This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
*Dr. P. Madhusoodanan Pillai **Dr. B. Vijayachandran Pillai *Associate Professor, Gurudev Institute of Management Studies, Kadakkal, Kottappurama, Kollam. **Associate Professor, Department of Commerce & Management Studies, University of Calicut,Kerala. Abstract Retail is a broad category of occupations that includes salespeople, cashiers, and inventory stockers in grocery, clothing, hardware or other stores. The most common hazards in the retail industry include: Lifting and pushing such as handling heavy or awkward sized objects; Slips, trips, falls which are seen as slipping on a wet surface or falling from a ladder; using a bread slicer or power tools; occupational violence such as abusive customers or dealing with robbers; using cleaning chemicals products or spills from chemical products; continual harassment by supervisors or co-workers, etc. Some occupational hazards in retail, such as workplace violence, are also risks for attendants at service stations or other establishments serving the public and workers in retail food establishments. In addition to workplace violence, hazards can include musculoskeletal disorders from repetitive motions or lifting and poor indoor air quality. The Employees seem to be unaware about the relationship of their health and their work. Even if the worker is aware of the link between his health and his occupation he may not be able to prove it because sometimes it may take decades for the symptoms of the disease to raise their ugly head. Some hazards in workplaces tend to be quite subtle and may take months or years of repeated exposure in order for effects to become apparent. The present paper attempts to analyze various occupational hazards and the required welfare measures in Retailing Industry in Kerala. Key Words: hazards Indoor and Outdoor Air pollution, Unscientific Ergonomics, Fire
Introduction Safety and welfare measures are inevitable to any organization where workers are involved. An organization‘s responsibility to its employees extends beyond the payment of wages for their services. Providing a safe and healthy environment is a pre-requisite for any productive effort. This research deals with the study on the welfare measures provided to the employees. A worker in any industry cannot cope himself with the pace of the present day modern life without enjoying minimum amenities. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) were established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act passed by congress in the Employer ;responsibility to report Workplace Hazards and dangers ;responsibility to work in a manner as required by the Employer and use the prescribed safety equipment. Occupational Hazards in Retailing Industry include:
1 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.aeph.in
There is no evidence that back belts prevent back injury. and hoods. building materials.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective 1. Molds. blood vessels and nerves. spores. cigarette smoke. tendons. The management of ergonomics should be more scientific in the retailing industry. Meat wrappers can be harmed by the vapors of burning plastic wrap. as well as other pollutants from the area are common indoor air pollutants. store consumer products. A single air handling unit may handle several zones with different requirements within the store. A mechanical system must bring in fresh outdoor air. loss of use of the hands and wrists and permanent damage. All workplaces where these risks are present need an effective mechanical ventilation system. Work stations must be adjustable to be able to accommodate the wide variety of heights and strengths of retail workers. stock clerks put products on shelves throughout the day. including stock rooms. The system in your store may include a series of fans. ganglion cysts and tenosynovitis. heart and circulatory problems among retail store workers.in . These repetitive motions frequently result in conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome. These tasks contribute directly to the high rates of back injuries. asbestos and pesticides. Anti-fatigue mats 2 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. These conditions are serious. hernias. If unchecked. cleaning products. Indoor air pollution is caused by the build-up of vapors. A table may be necessary to bring products up to comfortable heights. 3. wet furnishings. These tasks often place excessive stress on muscles.aeph. particles. fungus and bacteria can accumulate in standing water. In many areas of a retail store there are workers performing jobs that require repetitive bending and twisting of the hands. via ducts. furnishings. The ideal height is generally between 2 to 4 inches below the elbow for delicate work and between 6 to 18 inches below the elbow for heavy work. mix it with the air that is already circulating inside the store and distribute the conditioned air to all areas. causing pain. Gases and particles from truck exhaust. The best height for a working surface depends on the worker and whether or not he or she stands or sits. The indoor sources of these pollutants can be human waste. fungus and bacteria in building air. heating or cooling coils. wrists and upper body. vents. Lift slowly and evenly. tendinitis. furnace water. 4. and department store staff stock and retrieve products from stockroom shelves frequently. The solution for working surface height is to make the surface adjustable to accommodate each worker. lower back pain. It is the duty of the retail employers to provide safety measures to resist indoor air pollution. Lifting and pushing Lifting is an important part of all retail store work. and air ducts. Outdoor air pollution Polluted outdoor air can be drawn into a building via the air intakes. where windows cannot be opened easily and doorway exits are often in remote areas. Unscientific Ergonomics The basic idea of ergonomics is the study of workplace design to fit the worker and not change the worker to fit into a poorly designed workplace. molds. these pollutions can cause severe respiratory ailments. Cashiers lift groceries during the whole work shift. Indoor air pollution Most retail stores are in closed buildings. fuel-fired furnaces. 2. ducts.
This keeps your hands at a safe location and distance from danger. Contact with energized equipment can cause shock.in . 6. temporary wiring and damaged electrical equipment. meat. 5. fish and freezer areas are especially hazardous in grocery supermarkets. aisles that are cluttered with boxes and uneven cracked flooring are all hazards commonly found in department stores. burns. especially when adequate training has not been given. causing loss of life and property damage. Fire hazards Fire hazards often exist in retail stores due to flammable and combustible materials. and it must be dealt with cautiously to ensure that nobody is hurt. and workers should be trained in how to use them. Protection from the cold can be attained by wearing proper clothing and the redesigning of your working situation. slicers. Fire extinguishers must be inspected regularly to ensure that they are in good working order. trips and falls are common causes of injuries in all retail stores. In supermarkets. Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) members in department stores. hot surfaces. 9. 7. Balers should have two handed stop and operating buttons that make you push both buttons simultaneously to operate. The employer should train you in the health hazards associated with exposure to cold. smoking and unsafe storage of chemical products. saws and other electrical appliances have exposed non-current carrying metal parts that can cause electrical shock when used near water. Similarly. slippery floors around produce. Slipping on a wet surface Slips. Electric shock injuries Retail. All spills need to be cleaned promptly. There is also the potential for shocks during routine maintenance and servicing if electrical lockout and tag out is not used to de-energize the powered equipment. Lack of Protection from Cold Retail. Safety measures should be taken in advance against electric shock injuries in retail out lets. It is better to have a pre-emergency plan than for chaos to result when a fire breaks out. foot rests. open flames. sparks. 8. cold box storage rooms and refrigeration trucks need proper protection from the cold. Electric shock injuries are a danger when retail workers are exposed to live wiring. Trash compactors and loading doors should be interlocked with the drive mechanism so that the unit cannot be operated unless the door is fully closed. Exit paths should not be blocked and must be clearly marked with exit signs that are lighted. and time needs to be allowed to clear clutter and waste from the aisles.aeph. electrical malfunctions. Wet. Trash disposal Trash disposal is a hazard that is present in most retail store situations. grinders.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective made of a soft material. 3 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. startle accidents and even death. Fire extinguishers must be available. stools and chairs can help relieve the constant pressure of standing for long periods of time. Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) members who work in cold environments like freezers. supermarkets and other retail stores may face hazards from exposure to live electricity.
electric shock injuries and lack of protection from cold. such as sweat to evaporate from the inside. lifting and pushing. selection. separate human resource strategies are adopted for the recruitment.01%) are more satisfied than female employees (88%) in respect of safety and welfare measure provided by in retail units.72 per cent of them are satisfied from this scheme. ESI facility. job rotation and interpersonal relationship Objectives of the study 1. and unscientific ergonomics. waterproof and layered.60 per cent of Managers are either satisfied or very satisfied in the safety and welfare 4 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. employees are working as per the norms of the Labour Laws of the Union Government and State Government. analysis and compilation of primary data. bonus leave facility. company. 32. It should allow moisture. slipping on a wet surface. The gender wise classification of sample employees shows that male employees (92. Data Analysis & Discussion In every Retail Unit. society and others type of retail units. EPF facility. slipping on a wet surface. In retail units. EPF facility. outdoor air pollution. fire hazards. work scheduling. In this case. Hypothesis It is hypothesized that the labour welfare measures adopted in the retailing Industries in Kerala are good. while preventing environmental moisture from penetrating to the inside. Regarding the welfare measures of employees. bonus leave facility have been analysed and tested.294 per cent of male employees are opined that they are very satisfied and 59. Clothing should be lightweight. 2. payment system. and placement and training of employees in sole trader. Methodology and Data Base Descriptive statistics is used for analyzing data. fire hazards. electric shock injuries and lack of protection from cold and welfare measures such as safety and welfare measures. trash disposal.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective the early signs of overexposure. 91. and unscientific ergonomics. To study the various occupational hazards in the Retailing Industrial units in Kerala. The welfare measures in retail industries in Kerala are: safety and welfare measures. In this study. To study the required welfare measures in the Retailing Industries in Kerala. The occupational hazards analyzed include: indoor air pollution. lifting and pushing. standard deviation and F -test have been used for the tabulation. perquisites. partnership. outdoor air pollution. Scope of the Study This papers attempts to explore various occupational hazards and the required welfare measures in the Retailing Industries in Kerala. payment system. The application of t-test shows that this difference is significant.aeph.in . trash disposal. The present study is based on 450 sample employees in 225 selected retail units in Kerala. ESI facility. perquisites. The Statistical tools such as mean. proper clothing and the safe work practices to use when working in cold temperatures. the occupational hazards such as indoor air pollution.
64 80 62. 13 4. Table 1.00 % 0.3 7 4 3.7 9 0. 00 292 4.0 0 9 7.aeph.2 7 38 32.2 9 33 20. shows the occupational hazards of sample employees and welfare measures in retail industries in Kerala S t a ti s ti c s S c o r e N N Female Accounta nt Nature of Job Security Staff Floor Manager Manager Occupational Hazards Fire hazards Trash disposal Electric shock injuries Safety and Welfare Measure s ES I& N N N N N N N N Frequency Slipping on a wet surface lack of protection from cold Lifting and pushing Characterist ics Tota l Me an SD F S i g .2 1 17 10. 36 4. 49 21 7. 00 12 100. 90 201 93 32.0 0 3 25.4 1 2 12.8 0 9 7.in . Next to managers. 02 66 56. 16 4.7 4 0 0.00 % 0.478 0 .49 15 5.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective measures. Accountants rank the second in the satisfaction of safety and welfare measures. 2 2 F= 1. 00 206 100.6 8 0. 11 4.7 6 68 288 100.6 0.0 0 8 36. 50 0 0.7 8 5 2. 21 4. 50 136 66.6 t= 2.93 % 0.3 0 4 25. 00 162 100.00 % 0. 0 3 1 F= 1.0 1 26 24. 00 128 100.5 9 5 Pollution 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Male Gender % 0.4 3 2 1.4 9 0. 21 4.7 6 17 172 59.6 9 50 24.0 3 14 6. 2 4.2 3 4 1.4 3 3 2.00 N 1 F= 2. 06 4.3 3 0 0. 0 8 5 5 Welfare Measures Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. 07 4. 08 4.3 6 38 29.35 % 0.6 2 0.438 0 . 50 8 66.6 0. 3 1 7 % 0.0 0 1 0. 00 116 100. 90 183 62.0 0 0 0.00 % 0. 0.158 0 . 67 14 63.00 % 0.0 0 1 8.6 9 0. 00 16 100.3 7 85 29.00 % 0. 00 107 100.6 6 0.1 7 9 8.153 0 . Ergonomics 7 2. 46 67 62. 72 110 67. 62 10 62.7 5 0.6 5 0. 00 22 100. 00 293 100.
Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective EPF Facility Leave Facility 1. David A & Myers John G. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Advertising Management: An Indian Perspective. Bhatia Tej K. New Delhi – 2008 4. Himalaya Publishing – 2001 7. New Jersey. 00 13 4. 00 125 100. Ltd.47 per cent of the Accountants are either satisfied or very satisfied.2 0 5. Think Two Products Ahead: Secrets the Big.2001 8. Ahmedabad . Agarwal P K.in . no statistically significant difference is seen in safety and welfare measures as per job wise classification of employees..7 1 4 3. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. Retail Management. Advertising Management. Vedamani Gibson. Robery F.8 2 15 12. New Delhi – 2007 10. Mishra M N. Chunawalla. Bombay.. New Dehi – 2002 3. Aaker. Mack Ben. the hypothesis that the labour welfare measures adopted in the retailing Industries in Kerala are good may be accepted. Jaico Publishing House. New Delhi – 2008 2. Ltd.aeph. 00 68. Cengage Learning. Therefore. Berman Barry. Macmillan & Co. Retail Management. Advertising Theory and Practice. Pragati Prakashan. Suja R Nair.2008 6.2009 9. Himalaya Publishing.0 0 100. Retail Management: Functional Principles & Practices.. 84 61 48. Retail Management: A Strategic Approach. Meerut – 2001 6 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Joel R.7 6 % 0. Advertising and Marketing in Rural India. 80 23. Himalaya Publishing House. Evans. Retail Management. Patrick M .2006 5. Bhatia S C. References 1. 18 1 0.2 9 45 36.00 Source: Survey Data In this case 91. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. However. Lusch. Sales Promotion and Advertising. Prentice Hall International – 2002 11.34 N 0 % 0. Dunne.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.