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Administration in India * P. Jagadeesh * Islampet,Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. Abstract: Labour welfare is the collective responsibility of state, management, trade unions and voluntary organizations. A bulk of labour welfare programmes are administered by the state in India. Some of the employers pioneered in welfare movement voluntarily on humanitarian grounds. Some employers have started welfare programmes for the benefit of the workers and their family members even in the earlier stages of industrialization in India. The need for labour welfare is felt more in our country keeping in view of productivity, efficiency, and industrial peace, rapid economic and social development. Labour welfare is collective responsibility. In this paper labour welfare principles which are administered in India along with the historical development of labour welfare is discussed. Introduction: Labour welfare can be defined as “efforts to make life worth living for workmen”. The term welfare is derived from the French phrase Welfare which means to „Farewell‟. The Chamber‟s dictionary defines the term welfare as “a state characterized by happiness, well being and prosperity”. The term welfare refe rs to the state of living of an individual or a group in a desirable relationship with total environment. Total environment refers to ecological, economic and social aspects. Welfare is a total concept. A man may be mentally brilliant, morally reliable and even emotionally stable, but as long as his physical health is poor and neglected his welfare could be described as incomplete. Labour welfare is an important dimension of industrial relation; labour welfare includes overall welfare facilities designed to take care of well bieng of employee's and in order to increase their living standard. It does not generally constitute monetary benefits nor these are provided by employers alone, it can also be provided by government, non government agencies and trade unions. Industrialization, mechanisation and globalization have increased importance of labour welfare in industries. The importance of labour in industrialization and economic development has been recognized globally. In global scenario need and importance of labour welfare has been increasingly appreciated. Historical Development of Labour Welfare: In the earlier stages of industrialization the conditions of labour were miserable. Long working hours, bad sanitary conditions, absence of safety and welfare provisions, exploitation of child labour were the regular features of factory life. In England, in the first quarter of 19th century, Robert Owen‟s attempt to improve the working conditions by ensuring shorter hours of work and minimum wage and by providing schools, housing, medical assistance and sick benefits were one of the pioneering efforts towards labour welfare. In 1802 under the guidance of Sir Robert Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.aeph.in 1
a new Factory Act was passed which limited the hours of labour of children less than 16 years of age to 61/2 per day. The constitution of India particularly the directive principles of state policy emphasizes the social responsibility of the industry towards labour welfare by directing the state policy towards enactment of suitable legislation for the welfare of workers. the organization has social obligation to provide welfare facilities to its employees. The nature of welfare work depends upon the organization‟s personnel and the unions. Principles of Labour Welfare Administration: The structure and functions of labour welfare administration depends upon the total work force and nature of welfare work undertaken at the plant level. The poor working conditions in mines were brought to the public notice only in 1842. preserving and increasing the efficiency of workers. During this period the concept of socialism began to influence the welfare movement in Europe. During the second half of 19th century. service and their efforts they putin.in 2 . The 20th century has been named as the “Age of the common man”. From the beginning of this century both Government and Industry have been constantly trying to improve working conditions. provided for time for meals and the appointment of Factory Inspectors to ensure the implementation of the Act. The following are the various principles of labour welfare administration in India: Principle of Social Responsibility: According to this principle. This was motivated mainly by the self interest of employers. Efficiency results in increased production and Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. The need for a scientific approach to labour problems was emphasized and special departments were created in many large establishments to look after all labour problems. The success of welfare administration of the organization depends upon the extent to which certain basic principles are observed. welfare is not a substitute for wages. The workers should be paid reasonable and fair wages which consumerate their qualifications. In 1844. the British Parliament enacted a law to regulate the health and morals of apprentices in cotton mills. Welfare programmes should be designed and implemented keeping in view the welfare of workers and their family members but not on the basis of wages.aeph. This Act limited the hours of work to 12 per day. The progress in improving working conditions was however slow and it was only in 1833 that the first Factory Act was passed which prohibited the employment of young children. the welfare movement slowed down and became less idealistic. Principle of Adequacy of Wages: According to this principle. limited the number of hours of work.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Peel. Wages should be paid as per the policy and procedures and the trade unions have the right to demand adequate wages. Principle of Efficiency: According to this principle. In 1817 Robert Owen first advocated an 8 hour working day for workers. abolished night work and regulated boarding arrangement. welfare is a means of securing.
collaboration and association of the workers. moral and emotional well being to the employees. It implies delegation of authority. While designing and administrating the welfare programmes at the organizations level this particular principle must be kept in mind.in 3 . It is a desirable state of existence comprehending physical. Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective productivity which ultimately benefits the organization. the welfare programmes and services of an organization must aim at helping the employees to help themselves in the long run. When responsibility is shared by different groups labour welfare becomes simple and easier. while planning and implementing the welfare programmes at the plant level. Principle of Accountability: Accountability refers to one‟s answerability for his or her performance relating to the assigned work. The persons or groups who are given authority and responsibility of certain welfare programmes are answerable to the higher authority of the organization. in the administration of welfare activities certain persons or groups must be made answerable to the management on their work. Principle of Responsibility: Responsibility is one‟s obligation to do the particular work. employees should have a say in planning and administering of welfare activities. Principle of Totality of Welfare: Labour welfare is a total concept. According to this principle. Principle of Authority: Authority means a legitimate right to do or assigning someone else to do the work. According to this principle. they are to be designed and administered in consultation. According to this principle. the welfare administration at plant level should make certain officers responsible for certain welfare programmes.aeph. So. mental. workers and society. in the structure of welfare administration the officers concern should have legitimate right to do welfare work and to delegate their authority in the welfare field to the persons and committees connected to labour welfare. Welfare work aimed at the time work workers and if it is for the workers or in other words to ensure the success of welfare programmes. Principle of Participation: According to this principle. total concept of the employee welfare must be taken into consideration. Labour welfare programmes must aim at total well being of the employees. Taking into consideration of this principle certain welfare programmes may be provided to the employees by themselves. Principle of Self – Help: According to this principle.
After independence. the welfare programmes and services may be altered or deleted or added to suit the requirements of the target group. The origin of labour welfare can be traced before independence. It is necessary to plan and administrate labour welfare programmes both inside and outside the factory which are helpful to the workers in repersonalisation. trade unionism and continuous and active involvement of state are the important influences of labour welfare in India.when a need is felt for a particular type of welfare work.in 4 . Principle of Totality of Employees: Employees are spread in the organization at different levels. Principle of Evaluation and Assessment: According to this principle. in conformity with the constitution of India so many labour welfare legislations were enacted. The authorities of the plant must make suitable arrangements in the structure of labour welfare administration to coordinate all the welfare programmes and services. The planning and administration of welfare programmes and services must accommodate all employees of the organization. the aim of the labour welfare should be counteracting the beneficial effects of industrial system. The improvement of labour welfare and increasing productivity with reasonable level of social security must be one of the prime objectives of the Government concerning social and economic growth. The labour welfare activities should pervade the entire hierarchy of the organization. then that should be done. it is necessary to periodically look back and evaluate the welfare measures in terms of their utilization and satisfaction levels of employees.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Principle of Co-ordination: There must be proper coordination among various welfare activities and they must be integrated with one and another keeping in mind the total concept and social concept of welfare as labour welfare is concerned with it and management should plan and act accordingly. Some attempts were made to regulate employment conditions in factories by enacting and amending the Factories Act from time to time.industrial employment. Based on this feedback. Nature of un.aeph. Principle of Repersonalisation: According to this principle. Conclusion: Historical development of labour welfare in India indicates that the immediate factor that affected the origin and growth of labour welfare is evil effects of industrialization. This evaluation and assessment gives the required feedback about the welfare work to the management. One can see the hierarchy in the organization right from the chief executive to the floor workers. Principle of Timeliness: According to this principle. Discovering what kind of help is required to the workers and providing this help are necessary in planning and implementing labour welfare programmes. Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. The timeliness of any welfare work helps its success.
3. Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations. Arun Monappa. Vaid K.V.N. 1970. Industrial Relations.M.in 5 . Labour Welfare in India.M. New Delhi. 4. New Delhi. Aspects of Labour Welfare and Social Security. 5. 2010.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective References: 1. Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.. Himalaya Publishing House. Mumbai. Principles of Labour Welfare. 1997. Industrial Relations. Himalaya Publishing House. Oxford & IBM Publishing Co.aeph. Sarma A. 2. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 1992. Moorthy M. Sarma A.
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