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1.1 Introduction The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. Over the years, both the process as well as the machine have undergone phenomenal changes. As of today, there is a wide range of looms being used, right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom. In this rang, the most widely prevalent loom, especially with reference to India, is the ubiquitous “plain power loom”. In this and in the chapters that follow, the various mechanisms associated with the plain power loom are discussed in elaborate detail. 1.2 Basic Mechanisms in a Plain Power Loom In order to interlace wrap and weft threads to produce a fabric, the following mechanisms are necessary on any type of loom: 1. Primary mechanisms 2. Secondary mechanisms 3. Auxillary mechanisms

1.2.1 Primary Mechanisms These are fundamental or essential mechanisms. Without these mechanisms, it is practically impossible to produce a fabric. It is for this reason that these mechanisms are called ‘primary’ mechanisms. The primary mechanisms are three in number. a. Shedding mechanism b. Picking mechanism c. Beat-up mechanism a. Shedding mechanism The shedding mechanism separates the warp threads into two layers or divisions to form a tunnel known as ‘shed’


3 Auxillary Mechanisms To get high productivity and good quality of fabric. these mechanisms are essential. This is why they are called the ‘auxillary’ mechanisms. Brake http://www. a. a. If weaving is to be continuous. These are listed below. These three mechanisms namely shedding.geocities. 1. Let-off motion. Warp protector mechanism b.html?200929 6/29/2009 . Temples d. Take-up motion The take-up motion withdraws the cloth from the weaving area at a constant rate so as to give the required pick-spacing (in picks/inch or picks/cm) and then winds it on to a cloth Picking mechanism The picking mechanism passes weft thread from one selvedge of the fabric to the other through the shed by means of a shuttle.2. b. The let-off motion delivers the warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at constant tension by unwinding it from the weaver’s beam. Beat-up mechanism The beat-up mechanism beats or pushes the newly inserted length of weft thread (pick) into the already woven fabric at a point known as “fell of the cloth”. The secondary motions are carried out simultaneously. Weft stop motion c. They are: a. picking and then beat-up are done in sequence. 1. a rapier.New Page 1 Page 2 of 11 b. The auxillary mechanisms are useful but not absolutely essential. an air-jet or a water-jet. Let-off motion. a needle.2. are added to a plain power loom.2 Secondary Mechanisms These mechanisms are next in importance to the primary mechanisms. So they are called the ‘secondary’ mechanisms. a projectile. The inserted weft thread is known as “pick”. c. called auxillary mechanisms. additional mechanisms. Take-up motion b.

Weaver's beam C . http://www. The purpose of the back rest and the lease rods is to separate the warp yarns uniformly and precisely.Heald shaft G .Warp sheet B .Back rest D . reed wires and shuttle. Temples The function of the temples is to grip the cloth and hold it at the same width as the warp in the reed. A .3 Passage of Warp and Cloth Through a Plain Power Loom Figure 1. This motion helps to avoid cracks in a fabric.html?200929 6/29/2009 . Warp protector mechanism The warp protector mechanism will stop the loom if the shuttle gets trapped between the top and bottom layers of the shed. 1. Brake The brake stops the loom immediately whenever required. c.Heald shaft F .1 shows the passage of a warp sheet and cloth through a plain power loom. It thus prevents excessive damage to the warp threads. and reduce entanglement and tension in the yarns during the opening of the warp shed. A warp sheet A from a weaver’s beam B passes around a back rest C and is led around lease rods D to heald shafts E & F which are responsible for separating the warp sheet into two layers to form a shed. Weft stop motion The object of the weft stop motion is to stop the loom when a weft thread breaks or gets exhausted. Warp stop motion The object of the warp stop motion is to stop the loom immediately when a warp thread breaks during the weaving process. e. before it is taken up.Lease rods E . Warp stop motion (Predominantly found in automatic looms) a.New Page 1 Page 3 of 11 e. b.geocities. The weaver uses it to stop the loom to repair broken ends and picks.

So the warp sheet is divided into two layers and it forms a shed.Temples K . At this point. The arrival of the shuttle in the opposite box is confirmed by shuttle checking devices.1 Passage of warp and cloth through a plain power loom The warp yarns then pass through a reed G. 1.New Page 1 Page 4 of 11 H . which is fixed to the sley. it reaches the opposite box. The motion is obtained from the bottom shaft or counter shaft that carries the tappets. After the weft is beaten up. The sley gets a to and -fro motion. The heald shafts move up and down by the shedding mechanism. shuttle and sley are operated by mechanisms that are set in motion by a motor through a crankshaft and a bottom shaft.4. The crankshaft operates the sley through the crank and crank arms. Shuttle and Sley In a plain power loom the heald shafts.5 Warp and Cloth Control http://www. Motion of Heald Shafts.Take-up roller M . When the shuttle is pushed.Front rest L .html?200929 6/29/2009 . The cloth H then passes over a front rest The reed thus beats up the weft into the fell of the cloth.Cloth I . Normally the shuttle is kept in a shuttle box. The picking mechanism is set in motion by the bottom shaft. cloth is formed and is held firmly by temples J to assist in the formation of a uniform cloth. The shuttle is pushed into the warp shed by a picker that gets activated by a picking mechanism. the warp yarns interchange positions in the shed and thereby cause interlacing to be achieved.Weft yarn J .geocities.Guide roller N . 1.Cloth roller Figure 1. around an emery roller or take-up roller L and a guide roller M and is finally wound on to a cloth roller N. As the sley reciprocates. which holds the yarns at uniform spacing and is also responsible for beating-up the weft yarn I into the fell of the cloth. the reed. also gets a to and fro motion.

drives the top shaft or crank shaft E. the following stop motions are used: The warp protector mechanism protects the warp from breakages during shuttle trap and stops the loom immediately. The two temple pieces located at the selvedges of the cloth control width. When the belt is on the loose pulley D the pulley will rotate but the crank shaft will not rotate. These two motions are operated simultaneously and at a constant rate. a belt fork can be used to change the position of the belt on the fast-and-loose pulley arrangement. A crank shaft gear wheel F and a bottom shaft gear wheel G drive the bottom shaft H. each power loom is driven by an individual By moving the belt to the fast pulley C the loom can be started or stopped at any time. Motor A. a take-up motion draws the cloth forward and winds it on to a cloth roller. i. The weft stop motion stops the loom if a weft thread breaks or the weft yarn gets exhausted. A single motor is used to drive the loom.geocities.e.1 Individual Drive In this method. Group drive 1. Figure 1. By means of a starting handle. This is more reliable and stops the loom instantaneously by a push-button control system. 1.New Page 1 Page 5 of 11 The shuttle is pushed into the warp shed by a picker that gets activated by a picking After beating up the weft into the fell of the cloth. The warp stop motion stops the loom when a warp thread breaks during weaving. a motor with an electro-magnetic clutch drive is used.6 Stop Motions To ensure good productivity and quality of cloth.7. The power required to drive a plain power loom is 0.html?200929 6/29/2009 . and thereby prevents the formation of weft-way cracks in the fabric.2 shows a simple driving arrangement commonly found in mills. The brake stops the loom instantaneously at any desired moment. Therefore the machine can be stopped. The let-off motion operates by the pulling action of the cloth. 1. In the latest looms. At the same time the warp is delivered from the weaver’s beam by a let-off motion. Individual drive b. The take-up motion is operated through a sley stud and gear mechanism.75 HP. http://www.7 Methods of Driving a Plain Power Loom Power loom are driven by the following types of drives : a. via motor pulley B and loom pulley or fast and loose pulley C and D. the rate of cloth take-up is so set as to be equal to the rate of warp let-off.

the ratio of the speeds of the crank shaft and the bottom shaft will be 2:1.New Page 1 Page 6 of 11 A .Motor B . the bottom shaft will have a speed of 25 rpm.Fast pulley .html?200929 6/29/2009 . the ratio of the number of teeth on the crank shaft gear wheel to that on the bottom shaft gear wheel is 1:2.Loose pulley E . 75 picks will be inserted in a minute. The ratio of the number of teeth on the gear wheels i. Therefore the crank shaft speed in rpm also indicates the picks per minute (ppm).Bottom shaft gear wheel (96 teeth) H . If the crank shaft has a speed of 50 rpm. a crank shaft speed = 60 rpm http://www.Motor pulley .Crank shaft gear wheel (48 teeth) G . The actual number of teeth in the two gear wheels could be 36:72. it is clear that : 1) Speed of the crank shaft = motor speed x = 960 x = 120 revolutions per minute (rpm) 2) Speed of the bottom shaft = Speed of the crank shaft x = 120 x Note 1. 2.2" diameter C . If it has a speed of 75 rpm.16" diameter D .com/wipro56/weaving/weaving.Bottom shaft Figure 1.e. Since the ratio of the number of teeth on the gear wheels is 1:2. i.Crank shaft F . etc. 3.e.geocities. 45:90.2 Individual drive in a loom From the figure. one pick is inserted. When the crank shaft makes one revolution.

4. which is in fact the main shaft of the system. 5. a common motor A drives an overhead shaft D via pulleys B and C. without any interloom connection.7. http://www. either to run the loom or to stop it. while all the other loom keep running. one for each loom.7. there will be a clear view of all the looms in the shed. The belts can be shifted on the corresponding fast-and-loose pulley. 6. The shed plan and layout of looms is neat and easy.New Page 1 Page 7 of 11 of 75 rpm indicates a pick insertion rate of 75 ppm. the lighting in the shed will be brighter and more uniform. The life of the transmission belt is comparatively greater in individual drive.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Loom Drives Individual drive The advantages of individual drive are listed below : 1. A number of pulleys E. It can be seen in Figure 1. a group of looms is driven by means of a common motor and an overhead shaft and belt-drive arrangement. 3. Due to the absence of a overhead shafts and moving belts. The main shaft runs from one end of the loom shed to the other. Each loom has a fast-and-loose pulley G which is connected to the corresponding main shaft pulley by means of a belt F. 2. There is therefore a considerable saving in Crank shaft speed indicates the loom speed. In case the motor of any particular loom fails. 4. 1. Power losses in individual loom drive are much less than the losses in a group drive system.html?200929 6/29/2009 .3 that in this system. This method of driving power looms is found in the de-centralised weaving sectors. The possibility of accidents is considerably minimised in the individual drive system as each loom and its drive is compactly arranged.2 Group Drive In the de-centralised weaving sectors. In the individual drive system.geocities. are fixed on this shaft. 1. that loom alone will stop running.

3 Group drive in a loom shed The disadvantages of individual drive are : 1. So. Advantages of group drive : 1.New Page 1 Page 8 of 11 A . 2. This results in poor loom-shed efficiency. Initial cost is low.html?200929 6/29/2009 .Common motor B G . High maintenance cost. Disadvantages of group drive .Fast-and-loose pulleys Figure 1.Overhead shaft driving pulley D . http://www. if it fails.Motor pulley C .Main shaft pulleys F . 2. Initial cost is high. 1. Higher power consumption. all the looms it drives are affected. One motor drives a number of looms. 2.overhead shaft or main shaft E . High maintenance cost.

There are greater chances of accidents due to the overhead and other interloom connections. The following are examples of non-automatic power looms. Jacquard looms 4. The large number of pulleys and belts in the loom shed will reduce the effective amount of light in the loom shed. 4.power looms These looms have only the basic mechanisms.8 Classification of Weaving Machines Looms are classified mainly into handlooms and power looms. Pirn changing automatic loom 1. a. 5. http://www. secondary and some auxillary mechanisms. Non. additional mechanisms are added to ordinary non-automatic power looms. These looms are becoming popular because of their advantages of versatility and relative cheapness. Examples : 1. primary.New Page 1 Page 9 of 11 3. Dobby looms 3. The layout for a group-drive system is complicated and presents a clumsy overall appearance. shuttle changing automatic loom. The power looms are classified further into the following categories. Automatic looms or conventional automatic looms To get high productivity and good quality of fabric. Drop box looms 5. Terry looms b. 1.html?200929 6/29/2009 . viz. Tappet looms 2.

The loom overlooker or jobber often adjusts the loom settings. This is generally done by keeping the reed or sley at a particular distance. it is better to state their timings in terms of the angular positions of the crank shaft which activates both the sley and the reed. In these Circular looms These looms achieve higher weft insertion rates because more than one shuttle is delivered at a time. Water-jet loom 3. the shuttles move simultaneously in a circular path and tubular fabrics are produced. shuttles are used for inserting the weft yarns. To study and set the mechanisms. 1. the radius of which is equal to http://www. Various other methods include rectilinear multiphase looms. Air-jet loom 2. Rapier loom 5. preparation of weft yarn and the weft insertion mechanism itself limit the loom production and fabric quality. Hence loom manufacturers have developed looms with various innovative and alternative means of weft insertion. from a fixed mark on the loom frame. they are also prone to mechanical problems in propelling the shuttle. Needle loom 6. These modern looms are known as “shuttleless looms” and some examples of the looms are : 1.html?200929 6/29/2009 .geocities.New Page 1 Page 10 of 11 c. Projectile loom 4. Shuttle-less looms or unconventional looms In the non-automatic and automatic looms. This can be done conveniently by means of a circle. We therefore need a simple and unambiguous method for identifying and stating these timings. This is convenient for practical purposes but not for studying the principles of weaving. as measured by a steel rule or a gauge. d. A Method for Indicating Loom Timing In a loom. In these looms.9. all the mechanisms must be set at correct timings in relation to each other.

com/wipro56/weaving/weaving. the terms top.4 Method for indicating loom timing By stating the crank position in terms of degrees. The timings are graduated on a wheel fixed to the crank shaft in degrees and a fixed pointer enables settings to be made in relation to the angular position of the crank shaft.html?200929 6/29/2009 .geocities. can be set and studied without any difficulty.4 shows a timing circle.New Page 1 Page 11 of 11 the length of crank and in which the centre represents the centre of the crank shaft. bottom and back respectively. Figure 1. picking. front. the mechanisms like shedding. Also. bottom and back centres are used to correspond to the 00. front. in these timings the crank positions correspond to the top. 1800 and 2700 positions of the circle. 900. Figure 1. The circle is graduated in the direction of rotation of the crank and is divided into four quarters. http://www. etc. The circle is known as crank circle or timing circle.

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