
Bir
sorumluluğu
varken,
(muhtemelen
aynı
seviyede)
3‐4
işi
daha
oluyor.
Başta

motive
eder,
orta
vadede
etkisi
zayıf.

Job
Enrichment:
Bir
işin
farklı
boyutlarını
da
kapsamaya
başlıyor
kişi.
Mesela
verdiğin
dersin

planlamasının
da
sana
verilmesi.
Bir
nevi
Empowerment.

Flextime

Job
Sharing


Empowerment:
İşiyle
ilgili
sorumluluk
veriyorsun.
Mesela
Migros’taki
manav,
sebze
reyonunun
indirimlerini

kendi
ayarlayabiliyor.
Eleştiri:
Esas
amacı
gerçek
güç
vermek
yerine
daha
çok
çalıştırmak.
Ama
araştırmalarda

Employee
Engagement
ve
Well
Being’I
sağladığı
ortaya
çıkmış.


BEHAVIOR
MODIFICATION

Reinforcement
Theory:
Pekiştirme
teorisi.
Davranışın
sonucuna
göre
tekrarlatıl(ma)masına
dayanır.


Classical
Conditioning:
Pavlov.
Otomatik
öğrenme
var.

Operant
Conditioning:
Sonucu
gözlemleyip
kendin
karar
verme.
Bilinçli
öğrenme
var.
Stimulus

Organizm


Outcome.

Social
Conditioning:
Başkasının
sonucuna
bakarak
öğrenme.

Davranış
modifikasyonunda
3
temel
yöntem
vardır:

Positive
reinforcement.
İstenen
davranış
ödüllendirilir.

Negative
reinforcement.
İstenmeyen
davranış,
ceza
ile
korkutulur.

Punishment.
Ceza
verilir.
Yan
etkisi
çoktur,
mümkünse
uygulama.

Schedules
of
reinforcement:

Continuous.
Davranış
her
tekrarlandığında
ödül
verilir.
Davranış
yeni
öğreniliyorken
işe
yarar.
Kısa

vadelidir.

Intermittent.
Ara
sıra
ödül
verilir.
Öğrenilmiş
davranışın
sürekliliğini
sağlamak
için
işe
yarar.
Uzun
vadelidir.

Ratio
Based.
Davranışı
tekrarlama
sayısına
göre
işler.

Fix
Ratio.
Belli
sayıda
davranış
ödüllendirilir.
Piece‐rate
gibi.

Variable
Ratio.
Belirsiz
sayıda
davranış
ödüllendirilir.
Slot
makinasi
veya
balıkçı
gibi.

Interval
Based.
Süreye
göre
işler.

Fix
Interval.
Belli
sürede
ödül
verilir.
Aylık
maaş
gibi.

Variable
Interval.
Belirsiz
sürede
ödül
verilir.

Pop‐Quiz
gibi.


THE
GROUP

GROUPS

GROUP:
A
collection
of
individuals
who
have
interaction
with
one
another
toward
some
common
goal
or

purpose.
They
have
some
common
bands
that
tend
to
develop
from
common
like,
dislike,
interest
and
goal.

Formal
Work
Groups.
Üst‐ast
ilişkisinin
geçerli
olduğu
gruplar.
Standart
işyeri
grupları;

departmanlar
gibi.


17



Ad‐Hoc
Work
Groups.
People
throughout
the
organization
who
have
an
interest
or
a
topic
or

problem
forms
task
forces
or
comities
to
make
recommendations
or
take
action
as
ad
hoc
work

group.

Informal
Work
Groups.
Based
on
friendship
and
common
interest
or
location.
Friendship
cliques.



Cohesiveness




Grupa
bağlılık.



Group
Norms
+

 
Cohesiveness
iyidir

Group
Norms
‐

 
Cohesiveness
kötüdür

3
Group
Think 
 
Cohesiveness
kötüdür


Stages
Of
Groups

Forming.
Kişilerin
meseleye
ısınması,
“Gruba
girsem
mi
girmesem
mi?”
gibi
soruları
sorması.
Statü
&

güç
değerlendirmeleri
yapılır,
kimin
nasıl
biri
olduğu
araştırılır.


Storming.
Kim
lider?
Kim
ne
yapacak?
Roller
&
işler
nasıl
dağıtılacak?


Norming.
Statüler
ve
normlar
oturur.


Performing.
İş
aktif
ve
düzenli
bir
biçimde
yapılmaya
başlanır.
En
verimli
aşamadır.


Adjourning.
Group
yapısı
dağılır
/
değişir.


ROLES

A
role
is
a
set
of
expectations
believed
by
the
individual
or
the
group
to
be
associated
with
a
person
who

occupies
a
given
position
in
the
group
or
organization.

Task
Roles

Initiator
(Contributor).
Sorunu
ortaya
atan,
veya
ilk
adımı
atan.

Information
Seeker.
Araştırmacı.
Seeking
facts,
searching
for
data,
researching
sources,

asking
experts
for
clarification.

Information
Giver.
Offering
authoritative
facts
or
relevant
experience
providing
examples,

and
help
the
group
to
understand
issues
by
interpreting
ideas,
defining
terms
and
clairifying

the
issues.

Evaluator.
Devils
advocate.
Questioning
the
practicarity,
logic
or
procedures.

Summarizer.
Putting
together
everything,
checking
group
by
proposing
alternatives.


Maintenance
Roles

Harmonizer.
Üyeler
arasında
farklılıkları
ve
gerilimi
azaltır.

Encourager.
Praising
and
providing
encouragement
to
other
group
members.

Gate
Keeper.
Sessiz
oturanlara
“Senin
fikrin
ne?”
diye
sorar.


Blocking
Roles

Dominator.
Otorite
veya
büyük
gözükme
yoluyla
grubu
kontrol
etmeye
çalışır.

Blocker.
İnatla
ve
mantıksız
bir
şekilde
grupla
ters
düşer,
genelde
kişisel
sebepleri
vardır.

Aggressor.
Taktiklerle
başkalarının
önerilerini
kabul
etmediğini
ortaya
koyar.

Disruptor.
Grubun
hedeflerine
sahip
değildir
ve
genelde
ilgisiz
&
alaycı
bir
tavır
ortaya
koyar.






































































3

Bir
grubun
Extreme
kararlar
verip
“Evet
en
iyisi
budur”
diye
birlik
içinde
olması.
Bu
esnada,
“Ama
şu
açıdan
da

düşünmek
lazım”
deyip
bu
kararı
bastırmak
isteyebilecek
küçük
Subgroup’lar
bastırılır.


18
 


GROUP
DYNAMICS

The
Pressure
To
Conform








Social
Norms:
groups
have
rules
that
must
be
followed.



Epistemological
Weighting
Hypothesis:
Grupisteklerine
/
kendiisteklerine
ne
kadarönemverdiğin,

grupnormlarına
ne
kadaruyduğunubelirler

Group
Locomotion
Hypothesis:
Kendi
isteklerin
yerine
grup
isteklerini
koyarsın.

Normative
Social
Influence:
basic
group
need
forces
us
to
conform.
Collectivistlerde
daha
yaygın.

Örnek:
moda

Politeness
Theory:
Positive
face:
when
others
approve
of
us
(Boss’akarşı),
negative
face:
when
we
feel

others
cant
constrain
us
(şirketteyenibaşlayanbirinekarşı).


Roles:
Topluluktaki
herkesin
rolü
vardır.
İnsanlar
oynadıkları
rolü
fazlasıyla
sahiplenebilir
ve
kendi

değerlerini
unutabilir.
Örnek:
sahte
elektro
şok,
guard
&
prisoner.

Social
Impact
Theory:
conformance
increases
with
importance,
immediacy
(yakınlık
time
&
space)
and

number
of
others.


Pluralistic
Ignorance:
sometimes
most
people
disagree
with
a
group
norm,
but
nobody
speaks
out.


In‐Group
vs
Out‐Group





In‐Group
Bias:
we
give
group
members
preferential
treatment.


Hostile
Media
Phenomenon:
opposed
groups
see
neutral
people
as
biased.
(hakemleri
o
yüzden
kimse

sevmez)

Linguistic
Inter‐group
Bias:
Varying
abstraction
in
communication.
Grup
içi
iyi
&
grup
dışı
kötü

davranışlar,
grup
içi
kötü
&
grup
dışı
iyi
davranışlardan
daha
çok
konuşulur.

Minority
Influence:
groups
tolerate
minorities,
who
should
stick
together.


Out‐Group
Homogeneity:
seeing
non‐group
people
as
'all
the
same'.


Decision
Making
(bkz:
Decision
Making)

Other
Group
Behavior





Deindividuation:
losing
our
sense
of
self
in
the
crowd.
(örnek:
riots,
yağma)

Group
Attribution
Error:
Grubun
verdiği
karar,
gruptaki
herkesin
bireysel
kararı
olmayabilir.
Bu,

gruptaki
insanları
aslında
olmadıkları
kadar
benzer
sanmamıza
yol
açabilir.

Minimum
Group
Theory:
when
in
any
group,
people
use
group
behavior.
Önemsiz
gruplara
üye

hissederse
de
önemli
gruplardaki
gibi
gruba
uyar.

Leader‐Member
Exchange
Theory:
leaders
and
members
create
sözsüz
agreements.
(birazdan
geliyor)

Social
Loafing


TEAMS

Team:
A
group
whose
individual
effort
results
in
a
performance
that
is
greater
than
the
sum
of
individual

inputs.

Types
of
Teams:
Problem
solving,
self‐managed
work
teams,
cross‐functional
teams,
virtual
teams

To
build
good
teams:




Contextual
factors
(resources,
performance
eval,
vs)

Composition
(abilities,
personality,
diversity,
size,
etc)

Work
design
(autonomy,
skill
variety,
task
identity,
task
significance,
etc)


19


Process
(common
purpose,
specific
goals,
team
efficacy,
etc)


COMMUNICATION

THE
PROCESS
OF
HUMAN
COMMUNICATION

Model
of
Human
Communication

Communication:
“Process
of
creating
meaning”

SENDER

MESSAGE

CHANNEL

NOISE

RECEIVER

Message
types:


Verbal

o Intentional

o Unintentional

Non‐Verbal

o Intentional

o Unintentional


Noise
types:


Semantic
(when
the
receiver
does
not
attribute
the
same
meaning
to
the
signal
that
the
sender
does)

o Physical

o Psychological

o Cultural


Communication
Contexts:
Interpersonal,
Intercultural,
Interviewing,
Small‐Group,
Public,
Organizational,
Mass

Goals
of
communication





Understanding:
“Accurate
reception
of
the
content
of
the
intended
stimulus”

Pleasure

Attitude
Influence
(Coke
Zero)

Improved
Relationships

Action


Channels
Of
Communication

Formal

Downward.
Üstten
asta.
Job
instructions,
procedures,
rules,
feedback,
vision,
etc.

Upward.
Asttan
üste.


Horizontal.
Aynı
seviyede
iletişim.

Diagonal.
Hierarşik
yapının
değişik
bölgeleri
arasında
iletişim.

Informal

MBWA.
Management
By
Wandering
Around.
Çok
sık
yapmamak
lazım.
Site’da
az
olmalı,

yemekhanede
filan
yapılabilir.

Open
Door
Policy.
Çalışanlar
istediği
zaman
istediği
müdüre
gelip
konuşabilir.
Kendi
müdürünü

atlayıp
direkt
genel
müdüre
giden
bir
işçinin
cezalandırılmayacağı
garanti
edilmelidir.

Grapevine.
Rumor.
Çok
hızlıdır,
%70‐90’ı
işle
ilgilidir,
ve
dolaşan
lafların
%70‐90’ı
doğrudur.
Akıllı

bir
yönetici
bu
yöntemi
kullanarak
nabız
yoklayabilir.

Non‐Verbal
Communication.
Sözsüz
iletişimdir
–
beden
dili.
İletişimin
%90’ını
bu
oluşturur.

Mesela
birşeyi
beğenirsen
Pupils
büyür.
Stresli
vücut
küçülür,
rahat
vücut
genişler,
vs.


20
 


Verbal
Communication



Symbols
&
referants

Denotaion
/
connotation

Euphimism
(memory
garden)


THE
MESSAGE

Verbal
Message

Words
and
Meaning



Symbols,
Referants
(Word,
Object)

Denotation,
Connotation
(Main
meaning,
alternative
meaning)

Private
Meaning
(personal),
Shared
Meaning
(shared),
Overlapping
codes
/
Codeswitching
(member
of

minority
starts
to
talk
different
inbetween
members)


Language
and
Thought


Sapir‐Whorf
Hypothesis:
“The
world
is
perceived
differently
by
members
of
different
communities
and

this
perception
is
transmitted
and
sustained
by
language”.

Language
Problems

o Abstract
language
(don’t
stay
out
late)

o Inferences
(conclusion
derived
from
evidence
or
assumptions
–
when
i
sit,
chair
will
carry
me

/
she
is
thinking
about
her
upcoming
date
this
weekend)

o Dichtomies:
“brilliany”,
“stupid”,
“winner”,
“loser”.
Using
extreme
words
to
label.

o Euphemisms:
“Passed
away”,
“Memory
garden”

o Equivocal
language:
One
word
means
many
things
(peace,
truth,
drink,
freedom)


The
Nonverbal
Message

Interaction
with
verbal
messages:
Replacement,
Reinforcement,
Contradiction

Spatial
and
Temporal
Cues

Space


Personal

Interpersonal

o Intimate
Distance

o Personal
Distance

o Social
Distance

o Public
Distance


High‐Low
Contact

Orientation

Time:
Monochronemic
vs
Polichronemic

Visual
Clues:
Facial
Expression,
Oculesics
(eye
contact
&
behavior),
Body
Movements,
Hand
Gestures,
Physical

Appearance
&
Use
Of
Objects


21


Vocal
Clues:
Volume,
Rate
&
Fluency,
Pitch,
Quality


LISTENING

What
is
meant
by
listening?




Hearing

Attention
(like
paying
attention)

Understanding

Remembering


Types
of
Listening



Pleasurable
Listening

Discriminative
Listening
(matematikdersinidinlergibi)

Critical
Listening
(when
we
need
to
make
a
choice)

o Analogy

o Example

o Statistics

o Testimony
/
Quatations

Empathic
Listening


LEADERSHIP

Leadership:
the
ability
to
influence
a
group
toward
the
achievement
of
a
vision
or
set
of
goals.

Management:
Implementing
the
vision
and
the
strategy
provided
by
leaders,
coordinating
and
staffing
the

organization,
and
handling
the
day‐to‐day
problems.

Management
skills:
technical,
human,
conceptual
(analiz)


ETHICAL
LEADERSHIP

Diverse
perspectives
on
ethical
leadership:



Burns:
Increasing
awareness
about
ethical
issues
is
a
primary
role
of
leadership.

Heifetz:
Authority
is
not
needed
for
ethical
leadership.
Non‐authority
people
can
emerge
for
ethical

leadership.

Greenleaf:
“Servant
leadership”.
Service
to
followers
is
the
essence
of
ethical
leadership.
Servant

leader
should
stand
for
what
is
good
and
right,
even
if
it’s
financially
not
good.


Criteria
for
evaluating
ethical
leadership

Criteria

Use
of
power

Handling
diverse
interests
of

multiple
stakeholders

Development
of
a
vision

Integrity
of
leader
behavior

Risk
taking


Ethical

To
serve
followers

Balance
and
integrate
them


Unethical

To
satisfy
personal
needs

Favors
partners
who
offer
the
most

personal
gain

Vision
that
builds
on
follower
input
 Attempts
to
sell
a
personal
vision

about
their
needs,
values
and
ideas
 as
the
only
way
to
succeed

Acts
consistent
with
espoused

Does
what
is
expedient
for

values

attaining
personal
objectives

Willing
to
take
personal
risks
to

Avoids
decisions
involving
personal

accomplish
mission

risk


22
 


Communication


Response
to
criticsm

Development
of
follower
skills


Makes
disclosure
of
relevant
info

about
events,
problems
and

actions

Encourages
critical
evaluation

Coaching,
mentoring,
training
to

develop
followers


Uses
deception
to
bias
follower

perception

Discourages
criticism

Keeps
followers
weak
and

dependent
to
the
leader


LEADERSHIP
THEORIES

TRAIT
VS
BEHAVIORAL
THEORIES

Trait
Theories:
Theories
that
consider
personal
qualities
and
characteristics
that
differentiate
leaders
from

nonleaders.That
is,
leaders
are
born
rather
than
made.
Most
traits
can
be
grouped
under
big
five.

Eleştiri:

Kültüre
bağlı
olarak
değişebilir;
teoriye
uymayan
başarılı
liderler
var,
durumsallığı
hesaba
katmıyor.

Behavioral
Theories:
If
there
are
specific
behaviors
that
identified
leaders,
then
leadership
can
be
taught.


Eleştiri:
Durumsallık
yok.
Which
behaviors?



Iowa
Studies:
Authoritarian
vs
Democratic
vs
Laissez
Fair.
Vast
majority
preferred
democratic.

4
5
Ohio
Studies:
Two
dimensions:
Consideration &
Initiating
Structure .
First
study
to
point
out
and

emphasize
task
&
human
dimensions.
But;
validity
&
focus
has
been
criticized.

Michigan
Studies:
Two
dimensions:
Employee‐oriented
and
Production‐oriented.
Result:
Supervisors

of
high‐productive
groups
are
employee‐oriented;
supervisors
of
low‐productive
groups
are

production‐oriented.


Managerial
Grid:
Blake
&
Mouton.
Liderler
iş
/
insane
ilişkisi
Grid’inde
bir
yerlerdedir.


CONTINGENCY
THEORIES

“It
depends”

LPC
–
Least
Preferred
Coworker
Contingency
(Fiedler):
Şirkette
en
azsevdiğiçalışanı
belli
olumlu
(yardımsever,

arkadaşcanlısı,
vs)
veolumsuz
(bencil,
soğuk,
vs)
kriterlerbazındapuanlar.
High
LPC
biryöneticigeneldeolumlu,

Low
LPC
iseolumsuzpuanverecektir.High
LPC’ler
people‐oriented,
Low’larise
task‐oriented
olacaktır.

Situation’lar,
favorable
veya
unfavorable
olabilir.

Leader
–
Mentor
Relation

Task
Structure


Position
Power



Good,
Poor


Structured,
Unstructured



Strong,
Weak







































































4

The
extent
to
which
a
leader
is
likely
to
have
job
relationships
characterized
by
mutual
trust,
respect
for

subordinates’
ideas
and
regard
for
their
feelings

5

The
extent
to
which
a
leader
is
likely
to
define
and
structure
his/her
role
and
those
of

subordinates
in
the

search
for
goal
attainment


23



Favorable
ve
Unfavorable
Situation’larda
Task
Oriented
yöneticiler
iyi
iş
yapar.
Moderate
Situation’larda
ise

People
Oriented
yöneticiler
iyi
iş
yapar.
You
should
match
the
situation
to
the
leader
or
match
the
leader
to
the

situation.
Eleştiri:
İnsanları
Task
/
People
Oriented
diye
bu
kadar
kesin
ayıramazsın.

Path‐Goal
Theory:
Leaders
clarify
the
path,
remove
roadblocks,
and
increase
rewards.
Styles:




Supportive:
Considering
the
needs
of
the
follower,
showing
concern
for
their
welfare.
Best
when
the

work
is
stressful,
boring
or
hazardous.

Directive:
Telling
followers
what
needs
to
be
done
and
giving
appropriate
guidance
along
the
way.
This

may
be
used
when
the
task
is
unstructured
and
complex
and
the
follower
is
inexperienced.


Participative:
Consulting
with
followers
and
taking
their
ideas
into
account
when
making
decisions.

Best
when
the
followers
are
expert.

Achievement‐Oriented:
Setting
challenging
goals,
both
in
work
and
in
self‐improvement.
This

approach
is
best
when
the
task
is
complex.


Leadership
Substitutes
Theory:
Herzamanliderlazımdiyebirşeyyok.
Şudurumdalideregerekolmayabilir:



Follower
characteristics:
Expertise,
Self‐driven

Task
characteristics:
Predictable,
Feedback
from
task,
Satisfying
task

6
Organizational
characteristics:
Cohesive 
team,
Formal
organization,
Distributed
team


Hersey
&
Blanchart:
Maturity
Level
–
astların
o
yönetim
biçimine
ne
kadar
hazır
olduğu.





Unable
+
Unwilling

Telling

Able
+
Unwilling

Participating

Unable
+
Willing

Selling
(eğitimci
gibi)

Able
+
Willing

Delegating







































































6

Birlikte
iyi
çalışabiliyorlarsa


24
 


CONTEMPORARY
THEORIES

İyi
bir
lider,
ikisi
de
olabilmelidir.

Charismatic
Leadership:
Vizyonu
var,
ve
iyi
bir
hatip.
Followers
make
attributions
of
heroic
leadership
abilities

when
they
observe
certain
behaviors.
Key
characteristics:





Vision
and
articulation

Personal
risk

Environmental
sensitivity

Sensitivity
to
follower
needs

Unconventional
behavior


Most
experts
believe
that
individuals
can
be
trained
to
exhibit
charismatic
behaviors.
But
there
is
also
a
dark

side
of
charisma
(Hitler).

Theories
of
charismatic
leadership:


Attribution
Theory:
Charisma
is
attributional.Follower
attribution
of
charismatic
qualities
to
a
leader
is

jointly
determined
by
the
leader’s
behavior,
skill,
and
aspects
of
the
situation.

Self‐Concept
Theory:
Charisma
is
observable
process,
rather
than
folklore
and
mystique.



Transformational
Leadership:
Değişim,
gelişim,
dönüştürücü
lider.
Charisma,
inspiration,
intellectual

simulation,
individual
consideration.
Charismatic’I
kapsar
bu,
üzerine
ilave
eder.
Idealized
influence,

individualized
consideration,
inspirational
motivation,
intellectual
stimulation.
Steps:







Articulate
a
clear
and
appaealing
vision

Explain
how
the
vision
can
be
attained

Act
confidently
and
optimistically

Express
confidence
in
followers

Use
dramatic,
symbolic
actions
to
emphasize
key
values

Lead
by
example

Empower
people
to
achieve
the
vision

7

Transactional
Leadership:
İş
bitirici
lider.
Reward,
management
by
active
exception ,
management
by
passive

8
9
exception ,
laissez‐faire .



LMX
THEORY

Leaders
in
groups
maintain
their
positions
through
a
series
of
tacit
exchange
agreements.

Liderlerinyakınçevresindekiinsanlar
(asistan,
danışman,
vs)
ileözelbirilişkisivardır.Onlaradahafazlasorumluluk,

görev,
kaynak,
vsverirler.Bu
grup,
özelstatülerisebebiyledahaçokçalışarakbedelöder.Lidere
tam
sadakatbeklenir.

Dış
çemberise,
dahaazyetkiyevssahipolur,
dahaönemsizdir.
Lider
de,

içgrubunfazlapalazlanıpyerinialmamasıiçindikkatliolur.

The
LMX
Process:


Role
taking:
Birigrubayenikatıldığında;
lider,
onlarınyeteneklerinideğerlendirir.
Zamaniçerisinde,

yetenekleriniispatlayabilecekleriyenifırsatlarverebilir.
İkitarafda,
nasıldavranılmakistediğini
belli
eder







































































7

İstisna
olunca
müdahele
ediyor

8

İstisna
olunca
müdahele
etmiyor,
standartlar
yakalanamazsa
müdahele
ediyor

9

Çalışanlara
hiç
karışmaz


25



Role
making:
Bu
aşamada,
liderile
her
birarasındasözsüzanlaşmalaroturur.
Dedication
&
loyalty

karşılığında
benefit
&
power
verilir.
Lideringüveninikıranbiridışgrubaitilebilir.


Routinization:
leader
&
members
arasındakisosyalalışverişinmotifleriotururvebelirginleşir.


Success
factors:




Similiarity
to
leader

Seeing
viewpoint
of
leader

Better
when
job
challenge
extreme
(low
or
high)

10
Onwards
&
upwards 


X
–
Y
THEORY

X
tipindeki
liderler,
Taylor
tipindedir.
İnsanların
default
olarak
tembel
ve
sorumluluk
almayan
kişiliğe
sahip

olduklarını
düşünürler;
insanlar,
ancak
external
force
ile
çalıştırılabilir.

Y
tipindeki
liderler,
insanların
aslında
tembel
değil,
sorumluluk
almak
isteyen
varlıklar
olduğunu
ve
insanları

tembelleştiren
şeyin
sistem
olduğunu
savunur.
İnsan
davranışını
hem
dış,
hem
iç
güçler
etkiler.


MANAGEMENT
PHILOSOPHY

ANCIENT
WORLD





Egyptians
(~2000
B.C.)
experimented
with
decentralized
government
and
a
form
of
participatory

management

Babylonians
(~1800
B.C.)
Hammurabi’s
Code
made
supervisor
responsible
for
worker

Chinese
(~1100
B.C.)
‐
Confucius
and
SunTzu
(1st
military
text),
system
of
grading
workers
into
classes


Greeks
(~400
B.C.)
‐
Participatory
management;
invented
job
rotation,
division
of
labor,
generic
vs.

distinct
management,
invented
the
staff
principle

Romans
(~200
B.C.)
‐
Diocletian
system
of
central
control,
created
job
descriptions


CALVINISM,
PROTESTANT
ETHIC,
MAX
WEBER


Calvinism:
God
chooses
some
to
be
saved
and
others
have
absolutely
no
opportunity
for
salvation

Max
Weber:
Religion

Economy.
Calvinism
influenced
large
numbers
of
people
to
engage
in
work
in

the
secular
world,
developing
their
own
enterprises
and
engaging
in
trade.
Protestant
ethic:

Unplanned
force
behind
movement
that
lead
to
capitalism.

o Authority:
Rational‐Legal,
Traditional,
Charismatic

o Bureaucracy
(not
red
tape)


CAPITALISM,
MARXISM


Capitalism
found
by
Karl
Marx.
Land
and
capital
privately
owned.
Buyers
&
sellers.
Consumers
free
to

spend
income.


Adam
Smith:
“Wealth
of
Nations”.
Free
market
looks
chaotic,
but
is
led
by
an
invisible
hand.


CHRISTIANITY






































































10

Lider
de
(mesela)
şirket
sahibinin
inner
circle’ında
ise;
bu,
liderin
inner
circle’ındaki
insanlara
da
yansır.
En
alt

seviyedeki
biri,
böyle
bir
zincir
sayesinde
muazzam
güçlü
olabilir.


26
 



11

12

13

14

Christian
Philosophy:
Management
functions ,
Management
skills ,
Conceptual
skills ,
Ethics 

Christian
Community:
Rituals
in
Church


CULTURE

Managers
have
to
learn
about
cultural
differences.
Managerial
practices
should
be
differentiated
with
respect

to
the
cultures.


ETHICS

Theories


Cognitivism
(objective
moral
truths)
vs
Non‐cognitivism
(subjective
moral
truths)

Teleological
(get
to
good
result
at
any
cost)

o Ethical
Egoism:
Selfish
acts

o Utilitarianism:
Act
to
maximize
good
of
the
majority

o Machiavellianism:
Do
everything
to
get
the
job
done

Deontological
(get
to
good
result,
but
not
at
any
cost)

o Kant:
Good
will

o Locke:
Inborn
natural
rights

Ground
for
any
ethical
decision

Virtue
Ethics:
“Nasıl
bir
insan
olmalıyız,
ne
çeşit
Virtue’larımız
olmalı?”
(courage,
yardımsever,
vs)


Impacts:
HR’sequiality
of
opportunity,
Marketing’s
advertising,
Management’s
whistle
blowing,
trade
secrets,

workplace
privacy,
social
responsibility

Corporate
Social
Responsibility
(Corporate
Citizenship)

CSR
Drivers:
Societal,
Employee,
Shareholder,
Consumer
expectations

CSR:
that
the
corporation
has
not
only
economic
and
legal
obligations,
but
also
certain
responsibilities
to

society
that
extend
beyond
these
obligations.
considers
the
impact
of
the
company’s
actions
on
society.

Carroll’s
Four
Part
Definition:
Eonomic
(be
profitable),
Legal
(obey
laws),
Ethical
(do
what
is
right),
Discretionary

(be
a
good
corporate
citizen)

Organizational
Justice




Distributive
Justice:
Kaynak
dağıtımının
adaleti.
Mesela
maaş.

Procedural
Justice:
Yöntemin
adil
olup
olmadığı.
“3
ev
satana
10.000
YTL”
diyorsun
ama
bir
bölge
çok

zor
olabilir.

Relational
Justice:
Supervisor’lar
nasıl
davranıyor?
Kayırma
var
mı?

Informational
Justice:
Şirkette
olup
bitenlerden
herkesin
adil
bir
şekilde
haberi
var
mı?


CONTEMPORARY
ISSUES
OF
LEADERSHIP

TRUST






































































11

Planning,
Organizing
(span
of
control),
Leading,
Controlling
(benchmark
–
başkasıyla
kıyasla)

12

Technical
(iyi
olan
yönetsin),
Human
(conflict),
Conceptional

13

Analysis,
look
for
alternatives,


14

İşçi
(show
they
can
be
trusted),
işveren
(tam
para
ver),



27


Trust:
a
positive
expectation
that
another
will
not
act
opportunistically.


Types
of
trust:




Deterrence
based:
Trust
based
on
fear
of
reprisal
if
the
trust
is
violated

Knowledge
based
trust:
Trust
based
on
behavioral
predictability
that
comes
from
history

Identification
based
trust:
Trust
based
on
a
mutual
understanding
of
each
others
intentions

15

16

Care
and
concern:
Passive
concern 
vs
active
concern 

Reliability:
Do
what
you
say.
Sözlerini
tut.

Honesty:
Tell
the
whole
truth.

Creating
trust
in
organizations:
Values
and
culture,
interdependence,
role
&
process
clarity,
goal
congruity,

visibility,
consequences
of
transgression


POWER
&
POLITICS

POWER

Power
 refers
 to
 a
 capacity
 that
 A
 has
 to
 influence
 the
 behavior
 of
 B,
 so
 that
 B
 acts
 in
 accordance
 with
 A’s

wishes.



Sources
of
Power

• Formal
Power:
It
is
based
on
an
individual’s
position
in
an
organization.

o Coercive
 Power:
 Coercive
 power
 is
 the
 power
 that
 comes
 from
 a
 person’s
 authority
 to

punish.


o Reward
Power:
This
is
the
opposite
of
coercive
power.
This
type
of
power
is
based
on
the

ability
to
distribute
rewards
that
others
view
as
valuable
(Robbins,
2005).
This
power
is

obvious
but
also
ineffective
if
abused.


o Legitimate
 Power:
 This
 is
 the
 authority
 delegated
 to
 the
 holder
 of
 the
 position

(Wikipedia,
2008).


o Information
 Power:
Information
power
comes
as
a
result
of
possessing
knowledge
that

others
need
or
want.
This
power
type
also
extends
to
the
ability
to
get
information
not

presently
held
such
as
a
case
with
a
librarian
or
data
base
manager
(Petress).


• Personal
Power:
It
is
based
on
an
individual’s
unique
characteristics
rather
than
a
formal
base.

o Expert
 Power:
 It
 is
 an
 individual's
 power
 deriving
 from
 the
 skills
 or
 expertise
 of
 the

person
and
the
organization's
needs
for
those
skills
and
expertise
(Wikipedia,
2008).


o Referent
Power:
It
is
based
on
identification
with
a
person
who
has
desirable
resources

or
 personal
 traits.
 It
 develops
 out
 of
 admiration
 of
 another
 and
 a
 desire
 to
 be
 like
 that

person
(Robbins,
2005).


o Charismatic
Power:
The
sociologist
Max
Weber
defined
charismatic
authority
as
"resting

on
devotion
to
the
exceptional
sanctity,
heroism
or
exemplary
character
of
an
individual

person,
and
of
the
normative
patterns
or
order
revealed
or
ordained
by
him"
(Wikipedia,

2008).
Power
based
upon
charisma
is
an
extension
of
referent
power
stemming
from
an

individual’s
personality
and
interpersonal
style
(Robbins,
2005).


• Scope
of
Power:
Üzerinde
etkili
olabileceğin
insane
sayısı.







































































15

doing
no
harm

16

preventing
harm
in
general
(from
other
sources)


28
 


Field
of
Power:
Hangi
alanda
etkili
olabileceğin.
Mesela
OB
hocası
“sunum
hazırla”
derse
yaparsın,

ama
“gece
uyuma”
derse
yapmazsın.


Sustaining
power
will
require
the
audience
to
be
dependent
on
the
power
holder:



Importance:
As
long
as
the
source
of
power
is
important
to
the
others,
the
power
will
be
sustainable.


Scarcity:
As
long
as
the
source
of
power
is
scarce,
the
power
will
be
sustainable.


Nonsubstitutability:
The
less
substituted
the
source
of
power
has,
the
more
sustainable
the
power
will

be.
Less
substitutable
sources
of
power
will
relate
to
a
higher
level
of
power.



POLITICS

Politics:
Power
in
action

Political
behavior:
Activities
that
are
not
required
as
part
of
one’s
formal
role
in
the
organization,
but
that

influence,
or
attempt
to
influence,
the
distribution
of
advantages
and
disadvantages
within
the
organization.

Legitimate
political
behavior
vs
Illegitimate
political
behavior

Perception
of
organizational
politics:
decreased
satisfaction,
increased
stress,
increased
turnover,
reduced

performance

Defenses:
avoiding
action,
avoiding
blame,
avoiding
change.

Impression
management:
The
process
by
which
individuals
attempt
to
control
the
impression
others
form
of

them.
Conformity
(ona
uymak),
excuses
(bahane
uydurmak),
apologies
(özür
dilemek),
self‐promotion
(kendini

övmek),
flattery
(karşındakini
övmek),
favors
(karşındakine
iyilik
yapmak),
association
(biz
onunla
aynı

okuldanız)


CONFLICT
&
NEGOTIATION

CONFLICT

Disagreement.
İki
farklı
kişi
/
grup
arasındaki
amaç
/
fikir
ayrılığı.

Old:
Conflict
is
bad
and
must
be
avoided

Modern
:
Conflict
is
inevitable

Postmodern


:
Conflict
is
good
if
you
can
manage
nature
and
amount

of
conflict.


Natures
of
Conflict

Task
conflict.
Generally
good.

Relationship
conflict.
Generally
bad.

Task

Relationship
conflict
arasında
genelde
pozitif
korelasyon
vardır,
o
yüzden
dikkat
etmek
gerekir.

İkisinin
arasında
Moderating
Variables
da
vardır;
Trust,
Communication,
Conflict
Style
(win‐win)
gibi.

Amount
Of
Conflict

Conflict
ne
çok
az,
ne
de
çok
fazla
olmalıdır.
Az
conflict,
grubu
tekdüzeliğe
ve
durağanlığa
iter;
Group
Think’e

bile
yol
açabilir.
Çok
Conflict
ise,
yönetilmesi
zor
bir
duruma
götürür.


29


Conflict
Management

Related
with
communication
closely.


Levels
of
conflict

Intrapersonel.
Kişinin
kendi
içinde
olur
ve
çözülmesi
zordur.
Cognitive
Dissonance.


Approach
conflict.
İki
pozitif
seçenek
arasında
karar
verme
güçlüğü.

Avoidence
conflict.
İki
negatif
seçenek
arasında
karar
verme
güçlüğü.

Approach
–
avoidence
conflict.
Hem
pozitif,
hem
negatif
öğeler
barındıran
iki
seçenek
arasında

karar
verme
güçlüğü.
(Rejim
yapan
birinin
“Şu
keki
yesem
mi”
demesi).

Interpersonel.
İki
kişi
arasında.

Intragroup.
Grup
içinde.

Intergroup.
İki
grup
arasında.
İnsanların
gruba
olan
bağlılığını
arttırır.

Interorganizational.
İki
organizasyon
arasında.
Pepsi
–
Coca
Cola
arasındaki
promosyon
savaşı
gibi.

Lowering
conflict
levels




Avoiding.
Turtle
Style.
Herşeyi
önlersin,
Lose
–
Lose
olur.
Durum
önemli
değilse,
veya
hedefe

ulaşılamıyorsa
kullanılır.
Karşı
tarafı
sakinleştirmek
için
geçici
bir
süre
de
uygulanabilir.

Acommodation.
Teddy
Bear
Style.
“Senin
dediğin
olsun”.
Haklı
olmadığını
anlarsan
uygulanır;
Harmony
&

Peace
isteyen
biri
de
uygulayabilir.
Bir
dahaki
sefer
için
seni
güçlü
kılacaktır.

Competing
(Forcing).
Shark
Style.
“Benim
dediğim
olsun”.
I
win
–
you
lose.
Çabuk
karar
gereken

17
durumlarda
uygulanabilir.
Amygdala 
insanı
buna
iter.

Compromising.
Fox
Style.
No
lose,
no
win.
Orta
noktada
buluşulur.
Full
utilization
olmaz,
iki
taraf
da
biraz

kazanıp
biraz
kaybeder.

Collabration.
Owl
Style.
Win
–
win.
En
iyi
alternatiftir,
ama
uygulayabilmek
için
tarafların
taleplerinin
değil,

daha
derindeki
Need’lerinin
anlaşılması
gerekir.

Competition

Aggression
insan
genlerinde
vardır,
bu
yüzden
Competition
olur.
Social
programming
de
Competition’u

körükler;
yani
doğduğumuzdan
beri
hep
Competition’a
itiliyoruz.
Competition,
genelde
I
Win
–
You
Lose

şeklinde
yapılır.
Sonuçları;

Win
–
win.
İki
taraf
da
kazanır.
Paylaşılan
pasta
büyür.
Awareness,
creativity,
willingness
gerektirir.






































































17

Hayvansal,
saldırgan
beyin.
Bunu
üst
beynin
(Rational)
idare
etmesi
beklenir.


30
 

Lose
–
lose.
İki
taraf
da
kaybeder.
Paylaşılmak
istenen
pasta
küçülür.

Win
–
Lose.
Biri
kazanıp
biri
kaybeder,
pasta
boyutu
değişmez.

Corporation
+
Competition
=
Coopetition.

Transactional
Analysis:
Parent
–
Adult
–
Child
ilişkisi
karşılıklı
olarak.


NEGOTIATION

Negotiation
olabilmesi
için:



Conflict

Interdependency

Utility
(anlaştıktan
sonra
sonuçlar)


Negotiation’da
güçlü
olmak
için
BATNA’nı
bilmen
gerekir


THE
ORGANIZATION
SYSTEM

ORGANIZATION
STRUCTURE

Organizational
structure:
How
job
tasks
are
formally
divided,
grouped
and
coordinated.






Works
specializaition:
To
what
degree
are
activities
subdivided
into
separate
jobs?

Departmentalization:
On
what
basis
will
jobs
be
grouped
together?

Chain
of
command:
To
whom
do
individuals
and
groups
report?

Span
of
control:
How
many
individuals
can
a
manager
efficiently
direct?

(De)centralization:
Where
does
decision‐making
authority
lie?

Formalization:
To
what
degree
will
there
be
rules
and
regulations
to
direct
employees
and
managers


CORPORATE
GOVERNANCE

Deciding
how
corporations
ought
to
be
governed
involves
some
answer
to
the
question,
“In
whose
interests

should
corporations
be
run?”



Property
Rights
Theory:
views
the
corporation
as
a
private
entity.
shareholders,
as
owners
of
the

corporation,
have
a
right
that
it
be
operated
solely
in
their
interests.
It
is
argued
that
shareholders

were
no
longer
owners
in
any
meaningful
sense.

Social
Institution
Theory:
regards
the
corporation
as
a
public
entity,
in
which
the
state
grants

individuals
the
right
to
do
business
in
the
corporate
form
in
order
to
serve
some
social
good.

Contractual
Theory:
the
firm
is
a
connection
of
contracts
among
all
of
its
constituencies,
in
which

groups
deploy
their
economic
assets
for
some
return.


ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE

CULTURE
IN
GENERAL

Perspectives


31






Traditional:
Culture
is
a
social
heritage

Behavioral:
Way
of
living

Structural:
Forms,
values,
shared
by
members

Functional:
Way
of
solving
problems
and
dealing
with
adaptation
issues
in
regard
of
human
activieis

Mental:
Cognitive
process.
Höfstede:
“Mental
program
of
human
beings”
=
Culture.


Dominant
culture,
subculture

Strong
vs
weak
culture

Organizational
vs
national
culture


CULTURE
VS
CLIMATE

Culture:
A
system
of
shared
norms,
rules,
mores
and
ethics
by
the
members
of
a
given
society.
Learned
and

transmitted
from
generation
to
generation.
Not
static;
culture
changes
very
slowly
over
time.

Climate:
Climate
portrays
organizational
environments
as
being
rooted
in
the
organization’s
value
system,
but

tends
to
present
these
social
environments
in
relatively
static
terms,
describing
them
in
terms
of
a
fixed
set
of

dimensions.

Point

Reference

Link

Source

Generalization

Point
of
View

Methodology

Temporal
Orientation

Level
of
Analysis


Climate

Refers
to
a
situation

Links
to
thoughts,
feelings,

behaviors

Growing
out
of
Lewinian
field

theory

Possible


Culture

Refers
to
an
evolved
context

Rooted
in
history


Growing
out
of
social
construction

framework

Not
possible,
each
culture
is

unique

Etic
–
Describes
concepts
as
part
of
 Emic
–
Describes
concepts
as
part

observer

of
culture

Quantitative

Qualitative

Historical
snapshot

Evolution
over
time

Surface,
observations

Deep,
individual
meanings


LEADERSHIP
&
CULTURE

Sources
of
culture:
Beliefs
&
values
&
assumptions
of
founders,
learning
experiences
of
members,
new
beliefs

&
values
&
assumptions
brought
in
by
new
members
and
leaders.

Culture
is
rooted
in
the
vision
(means:
culture)
of
the
founder;
and
the
leaders
who
sustain
the
vision.
If
leaders

vision
would
be
wrong,
the
group
would
be
disbanded
soon.

How
leaders
embed
&
transmit
culture






Specifying
what
they
pay
attention
to;
what
they
measure;
and
what
they
control

Reactions
to
critical
incidents
and
organizational
crises

Observed
criteria
for
resource
allocation

Role
modeling,
teaching,
coaching

Observed
criteria
for
Allocation
of
rewards
or
status

Observed
criteria
for
Recruitment,
selection,
promotion,
etc


32
 


CULTURE
THEORIES

HOFSTEDE

Artifacts:
Symbols,
heroes,
rituals,
values

Dimensions:
Power
distance,
Individualism
vs
Collectivism,
Masculenity
vs
Femininity,
Uncertainty
avoidance,

Long
Term
vs
Short
Term
orientation


SCHEIN



Artifacs:
Heroes,
Symbols,
Rituals


DENISON

Dimensions:


Involvement

o Empowerment

o Team
orientation

o Capability
development

Consistency

o Core
values:
Set
of
values,
creating
a
sense
of
identity

o Agreement:
employees
capacity
to
reach
an
agreement
on
critical
issues

o Coordination
&
integration:
Separate
units
able
to
work
together
towards
goal

Adaptability

o Creating
change:
Ability
to
develop
alternative
ways
of
meeting
external
&
internal
changing

needs

o Customer
focus

o Organizational
learning:
Lessons
out
of
experience

Mission

o Strategic
direction:
Strategic
intentions
towards
goals

o Goals
&
objectives:
Operasyonel
hedefler

o Vision:
Common
vision
enables
eomployees
to
use
their
creativity


QUEEN


33


GLOBE
PROJECT

examining
the
inter‐relationships
between
societal
culture,
organizational
culture,
and
organizational

leadership.


Culturan
Dimensions:










Performance
Orientation:
It
is
the
degree
to
which
a
society
encourages
and
rewards
group
embers

for
performance
improvement.

Uncertainty
 Avoidance:
 This
 dimension
 is
 the
 society’s
 reliance
 on
 social
 norms
 and
 procedures
 to

alleviate
the
unpredictability
of
future
events.

Humane
Orientation:
This
is
the
degree
to
which
a
society
encourages
individuals
to
be
fair,
altruistic,

generous,
caring
and
kind
to
others.

Individualism
 vs.
 Collectivism:
 It
 is
 the
 degree
 to
 which
 individuals
 are
 encouraged
 by
 social

institutions
to
be
integrated
into
groups
within
organizations
and
society.

Institutional
Collectivism:
It
is
the
degree
to
which
organizational
and
societal
institutional
practices

encourage
and
reward
collective
distribution
of
resources
and
collective
action.

In‐Group
 Collectivism:
 It
 is
 the
 extent
 to
 which
 members
 of
 a
 society
 take
 pride
 in
 membership
 in

small
groups;
such
as
families,
circle
of
close
friends
and
a
company.

Assertiveness:
 It
 is
 the
 extent
 to
 which
 a
 society
 encourages
 people
 to
 be
 tough,
 assertive
 and

competitive.


Gender
Egalitarianism:
It
is
the
extent
to
which
a
society
maximizes
gender
role
differences.

Future
Orientation:
It
is
the
extent
to
which
a
society
encourages
future‐oriented
behaviors,
such
as

planning
and
investing
in
the
future.

Power
 Distance:
 This
 is
 the
 degree
 to
 which
 members
 of
 a
 society
 expect
 power
 to
 be
 unequally

shared.


Leadership
Attributes:



Universal
 Positives:
 There
 are
 22
 attributes
 universally
 regarded
 as
 contributing
 to
 good
 business

leadership,
including
“trustworthy,”
“motive
arouser,”
and
“excellence
oriented”.

Universal
 Negatives:
 There
 are
 8
 attributes
 universally
 regarded
 as
 inhibiting
 outstanding
 business

leadership,
including
“irritable”
and
“dictatorial”.

Culturally
 Contingent:
Most
revealing
are
35
attributes
viewed
in
some
societies
as
promoting
good

leadership,
 and
 in
 other
 societies
 as
 impeding
 good
 leadership.
 
 This
 list
 includes
 surprises
 such
 as

“cunning,”
“evasive,”
“class
conscious,”
and
even
“sensitive”.


Culturally
endorsed
leadership
theory
dimensions:


Charismatic
 /
 Value
 Based:
This
CLT
captures
a
leader’s
ability
to
inspire,
to
motivate,
and
to
expect

high
performance
outcomes.

This
CLT
was
associated
with
“self‐sacrifice,”
“integrity,”
“decisive,”
and

“performance
 oriented”.
 A
 key
 finding
 is
 that
 all
 cultures
 saw
 this
 dimension
 as
 very
 substantially

contributing
 to
 outstanding
 leadership
 (Grove,
 2007).
 
 However,
 being
 charismatic
 was
 considered

more
relevant
in
cultures
with
a
high
performance
orientation
(Yukl,
2002).

Team
 Oriented:
 It
 is
 described
 as
 emphasizing
 effective
 team‐building
 and
 implementation
 of
 a

common
purpose
or
goal
among
team
members.
All
cultures
saw
“team
orientation”
as
contributing

substantially
to
outstanding
leadership
(Grove,
2007).

However,
this
dimension
was
considered
more

relevant
 for
 leader
 effectiveness
 in
 cultures
 that
 are
 collectivistic
 rather
 than
 individualistic
 (Yukl,

2002).

Participative:
 This
 CLT
 reflects
 the
 degree
 to
 which
 managers
 involve
 others
 in
 making
 and

implementing
decisions.
Germanic
Europe
most
positively
associated
“participative”
with
outstanding


34
 


leadership.


The
least
positive
association
was
in
the
Middle
East,
where
its
association
was
modestly

above
the
mid‐point
(Grove,
2007).

This
means,
being
participative
was
considered
more
relevant
for

leadership
effectiveness
in
cultures
with
low
power
distance
and
low
avoidance
of
uncertainty
(Yukl,

2002).

Human
 Oriented:
 This
 CLT
 reflects
 supportive
 and
 considerate
 leadership,
 but
 also
 includes

compassion
 and
 generosity.
 
 Worldwide,
 this
 CLT
 was
 viewed
 as
 only
 moderately
 contributing
 to

outstanding
leadership
(Grove,
2007).


Self‐Protective:

This
dimension
focuses
on
ensuring
the
safety
and
security
of
the
individual
or
group.

Worldwide,
this
CLT
was
viewed
as
not
contributing
to
outstanding
leadership.

The
highest
score,
by

South
Asian
cultures,
was
just
below
the
mid‐point
(Grove,
2007).

Autonomous:
This
CLT
refers
to
independent
and
individualistic
leadership
(Grove,
2007).



In
the
study
of
Paşa,
Kabasakal
and
Bodur
in
2001,
GLOBE’s
findings
were
tested
empirically
in
a
Turkish
study.

Here
are
some
significant
results:
(Paşa,
Kabasakal,
&
Bodur,
2001)




Collectivism
has
found
to
be
the
most
dominant
organizational
value.
Collectivistic
values
are
found
to

influence
leadership
behaviors
of
“Paternalistic‐considerate”
and
“Laissez‐Faire”.


Being
the
second
dominant
organizational
values,
performance
orientation
and
uncertainty
avoidance

were
not
found
to
influence
observed
leadership
behaviors.


Values
of
self‐sacrificial,
integrity,
power
distance
and
quality
were
found
to
influence
the
leadership

behaviors
of
“Hierarchical‐Autocratic”,
“Transactional‐Team
Oriented”
and
“Laissez‐Faire”.

The
most
frequently
observed
leadership
types
were:

o Hierarchical‐autocratic

o Paternalistic‐considerate

o Transactional‐team
oriented

o Laissez‐Faire


HR
POLICIES
AND
PRACTICES

RECRUITMENT

SELECTION

Selection
devices:
Interview,
written
tests,
performance‐simulation
tests,
work
sample
tests

Recruitment
&
job
hunting
methods:
Media
ads
(Newspaper
ads,
electronic
media,
situation‐wanted
ads),

point
of
purchase
methods,
campus
recruitment,
outside
recruiters
(employment
agencies,
executive
search

firms,
public
employment
agencies),
employee
referrals,
direct
mail,
computer
databases,
job
fairs


INTERVIEW

Realistic
Job
Previews:
Involves
giving
an
applicant
an
honest
assesment
of
a
job.

Reasons
for
lack
of
interview
validity:
Poor
intuitive
ability,
lack
of
job
relatedness,
primacy
effect,
cotrast

effect,
negative‐information
bias,
interview‐interviewee
similarity,
appearance,
nonverbal
cues

To
improve
interviews:
Training,
structured
interviews,
situational
interviews


REFERENCES


35


Reason
to
use
references:
Confirming
resume,
checking
for
discipline
problems,
discovering
new
information,

predicting
future
performance

Problems
when
using
references:
Leniency,
knowledge
of
applicant,
reliability,
extraneous
factors


TESTS

When
choosing
tests:
Reliability
&
validity,
cost
&
ease
of
use,
potential
for
legal
problems,
scoring
methods,

speed
vs
power

Types
of
tests:



18

19

Psychological
tests :
interest
inventories ,
ability
tests,
job‐knowledge
tests

Physical
agility
tests


Assessment
centers:
In‐basket
technique,
simulations,
work
samples,
leaderless
group
discussions,
business

games


JOB
ANALYSIS
&
EVALUATION

JOB
ANALYSIS

Needed
for:
Job
descriptions,
employee
selection,
training,
personpower
planning,
performance
appraisal,
job

classification,
job
evaluation,
job
design

Job
description
must
include:
Job
title,
DOT
code,
Brief
summary,
work
activities,
tools
used,
work
context,

performance
standards,
personal
requirements

Info
is
gathered
through:
Interviews,
observation,
task
analysis,
job
praticipation

Gathering
Information:




Tasks
&
Activities

o Position
Analysis
Questionnaire
(PAQ).
Cons:
College
level

o Job
Structure
Profile
(JSP).
Revised
version
of
PAQ

o Job
Elements
Inventory
(JEI).
Less
educated
people
can
understand.

o Functional
Job
Analysis
(FJA).
Used
by
federal
government
to
analyse
and
compare
thousands

of
jobs.

Tools
&
Equipment:
Job
Components
Inventory
(JCI)

Work
Environment:
Arbeitswissenscahftliches
Erhebungsverfahren
zur
Tatigkeitsanalyse
(AET).

KSAO’s

o Critical
Incident
(CIT)

o Job
Components
Inventory
(JCI)

o Treshold
Traits
Analysis
(TTA).
Like
JCI.

o Fleishman
Job
Analysis
Survey
(F‐JAS).

Rate
list
of
abilities,
highly
structured.

o Job‐Element
Approach


JOB
EVALUATION






































































18

Örnek:
Big
Five

19

Katılımcılara
“do
you
like
to
repair
electrical
wiring?”
gibi
like
/
dislike
sorular
soruyorsun


36
 

Process
of
determining
a
jobs
worth.
Internal
pay
equity
important:


Internal
Equity

o Ranking
Method:
İşleri
önemine
göre
listele,
üstteki
alttakinden
fazla
alsın

o Point
Method:
Faktörleri
belirle,
faktöleri
puanla,
kişiler
özelliklerine
göre
puan
(=para)
alsın

External
Equity:
Salary
Surveys


COMPANSATION
SYSTEMS

Variable
Pay
Programs



Piece‐rate
pay
plans

Profit‐sharing
plans
(organization
wide)

Gainsharing
(group
productivity)


Skill
Based
Pay
Plans

Flexible
Benefits


TRAINING
&
DEVELOPMENT

TRAINING

Determining
needs:



Organizational
analysis

Task
analysis

Person
analysis:
Performane
appraisal,
surveys,
interviews,
skill
&
knowledge
tests,
critical
incidents


Training
types:




20

Classroom
instruction:
Seminars,
programmed
instruction ,
case
studies,
critical
incidents

21
22
Sample
Job
Performance:
Simulation,
Role
Playing,
Modeling ,
Behavior
Modeling ,
Job
Rotation

Informal
on‐the‐job
training:
Apprentice
training,
Coaching,
Performance
Appraisal


Encouraging
the
user
of
training
material:
goal
setting,
feedback,
incentives
for
learning


LEARNING

How
do
we
learn?




Classical
conditioning
(Pavlov
gibi).
Satınalma
davranışı
–
Shaving
cream
&
pleasure

Operant
conditioning:
Eylemsel.
Positive
&
negative
reinforcement.

Social
learning:
Biri
ödül
veya
ceza
alıyor,
sen
ona
bakıp
örnek
alıyorsun.


Types
of
training:
basic
literacy
skills,
technical
skills,
interpersonal
skills,
problem‐solving
skills

Training
methods:
on‐the‐job,
off‐the‐job






































































20

Booklet
ver,
kitap
gibi
okusun
sonra
sınavı
çözsün

21

By
watching
other
employees

22

Role
playing
gibi,
ama
örnek
aldığın
kişi
gerçekçiden
ziyade
ideal
davranışlar
sergiliyor


37


PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL

Appraise
performance,
not
effectiveness.
What
people
do;
observable,
relevant
to
goals,
measurable.
Evaluate

contextual
performance
as
well.

Requirements:
Content
must
be
objective,
job‐related,
behavior‐based,
ratee
control,
relate
to
specific

functios.
Procedure
must
be
standardized,
formally
declared,
provide
deficincies,
provide
suggestions,
review

allowed,
input
allowed,
multiple
trained
raters,
abuse
detection.

Sources
of
info:




Production
data:
Üretimden
gelen
veriler.
Ama
her
zaman
tam
doğruyu
göstermez,
çevresel
faktörler

birini
iyi
kötü
yaomış
olabilir.

Personnel
data:
HR
verileri.
Kaç
gün
işe
gelmemiş
gibi.

Judgemental
data.
Değerlendiren
kişinin
yargısı.


Techniques



Top
–
Down
Evaluation

o Graphical
Rating
Scales

o Employee
Comparison.
Leniency
&
central
tendency
önler,
halo’yu
önlemez.

 Rank
order.
İyi
–
kötü
arasındaki
farkın
miktarı
belli
olmaz.

 Paired
comparison.
Zayıf
yanı,
kalabalık
şirketlerde
çok
vakit
alması.

 Forced
distribution.
Normal
dağılım
varmış
gibi
varsayp
insanları
oraya
yerleştirmek.

Herkes
iyi
veya
herkes
kötüyse
bu
göz
ardı
edilecektir.

o Behavioral
Checklists.
Davranışa
dayanır.

 Critical
incidents.
Yıl
içinde
performansı
arttıran
veya
azaltan
davranışlar
not
edilir,

ve
sonra
kişiler
ona
göre
değerlendirilir.
Olumsuz:
Makinayı
çalışır
halde
bıraktı.

Olumlu:
Hep
baret
giydi

 BARS
–
Behaviorally
anchored
rating
scale.
Incident’ler
5‐10
dimension’da
toplanır.

Dimension’lar
iyiden
kötüye
sıralanır.
Üst
sıradakileri
yapanlar
iyi,
alt
sıradakileri

yapanlar
kötü
olarak
belirlenir.

 BOS
–
Behavioral
observation
scale.
BARS
gibi,
farkı:
o
davranışı
belli
bir
dönemde
ne

kadar
tekrarladığına
bağlı.

23
Self
Assesment.
Overevaluation
ve
leniency 
olabilir.

Peer
assessment.
Zor
tarafı,
arkadaşlar
birbirine
kötü
demek
istemeyebilir
veya
birbirine
puan
vermek

istemeyebilir.

o Peer
Nomination:
Her
bir
üye,
belli
bir
dimension’la
göre
en
iyi
(mesela)
3
üyeyi
seçer.

o Peer
Rating:
Her
bir
üye,
diğerlerine
belli
dimension’lara
göre
puan
verir

o Peer
Ranking:
Her
bir
üye,
diğerlerini
belli
bir
dimension’a
göre
en
iyiden
en
kötüye
doğru

dizer

360
Degree
Feedback.
Manager’lar
için
herkesten
Appraise
etmesi
beklenir.
Increases
self‐awareness.


Rater
Subjects

Common
errors

o Halo
error

o Leniency
error

o Central‐tendency
error

• Rater
Training






































































23

yumuşakça.
Mesela
manager’lar
kendilerini
supervisor’larından
daha
az
kırıcı
değerlendiriyorlar


38
 


o Prevent
errors

o Prevention
~
accuracy?

o Rater
calibration

Rater
Motivation

o No
reward

o Help
friends

o Emp.
Rating
=
Man.
Rating

o Prevent
negavite
reactions


ORGANIZATIONAL
DYNAMICS

ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE
&
STRESS
MANAGEMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE
&
DEVELOPMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE

Organizational
change
is
the
movement
of
an
organization
away
from
its
present
state
and
toward
some

desired
future
state
to
increase
its
effectiveness




Reengineering

TQM

Innovation

Restructuring


Need
for
Change:
Proactive,
Reactive,
Crisis

Dealing
with
resistance:





Negotiation:
Güçlü
biri
değişim
sonunda
birşey
kaybedecekse

Participation
&
Involvement:
Bilgi
eksikliği
varsa
ve
güçlüyse

Communication
&
Education:
Bilgi
eksikliği
varsa
ve
zayıfsa

Facilitation
&
Support:
Altyapı
eksikliği
varsa

Coercion:
Hızlı
değişim
gerekiyorsa


CHANGE
MODELS

McKinsey
/‐S
Model

There
are
seven
factors
working
collectively,
which
are
part
of
this
model:
(Cellars,
2007)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Shared
Values:
Mission
/
vision
of
the
company

Strategy:
How
the
company
plans
to
react
towards
external
changes

Structure:
Organizational
structure
of
the
company

Systems:
Procedures
about
how
the
work
should
be
done

Style:
Organizational
culture
and
management
style

Staff:
Employees
and
their
responsibilities


39



7.

Skill:
The
abilities
of
the
employees
and
the
organization


There
are
many
benefits
and
disadvantages
of
the
McKinsey
model
(Cellars,
2007).
Advantages
are:



It
is
an
effective
way
to
understand
an
organization

It
is
a
guide
for
organizational
change

All
parts
are
interrelated;
therefore,
all
portions
must
be
addressed
and
focused
on


The
 disadvantages
 are;
 when
 one
 part
 is
 changed,
 all
 parts
 must
 be
 changed
 as
 well
 because
 of

interdependency.
There
is
evidence
that
after
the
five
years,
many
of
the
companies
using
this
model
fell
from

the
top.
Therefore;
except
its
usefulness
to
understand
an
organization,
it
is
not
wise
to
accept
this
model
as

the
most
useful
one.

Lewin’s
Three
Step
Model

Unfreezing,
Movement,
Freezing.

Kotter’s
Eight
Step
Plan

Like
Lewin’s,
but
more
detailed.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Establish
a
sense
of
urgency
by
creating
a
compelling
reason
for
why
change
is
needed.

Form
a
coalition
with
enough
power
to
lead
change.

Create
a
new
vision
to
direct
the
change
and
strategies
for
achieving
the
vision.

Communicate
the
vision
throughout
the
organization.

Empower
others
to
act
on
the
vision
by
removing
barriers
to
change
and
encouraging
risk
taking
and

creative
problem
solving.

Plan
for,
create,
and
reward
short‐term
“wins”
that
move
the
organization
toward
the
new
vision.

Consolidate
improvements,
reassess
changes,
and
make
necessary
adjustments
in
the
new
programs.

Reinforce
the
changes
by
demonstrating
the
relationship
between
new
behaviors
and
organizational

success.


ORGANIZATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT

Organizational
development
(OD)
is
the
use
of
social
science
knowledge
to
improve
organizational

effectiveness.
Organizational
development
is
a
special
approach
to
organizational
change
in
which
the

employees
themselves
formulate
the
change
that’s
required
and
implement
it,
often
with
the
assistance
of
a

trained
consultant.
Five
steps:





Diagnosis:
Collect
data
about
group,
organization,
vs

Feedback:
Give
information
to
them

Planning:
Plan
future
steps

Intervention

Follow‐up
Evaluation


STRESS
MANAGEMENT

Stress:
A
dynamic
condition
in
which
an
individual
is
confronted
with
an
opportunity,
constraint,
or
demand

related
to
what
he
or
she
desires
and
for
which
the
outcome
is
perceived
to
be
both
uncertain
and
important.

Sources
of
stress:


40
 




Environmental
factors
(economic
/
political
/
technological
uncertainty)

Organizatioal
factors
(task
/
role
/
interpersonal
demsnds,
org.
structure
&
leadership)

Individual
factors
(family
/
economic
problems,
personality)


Consequences



Physiological
symptoms
(headache,
high
blood
pressure,
heart
disease)

Psychological
symptoms
(anxiety,
depression,
decrease
in
job
satisfaction)

Behavioral
symtoms
(prductivity,
absenteeism,
turnover)


Managing
stress:


Individual
approaches.
Time
management
training,
physical
exercise,
relaxation
techniques,
social

support
networks.

Organizational
approaches.
Better
selection
&
placement
decisions,
better
goal
setting,

redesigning
jobs,
organizational
communication.


LEARNING
ORGANIZATIONS

Organization,
which
has
developed
the
continous
capacity
to
adopt
and
change.


Single
Loop
vs
Double
Loop
Learning

Characteristics:





Shared
vision

Discard
old
ways

Open
systems
approach

Open
communication

Sublimate
self
interest


Disciplines:




Systems
thinking

o Balance
process
with
delay:
shower

o Self
sustaining
vs
Self
limiting
growth:
borsa
iniş
çıkış,
neresinde
satıyorsun

o Shifting
the
burden:
cure
disease,
not
symptoms.
Sample:
don’t
cure
stress
by
drinking

o Tragedy
of
Commons

o Personal
mastery:
deepen
one’s
vision
and
sustaining
lifelong
learning.
Hayaller
yukarı

çekerken
gerçeklik
aşağı
çeker

Mental
models:
Kafamızdaki
modeller
gerçeklikten
uzak
olabilir.
Önlem:
Make
reasoning
explicit,

define
assumptions
clearly,
encourage
others
to
find
gaps,
inquire
into
other
views

Building
a
shared
vision:
Polariod
–
Instant
Photography
gibi.
Vizyon,
Personal
Vision’lara
da
uymalı

Team
Learning:
Jazz
grupları
veya
NBA
takımları
gibi.
How?
Sustain
dialogue
&
discussion


Learning
Disabilities:





I
am
my
position:
Limits
responsibility,
blindness
of
interaction

The
enemy
is
out
there:
Blaming
others.
Marketing

Production.
Result
of
system
blindness

Illusion
of
taking
charge:
Proactiveness
is
reactiveness
in
disguise.
Örnek:
Proje
ucuz
olsun
diye
ucuz

ABAPçı
alıyorsun
ama
üretim
yanlış
hesaplandığı
için
uzun
vadede
daha
kötü
oluyor.

Fixation
on
events:
Kısa
vadeye
odaklanmak.

Parable
of
boiled
frog


41



Delusion
of
learning
from
experience:
R&D
daha
hafif
bir
saç
kurutma
makinası
yapıyor,
ama
müşteri

dokunuşunu
“Cheap”
bulduğu
için
almıyor.

Must
have
feedback
–
hard
in
open
systems

Myth
of
management
team:
Usually,
solving
an
urgent
problem
is
the
subject
of
a
management
team

meeting,
and
a
good
solution
will
be
rewarded.
On
the
other
hand,
questioning
the
company’s
current

policies
will
not


Laws
of
learning
organizations:







Today’s
Problems
Come
From
Yesterday’s
Solutions:
Ayakkabıcı
günü
kurtarmak
için
indirim
yapıyor,

ama
sonar
ucuz
ayakkabılarla
aynı
seviyeye
düşüyor
imajı

The
Harder
You
Push,
The
Harder
The
System
Pushes
Back.
¨Example:
USA
aid
program

Behavior
Will
Grow
Better
Before
It
Will
Grow
Worse:
Yazılımcı
projeyi
yetiştiremedi
diyelim.
Test

sürecini
zayıf
tutup
“gecikme”
problemini
çözdü
diyelim.
O
anda
aferin
dendi.
Ama
uzun
vadede

yazılım
patlayınca
o
kötü
yazılımcı
olarak
bilinecek.

The
Easy
Way
Out
Usually
Leads
Back
In:
“Bigger
Hammer”.
carpenter
who
is
trying
different
type
of

hammers
to
get
a
nail
out
of
a
cabinet.
What
he
really
needs
is
a
pair
of
pincers.

The
Cure
Can
Be
Worse
Than
The
Disease.
¨Example:
Alcoholism

Faster
is
Slower.
As
a
managerial
principle,
it
is
a
better
idea
to
remove
the
factors
limiting
growth

instead
of
pushing
growth.

Cause
&
Effect
Are
Not
Closely
Related.
Sales
bad?
Wrong:
Fire
salespeople.
Right:
Inspect
reasons.

Least
Obvious
Areas
of
Leverage:
when
school
officials
make
the
decision
to
introduce
educational

reforms,
simply
sitting
down
with
teachers
and
easing
their
concerns
about
the
impact
these
reforms

will
have
on
their
lives
can
go
a
long
way
toward
paving
the
way
for
a
smooth
transition


You
Can
Have
Your
Cake,
and
Eat
It
Too.
But
Not
All
At
Once!
This
is
an
incorrect
belief.
Some
items
in

Ikea’s
catalogue
of
2008
are
cheaper
than
the
catalogue
of
2007.
IKEA
stated
that
this
happened

because
they
were
able
to
decrease
the
price
because
of
the
high
volume
of
sales
and
new
production

methods.

Dividing
An
Elephant
In
Two
Doesn’t
Produce
2
Elephants.
Open
systems
have
integrity.


24

25

Leadership
in
LO:
Leader
as
Designer ,
Leader
as
Teacher ,
Leader
as
Steward,
Transformational
Leadership







































































24

Sistemleri
tasarlarken
de
bulunmalı
yönetici.
Mesela
ERP
projesi
varsa,
tasarım
aşamasında
olmalı

25

Create
a
space
for
learning
&
invite
people
into
it


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