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in Tamilnadu *Dr. N. Fathima Thabassum * Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Shri Krishnaswamy College for Women, Chennai Abstract This paper analyses the occupational stress and difficulties faced by Beedi workers in the Indian Beedi making industry at Vellore district in Tamilnadu. The Chi square test reveals that there is no significant difference between the level of stress and the factors such as age, marital status, weekly wages and hours spent in the occupation however; there is a significant difference if the factors are gender and stress level alone. Through Correlation and Multiple regression analysis, it can be observed that major level of stress is due to domestic quarrels at home and health problems associated with this occupation of Beedi making. Introduction Indian beedi industry is an unorganized labour industry. It provides employment to 6 million people. The industry is estimated to produce 750 billion to 1.2 trillion Beedis annually according to a survey in 2006. Most of the Beedi making is done in the households of rural India. The work is carried under contractual, home-based piece rate system. The beedi workers live below the poverty line. Women and children predominate in Beedi making and they are prone to harassment in financial and social terms. Review of Literature Timber Basu (1977) describes Beedi workers in rural areas are bonded members. The distressed and pathetic situation of some of these households is seen in the practice of pledging their children and even adults to contractors against small amounts of loans. This is commonly reported from Tamilnadu (Nair, 1990; Dharmalingam, 1993; Gopal, 1998; Mehta, n.d.). Beedi making is always associated with women and very often it is known to be „women‟s work‟ (Datar, 1985). Another estimate of CITU claims that there are 50 lakh beedi workers in the country, of whom 70 to 80 per cent are women and children (quoted in Bagchi and Mukhopadhyay, 1996). Children working under contractors, overcrowded and poor workplaces, absence of any leave benefits, Child pledging and long hours of work, excessive rejection of Beedis, far beyond the stipulated 5 per cent are other commonly reported ones (Nair, 1990; Mehta, n.d.; Pande, n.d.; Dharmalingam, 1993; Karunanidhi, n.d.; Prasad and Prasad, 1985; Bhatty, 1986) Gopal (1997, 1999) highlights the high levels of tension among women beedi workers who are never secure about their status as workers. Their poverty, weak constitution, lack of rest, endless work, poor food habits have all been listed as factors making them susceptible to disease Pande (2001) reports that almost all the workers are aware of the health hazards in their work. Padmalatha (1995) reviewed that beedi rollers were affected by respiratory disorders, skin diseases, gastrointestinal illness, gynecological problems, lumbosacral pain and are susceptible to fungal diseases, peptic ulcer, hemorrhoids and diarrhea. Numbness of the fingers, breathlessness 1 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.aeph.in
low wages and level of stress. have also been reported in Beedi workers (Dikshit and Kanhere 2000. marital status. eye problems and burning sensation in the throat are common ailments in women beedi rollers. A closed ended questionnaire was constructed with 5 point Likert Scale to collect the response of Beedi workers in Vellore district. weekly wages and hours spent. Questionnaire comprises of two parts –The first part deals with demographic details. 2. Ho: There is no significant difference between domestic quarrel. Non probability convenient sampling technique is adopted. found that postural pains. 2. heavy workload. Statistical Tools The variables were evaluated by the Percentage Analysis. Mittal et al. Gudiyatham and Katpadi.aeph. To find out the factors influencing the common causes of stress among Beedi workers. using the software SPPS version 18. Multiple Regression analysis and Coefficient of Correlation. 2008). 3. The sample for the study comprises of 150 areas like from the areas of Ranipet Vellore town. Information has been collected using Primary and Secondary data. Secondary information has been collected through text books. To measure the demographic variables of Beedi workers at Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state in India. Psychological problems.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective and stomach pains including cramps and gas. Methodology The research used a descriptive design. Direct observation Direct Interview method is also adopted to ascertain the views of women Beedi workers. To identify the relationship between causes for the stress in the occupation. Chi-square. Ho: There is no significant difference between age. gender. internet sites and newspaper articles. health problems. Hypothesis of the Study 1.in . 2 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Objectives of the Study 1. the second part constitutes the factors determining the health of Beedi rollers. The period of the study was from September 2012 to January 2013. and degree of stress faced by the Beedi workers.
3 25 16.7 17 11.3 6 4 150 100 67 44.3 17 11.3 65 43. (Approx. on the job 7-10 Hours each day 11-14 Hours Above 14 Hours Total 7.3 66 44 45 30 7 4.7 150 100 11 7. Experience < 10 years 11-20 years 21-30 years 31-40 years Above 40 years Total Source: Primary Data 3 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Age 51-61 Above 61 Total Male 2.3 4 2.7 47 31. Family Size 6-7 Above 7 Total 50 51-150 Wage / day 6.7 29 19.7 150 100 60 40 90 60 150 100 50 33. Qualification Higher Secondary uneducated Total <3 4-5 5.33 47 31.7 150 100 18 12 44 29. Gender Female Total Primary Educational Secondary 4.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Analysis and Findings Table 1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents S. in 151-300 Rs.33 41 27.3 24 16 6 4 6 4 150 100 18 – 28 29-39 40-50 1.) 301-450 Above 451 Total < 3 hours Hours spent 3-6 Hours 6.3 54 36 43 28.33 12 8 150 100 32 21.in .3 17 11.aeph. Particulars No. Categories Frequency Valid Percentage 45 30 55 36.
in . Table 3 Chi Square Test S.47 % have less than 10 years of experience.3 4.30 9. marital status.51 to Rs. there is a significant difference between gender and stress level. 5.30 26.04 Table value 26. weekly wages and hours spent in the occupation however.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective From the above table it is clear that highest number of respondents were in the age group of 29-39.30 Remark Not Significant Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant There is no significant difference between the level of stress and the factors such as age.aeph.397 19.7 4 4 From Table 1 it is clear that highest frequency is recorded under high level of stress it is indicated that more respondents are suffering from high stress which is not good for a normal life.986 14. 150 per day 43. 3. 4 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Table 2 Degree of Stress Level Degree of Stress High Considerable Moderate Low Stress No Stress Total Frequency 64 39 38 7 6 150 Valid percentage 40 26 25.525 5. Factor Age Gender Marital Status Weekly Wages Hours Spent Degrees of freedom at 5% 16 4 4 16 16 Calculated value 19. No. 2.49 26. 44% of the respondents have four to five members in their family. 60% were females 33. 1. 4.3% work for 7-10 hours per day and 44.49 9.540 17.33% were primary educated. 36% earn Rs.
151 .433** . .000 150 .812 (2-tailed) N 150 health Pearson problem Correlatio .000 150 .022 150 .000 150 1.05 level (2-tailed).316 150 * Correlation is significant at the 0.in .433** .000 .214** .082 .187* .000 150 .009 150 stress level -.151 .190* n Sig. .187* n Sig. . (2-tailed) N 150 Heavy Pearson work Correlatio -.000 Quarrel n Sig.295** .432** .aeph. 150 .088 150 .348** .111 (2-tailed) N 150 Low Pearson Wages Correlatio . 150 .000 150 .000 150 .022 (2-tailed) N 150 -.000 150 .593 (2-tailed) N 150 stress Pearson level Correlatio -.131 load n Sig. .524** .020 150 .082 .088 150 .111 150 1.432** .140 .314** .000 150 1.020 .020 (2-tailed) N 150 psycholo Pearson gical Correlatio .01 level (2-tailed). The above table reveals the bi-variate correlation analysis to examine the relationship between the level of stress and various factors that influence the stress level of Beedi workers.066 150 . 150 .593 150 .000 .000 150 .295** .Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Table 4: Correlation Analysis Domestic Heavy Quarrel work load Domesti Pearson c Correlatio 1.066 150 Wages psychologi health cal problems problems .190* .020 problem n s Sig.348** 1.524** .214* . .009 150 1.000 . . 150 .316 150 .000 150 .000 150 .000 .812 150 .140 .131 . 5 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.044 .000 .000 150 .044 s n Sig.314** . ** Correlation is significant at the 0. 150 .
health problems. All requested variables entered. psychological problems.aeph.070 1.102. Error R Square of the Estimate . Heavy work load Variable Method s Remove d . Heavy work load. Domestic Quarrel.258. Low Wages. . Psychological Problems. Hence the Regression model is statistically significant and null hypothesis is rejected.in . Heavy work load Table7: Anova Mo Sum of del Squares 1 Regressi 18.102 . f(5. b.225 on Residual 161. Domestic Quarrel. Wages.319 R Square Adjusted Std. psychological problems. Enter a.119 low Wages. 6 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. F 3. P < 0. Dependent Variable: stress level Table 6: Model Summary Model 1 R . Domestic Quarrel. Low Wages.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Multiple Regressions Analysis Multiple regressions was employed to test the hypothesized relationship between domestic quarrels. health problems. Hence it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between level of stress and the factors such as Health problems. to find out the stress level of beedi workers based on these factors.Variables Entered/Removed Mo Variables Entered del 1 Health problems. psychological problems. Heavy work load b Dependent Variable: stress level Multiple regression model with all four predictors produced R2 = 0. low wages psychological problems and health problems and the stress level of beedi workers i. Table 5: Multiple Regressions .144) = 3.108 Total 179.258 Sig.008 a Predictors: (Constant).645 1.05 .0577 a Predictors: (Constant). Domestic Quarrel. heavy workload.333 df 5 144 149 Mean Square 3.e.
065 .851 .270 7.149 (Health Problems). .072 -. The Government has enacted three major central laws for the welfare of beedi workers.304 problem s Model Sig.201 (Domestic Quarrel) -. 27-28. the researcher created the regression of this survey.398 work load Low .000 . From the table.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Table 8: Unstandardiz Std.041 -. The Chi Square test reveals that gender and stress level are statistically significant. Standardiz t ed Erro ed Coefficients r Coefficients (B) (Constan 1. Vol – XXVIII No.692 .537 gical problem s health .285 (Heavy work load) +.aeph. 1976 and the Beedi Workers Welfare Fund Act. Conclusion The study results corroborate the fact that this type of labour is more stress prone and involve monetary difficulties.063 -. July 03. Female Beedi Workers in a South Indian-Village. 1976.588 Wages psycholo -3. They are the Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act.216 2.049 -. Level of stress = -.086 .These acts have helped to mitigate some common problems as given in the study to some extent.136 .114 .231 -2.in . References Dharmaliagam. The correlation and regression analysis confirm that domestic quarrels and health problems relate to the level of stress.982 .136(Low wages) -3.A 1993.159 1.073 -. 1966 (hitherto 1966 Act). relate to the level of stress.337 t) Domesti -.397 (Psychological problems) + . India 7 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.397 .007 .149 .753 c Quarrel Heavy -2.023 A closer look at the p values indicates that out of the five independent variables.201 . the Beedi Workers Welfare Cess Act. Economic Political Weekly Nakkeeran Senthilkumar A Study on Occupational Health Hazards Among Women Beedi Rollers In Tamilnadu.592 . only two variables Domestic quarrel and Health Problems due to occupation.
Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective Srinivasan. P.. Mutation Research.in . 2003 “Cytogenetic effects in workers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust”.P. “Impact of liberalization on bidi workers”. P. Swarna. 1997. M. Jyothi. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. A.. 8 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Padmavathi.P 2013 “Occupational Health Problems Faced By Female Beedi Workers at Khajamalai. and Reddy.. February.aeph.. Srinivasulu.S and Illango.B. 15 March Umadevi. 147– 154. K. in Economic and Political Weekly. Trichy District. 535(2). Issue 2. Tamil Nadu “Volume 3.
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