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in the industrialized Sector *Ritu Narwal * Asst. Professor at Govt. P.G. College for women Karnal (Haryana) Abstract: Workers in every employment can be faced with a multitude of hazards in the workplace. Industrial health and safety addresses the broad range of workplace hazards from accident prevention to the more insidious hazards including toxic fumes, dust, noise, heat, stress, etc. Preventing work-related diseases and accidents must be the goal of occupational health and safety programmes, rather than attempting to solve problems after they have already developed. Hazards in the workplace can be found in a variety of forms, including chemical, physical, biological, psychological, non-application of ergonomic principles, etc. Because of the multitude of hazards in most workplaces and the overall lack of attention given to health and safety by many employers, work-related accidents and diseases continue to be serious problems in all parts of the world. Therefore, trade unions must insist that employers control hazards at the source and not force workers to adapt to unsafe conditions. Management commitment to health and safety and strong worker participation are two essential elements of any successful workplace health and safety programmes. The most effective accident and disease prevention begins when work processes are still in the design stage. The present study focused on the various measures for protecting industrial hazards for the workers in industrialized sector. Here author also focused and suggested standards for improving quality work life at work place and tried to discover the nature of hazards in the different industries with some measures for the improvements. This study also covering the aspects of trade union and their role in the occupational health and safety (OHS). Keywords: Industrialized Hazards, World Health Organisation, India, labour, occupational health, occupational health policy, Trade Unions, QWL, OHS controlling techniques etc. I. Introduction Industrial health and safety is a key problem for physical condition of workers in the manufacturing units. Changes in the delivery of workers health care services raises concerns about whether industrial health and safety standards will be stick to by different industrialist. Increased violence experienced by health workers poses a new and growing occupational health problem. With changing occupational health and safety risks, legislation and standards need to be reviewed regularly, especially in relation to trade agreements that set international standards for companies operating in national environments. Since the 19th century, workers have organized in trade unions and parties to strengthen their efforts at improving workplace health and safety, job conditions, working hours, wages, job contracts, and social security. Cooperation between workers and their organizations and professionals has been instrumental in improving regulation and legislation affecting workers' health. Health promotion is 1 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www.aeph.in
Research on QWL reveals two types of influencing factors: organisationally driven and individually driven. and biological problems. monetary benefits. job satisfaction. It is imperative that these issues are addressed in order to protect workers‘ health. Article 42 of the Constitution states that ―The State sh all make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.in . provides conditions to 2 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. philosophical. and may have a direct bearing on QWL. However.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective rife with fundamental political. improves worker morale. Health promoters and related professionals are encouraged to support trade unions in their efforts to promote health for workers and other less privileged groups.II Quality of Work life and Trade Unions Quality of Work Life (QWL) is a broad umbrella term that covers a wide variety of programmes. gender.Most corporate list responsibility for workers‘ and local communities‘ we llbeing and quality of life in their corporate social responsibility manifestos. As Bhattacharjee (1999) observes. Previous studies have linked job satisfaction with motivation and have ultimately extended this link to quality of work life. and globally. psychological. Various unions and workers‘ organizations are struggling for implementation of health and occupational safety standards at the workplace to protect them from working under hazardous conditions. Organisationally driven factors include policies and procedures that deal with retaining employees. the union's collective voice provides management with information on workplace and shop-floor issues. and management styles through which organisations in general. and jobs in particular. ethical. Several studies have revealed that QWL is important for job performance. career advancement opportunities. such as training and education. focusing on political systems nationally. grievance handling. In the face of rapid capitalist globalization. techniques. are designed such that workers gain more The changing roles of trade unions in India autonomy and authority at work. Workplace related hazards. participative management. regionally. and welfare measures. acting thus as a communication channel. safety and security procedures. There is a wide gap in the availability of effective interventions to prevent occupational hazards and to protect and promote health at the workplace. as well as that of nearby communities and the public that may be impacted by the workplace practices as is evident from the struggles of our affiliates. and labour management relations. Trade unions can play a proactive role in the design and implementation of proper policies on the abovementioned issues to contribute to better QWL.I Occupational Safety & Health Workers health is determined by conditions of workplace and access to health services besides social and individual factors. labour turnover. I. unions represent a barricade in defense of workers' health and safety. socioeconomic. One factor among others that affect QWL is union-management relations. In India there is no single legislation to address health and occupational safety issues.Articles 24 and 39 (e & f) also address this issue especially with respect to child labour. Analysis of power and context is crucial. Effective implementation of policies on these issues may lead to high degree of satisfaction. accidents and diseases unjustly penalize workers most of whom do not receive any compensation or medical attention from employers or the state. Workplace related hazards. neither companies nor governments have seriously addressed these issues. mental and social well being). safety and welfare (physical. accidents and diseases unjustly penalize workers. This leads to the development and retention of specific skills.aeph. I.and ethnicity-related.
constituted about 30% of the organised sector workforce. in turn.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective eliminate quitting. which is the main legislation that provides various rules. as released by the Government of India. 3 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Objective of the study 1.III Trade Unions in India Trade unions in India are governed by the Trade Unions Act of 1926. surprisingly. has resulted in the loss of membership within these unions. III. Piyali Ghosh.aeph. 3. The union structure in India is rather well-developed despite the fact that only 20% of registered unions have sought affiliation to any of the other of the 13th Central Trade Union Organizations (CTUO). role of trade unions in occupational safety and health 5. The end result is augmented QWL. The extent of unionization in the country is as high as 90% within the public sector. and enables the union to pressure management to act fairly and efficiently in its daily operations. as reflected in their positive assessment of their union for looking after their interests. regulations and controlling mechanisms related to trade unions. is well recognized. Implementation of occupational health policies. The changing role of the government in India and the introduction of new technology have both radically altered the employment scenario. This study attempted to quantify union efforts to enhance QWL conditions. in its entirety. Individually driven factors generally include managerial style. Indian trade unions have. which. delegation. Ahmedabad) and unit-level unions. The study revealed a positive perception among nurses concerning the role of their union in QWL conditions. which was designed to explore.in . one interesting study worth mentioning here is Joshi's (2007). however. as perceived by four categories of women workers in Indian PSUs. Among several studies conducted in this area. however. industry-level unions (e. This. it is much lower in the private sector.g. Implications of trade agreements for occupational health and safety. remained focused on the formal sector. Workers have also been seen to move to alternate forms of trade unions. Shifts in job opportunities from the formal to the informal sector and increasing employment opportunities for educated and skilled workers have necessitated a paradigm shift in the approach and function of unions. with independent local unions centered on a particular plant. Shefali Nandan and Ashish Gupta The contribution of trade unions to the development of the labour movement in South Asia. The organisational pattern of a trade union federation is usually a three-tier structure. Textile Labour Association. which are beyond the scope of this study and hence have not been considered. 4. Suggest some measures for protecting industrial hazards and improvement of QWL (Quality Work Life) in the industrial sector. made possible by combining trade unions' traditional and new functions. been slow in reacting to these changes. indicate that the membership in unions that submitted returns to the appropriate authority under the Trade Union Act of 1926 was less than 2% of the total labour force in 1990. communication and interpersonal relations. Attention has. the issue of representation of the legitimate interests of women workers. 2. I. Unionization is almost nonexistent in the small and informal sector. comprised of national-level federations. Suggest several methods of preventing and controlling hazards in their own workplaces. while. as well as at the global level. Statistics related to labour. in turn.
and of byssinosis in textile workers is 8. stress.902. The Indian Council of Medical Research reported that the prevalence rates of silicosis in Bihar mines is 34.aeph. The proportion of the male: Female working population. including 37% back pain. and health have a long history. the current burden of accumulated occupational diseases in India is estimated to be at around 18 million cases. The Commission made 300 conclusions and recommendations in general. In addition. which ultimately leads to disease. These new transitions pose challenges to the healthcare system. silicosis. income. Despite proper evidence from epidemiological data or information systems.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective IV. such as.700 and 1. the National Commission found that both working and living conditions had improved somewhat in some sectors.000 deaths in India. in 2001. Industrialization and globalization are changing the occupational morbidity drastically. Engels. Marmot.. has reported that occupational risk factors account for a number of morbid conditions globally. Almost about 40 years later. exposure to toxic chemicals in the workplace. the reported range is between 6. and 121. occupation. which was 78:22 in 1991. 10% injuries. and Wilkinson. traditional public health concerns such as malnutrition and reproductive health gets importance in the health policy.4% in different parts of India. musculoskeletal disorders. New pathologies such as cancer. Literature Review The 1931. have estimated an annual incidence of occupational disease between 924. and this was first identified in 1948. 13% chronic obstructive lung disease. and so on. class. The World Health Organization estimates occupational health risks as the tenth leading cause of morbidity and mortality.5 and 30%. 9% cancer. Census 2001 reported that the growth percentage for female workers wais higher than that for male workers from 1991 to 2001. In India.5% of the global burden in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). 11% asthma. but effective enforcement was lacking. The World Health Report 2002. This increase rate led to certain concerns. 16% hearing loss. DGFASLI indicates that such linkages need to be contextualized within the developmental discourse globally. changed to 68:32. which has been explained by many great philosophers. of pneumoconiosis in coal mines is up to 45%. respectively. Villerme.in .1%. such as. the Royal Commission found the state of working and living conditions of Indian labor to be ‗horrible‘. the female workers had specific stress-related disorders. for asbestosis. and so on. but not in all. and 9%. adverse effects on reproduction. in their own style.300. in 1969. Leigh et al. Work hazards are also responsible for occupational diseases. The interconnection between socioeconomic factors such as poverty. 4 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. The burden of disease from selected occupational risk factors amounts to 1. with high costs of healthcare. Chadwick. Mckeown's. and 2% leukemia. 16 and 57%. For carbon disulfide and manganese poisoning the reported rates are as high as 27% and 24%. and lead poisoning. Dubos. because neither the tasks nor the equipment they used were adapted to their build and physiology. heart diseases. At the same time a general awareness about occupational safety and occupational and environmental hazards are not spread to the society. several pieces of information are available from to understand the occupational health situation in India. are on rise. According to Census 2001 and the Director General of Factory Advisory Services and Labor Institutes (DGFASLI) Report (1998). Similarly.
a double burden of work (workplace and home). solvents. Port worker .aeph. Tractor driver . V. 5. Mechanic . Other problems include noise. as many as 10 million industrial or mine workers in India could be exposed to asbestos or other dust at concentrations that could be of concern to their health. as well as the risk of fire with so much combustible material in the workplace. The condition of the cargo is also important as leaking drums or split bags can be very hazardous for the handlers. There is also exposure to dust from the material which can seriously affect the lungs. control banding. there may be safety problems from cuts and falls. and participatory approaches to improving the work environment are needed.One of the most serious problems with tractors is that they often overturn and. Occupational and environmental concerns were not two different issues. There is the problem of the intense light which can cause permanent eye damage as well as the fumes given off by the process which can damage the lungs. If spraying takes place on a windy day. Textile worker . there may be a sign on the side of a box or drum.Again hazards depend largely on the nature of the job and in particular the cargo being handled. Then there are the hazards of noise and vibration. Exposure to cotton dust can lead to the occupational disease known as byssinosis. Innovative interventions including work organization change. the spray can 5 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. Many pesticides and herbicides that have been banned in some countries because of their toxic effects are still used in many developing countries. but the information may not be in their language or in words that make much sense to the average worker.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective resulting from job discrimination (such as lower salaries and less decision-making).. 6. national and international coalitions. if they have no safety cab. First there is the problem of safety with many machines around that are often unguarded. back and other musculoskeletal problems as well as collisions with fast moving vehicles such as fork-lift trucks or delivery trucks. Mechanics can also have back and other musculoskeletal problems from lifting heavy parts or bending for long periods. to decisively improve the health of a large group of people. the driver can easily be crushed. 2. and sexual harassment. etc. Welder — A welder can be burnt from the sparks and there is always the danger of the work process starting a fire. Therefore. vibration and exposure to chemical herbicides and pesticides when being sprayed by tractor. and exposure to chemical hazards: oils.Depending on the precise nature of a mechanic's duties.The textile worker faces a variety of problems. 3. Measures for health and safety of workers in the different industrialized Sector: 1. participatory training. For example. cuts.in . Agricultural worker . 4.When spraying crops the worker may be exposed to hazardous chemicals contained in the spray. the right approach must be in the form of a movement that moves toward a specific goal that is conducive to health. cleaner production. and asbestos and exhaust fumes. Port workers often have no idea of the dangerous nature of the cargo. Other risks include falls.
musculoskeletal problems from lifting heavy objects. as well as the hazards associated with exposure to noisy machinery. hearing loss from noise. when purchasing machines. cuts.in . rinse and dry your skin completely to 6 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. not cost.Many people may think that office workers have no health and safety problems. For some workers there are the dangers of solder fumes or solder ―flecks‖ in the eye when the excess solder is cut off with pliers. Electronics assembly worker . cuts. Methods of controlling hazards VI. they can also suffer from back and other musculoskeletal problems. etc. 9.Construction workers face a variety of hazards. 7. falls. Construction worker . no matter what your job is. Personal hygiene Finally.II. but cost more in terms of accidents. extreme temperatures. slips. this is far from true. is the most effective method of control. Stress is one of the most common complaints. For example.The hazards of mining are well known and include the ever present danger of dusts. There are also dangers from working high up. or preventing it from entering the workplace. compensation. Office worker .I Elimination Elimination of a specific hazard or hazardous work process. loss of production. Wash your skin and hair with a mild soap. many used machines that do not meet safety standards are exported to developing countries. often in poor light. as well as exposure to chemical hazards from office machines such as photocopiers. trips. Unfortunately. particularly safety problems such as falls. 10.aeph. Machines should conform to national safety standards — they should be designed with the correct guard on them to eliminate the danger of a worker getting caught in the machine while using it. often without adequate safety equipment. Miner . Eliminate hazards at the “development stage” It is important to consider worker health and safety when work processes are still in the planning stages. etc. Machines that are not produced with the proper guards on them may cost less to purchase. explosion and electrocution. safety should be the first concern. etc. as well as the hazards associated with vibration. causing workers to pay the price with accidents.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective be breathed into the lungs and blown on to the skin where it can cause damage. Poor lighting. noise and poorly designed chairs and stools can also present problems. personal hygiene (cleanliness) is also very important as a method of controlling hazards. VI. slips. Because such workers sit still for long periods with inadequate seating. noise. 8. V. It can also be absorbed into the body through the skin.An electronics assembly worker can suffer eye problems from doing close work. and being hit by falling objects. fire. Your employer should provide facilities so you can wash and/or take a shower every day at the end of your shift.
this should fall within the realm of collective bargaining. It may seem that the amount of contaminant you can bring home on your clothes or skin is very small and cannot hurt your family.g. solvents. Lack of personal cleanliness can affect your family's health. conscious workers.in . who are able to control the work process. education and transition measures. safety and environment or technological change committees. Where there is a union. overalls. Strategies and steps for the improved conditions of occupational health status include: 1. Washing hands regularly. such as aprons. V. Every workplace should have some kind of first-aid facility Every workplace should have at least minimal first-aid facilities as well as adequate personnel trained to provide first aid. India urgently requires a modern occupational health safety (OHS) legislation with adequate enforcement. etc.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective protect it.. and generation of unbiased information about occupational health risks.aeph.III. In reality a small exposure every day for months can add up to a big exposure. wash them separately — not with the family wash. If you find any signs. Organizations representing employers and trade unions at the international level must agree on general guidelines and principles governing technological change and transition. new processes and bodies would have to be created. where wives of asbestos workers have developed asbestosis from exposure to the asbestos on their husbands' work clothes. this can occur within existing structures. occupational 7 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. joint health. introduced and reviewed at the level of production. and eating and smoking away from your work area help to prevent ingesting contaminants. These guidelines must clarify the role of governments in training. laws. then it means your protective clothing at work is not effective. VI. Before you leave work. etc. machinery. these should be cleaned regularly and you should inspect them for holes or areas that are worn out. e. wash/shower and change your clothes when necessary to prevent bringing workplace contaminants home. children have developed lead poisoning from exposure to lead which comes home on their parents' work clothes. Inspect your underclothes at home for any signs of contamination with oils. if you must wash them at home. Similarly. Where none exist. Workers who launder these clothes should be trained in the types of hazards they may work with and how they can be controlled.. laboratory coats. Leave your dirty clothes at work or. In some cases. Your family can be exposed to the hazards you work with if you bring chemicals and other workplace contaminants home with you on your clothes. First-aid facilities and trained personnel are important components of a healthy and safe workplace. hair or skin. A classic example of this ―spreading the hazard‖ involves asbestos. Conclusion Improvement of occupational health requires strengthened organization and appropriate leadership in trade unions. If you wear protective clothing at work. Workers and employers need a process to ensure that technological change is properly assessed.
7. F. (1992). 3. O. (1988).dec. R. American Trade Union Growth: 1900– 1960. 8 Archers & Elevators Publishing House – www. 43 – 45. Honkapohja. M.org/pdf_docs/Pnaby353. Paper presented in 4th World Symposium in Libya: The Crisis of the International Community on the Threshold of the 21st Century. S.Worker participation in occupational health and safety in Britain. Bangladesh Journal of Psychological Studies. 7. & Medoff. A Monthly Magazine of NTPC Unchahar. T. (2000) towards global social movement unionism? Trade union responses to globalization in South Africa. Elsheikh. R.. New York: Prentice Hall. Chaudhuri. 5. J.in . 2(1). 2. IRIS-India Working Paper No. Unionisation: A feasibility study for the indian software industry.. International Institute for Labour Studies. Glendon.QWL and job satisfaction of industrial workers in relation to size of the organization. International Labour Review. which are. The determination of the rate of change of unionization in the UK: A comment and further analysis. G. S. corporatism and macroeconomic performance. 399. VII. Driffill. E. Tripoli. (1999). Journal of Applied Economics. 435–451.pdf 6. 28 November–3 December.. 9.. & Giavazzi.Occupational Hazards and Welfare Measures – A Labor Perspective medicine. S. (1982). Ashenfelter. A. Hong. Ghosh. (1979). J.. C. A. & Geetika (2007). ‗worker fit for job‘ and ‗fit the job for worker‘. 11. A. What Do Unions Do? New York: Basic Books. so that the employer generates interest on the work and avoids lack of attention Need for policymakers to change their attitude toward occupational health and recognize that occupational health improvement is a vehicle for socioeconomic development Impose a strict vigilance upon hazardous materials by investigators. The government should also weigh the pros and cons between environment and health costs of our people and cost of importing them from elsewhere. Bhattacharjee. Labor Markets as social institutions in India. 6. 8. & Booth.. 83. 4. Dankert. (1969). World economic order and economic cooperation in the Middle East: Study on seeking after the economic cooperation between Korea and the Middle East in the 21 century. 10. J. References 1. Labour and Society Programme. and a proper awareness program.. D. 14–61. 2. L. (April). Bargaining structure. Haque. &Bain. P. Feroze Jyoti. 5. 3(6).Organized Labour and Economic Liberalization.aeph. http://pdf. 11. F. Calmfors. (1948). April 2008. 3. Economic Policy. Russian Management Journal.Contemporary Unionism. India: Past. & Pencavel. (1999). 451–463. 4. (1984). Quarterly Journal of Economics. Bezuidenhout. Present and Future. 2. DP/115/2000.Freeman. 10. 45–56. to catch up with the rest of the world Health awareness and factors to measure the safety analysis of the laborers working in particular industry Empowering positive trade unions so that they can play a key role in demanding occupational health improvements Making professionals available through training and development and enabling them to play an active role in the generation of information and knowledge through proper research Work should be given depending upon two principles. H. (1996).
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