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University of Calgary

Natural Gas Processing Principles and

Technology - Part I

April 2004

Author: Dr. A.H Younger, P.Eng

**Revised and Prepared by:
**

Dr Harald F. Thimm & Jason Sullivan

Thimm Engineering Inc.

214, 3916 64th Avenue SE

Calgary, Alberta T2C 2B4

Tel: (403) 265 - 0792

Web: www.hfthimm.com

Printed: 26 April 2004 - [Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I.doc]

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents ..............................................................................................................................i

List of Figures.................................................................................................................................vii

List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................xii

Purpose of this Document............................................................................................................xiv

Preface ...........................................................................................................................................xiv

1.0

Introduction ................................................................................................................1-1

1.1

Natural Gas ..................................................................................................................1-1

1.2

Why Process Natural Gas? ..........................................................................................1-1

1.3

Chemical Composition of Natural Gas .........................................................................1-2

1.4

Further Discussions on Pipeline Gas Specifications ....................................................1-6

1.4.1 Special specifications ...................................................................................................1-7

1.5

Definitions.....................................................................................................................1-8

1.6

Calculations Involving Gas Composition ......................................................................1-9

1.7

By-Products from Natural Gas....................................................................................1-10

1.8

General Processing Schemes ....................................................................................1-12

References ................................................................................................................................1-15

Reading List...............................................................................................................................1-15

2.0

Physical Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and Other Associated Compounds 2-1

2.1

Introduction...................................................................................................................2-1

2.2

Densities.......................................................................................................................2-1

2.2.1 Equations of State ........................................................................................................2-2

2.2.2 Compressibility Factors ................................................................................................2-6

2.2.3 Liquid Densities ..........................................................................................................2-18

2.2.4 Density of Cryogenic Liquids ......................................................................................2-18

2.3

Thermodynamic Properties ........................................................................................2-20

2.3.1 Outline of Properties...................................................................................................2-20

2.3.2 Enthalpies...................................................................................................................2-23

2.3.3 Correlation Methods ...................................................................................................2-27

2.3.4 Processes Using Enthalpy .........................................................................................2-28

2.3.5 Process Using Entropy ...............................................................................................2-29

2.4

Heats of Combustion ..................................................................................................2-29

2.5

Viscosity .....................................................................................................................2-33

2.5.1 Liquids ........................................................................................................................2-33

2.5.2 Gases .........................................................................................................................2-33

2.6

Thermal Conductivities ...............................................................................................2-36

2.7

Surface Tension .........................................................................................................2-36

2.8

Molecular Weights of Hydrocarbons (MW).................................................................2-36

References ................................................................................................................................2-39

Reading List...............................................................................................................................2-39

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**

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3.0

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Phase Behaviour of Natural Gas Systems............................................................... 3-1

3.1

What is a Phase? ......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.2

What are Some Phases and Their Features?.............................................................. 3-1

3.3

Why Study About Phases? .......................................................................................... 3-2

3.4

History .......................................................................................................................... 3-2

3.5

Single Component Systems......................................................................................... 3-2

3.6

Critical Points ............................................................................................................... 3-5

3.7

Vapour Pressure .......................................................................................................... 3-6

3.8

Summary - Single Component ..................................................................................... 3-6

3.9

The Phase Rule ........................................................................................................... 3-6

3.10

Systems of More Than One Component...................................................................... 3-7

3.11

Definitions .................................................................................................................. 3-12

3.12

Multicomponent Systems ........................................................................................... 3-12

3.13

Retrograde Phenomena............................................................................................. 3-13

3.14

Typical Reservoirs...................................................................................................... 3-14

3.14.1 Oil Reservoir .............................................................................................................. 3-14

3.14.2 Dry Gas Reservoir...................................................................................................... 3-15

3.14.3 Wet Gas Reservoir..................................................................................................... 3-15

3.14.4 Condensate Reservoir ............................................................................................... 3-16

3.15

Ideal Systems............................................................................................................. 3-16

3.16

The Sulphur / H2S System ......................................................................................... 3-16

References ................................................................................................................................ 3-18

Reading List .............................................................................................................................. 3-18

4.0

Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Data and Computations............................................... 4-1

4.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................. 4-1

4.2

Equilibrium Constants .................................................................................................. 4-1

4.3

Ideal Equilibrium Ratio ................................................................................................. 4-1

4.3.1 Raoult Law ................................................................................................................... 4-2

4.3.2 Dalton's Law................................................................................................................. 4-2

4.4

Modifications of Ideal Equilibrium Patios...................................................................... 4-2

4.5

Actual "K’s"................................................................................................................... 4-3

4.6

Measurement of Actual "K’s"........................................................................................ 4-4

4.7

Methods of Determining "K" ......................................................................................... 4-5

4.8

Convergence Pressure ................................................................................................ 4-5

4.9

How to Find The Convergence Pressures ................................................................... 4-7

4.10

Other "K" Data Using the Convergence Pressure Concept ....................................... 4-10

4.11

“K” Data by Means of Analytic Methods..................................................................... 4-10

4.12

A Comparison of the Methods of Determining "K" ..................................................... 4-16

4.13

Calculations Involving K Factors ................................................................................ 4-17

4.14

"K" Data for Special Compounds or Systems ............................................................ 4-21

References ................................................................................................................................ 4-25

Reading List .............................................................................................................................. 4-26

5.0

Water Hydrocarbon Systems .................................................................................... 5-1

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5.1

Why Do We Consider These Systems? .......................................................................5-1

5.2

Typical Water-Hydrocarbon Systems ...........................................................................5-1

5.3

Water Content of Natural Gas ......................................................................................5-3

5.4

Water Content of Liquid Hydrocarbons ........................................................................5-7

5.5

The Measuring of The Water Content ..........................................................................5-7

5.6

Hydrocarbons in Water.................................................................................................5-7

5.7

Hydrates .......................................................................................................................5-7

5.8

Conditions for Hydrates to Form...................................................................................5-9

5.9

Calculation of the Possibility of Hydrates Forming .....................................................5-10

5.10

The Prevention of Hydrates........................................................................................5-14

5.10.1 More Example Problems ............................................................................................5-17

References ................................................................................................................................5-19

Reading List...............................................................................................................................5-19

6.0

Flow of Fluids .............................................................................................................6-1

6.1

Introduction...................................................................................................................6-1

6.1.1 What is a Fluid?............................................................................................................6-1

6.1.2 Classes of Fluids ..........................................................................................................6-1

6.1.3 Other Comments ..........................................................................................................6-2

6.1.4 Definitions.....................................................................................................................6-2

6.1.5 Symbols........................................................................................................................6-3

6.2

Energy Equations .........................................................................................................6-4

6.2.1 The Drag Law ...............................................................................................................6-4

6.2.2 Energy Equation...........................................................................................................6-4

6.2.3 Basic Equation for Incompressible Flow.......................................................................6-5

6.2.4 Friction Factor ..............................................................................................................6-7

6.2.5 Flow Pattern in Pipe .....................................................................................................6-9

6.3

Liquid Flow ...................................................................................................................6-9

6.4

Gas Flow ....................................................................................................................6-15

6.4.1 Adiabatic Flow ............................................................................................................6-16

6.4.2 Isothermal Flow ..........................................................................................................6-18

6.4.3 Common Formula for Gas Flow .................................................................................6-20

6.4.3.1 Summary of Equations for Single Phase Gas Pipelines Using One-Step Calculation

Procedure .............................................................................................................6-23

6.4.4 Line Sizing..................................................................................................................6-26

6.4.5 Gathering Pipelines ....................................................................................................6-26

6.4.6 Gas Transmission ......................................................................................................6-26

6.4.7 Steam .........................................................................................................................6-27

6.5

Two Phase Flow .........................................................................................................6-27

6.5.1 General.......................................................................................................................6-27

6.5.2 Types of Flow .............................................................................................................6-28

6.5.3 Formulas for Various Types of Flow...........................................................................6-28

6.5.4 Liquid Holdup .............................................................................................................6-41

6.5.5 Pressure Drop Due to Elevation Change ...................................................................6-41

6.5.6 Method of Flanigan5 for Two Phase ...........................................................................6-41

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**6.5.6.1 The Flanigan Procedure....................................................................................... 6-41
**

6.5.7 Method of Gregory, Mandhane and Aziz10 ................................................................. 6-41

6.6

Measurement of Fluids............................................................................................... 6-47

6.6.1 Units of Measurement ................................................................................................ 6-47

6.6.2 Measuring Instruments............................................................................................... 6-48

6.6.3 Two Phase Flow Measurement.................................................................................. 6-50

6.7

MOVING OF FLUIDS................................................................................................. 6-56

6.7.1 Specification of Pumps............................................................................................... 6-56

6.7.2 Compressor Specifying .............................................................................................. 6-58

6.8

Example Problems ..................................................................................................... 6-58

References ................................................................................................................................ 6-62

Reading List .............................................................................................................................. 6-62

7.0

Mass Transfer............................................................................................................. 7-1

7.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................. 7-1

7.1.1 What is a Mass Transfer? ............................................................................................ 7-1

7.1.2 Types of Processes Considered .................................................................................. 7-1

7.1.3 Primary Concepts......................................................................................................... 7-1

7.2

Types of Diffusion ........................................................................................................ 7-3

7.2.1 Molecular Diffusion....................................................................................................... 7-3

7.2.2 Eddy Diffusion .............................................................................................................. 7-4

7.3

Rate of Diffusion........................................................................................................... 7-4

7.4

Mass Transfer Coefficients .......................................................................................... 7-9

7.5

Review of Processes Depending on Ideal Stages ..................................................... 7-13

7.5.1 Distillation................................................................................................................... 7-13

7.5.2 Absorption .................................................................................................................. 7-14

7.5.3 Stripping ..................................................................................................................... 7-14

7.5.4 Terms Used................................................................................................................ 7-14

7.6

Equipment .................................................................................................................. 7-15

7.6.1 Tray Types ................................................................................................................. 7-15

7.6.2 Tray Selection ............................................................................................................ 7-16

7.6.3 Detailed Tray Diagrams ............................................................................................. 7-17

7.6.4 Packing ...................................................................................................................... 7-18

7.7

Tower Sizing - Trayed Towers ................................................................................... 7-19

7.7.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 7-19

7.7.2 Diameter Determinations ........................................................................................... 7-19

7.7.2.1 Entrainment .......................................................................................................... 7-19

7.7.2.2 Flooding................................................................................................................ 7-19

7.7.2.3 Gas Loaded Towers ............................................................................................. 7-19

7.7.2.4 Liquid Loaded Towers .......................................................................................... 7-23

7.8

Tower Sizing Packed Columns .................................................................................. 7-24

7.9

Tower Height - Distillation .......................................................................................... 7-25

7.9.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 7-25

7.9.2 Two Component Distillation ....................................................................................... 7-27

April 2004: iv (366)

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**McCabe Thiele7 Method of Finding Number of Ideal Stages for a Two Component
**

System .......................................................................................................................7-28

7.9.4 Ponchon8 – Savarit9 Method for Number of Ideal Stages Use of H - X Diagram .......7-33

7.9.4.1 Analysis of a Fractionating Column ......................................................................7-38

7.9.5 Multicomponent Mixtures ...........................................................................................7-44

7.9.6 Efficiency ....................................................................................................................7-50

7.10

Tower Height Absorption ............................................................................................7-52

7.10.1 General.......................................................................................................................7-52

7.10.2 Absorption of a Single Component.............................................................................7-53

7.10.3 Multicomponent Absorption ........................................................................................7-54

7.10.4 Simplified Method for Finding the Number of Trays for Absorption (Short Cut Method) 758

7.10.5 Kremser Brown Method of Finding the Number of Trays for Absorption....................7-58

7.10.6 More exact methods for finding absorption factors.....................................................7-58

7.10.6.1 Horton & Franklin Method.....................................................................................7-58

7.10.6.2 Edmister Method...................................................................................................7-59

7.10.7 Encountered Problems ...............................................................................................7-59

7.10.7.1 Temperature Effects .............................................................................................7-60

7.10.7.2 Changes Throughout the Tower ...........................................................................7-60

7.11

Adsorption ..................................................................................................................7-61

7.11.1 Physical Adsorption (van der Waal's Adsorption).......................................................7-62

7.11.2 Chemical Adsorption ..................................................................................................7-62

7.11.2.1 Equilibrium Data ...................................................................................................7-62

7.11.3 Nature of Adsorbents .................................................................................................7-63

7.11.4 How Adsorption Proceeds ..........................................................................................7-63

7.11.5 Sizing of Beds ............................................................................................................7-63

7.12

Example Problems .....................................................................................................7-64

References ................................................................................................................................7-67

Reading List...............................................................................................................................7-68

7.9.3

8.0

Heat Transfer ..............................................................................................................8-1

8.1

Introduction...................................................................................................................8-1

8.1.1 Conduction ...................................................................................................................8-1

8.1.2 Convection ...................................................................................................................8-2

8.1.3 Radiation ......................................................................................................................8-2

8.2

Heat Exchange Equipment...........................................................................................8-3

8.2.1 Other Liquid to Liquid Exchangers ...............................................................................8-4

8.2.2 Air Exchangers .............................................................................................................8-5

8.2.3 Costs ............................................................................................................................8-6

8.2.4 Furnaces ......................................................................................................................8-7

8.3

Equipment Sizing .........................................................................................................8-7

8.3.1 Heat Exchangers ..........................................................................................................8-7

8.3.2 Fouling Resistances ...................................................................................................8-14

8.3.2.1 Considerations in Fouling Resistance Evaluation.................................................8-14

8.3.2.2 Typical Fouling Resistances .................................................................................8-14

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8.3.3 Condensers................................................................................................................ 8-16

8.3.4 Reboilers .................................................................................................................... 8-18

8.3.5 Air Exchanaers........................................................................................................... 8-20

8.3.6 Furnaces .................................................................................................................... 8-21

8.4

Specifying Exchangers............................................................................................... 8-22

8.4.1 Physical Properties .................................................................................................... 8-23

8.4.2 Material of Construction ............................................................................................. 8-23

8.4.3 Codes......................................................................................................................... 8-23

8.4.4 Mechanical Design Conditions................................................................................... 8-23

8.4.5 Performance Conditions............................................................................................. 8-25

8.4.6 Process Conditions .................................................................................................... 8-25

8.5

Heat Transfer to Buried Pipelines .............................................................................. 8-28

8.6

Example Problems ..................................................................................................... 8-36

References ................................................................................................................................ 8-40

Reading List .............................................................................................................................. 8-40

9.0

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.4.1

9.4.2

9.5

9.5.1

9.5.2

9.6

9.7

Chemical Kinetics ...................................................................................................... 9-1

Introduction .................................................................................................................. 9-1

Chemical Reactions ..................................................................................................... 9-1

Catalysis....................................................................................................................... 9-3

Reaction Rates............................................................................................................. 9-5

Classification of Reactions ........................................................................................... 9-6

The Order of a Reaction............................................................................................... 9-6

Reactor Process Design .............................................................................................. 9-9

Types of Reactors ........................................................................................................ 9-9

Material Balance ........................................................................................................ 9-11

Sulphur Plants............................................................................................................ 9-13

Example Problems ..................................................................................................... 9-15

Appendix 1.0

Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I ...................... 18

**List of Key Terms........................................................................................................................... 19
**

List of Example Problems ............................................................................................................. 22

List of Equations............................................................................................................................ 23

Reference of Key Equations ......................................................................................................... 33

April 2004: vi (366)

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**

University of Calgary

Printed: 26 April 2004 - [Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I.doc]

............................4-6 Figure 4.............................................2-34 Figure 2..2: PT Diagram ...................... °F ........Two Components (A & B)...............................................................8: Vapour Liquid Composition Diagram ........... Different Composition .4-10 Figure 5..........9: Non-ideal Temperature Composition Diagram................................Single Component .....................................................................Two Components.........................................................3-15 Figure 3..............................................................................5: Generalized Compressibility Factor Correction for Deviation from Simple Fluid .........2-9 Figure 2.........................................doc] April 2004: vii (366) ........................4-9 Figure 4.............................9: Effect of Temp............3-11 Figure 3......3: Pseudo Critical Temperature Correction Factor.....................................................................3-12 Figure 3...............................................3-15 Figure 3........................................2-35 Figure 3. “Normal Operating Range”.............................................................. Constant Composition ........................3-4 Figure 3......4-6 Figure 4...................... ε .....................................7: Temperature Composition Diagram ..............................2-20 Figure 2................................3-4 Figure 3.....4-4 Figure 4................................................................................8: Natural Gas Expansion-Temp..13: Dry Gas Reservoir Phase Envelope ......... ε ..................................Part I......1: Actual and Pseudo Critical Points .....6: PT Diagram ...3-13 Figure 3.................11: Retrograde Phenomena II.....2-28 Figure 2...........3: PV Diagram .........................................................4: Schematic Representation of P-T-x Behavior of a Typical Binary System ........................Search Main Menu List of Figures Figure 1..............3-10 Figure 3...........7 Sp..................... Gr......5: PT Diagram ...............................3-10 Figure 3...12: Oil Reservoir Phase Envelope ..............7: Enthalpy of Gases in Solution ............5-2 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .................Single Component .......2: Binary System "K's".....1: Temperature Composition Diagram Propane Water........10: Thermal Conductivity of Normal Paraffinic Hydrocarbons ..1: Comparison of "K’s" ...........14: Wet Gas Reservoir Phase Envelope..............1: Overall Gas Processing Scheme ...............2-32 Figure 2..........................2-14 Figure 2..........................2: Pseudo Critical Temperature Correction Factor... on Viscosity of Molten Sulphur ......6: Density of Remainder of System Grams Per CC ......................1-14 Figure 2......................................... Gas .......4: Generalized Compressibility Factor for Simple Fluid ........1: Three Dimensional Diagram for a Single Component................. Reduction Curve Based on ....Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...3: Effect of Convergence Pressure on “K’s”...........3-3 Figure 3...............................................................5: Lenoir & White Method for Convergence Pressure..2-15 Figure 2.......15: Condensate Reservoir Phase Envelope .......[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...3-16 Figure 4.........................................................................2-16 Figure 2....4: Winn Method for Convergence Pressure ...........................................3-11 Figure 3...........................................2-17 Figure 2.....................................................................................3-14 Figure 3..3-14 Figure 3....................10: Retrograde Phenomena I...................3-9 Figure 3.................. °F ............................................................

........................... 6-39 Figure 6..................... March 1958 ..................................7: Velocity Profile vs Reynolds Number.................................................................................................................... 6-1 Figure 6.............9: Optimum Pipe Size Determination...................... 6-35 Figure 6.......................... 6-32 Figure 6.................... 5-12 Figure 5.............11: Recommended Friction Factors for Gas Flow ......................................................................................................................... 6-17 Figure 6.......................................................... 6-2 Figure 6....Search Main Menu Figure 5........................ 6-33 Figure 6........................ 6-13 Figure 6...... 6-8 Figure 6..........................Part I.....6: Hydrate Chart for Sour Natural Gas (SI Units) ........................25: Venturi Meter ..27: Mixed Butanes from a Feed Tank................................................................................. 6-52 Figure 6................6: Flow Patterns in Pipe...21: Two Phase Flow Types .. 5-13 Figure 6................... 6-29 Figure 6....................................................... 6-5 Figure 6.....20: Bubble Flow Unit Loss .7: Hydrate Chart for Sour Natural Gas (Imperial Units) ...........................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..........4: Material Flowing Through a Heat Exchanger .............................................................................1: Distillation Tray .................................................3: Water Contents of Natural Gas with Corrections for Salinity and Relative Density .......................... 6-48 Figure 6... 6-57 Figure 7............................ 5-2 Figure 5.........2: Mass Transfer System .... 5-6 Figure 5.....................22: Orifice Plate Representation........................3: Physical Properties of Fluid ...18: Flanigan Efficiency Factor .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-37 Figure 6...1: Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Properties ............................................. 6-2 Figure 6.............14: Flow Pattern Regions ...................................doc] ......................................... 6-34 Figure 6... 7-3 April 2004: viii (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ........................................................................2: Pressure Temperature Diagram Propane Water .......................................................5: CH4 Dissolved in 25% NEA Solution ..........................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..12: Two Phase Flow Pattern Sketches.............................. 6-21 Figure 6...............4: Water Contents of Natural Gas Mixtures ........ 5-5 Figure 5........................................ 6-36 Figure 6........................................ 6-12 Figure 6.......26: Flow Tube ..19: Annular Flow Unit Loss..8: Friction Factor VS Reynolds Number ..............23: Pressure Drop in Orifice Plate ...........................24: Function of Gas Molar Density .............................................................. 6-9 Figure 6.............................15: Two-Phase Wave Flow.............16: Liquid Holdup in Pipelines ...2: Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Viscosities .............. 7-2 Figure 7................................................................... 6-52 Figure 6................... Oil & Gas Journal...............................17: Elevation Factor Correction Chart from Flanigan..........................................13: Two phase flow unit losses for dispersed flow........ 6-48 Figure 6............................................................... 6-9 Figure 6................................... 6-40 Figure 6..................................................................................................10: Maximum Flow of Compressible Fluid ............................................................................................ 6-51 Figure 6...........5: Friction Factors for Commercial Pipe ............................ 6-44 Figure 6......................................................................................................................... 5-8 Figure 5..................

.7-46 Figure 7.....................11: Tray Capacities .................................7-11 Figure 7....................19: McCabe Thiele Diagram .........................4: Mass Transfer Across Film ................................................................7-47 Figure 7.............................................7: Flow Across a Tray ..................................................25: Calculation of Number of Theoretical Stages in Rectifying Section ......36: Counter Current Absorber................................................................................7-31 Figure 7.............................................13: Packed Tower Correlation......................................7-24 Figure 7...............................................35: More Absorption Curves ..........7-16 Figure 7............................................28: Minimum Reflux ......................................Search Main Menu Figure 7.........................................................................32: Gilliland’s Calculation for the Number of Theoretical Plates .....................................7-26 Figure 7.........................7-36 Figure 7..................14: Temperature Composition Diagram for Two Components.............................17: Tower Enriching Section .7-15 Figure 7...............7-41 Figure 7.....................22: More Ponchon .7-52 Figure 7................................................................7-54 Figure 7.............................................7-10 Figure 7.......................................................................................................7-40 Figure 7....................................................................doc] April 2004: ix (366) .........................................................................................7-22 Figure 7.................7-16 Figure 7.....................................................................................................................................................................29: Total Reflux ..................................................................................................................................................................7-23 Figure 7.........................................................................Part I.................................7-44 Figure 7....8: Bubble Cap Tray ..........................7-30 Figure 7...............................................................20: Ponchon ......................................................................................................................................7-28 Figure 7...12: Hold Up on Tray ............10: Sieve Tray ...................9: Valve Tray ....................................7-33 Figure 7.............................31: Economics of Number of Trays................................3: Mass Transfer Curve...............6: Typical Distillation System ....Savarit Diagrams ...5: Mass Transfer Curve..7-55 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...................33: Efficiency Correlation .......7-48 Figure 7...................................................................................37: Tray Numbering in Absorption ..................................................23: PS Tower Analysis Diagram ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-51 Figure 7................................................................................21: Vapour Liquid Program ..................7-26 Figure 7.............................................................................................................................7-41 Figure 7....................7-42 Figure 7................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...............................7-43 Figure 7.....7-16 Figure 7.........34: Absorption Curves......................27: Overall Tray Calculation........................26: Calculation of Number of Trays in Stripping Section.............................................16: Typical Distillation System for Two Components ..18: Tower Fractionation Section ...............................24: Further PS Diagrams ............................7-53 Figure 7.........................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......7-43 Figure 7...............Savarit Diagrams .........7-37 Figure 7..........................7-16 Figure 7...........7-12 Figure 7...................................................................................15: Vapour Liquid Composition Diagram ..............7-35 Figure 7.............30: Underwood θ Values..

... 8-25 Figure 8............... 8-24 Figure 8........................................ 7-63 Figure 7............................................................8: Typical Exchanger Configuration.........Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ............................. 8-4 Figure 8.............................................. 8-19 Figure 8................................................... 8-9 Figure 8..... 8-27 Figure 8.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-24 Figure 8........17: Gas Emissivity ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Search Main Menu Figure 7...................16: Absorption Efficiency of the Tube-banks .....................................................................................................................39: Temperature of Absorption ............ 8-27 Figure 8................... 8-25 Figure 8.1: Heat Transfer System.......5: First Order Reaction ......................... 8-6 Figure 8...............................................................Part I.............2: Radiation System.......... 7-57 Figure 7................................................... 8-2 Figure 8......................................................................12: Condensing Methods........................................................................................... 8-12 Figure 8........................................................................................................41: Component Adsorption Data ............................13: Multi-Component Condensing ........................................38: Stripper Operation ......9: Heat Transfer for Fluid Flowing across Tube Banks.....................................................18: Overall Radiant Exchanger Factor.........................................................5: Aerial Coolers .............................................................................. 8-28 Figure 9..... 8-12 Figure 8....... 9-5 Figure 9......................................23: Chiller Temperature Curve ...................................................42: Adsorption Progress with Time................................ 8-13 Figure 8..........3: Shell and Tube Heat Transfer Equipment ................................................................................................6: Typical Furnace ..............................................................21: Crossflow Exchanger without Baffle ............................19: Tube Layouts ........................................................................................................................7: Counter Current Exchanger............................ 8-5 Figure 8.7: Batch Reactor ........................................... 7-64 Figure 8.......................................doc] ...... 8-26 Figure 8................................ 9-8 Figure 9................. 8-18 Figure 8...................................................... 9-9 April 2004: x (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .............................................. 8-16 Figure 8...................................................6: Second Order Reaction .......................22: Crossflow Exchanger with Baffle ............... 9-4 Figure 9........................... 8-8 Figure 8.............................. 7-62 Figure 7....................... 9-9 Figure 9...3: Effect of Catalyst on Reaction Rate.............................................. 9-7 Figure 9........ 8-3 Figure 8....................1: Exothermic Reaction............2: Endothermic Reaction ............................ 8-7 Figure 8......... 9-5 Figure 9...................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...20: Single Component Condensing .............................................................40: Adsorption Curve ........................................................................................................................ 7-60 Figure 7............ 8-18 Figure 8..........................11: Thermal Resistance of Typical Uniform Deposits ......................................................................................................................................................................10: Tube Arrangement and Symbols ...................................4: Concentration Vs Time .........................................15: Heat Flux in Boiling..................14: Types of Boiling ..4: Plate and Fin Liquid to Liquid Exchanger ................

.......................................9-10 Figure 9.................................................................................................9: Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor...........10: Plug Flow Reactor.................................................................Part I.15: 2nd Converter in a Sulphur Plant .................11: Flow Reactor ...................8: Semi-Batch Reactor ......................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..9-10 Figure 9............................14: 1st Converter in a Sulphur Plant ...........................................Search Main Menu Figure 9...9-15 Figure 9........................................9-13 Figure 9.......Fractional Conversion.................9-14 Figure 9......................................doc] April 2004: xi (366) .........................16: H2S Converted to S ..................13: Start of a Sulphur Plant ...........................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .............9-11 Figure 9........................9-10 Figure 9.........12: Conversion Versus Reciprocal Space Velocity ....................................................9-17 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................................................................................................9-14 Figure 9.....

.....4: General Metric Specifications ............................................................. 1-7 Table 1.........2: Typical Pipeline Gas Composition .................................... 6-14 April 2004: xii (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................................4: Vacuum Systems ...............................................Allowable Pressure Drop .................9: Sulphur Product Specifications ....1: Typical Raw Gas Composition...7: Correction...........6: LPG Specifications..4: Comparison of Compressibility Factors ......................................... 1-13 Table 2............... 6-13 Table 6............................................................. 6-13 Table 6.............................. 2-30 Table 2..........1: Critical Data (Imperial) ..........................................5: Gas Composition .......................... 2-8 Table 2................................................3: Typical Pipeline Gas Specifications ..............Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ................... 2-4 Table 2............................................ 4-19 Table 5..........BWRS Equation ................................................................................... 6-10 Table 6.......... 1-11 Table 1........................7: LPG Specifications Metric Equivalents ...............................4: Recommended Ranges of Application of K-Value Predication Methods .1: Mixing Rules ...........[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......................... 2-4 Table 2.................................................................................................................... C......................................................1: Size of Hydrocarbon Molecules ... 2-21 Table 2..................................................Allowable Velocities...............................Search Main Menu List of Tables Table 1............................................................................... 2-31 Table 3...............2: Mixing Rules – BWRS Equation ...... 4-16 Table 4................................1: Recommended Velocities in Pipe ...........2: Hydrate Formation Conditions ........................3: Optimal Interaction Parameters mij ............................................2: Comparison of Experimental Methane K-Values at -75°F Taken from the C1 – C3 Binary Data................................................................................................8: Required Characteristics of Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...Part I.. 3-5 Table 3........................................................................................................ 4-14 Table 4...................6: Molar Volumes of Individual Components ........................................... 1-1 Table 1.................. 2-20 Table 2..2: Critical Data (Metric) ...................................... 1-11 Table 1..........5: Actual Compressibilities CH4 and NH3 .....5: A Comparison of a Dew Point Calculation Using Different K Data ............................ 5-9 Table 6...................................9: Properties of Natural Gas Components (Metric) .................................................2: Liquids ............................ 5-9 Table 5.......................................... 1-6 Table 1...................................................... 4-16 Table 4..............................Allowable Velocities................................................................ 1-1 Table 1......... 3-5 Table 4.... 1-10 Table 1............................................ 2-3 Table 2.............................................. 1-9 Table 1....................1: The Optimal BWRS Parameters ...................................................................3: Comparison of Natural Gas Condensate K-Values with those Predicated by Several Correlations for -100°F and 400 psia .................................................................doc] ...................................................8: Properties of Natural Gas Components (Imperial) ........................................... 2-13 Table 2............... for Volume Reduction of LNG Mixtures ........................................................................................... 4-16 Table 4.....................3: Gases ...............................

..3: Packing Characteristics...........................................................................................................................doc] April 2004: xiii (366) ..........8-6 Table 8............................................................................1: Exchanger Costs ......8-29 Table 8.....................................5: Steam Systems ...Allowable Pressure Drop ..............................6-22 Table 6.7-13 Table 7................................................................................8-15 Table 8...................................................................4: Overall Heat Transfer to Ground ..................................1: Boiling Points for Light Hydrocarbons .........6: Roughness Data.........................................................................8-21 Table 8........4: Common Reflux Values...............Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...............8-33 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...............................7-47 Table 8..........6-42 Table 7.............7-18 Table 7.2: Comparison of Fouling Models..............................................................................7: Suggested Methods for Pressure Drop and Hold Up Calculations .....Search Main Menu Table 6...................7-25 Table 7.....................................................................................................3: Beam Lengths for Gas Radiation .........6-14 Table 6....................................5: Fouling Factors......[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......................Part I..........................................................2: Comparison of Tray Types ...................................................

Alberta Dr..doc] . Consultant. chemical and engineering principles used in the handling of natural gas. 2. E. Calgary. Page No. As these are practical problems. Ontario Dr.Part I. Latest edition is the 10th edition which is published in English Units only. Handwerk. N. Many different processing schemes are used to accomplish the same ends.E. Chakma. Toronto. R. At the end of most chapters. April 2004: xiv (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The Gas Processors Suppliers Association Engineering Data Book1 has been referred to extensively for data and other material as it is the basic reference book for the industry. Bishnoi. Calgary. During that period. To apply these principles to actual design and operating problems. Calgary. University of Calgary. and the other compounds obtained from them. Preface The gas processing industry in the past 25 years has developed extensively. P. Neotechnology Consultants Ltd. typical problems that might be encountered in industry are given. Goddard. This book tries to outline the major ways that this is being done.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . K. Stanford University. Berlie. Denver. Chevron Standard. Alberta 1 Published by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association and the Gas Processors Association.A. substitute natural gas. Many different qualities of gas have been discovered and are being processed. and to make the reader aware of the main areas of technology that are considered in gas processing and handling. Oklahoma. G.A. Calgary.Search Main Menu Purpose of this Document 1. K. more than the principles of the particular chapter have to be used to solve the problems. Alberta Mr. Gregory. G. University of Calgary. Calgary. These are. University of Calgary. This book is intended for practising engineers of all disciplines as a guide for them in the gas processing industry as gas engineers come from all branches of engineering. Western Research & Development. Heidemann. Alberta Dr. Palo Alto. Calgary.'s in the text refer to the Metric edition or the 9th English edition unless otherwise noted. their associated liquids. and at other centres in both North America and Europe. several people have lectured in various sections of the course and have helped in the preparation of the text. Alberta Dr. To study the physical. Colorado Dr. Aziz. California Mr.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A. This book has been developed from the lecture notes developed by the author for a course given by him at the University of Calgary in the Department of Chemical Engineering over the past 24 years. Tulsa.R. with the address when they participated in the course or their present address are as follows: Dr. Kilborn Engineering. Alberta Dr. Anderson.

Calgary. Alberta Mr. Calgary.Part I. Moore. SKM Consulting. Lore. Mohtadi.B. Alberta Mr. Calgary. Kyllo. Calgary. Canterra Energy. Paskell. Calgary. Calgary. Calgary. Svrcek. Lore & Associates. E.. Tollefson. Calgary. Alberta Mr. Parsons Company Ltd. H. D. Calgary. Alberta Mr. D. K. Alberta Mr.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .L. Mcoy. Petro Canada. J. G. Milne.Search Main Menu Mr. which is based on 1972 data. Alberta Dr. Calgary. University of Calgary.A. Alberta Dr. Leahey.G. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Alberta Dr. M. Alberta Also. University of Calgary. W. as the notes are based on the author's more than 30 years in the gas processing industry. Western Research. Kinsep. University of Calgary.C. University of Alberta. Alberta Dr. Alberta Mr.doc] April 2004: xv (366) . University of Calgary. Western Research. M. This is a much more complete reference book and as such will be used extensively in class. Wichert. England Dr. Calgary. R.G. E. Calgary. The more recent revisions have been made to bring the notes up—to—date and to show both metric units and English units whenever appropriate. Alberta Dr. There is now available a 10th edition of this book which was published in 1987 that gives English units only. Same.F. The problem of using metric units is that the source of much of the data is the 9th edition of GPSA Metric Data book. J. he wishes to acknowledge the many persons not already acknowledged who contributed data and suggestions incorporate in the book.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Y. Edmonton. Robinson. London. SKM Consulting. D. Ralph M. Alberta Mr. Western Research.

1 Main Menu Introduction • Course objective. such as nitrogen.25 0.85 Propane 1.48 0.94 Ethane 4.89 0.34 56. It is also generally saturated with water.15 0.32 0.21 0. • Simplified flow scheme of handling natural gas.2. • Typical definitions used in natural gas processing.87 1.41 3.00 CO2 2.45 H2S 4.49 0. • Typical gas analysis.11 Methane 85. carbonyl sulphide and various n~rcaptans.1: Typical Raw Gas Composition Geological Era Mesozoic (Baldonnel) Mole % Paleozoic (Kaybob South) Solution Gas Mole % Mole % N2 0. hydrogen suiphide and carbon dioxide.53 91.1. propane. in the raw state it often contains a considerable amount of non— hydrocarbons.doc] April 2004: 1-1 (366) . Table 1.37 17.Part I. isobutane.53 0. etc. etc.0 1. A typical composition of a gas that is sold directly as an industrial fuel is given in Table 1.71 0.50 7.2: Typical Pipeline Gas Composition Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .38 7. Natural Gas Natural gas is defined as gas obtained from a natural underground reservoir.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .69 13.48 1.12 Heptane plus 1.Search 1. It generally contains a large quantity of methane along with heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane.2 Why Process Natural Gas? Gas that is sold for commercial use is quite different in composition to the gas given in Table 1.30 Isobutane 0.18 - 4.15 Isopentane 0. Table 1. • The chemical composition of natural gas and the effect of these chemicals. Table 1. summary of Different fields touched on.94 2. normal butane.36 n-Pentane 0. There are some traces of such compounds as helium.48 Hexane 0. definition of terms.76 0.06 n-Butane 0. • Pipeline gas specifications and by-product specifications.47+ 1. Also.73 2.1 below gives some examples of the analysis of various types of gas.50 3.

Natural gases may have a similar complexity. naphthenic hydrocarbons. To change the raw gas in the reservoir. distillation. • CH4 . will be discussed later in the book. and non-hydrocarbon compounds.35 C1 91. or required for environmental reasons the H2S should be converted to elemental sulphur.Propane • C4H10 . which is at pressures from 600 psig (4000 kPa) or lower to 5000 psig (35000 kPa) or higher and is generally saturated with water vapour.2 it can be seen that the gases of the compositions given in Table 1. Even two wells producing from the same reservoir may produce gases of different composition as the reservoir is depleted. etc. The removal of these compounds requires an understanding of the laws of fluid flow. this project isolated 172 compounds. Virtually hundreds of different compounds may be present in natural gas in varying amounts.63 ____ iC4 0. to a gas of the composition of Table 1.30 0. have to be removed. The components of natural gas are either aliphatic (chain) or cyclic (ring) hydrocarbons.12 ____ Main Menu The gas that is sold is not specified by chemical composition. mercaptans. H2S and CO2 .4. Using a sample of Ponca City Field petroleum. These are given in Table 1. both hydrocarbon and water. but rather by a series of specific properties that have to be met. which determined the individual constituents of a naturally occurring petroleum hydrocarbon mixture.Butane April 2004: 1-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3 Chemical Composition of Natural Gas Natural gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon constituents and exists as a gas under atmospheric conditions.72 1. the major components in most natural gases are paraffin hydrocarbons with smaller amounts — usually only traces . 1. In fact.Ethane • C3H8 .31 ____ iC5 0. however.Search From a Field Plant Mole % From a Straddle Plant Mole % N2 0. The most common are saturated hydrocarbons.of olefin hydrocarbons. Also.63 98.29 ____ nC4 0. All the acid gas compounds.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Their structures are as follows.60 C2 5. along with others.3 and Table 1.1 will need considerable processing.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .05 C3 1. heat transfer. These subjects. must be removed. generally all the hydrocarbons heavier than pentanes are removed as well as considerable amounts of propane and butane.Part I. The complex nature of natural gas is exemplified by the American Petroleum Institute's Research Project 6. Fortunately. Aliphatic or Chain Hydrocarbons Aliphatic hydrocarbons occur in two forms: paraffin hydrocarbons and olefin hydrocarbons. all the free liquids. and if it is economical.Methane (predominant) • C2H6 .

doc] April 2004: 1-3 (366) . C2H4 .Propene C4H8 . The structural formulae for butane isomers are as follows: H H C H C H H H C H H C H H H Normal butane C CH3 CH3 CH3 Isobutane Olefin hydrocarbons Olefin hydrocarbons have the general formula of CnH2n and are classed as unsaturated hydrocarbons.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search • C5H12 . They usually occur only in traces.Pentane • C6H14 .Butene The structural formula for butene is H3C H2 C C H CH2 Cyclic or Ring Hydrocarbons Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Hexane • C7H16 – Heptane Main Menu The structural formula for methane is H H C H H Isomers Isomers are compounds having the same composition and molecular weight but different properties due to a different structural arrangement.Part I.Ethene C3H6 .

Search Main Menu Cyclic hydrocarbons also occur in traces most of the time. only the ring structures will be shown. They are of two kinds: naphthenic. toluene.Part I. Naphthenic hydrocarbons Naphthenic hydrocarbons are saturated cyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula of CnH2n Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane Aromatic hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons classified by the number of six— carbon rings in the molecule.doc] .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . hydrocarbons. and ethyl benzene are as follows: CH3 CH3 CH2 Benzene Toluene (Methyl benzene) Ethyl benzene Structures of more complex aromatics such as xylenes in which two or more methyl groups or side chains are attached to the benzene ring are shown below: CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 Orthoxylene Metaxylene Paraxylene Nonhydrocarbon Components Some non-hydrocarbon components of natural gas are as follows: Nitrogen N2 Carbon dioxide CO2 Hydrogen sulfide H2S Helium He Water vapor H20 April 2004: 1-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . and aromatic. For simplicity. The structures of benzene.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

can be used to absorb it. For example. monoethanol amine. The H2S content of gas is reduced to less than either 0.Search Carbonyl sulfide COS Carbon disulfide CS2 Sulfur S Mercaptans *RSH Main Menu Note: R represents an alkyl group Methyl Mercaptan and Ethyl Mercaptan Methyl mercaptan and ethyl mercaptan are the two mercaptan compounds most commonly found in natural gas. depending on the pipeline the gas is being sold to. The COS is generally broken down in the regeneration step with these agents. The sweetening process also is used for the removal of CO2 Carbonyl Sulphide (COS) This is a compound that often appears in raw gases with high concentration of H2S in them.doc] April 2004: 1-5 (366) . Thus. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This is done primarily by the process of sweetening. It has the undesirable property of forming nonregenerable compounds with one of the most commonly used sweetening agents. etc. Their structures are as follows: H H C SH H Methyl mercaptan H H C H2 C SH H Ethyl mercaptan The effect of the various compounds on natural gas will now be discussed. it will probably result in his death. Thus. The normal maximum acceptable concentration in pipeline gas is 2%. 1 grain pipeline gas contains less than 0.4 ppm) or 1 grain (16 ppm) per 100 CF of gas. but it is not nearly so undesirable.0016% H2S.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . It is one of the most dangerous of industrial gases. It is generally reported in grains per 100 CF (or in ppm or mg/m3). It should be noted that gases with high N2 content often have high helium content.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . This causes increased chemical consumption of this agent. Often gases of higher contents are accepted from small fields as it does not pay to remove the CO2 if only it is present. if a person is exposed to a concentration of 0.25 (.06% in air for two minutes. It does not support combustion and thus does not contribute to the gas. H2S has to be removed from the raw gas. Other sweetening agents such as "diethanol amine".Part I.. The actual metric specifications are 6 mg/in or 23 mg/m3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) This compound is an acid gas like H2S. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) This compound is the cause of the sourness in natural gas. Nitrogen (N2) This compound is quite inert and does not contribute to the gas in any way. "sulphinol".

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Propane (C3H8 or C3) This compound is a significant part of pipeline gas.3 lists the various specifications used for gas purchased in Western Canada.Search Main Menu Methane (CH4 or C1) This is the prime compound in natural gas. then it is generally more economical to absorb it and recover it as a liquid and sell it as a liquid fuel.~H10 or iC4) This compound is normally extracted as liquid.4 Further Discussions on Pipeline Gas Specifications Table 1. Isobutane (iC1.3: Typical Pipeline Gas Specifications Specification Item Trans Canada Alberta & Southern Westcoest For US Use Westcoast For BC Use Canadian Western Minimum Heating Value Btu/SCF 950 975 1000 1000 950 Hydrocarbon 15 @ 800 psia 15 @ 800 psia Free of Liquids Free of Liquids.7 MJ/m ). but in larger quantities make the gas offensive to certain consuming areas. Mercaptans (CH3SH . F Water Content 4 4 4 4 Equivalent to April 2004: 1-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . It is used as a component in the manufacture of high octane gasoline (alkylate). However. 15 @ 500 psia Dewpoint. if there is much present in the raw gas. 1.Part I. It has a considerably higher gross heating value than methane (1769 BTU's/SCF versus 1010 BTU's/SCF 3 3 of gas or 66. They are separated and are the primary compound in condensate. Pentanes and Heavier (C5H12 or C5 or heavier) These compounds appear in pipeline gas only in small quantities. Table 1. Ethane (C2H6 or C2) This compound occurs as the second largest component of all natural gases.methyl mercaptan or C2H5SH . It is generally used as a blending agent in motor gasoline. the reasons for some of the specifications are given.doc] .0% or greater. In the previous section. They are mostly in the form of liquids when entering the processing plant. say 2. However. in very small quantities can be used as gas odorants. a review of the other is necessary. n Butane (nC4H10 or nC4) This compound is normally extracted as a liquid.ethyl mercaptan) These are very foul smelling compounds that.0 MJ/m versus 37.

= Gross Heavy Value in BTU / SCF Specific Gravity This is a measure of the burning qualities of the gas.25 0.0 20 20 10 Carbon Dioxide. psig max. mole % No spec 0.0 No spec No spec 20 1. Heating Value This is necessary so that the consumer can properly set his firing equipment.4: General Metric Specifications Specification Minimum Traditional Value Rationalized SI Specifications 3 Heating Value 950 BTU's/scf 34.doc] April 2004: 1-7 (366) . Hydrocarbon Dewpoint Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .2 1 No spec Delivery Temperature.5 MJ/m Hydrocarbon Dew Point 15°F at 800 psia —10°C at 5500 kPa Water Content 4 lbs/MMSCF 65 mg/m H2S Content 1/4 grain/100CF 6 mg/m Total Sulfur Content 1 grain/100CF 23 mg/m 1. Most pipeline companies give a bonus for increased BTU content above 1000/SCF (on gross basis as explained in Chapter 2).[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . mole% 2 2 1 No spec No spec Oxygen Content. No spec 120 Delivery Pressure.4 0.25 1 1 No spec 0.4. 900 900 varies varies 500 Grains per 100 CF Mercaptans Grains per 100 CF Total Sulphur Grains per 100 CF Table 1. Gases mixed together should have Wobbe number within 10%.Part I.Search Lb/MMSCF Main Menu dewpoint Hydrogen Sulphide 1 0.20 5. F 120 120 No spec.1 3 3 3 Special specifications Equation 1-1 Wobbe No.

These can be. besides mercaptans.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . It is a hold-over from manufactured gas specifications. sometimes. Water Content This specification is necessary to prevent condensation of liquid water in the pipelines as the presence of free water is conducive to the formation of hydrates. When a deep cut extraction plant straddles a pipeline some distance down the line. — It is desirable to define several of the terms that will be used in the book. sulphur compounds can be a catalyst poison in some reactions involving natural gas.doc] . that is. Delivery Temperature This is set. 1. Some of the main ones are as follows: Raw Gas (natural gas) April 2004: 1-8 (366) Untreated gas from/or in the reservoir Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I. The specification of 14 lbs of water/MMSCF is equivalent to a dew point of +18°F (-9°C). It is particularly applicable for gas going to California as the customers there are used to very sweet smelling gas.5 Definitions Please also see GPA Publication 1167 77 "Glossary Definition of Words and Terms Used in the Gas Processing Industry". H2S Content This specification is explained in the previous section. O2 Content This is not an important specification as 0 is not normally present.Search Main Menu This specification is necessary to prevent the condensation of liquid hydrocarbons in pipelines transmitting gas to markets or in the lines feeding consumers. the better for the pipeline company.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . This is now included in Chapter 1 of the English Unit version of the GPSA Engineering Data Book. Delivery Pressure This is set so that the pipeline company can properly design their system. Total Sulphur This specification is also set for the same reason as the mercaptan specification. thiophenes and disulphides. The higher. this specification is not too important as long as free liquids do not form and remain in the transmission lines. to control the foul smelling compounds. to have consistent metering and also to protect pipeline coatings. As the lowest buried pipeline temperature that has been measured in operating conditions is +25°F C~l4°C) this specification gives a reasonable degree of safety. Also. CO2 Content This was discussed in the previous section. Mercaptan Content This specification is explained in the previous section.

Search Pipeline gas or Residue Gas or Sales Gas Gas that has the quality to be used as a domestic or industrial fuel.38 12. the pentanes+ BBls/MMSCF and propane+ in US gallons per MSCF for the gas given in Table 1.doc] April 2004: 1-9 (366) .12 -- C3 1.16 -- H2S 6. and/or a distributing company Sour Gas Gas that contains more than 1 grain of H2S/l00 SCF.1 gallons of condensate per 1000 CF of gas. Pentanes + The pentane and heavier fraction of hydrocarbon liquid. Rich Solution A sweetening solution containing absorbed acid gases. Mole % US Gallon per mole US Gallon per 1000 CF N2 0.156 iC5 0. Generally much more than this. Rich Oil Absorption oil containing absorber material. nC5.504 iC4 0.69 4. for a gas Gallons of liquid per 1000 CF of gas.15 6. let us calculate the long tons of sulphur/MMSCF.Part I.124 nC4 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . See GPSA data book for the various grades. This can be US or Imperial Gallons.1 gallons (U. 1.93 0.110 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . about 0. Rich Gas Gas containing a lot of compounds heavier than ethane. Condensates The hydrocarbon liquid fraction obtained from a gas stream containing essentially pentanes +.84 10.38 0.00 6. Lean Oil Absorption oil sent to an absorber.40 -- C2 6.413 (1000) 9.m. Main Menu Sweet Gas' Gas in which the hydrogen sulphide content is less than 1 grain per 100 SCF.42 0. C6+) and multiplying by 1000 and converting to BBls: Equation 1-2 0. g.p.30 10.S. Lean Gas Gas containing very little propane and heavier — or the effluent gas from an absorption unit.) of condensate per 1000 CF of gas.17 -- CO2 1.85 0.38 -- Cl 82.6 Calculations Involving Gas Composition Often it is desirable to calculate certain figures regarding raw gas based on its chemical compositions. For example. Natural gasoline A specification product of a certain vapour pressure. It meets the specifications set by a pipeline transmission company.7 US gallons of C3+ per 1000 CF of feed to an absorption unit. Wet Gas Gas that contains more than 0.30 13. Dry Gas Gas that contains less than 0.50 11.5: Gas Composition Comp.6 The pentanes plus content is determined by finding the US Gallons per 1000 CF from the table (sum of iC5.14 5. The effluent from an absorber.8BBls = 42 MMSCF Table 1. Lean Solution A stripped sweetening solution.

84 1000 0. April 2004: 1-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .197 gallons per 1000 CF. Table 1.6 1000 (for liquid propane) thus must be divided by 1000 to get to moles.6: LPG Specifications∇ Item Propane Butane Vapor Press.doc] . 34°F See Figure 15-50 in the GPSA Data Book for more complete Specs (or Fig.71 0. Max.08684 = 0.50 17.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .m.54 100 ⎝ 379 ⎠ 1000 CF The sulphur content is found as follows: 2.7 = 0. 100 23. The primary specifications for propane and butane are given in Tables 1.Search nC5 0.14 1000 32 100 0. and sulphur.7 and 1. 95 % boiling point ∇ Not a significant spec.84 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (10.072 *C6+ 0.46 0.06770 cu. The calculation of propane content alone is as follows: = US Gallons 1. mixed butanes (sometimes this is split into iso and normal butane). psig at 100 F 208 70 Residue or butane content % 2 Not a spec.4 English GPA Data Book).Part I.20 13.231 Total Main Menu 1.8. Propane and Butanes: The use of propane and butanes were given in a previous section.42 ) = 0. For propane find the m3 of C3 liquid per 1000 m3 of gas 1. condensate or pentanes plus.197 * Assume to have properties of nC7 The propane+ content of the gas as is shown in the Table is 1.32 LT 1.08325 By-Products from Natural Gas The by-products that are recovered from processing natural gas are generally propane. For sulphur content in tonnes (1000 kg) /1000 m of gas 6.84 10 6 32 = 100 379 2240 MMSCF The equivalent metric calculation is shown below. 2.0236 1000 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

2°C 3 343 343 3 229 229 Volatile sulphur mg/m (15 grains) Volatile sulphur mg/m (10 grains) In the HD-5 specification for propane. max 0. mg/kg. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . max Relative density. Table 1. mol percent. kg/m 3 Report (3) Unsaturates. Max kPa gauge at 37. max 0. No free moisture.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0 Dryness by valve freeze test. at 15°C. max (3) Report Butadienes.5 0.8°C 1434 95% BP Butane 483 -- 2. Vapor pressure may be calculated from compositional data. additional restrictions such as 10 grains of sulphur/100 CF. max 1 1 ISO 6251 Sulfur.8: Required Characteristics of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Item Commercial Propane Commercial Butane Method of Test 1550 520 ISO 4256 C4 hydrocarbons. max 50 50 (6) Hydrogen sulfide pass pass (7) Moisture content pass -- (8) Free water content -- None Residual Matter mg/kg. Corrosive Compounds Free from (#1 by copper strip) Free from (#1 by copper strip) "Valve Freeze" method of ASTM (Test D2713-81) Table 1. In the winter time Canadian companies often use a higher vapour pressure specification than allowed by HD-5 because of the cold conditions.doc] April 2004: 1-11 (366) .1 -- ISO 7941 Vapour pressure at 40°C.Part I.7: LPG Specifications Metric Equivalents Item Propane Vapour Press.0 ISO 7941 C5 hydrocarbons. mol percent ISO 7941 (5) (9) Note to Table 1. An ISO method is undek development. 5% maximum propylene (C3H6). max kPa (gage) Volatility C5 and heavier hydrocarbons.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Volatile suphur grains/lO0 CF 15. However.8: Certain national standards arA/or regulations may prescribe lower vapor pressure limits. mol percent.5 -- ISO 7941 -- 2.5 ISO 7941 50 50 (4) Report Report ISO 3993 Corrosiveness to Copper. in case of dispute about the vapor pressure. max 7. ISO 4256 shall prevail. mol percent. mol percent.0 Main Menu 15. 90% minimum C3 are added.

A detailed discussion of the chemical composition of condensate is given in a paper by M. Generally.05% C is present if their specification is met. A suitable ISO method is bein. and with no arsenic or selenium present.Part I. and often the quantity of butane is limited to 3% for full credit as pentanes + varies quite considerably both as to its distillation and as to its composition. Section 5. Sulphur Sulphur is generally recovered by burning the H2S recovered from the regeneration of the sweetening solution with a controlled amount of air. Until an ISO mothod is available. The following equations show the reactions that normally occur: + 1 . rich natural gas saturated with water are shown schematically in Error! Reference source not found. Gawlak1. Until an ISO method is available. Ethane One of the present Canadian specification for ethane is C2 95 Mole % Min. CO2 2. Pentanes Pentanes plus is normally just the heavier portion of the liquids recovered from a gas processing plant.0 Mole % Max.0 Mole % Max. C3 2. Relative density may be calculated from compositional data..5% pure. th appended Shell Method Series 5145 1513-2 is recommended. A suitable ISO method is being developed. a specification of 12-14 psia for a Reid Vapour Pressure has to be met. See Error! Reference source not found.1983 Annual Book of ASTM Standards.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . for Sulphur Specs. An ISO method is undet development. sour. 1. H2S 100 ppm Max.8 General Processing Schemes The steps in processing a raw. developed. Until an ISO method is available.5 O 2 H2S 2 H2S + SO 2 → H 2O + SO 2 → 2 H 2O + 3 S The specification for sulphur is 99. test in accor4~nco with a procedure that is technically equivalent to ASTM D-2420-81 (. Sect:ion 5. A suitable ISO method is being investigated.0 Mole % Max.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . It is brought to the surface via the tubing in the well where it is April 2004: 1-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . test in accordance with a procedure that is technically equivalent to ASTM D-2784-BO (1983 Annual bc'ok of ASTM Standar"s. page 699). yellow in colour. C1 2.Search Main Menu Certain nattotial star4ards may prescribe a limitation on unsaturgtes. page 344). Texas Gulf Sulphur have set up a colour specification that makes sure that less than 0.000 kpa) and 1500F (650C). The raw gas in the reservoir is assumed to be at 4000 psig (28.doc] .

Therefore. of course. The sulphur is a bright yellow if the impurity content is less than about 0. the gas enters a separator where the liquids are dropped out. These both must be removed so that the water dewpoint and hydrocarbon dewpoint specifications can be met. Note: The colour of sulphur is an important property because it gives an immediate indication of product purity. The gas is then transmitted to the processing plant via a pipeline. This is done by several processes. generally by a sweetening agent such as monoethanol amine (MEA). The gas is then sent to a sweetening unit where the acid gases are removed. glycol is added to the gas stream at the beginning of the process to prevent hydrates or freezing.99. and others. as the gas is transmitted to the processing plant. the heavy hydrocarbons may be removed by absorption and the water removed by dehydration. the gas may be chilled by refrigeration to below the dewpoint for both the water and the hydrocarbon so that the water and heavy hydrocarbon condense out.5% .25 ppmw of arsenic and 2. some of the water of saturation condenses out. but is still saturated with water vapour and still contains a considerable amount of heavy hydrocarbons. In this case. The gas leaving the sweetening unit is now sweet. however. etc.05% by weight Moisture Nil to 1.8% by weight (dry basis) Acidity (as H2SO4) Less than 0. sulphinol. will be conducive to formation of hydrates which will plug the pipelines. the gas will cool to ground temperatures of +250F (-40C) to 300F (-10C) and water will also condense out.: Purity 99. Table 1. chemicals. For sulphuric acid manufacturer.1% by weight Carbonaceous Matter Less than 0.140 kpa). This is conducive to hydrate formation. Since the gas cools. diethanol amine (DEA). This is for the use of 600 psi ANSI fitting valves.doc] April 2004: 1-13 (366) . The flow will be generally two phase. ◊ Contents of less than 0. at the well site hydrate prevention processes have to be used. if the distance is more than two miles. fertilizers. Upon entering the plant. when it is reduced in pressure. In another series of processes.5% by weight of carbon.15% by weight Arsenic. This.0% by weight Ash Less than 0.1% .0 ppmw of Selenium and Tellurium are usually considered as ‘Commercially Free’.Part I. Tellurium.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . "dark" sulphur in which the yellow colour has a shade of grey or brown usually contains 0.02% by weight. sulphur colour is usually less important than ash and heavy metal contents. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . These are either the heating of the gas to keep it above its hydrate point or the dehydration of the gas to remove the water. For example. Small amounts of carbon (soot) change the bright yellow colour to dull yellow or green. Similarly.0.9: Sulphur Product Specifications A sulphur product meeting the following specifications will normally satisfy the requirements of the major consumers of sulphur such as manufacturers of sulphuric acid.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu reduced in pressure to the operating pressure of the gas gathering line (normally less than 1440 psig) (10. Selenium Commercially Free◊ Colour Bright yellow at ambient temperature.

Part I. Figure 1.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The acid gas H2S and CO2 are sent to a sulphur recovery unit in which the H2S is reacted with 02 from air to form elemental sulphur.1: Overall Gas Processing Scheme April 2004: 1-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The CO2 and SO2 (that part of' the H2S not converted to S) is rejected to the atmosphere.Search Main Menu The liquid hydrocarbons from the separation facilities and from the hydrocarbon dewpoint control facilities are sent to fractionation facilities for the separating of the hydrocarbons into individual compounds.doc] . The recovery level of sulphur is set by governmental authorities.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

1971.F. 41. "Waste to Wealth".Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .. R. Gawlak. and All.A. G./Oct. F./Dec.Part I. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . R. 4. 1979.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . July 18. Younger. Oil and Gas Journal. Gas Processing/Canada. GPA 1985. "Natural Gas Composition and Productions" Energy Processing Canada. P. "Gas Processing in Canada During the Last 20 Years". Bergenson... Henningser. 3. Energy Processing Canada.doc] April 2004: 1-15 (366) . 32. Stenson. 2. 26 Reading List 1. "The Gas Processing Industry: Its function and Role in Energy Supplies". 1983. P. July/August 1974 P. Nov. and D. Friesen 1985. Richardson. Sept. M. "Gas Processing Developments Set Stage for 1984 to be a Banner Year". J. Cannon. Smith.Search Main Menu References 1. 5.

Search Main Menu .

Sciance. and C. Specific heats 4.Search 2. Another good reference is by C. • Heating value. Clover. Heat of reaction 9.8 From the above and from other data we are primarily interested in predicting the properties of mixtures of pure compounds at varying temperature.Part I. Enthalpies 5. C.doc] April 2004: 2-1 (366) . Also.1 Main Menu Physical Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and Other Associated Compounds • Physical properties. Introduction The physical properties of the fluids we are dealing with in natural gas processing are of prime importance in the design of equipment and facilities to handle these fluids. • Equations of state.2 Densities Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Shepvich. • Compressibility factors for gases and other physical properties. pressures and compositions.0 2. • Critical properties. Free energies 7. 2. 16-1. Thermal conductivities 11.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Entropies 6. Density of a liquid 3. Maxwell6 and Katz7 are good references. and on other pages. Density and/or the compressibility of a gas 2. give a lot of data for individual compounds and some data for mixtures. Some of the important properties are: 1. • Special effects of sour gas.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . A book providing the thermal properties of hydrocarbon has been published by Canjar and Manning16. Surface tension There are available for individual compounds considerable data on the effect of temperature and pressure on the various properties given above. Viscosities 10.J.J. For example the GPSA Data Book on Fig. Heat of combustion 8.M.

The Chemical Engineer 's Handbook gives data for the contents.Part I.1 Equations of State One of the first and most famous was developed by Van der Waals in 1873. This applies to pure compounds and mixtures of gases of similar chemical species. First we have the Ideal Gas Law: Equation 2-1 PV = RT for 1 mole of gas. Let us review some basic laws. There are two general methods of correcting the Ideal Gas Law equation: 1. It cannot be used for liquid vapour phase behaviour. The Ideal Gas Law is not too applicable to light hydrocarbons and their associated fluids. This law is a combination of the old Boyle's Law and Charles' Law. It assumes that the molecules occupy no space and have no attractive forces.doc] .2. b. April 2004: 2-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . By using an expanded equation of state 2. It is necessary to use more refined equations. B0. the sum of mole fraction of each compound present multiplied by the physical property of each pure compound at the conditions of the system gives the value of the physical property at the condition of the system. Equation 2-2 PV = ZRT This method is used a great deal in light hydrocarbon work. However. This law is used considerably. Another famous equation is the Beattie Bridgeman equation developed in 1927. That is. By using a correction factor in the equation PV = RT ie. It applies at low pressures and when compounds are a long way from their condensing temperatures. The equation is: Equation 2-4 P = RT ⎛ c ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟V 2 V ⎝ VT 3 ⎠ + A0 ⎛ a ⎞ ⎛ b⎞ B 0 ⎜1 − ⎟ − ⎜1 − ⎟ V2 ⎝ V⎠ ⎝ V⎠ where A0. and c are constants for a particular gas.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Let's start by finding the densities of gases. Another law that we use considerably is a form of Dalton's Law or the Ideal Solution Law. equations of state are coming more into use because of the availability of computers. For each compound a different value of "a" and "b" has been developed. This equation is: Equation 2-3 a⎞ ⎛ ⎜ P + 2 ⎟(V − b) = RT v ⎠ ⎝ where "a" is the attractive force between the molecules and "b" is the volume occupied by the molecules. 2. a. To do this we must calculate the compressibility of gases.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

3349 55.976469 2.98254 18.921051 6.686293 0.8648 0.15091 1.Part I.69663 0.940341 1.50851 2.424533 0.703241 1. N2.7335 (psia cu ft) (lbmole °R) To handle mixtures the following set of equations are used for each constant according to Hopke & Lin.942 0.3232 137.974169 20.00761 12.05085 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .26531 90. An equation that has been useful in the prediction of PVT in two phase regions is the BenedictWebb-Rubin equation (BWR). the constants for light hydrocarbons.327911 107. Table 2.31272 26.744 40. DO. These two previously mentioned equations are not used much now but rather the following equations are used.6431 46. The units used in this table are: Pressure = psia Density = (lbmoles) (cu.0615 75. AO.06 3518. developed in 1940.362181 15.50136 8.8356 101.) Temperature = °Rankine R = 10. a.751 207.41003 1. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . b.3431 62.99803 0.81 2894. d.69564 6.7312 75.674 113.39930 3.646 0.701 0.762197 3.473428 0. ft.04151 5.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .508281 5.19172 1.271 184.3092 52.683 284. For example.12799 3.884 412. and CO2 as determined by Hopke & Lin3 are given in Error! Reference source not found. CO. 1.75239 17.431 1056.82944 9.746 0.6999 160. c.356 159.128 131.48971 0.0384 1.2(BWRS) Equation 2-5 C D E ⎞ cρ 3 d⎞ d⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ P = RTρ + ⎜ B0 RT − A − 02 + 30 − 04 ⎟ ρ 2 + ⎜ bRT − a − ⎟ ρ 3 + ⎜ a + ⎟ αρ 6 + 2 1 + χρ 2 exp − χρ 2 T⎠ T⎠ T T T ⎠ T ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ( ) ( where: BO.1: The Optimal BWRS Parameters CH4 BO AO/10 4 CO/10 8 γ b a/10 3 α c/10 9 DO/10 10 5 d/10 EO/10 11 C2H6 C3H8 I-C4H10 N-C4H10 I-C5H12 N-C5H12 N2 CO2 0.559419 9.56 1381. α.36610 10.01020 3.861307 2.38780 1.2723 16.7125 84.doc] April 2004: 2-3 (366) ) .20325 3.30 0.93334 3.41699 1..6254 11.0981 437. and modified by Starling in 1970.32038 0.8476 120.633 349.41063 20.933 To handle mixtures the following set of equations are used for each constant according to Hopke & Lin. γ are constants for a particular compound.453145 1.10095 6.03845 2.684469 5.7246 18.026 195.26588 0.112862 2.61871 1.5050 0.7727 13.282061 3. EO.24116 7.48824 1.3874 97.698 257.37780 4.94592 23.95713 0.Search Main Menu This equation is the basis for the virial equation of state of which the one discussed next is a prime example.17606 4.2323 0.8025 1.54342 0.

998 1. Another common interaction coefficient is kij. Table 2.011 2.000 N-C5 1. and is equal to 2. are given in the following table.900 1. is the mole fraction of the "ith" component for the homogeneous phase under consideration.000 C3 1.Search Main Menu Table 2.913 1.921 1.999 2.2: Mixing Rules – BWRS Equation Equation 2-6 B0 = ∑ x i B0i b i 3 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ x i x j A0i 3 A0 j 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ m1 j C 0 = ∑ ∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ x i x j C 0i 2 C 0 j 2 ⎟ ⎠ 1 2 3 = ∑ x i bi 1 = ∑ xi a i 1 3 i ⎛ mij A0 = ∑ ∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 χ 1 = ∑ xi χ i 1 a 1 3 3 i 3 α 1 3 = ∑ x iα i 1 3 i c 2 1 3 i = ∑ xi ci 1 3 i ⎛ mij D0 = ∑ ∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 4 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ x i x j D0i 2 D0 j 2 ⎟ ⎠ d 1 3 = ∑ xi d i 1 3 i where xi.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .000 Carbon Dioxide 1.997 1.015 April 2004: 2-4 (366) Carbon Dioxide 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .000 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .997 1.999 2.002 2.996 1.doc] . as determined by Hopke & Lin. mij is the interaction parameter between binary mixtures.921 2.999 2. and parameters with subscript "i" refer to the "ith" pure component.928 1.887 2.883 1.998 1.999 1.000 I-C5 1. and C02.998 1.926 1.3: Optimal Interaction Parameters mij C1 C2 C3 I-C4 N-C4 I-C5 N-C5 Nitrogen C1 2.999 2.999 2.954 1. The values of mij between binaries of hydrocarbons.998 1. N2.894 1.000 Nitrogen 1.997 1.Part I.kij).943 1.000 I-C4 1.000 C2 1.883 1.996 1.999 1.000 N-C4 1.998 2.997 1.0 for i = j.913 1.000 2.898 1. mij = 2(l.

b. the compressibility factor as given in the other type of equation. Another equation of state that has gained favour is the Redlich Kwong19 equation which was published in 1949. or A. B are adjustable parameters of a particular gas and can be calculated from the gases critical properties.Search Main Menu Another set of mixing rules also using interaction coefficients (kij) has been proposed by Bishnoi & Robinson4 This equation is used for predicting all PVT data and vapour liquid phase behaviour of inulticomponent mixtures. This change is as follows: Equation 2-9 P= a (T ) RT − V − b V (V + b ) Or Equation 2-10 ( ) Z 3 − Z 2 + Z A − B − B 2 − AB = 0 Where Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4278 TC b = 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 b RT R2 PC RTC PC Soave9 recently proposed a modification that has been used for calculating equilibrium "k" data very successfully.5 V − b T V (V + b ) or Z.Part I. A2 = a R T 2.0867 2. can be expressed as follows: Equation 2-8 Z= 1 A2 ⎛ h ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ 1− h B ⎝1+ h ⎠ Where h= b BP = V Z where a. Equation 2-7 P= RT a − 0.5 B= 2 a = 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 2-5 (366) .

Another recent equation that has been proposed is the Peng and Robinson17 equation. i. For example. which can be expressed as Equation 2-12 P= a (T ) RT − V − b V (V + b ) + b(V − b ) This equation seems to cover the ranges of temperature and pressure very well.0 = ⎜ B0 RT − 2 A0 − 20 + 30 − 40 ⎟ ρ + 0. BWRS and EK equations can be used with liquids or for calculating enthalpies .5⎜ 2bRT − 3a − ⎟ρ ⎟ ρ + 0. 5 exp χρ γρ exp χρ + − − + − ⎢3⎜⎜ ⎥ ⎟ T ⎣⎢ ⎝ χρ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ( 2.doc] . etc.e. to use the BWRS for enthalpy.2 ) ( ) ( ) Compressibility Factors The second type of method is the correction factor method. the following equation is used for correcting the effect of pressure on enthalpy: Equation 2-13 4C 5D 6E ⎞ 4d ⎞ 2 7d ⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ H T .Search A= aP R 2T 2 B= bP RT Main Menu Mixing rules using the interaction coefficients have developed for the constants "a" and "b" or A and B.2. we apply a correction factor to the ideal gas equation: Equation 2-14 PV = ZRT V = volume of a mole of gas Z = correction factor and is a function of Equation 2-15 April 2004: 2-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . That is. Also most physical properties are calculated close to experimental values. P − H T .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2α ⎜ 6a + T ⎠ T ⎠ T T T ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎤ cρ 2 ⎡ ⎛ 1 − exp − χρ 2 ⎞ 2 2 2 ⎟ 0 . Equation 2-11 a ij = (1 − k ij )(a i a j ) where aij = constant for the a for a mixture of ai and aj kij = the interaction coefficient for the binary i and j.

4 Equation 2-16 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0 362 0.10 102 4 1.9 72 0.4 114 0.4 Therefore: pseudo Tc = 376.9 Comments Use properties of C8 18.62 765 4.7 72 0.Search Tr = T Tc Pr = P Pc Main Menu and Figure 16-3 through Figure 16-11 of the GPSA Data book give data on "Z" as a general correlation.9 iC4 0.1 nC5 0.4 710 35. Example Problem 2. Comp.0 58 0.60 343 318.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .65 227 3.1 376.31 914 2.99 550 27.5 C3 2.37 735 2. The "Tc" and "Pc" for mixtures are the so called pseudo values and are the values found by multiplyingthe mole fraction of a component present by the value of the property as if it was a pure compound and then summing the values.4 86 0. To handle mixtures.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . This is as follows: "Substances should have similar properties at similar corresponding states.14 846 1.3 C7+ 0. 7 670. 0 668 605.8 440 1.Part I.1 28 0.5 30 1.doc] April 2004: 2-7 (366) .1 Find the compressibility factor and the actual density of gas of the composition given in the table below when the gas is at 1000 psig and 100°F." This was developed by van der Waal.7°R pseudo Pc = 670.1 C6 0.19 830 1. Thus to handle mixtures we calculate the reduced temperature and pressure for the mixture and then read of f the proper "Z".0 16 14.4 iC5 0.9 psia average molecular weight = 18.2 nC4 0.5 C1 89.7 492 8. Mole % Tc°R pTc Pc psia pPc Mole wt p Mole wt N2 1.03 666 13.4 58 0. the law of corresponding states is applied.7 529 2.6 483 0.5 44 0. A corresponding state is that distance from the critical temperature or critical pressure expressed on an absolute basis.2 489 0.3 C2 4.7 551 3.6 616 13.

4.7 Equation 2-17 Pr = P 1014. The metric values in the problem are Pressure = 6996 kPa or 69.057 )(305) Figure 4-13 in Katz7 shows how well individual compounds compare. Atmos.685 1. 1a.880 0.059 gram cc ZRT 0.855 (82. C3 and C5 is shown in Table 2.700 0. For example at a Pr = 2.5 0.855 Now find the density of 1 cubic foot at the operating condition Equation 2-18 ρ= PM W 1014.1 0.855 (10.575 0.37 1. Example Problem 1a shows this problem done in Metric units.7 lbs cu. ft ZRT 0.4) = = 3.740 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .755 . 16-6 of the GPSA Data Book gives the pseudo critical pressure and temperatures versus gas gravity.73)(560 ) This method is pretty good for mixtures of light hydrocarbons or other similar groups of compounds. on Fig.doc] .48 Tc 376.52 Pc 670.905 .0 the "Z" for Cl .840 0. It should be noted that the April 2004: 2-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 ) = = 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .55 1.820 However the generalized compressibility chart can be used with good accuracy for light hydrocarbons with less than 5% N2 present. The actual density in gram/cc will be ρ= PM W 69 (18.620 .415 .7 (18. Table 2. It was developed by Standing and Katz10 For natural gases in which composition is not known.405 0.4: Comparison of Compressibility Factors "Z" Values Tr Cl C3 C5 From NGPSA Manual For Gas at These Conditions 1. Temperature = 32°C or 305°K Tr and Pr will be the same.3 0.Part I.9 From the graph on Figure 16-3 on the GPSA Manual Z = 0.7 = = 1.595 0.2 0.39 0.Search Tr = Main Menu T 560 = = 1.

3. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 2. Calculate the pseudo Tc and pseudo Pc for a mixture in the regular manner.doc] April 2004: 2-9 (366) . Fig.3 show this. Equation 2-20 ′ pPc = ′ pPc pTc pTc + B(1 − B ) ε where B is the mole fraction of H2S in the gas 5. Figure 2. Calculate pseudo reduced temperature and pressure using above data. Find sour gas pPc' from B is the mole fraction of H2S in the gas. Consider a phase envelope as shown in Figure 2. Find value for "ε" depending on the composition. A method has been developed by E.2 and 2. Figure 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The actual computer program is available through the CNGPA Research program.Part I.3 is just a blow up of the data at lower % acid gas.Search Main Menu pseudo critical temperature and pressure are not necessarily anywhere near actual values. This factor is a function of the % of H2S and CO2 present.12 The simple graphical method depends on finding "ε" the pseudo critical temperature adjustment factor. Find sour gas pTc' from Equation 2-19 ′ pTc = pTc − ε 4. 6. The authors have also developed a more detailed method using the Redlich Kwong equation that is applicable to a computer. The method is as follows: 1. Wichert and K. Aziz at the University of Calgary. This method is quite simple and has been Checked by Comparison of over 1000 actual measurements. Figures 2. 16-3 GPSA Data book. Read "Z" from regular Standing and Katz chart.1.1: Actual and Pseudo Critical Points For gas mixtures containing significant quantities of sour gas the “z” is not correct as calculated from the Standing Katz chart.

doc] .Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . April 2004: 2-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Example problem #2 shows how this is done.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

56 C3+ 0.6°C .35 223 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Find the compressibility factor for the gas of the composition given below and compare it with the measured value of 0.00 Using the regular method of finding the reduced pressures and temperatures we get: Equation 2-21 Pr = 2014 = 2. Z = 0.66 H2S 25.25 432 From the graph on Figure 16-3 of the GPSA Manual.Part I.44 834 Equation 2-22 Tr = 540 = 1.585 Next check by Wichert and Aziz method.671 at 2000 psig (13.36 401 300 = 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .65 CO2 4.28 ⎠ Equation 2-25 540 SourGas Tr = = 1. English Units ′ pTc = 432 − 31 = 401 Metric Units Equation 2-23 240 − 17 = 223 Equation 2-24 ⎛ 401 ⎞ ′ pPc = 834 ⎜ ⎟ = 770 ⎝ 432 + 6 ⎠ 223 ⎞ ⎛ 5750 ⎜ ⎟ = 5270 ⎝ 240 + 3.doc] April 2004: 2-11 (366) .83 100. Composition Mole % N2 0. The pseudo critical pressure for the mixture is 834 psia (5750 kpa) and the pseudo critical temperature 432°R (240°K).890 kpa) and 80°F (26.57 C2 0.73 Cl 67.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

with liquids present.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.7 ω= − 1. To find Z° and Z' figures 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . H20. then we can modify "Z" by use of the "acentric" factor "ω" and the value of "Z" for a simple fluid and the deviation from a simple fluid: Equation 2-28 Z = Z 0 +ω Z′ Z° is the compressibility factor for a simple fluid Z′ is the compressibility factor correction for deviation from a simple fluid.doc] .e. These are charts reproduced from an article by K.) ( ω = − log Pr 0 + 1. etc.62 770 13890 = 2.4 and 2. To actually find Z for a gas the following procedure is used: April 2004: 2-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . N2 or various unusual compounds such as could be more expected in petrochemical work) .69 Measured value was about 0. ω acentric factor is a measure of deviation from an idealized simple fluid (argon. If further refinement of "Z" is necessary (i.700 or by the equation Equation 2-29 Pc 3 log 14.69 0.Search Main Menu Equation 2-26 2014 SourGas Pr = = 2. Pitzer5.00 7 Tc − 1.S. krypton. Note: Whenever you have a sour gas containing 10% or greater acid gases you should probably correct the compressibility factors by using one of the sour gas correction factor methods.671.5 can be used. Figure 16—21 GPSA Data Book gives some data for "ω".00 ) at Tr = 0.64 5212 Equation 2-27 SourGas Z = 0.00 TB where Pc = critical pressure Tc = critical temperature TB = Boiling point This equation can be used for mixtures when individual "ω" are not available.

0.0308 + 0.5. Find Z° and Z' from figures 2.250 ωZ′ . 2.299 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .0 2.Part I.4 and 2.330 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 2-13 (366) .0383 Z = Z° + ωZ′ 0.0 Z° 0.0020 + 0.155 CH4 NH3 CH4 NH3 ω 0.0 2.0016 .0 Reduced Temperature (Tr) 1.5 after finding the systems Pr and TR Main Menu To see the effect of this change the following comparison between NH3 and CH4 is given in Table 2.958 Z′ .123 + 0.013 0.5: Actual Compressibilities CH4 and NH3 Reduced Pressure (Pr) 2.Search 1.250 0.960 0.997 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .328 0. Find "ω" for a gas mixture by multiplying the value x for each compound by the mole fraction of each component present.0. Table 2.0.013 0.

ε . °F See Metric GPSA Data Book for values in °C April 2004: 2-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .2: Pseudo Critical Temperature Correction Factor.

Part I. °F See Metric GPSA Data Book for values in °C Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 2. “Normal Operating Range”.3: Pseudo Critical Temperature Correction Factor. ε .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 2-15 (366) .

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .4: Generalized Compressibility Factor for Simple Fluid April 2004: 2-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 2.

Search Main Menu Figure 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5: Generalized Compressibility Factor Correction for Deviation from Simple Fluid Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.doc] April 2004: 2-17 (366) .

The various equations of state. containing less than 5 mole % nitrogen. Figure 16-15 GPSA Data Book shows how to do this.) to find system with C1 and C2.7) expresses an empirical density correlation for liquified natural gas (LNG). i. can also be used to calculate liquid densities as well.2. Another way is to calculate density exclusive of C1 and C2 and use the chart on P.Part I. Note that methane and ethane data are given as the apparent density. At high pressure it is necessary to correct the density. This procedure assumes ideal solutions. in the temperature range -140 to 184°C (-220 to -300°F) April 2004: 2-18 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . the BWRS. It is for liquids with a molecular weight less than 33. GPSA Data Book). 167 of the GPSA Manual (1966 Ed. oxygen and isoparaffins. Equation 31 (and Table 2.3 Main Menu Liquid Densities For liquids at low pressures and room temperatures the liquid volumes are additive and the liquid density can be calculated from the composition and temperature density charts (Fig. In fact most cou~uter programs of these equations give both the liquid and gas densities of a two-phase mixture. 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] . Figure 2.6 gives the data for this calculation.e.2. the Redlich Kwong.4 Density of Cryogenic Liquids As the temperatures of separation decrease any liquids produced contain increasing amounts of methane and ethane. 16-lZ.6 and Table 2. This procedure is based on the equation Equation 2-30 n V = xc1Vc1 + xc 2Vc 2 + ∑ xciVc1 i =3 where Vc1 and Vc 2 are the effective molar volumes of methane and methane.Search 2. Soave and the Peng-Robinson methods.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.Search Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] Main Menu April 2004: 2-19 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

7 2. These include enthalpy.Part I.0629 8. fr.0492 5 0.6 xm = mol.0404 2 0.0363 6 0.0639 2 0.0754 3 0.0768 2 0. wt.Search Main Menu Figure 2.0496 9 C3H8 44.042 0. of component "i" Mi = mol.9375 7 0.6: Density of Remainder of System Grams Per CC Equation 2-31 ρ= ∑x M i i ∑ (x V ) − x i i m C where: ρ = density in kg/cu meter xi = mol. or heat capacity.0480 0 0. Equation 2-32 ∆H = ∆E + ∆PV for a substance where: E is the internal energy P is the pressure V is the specific volume Table 2. latent heats and specific heats. 0.0484 1 0.0634 4 0.0620 8 0.0488 2 0.0758 9 0.0468 2 0.0625 2 0.0612 2 0. Mass kg/kmole -175°C -170°C -165°C -160°C -155°C -150°C -145°C -140°C CH4 16. of methane C = correction factor for volume reduction from Table 2.0772 9 0. of component "i" Vi = molar volume of "i" from Table 2. fr.068 0.0616 4 0.0412 6 C2H6 30.0763 5 0.3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .1 Outline of Properties Enthalpy or Heat Capacity "H" is the total amount of heat required to raise a unit of mass to a predetermined temperature and pressure from a base temperature and pressure.0396 4 0.O644 O n-C4H10 58. 2.0382 1 0.doc] .0782 6 0.0787 6 April 2004: 2-20 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0389 0 0.094 0.0472 1 0.0476 0 0.6: Molar Volumes of Individual Components Component Mol.0777 8 0.120 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0369 6 0.3 Thermodynamic Properties The next set of physical properties to discuss are thermodynamic properties.

70 0.54 0.65 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .03 0.42 0.0787 3 0.03 16. C.66 0.34 c x 10 m3/kmole.85 0.96 0.23 1.0909 9 0.0900 8 0.1071 6 N2 28.31 1.35 18.41 1.07 16.66 1.0306 1 0.1038 0 0.60 0.38 0.98 0.35 0.04 0.40 0.76 0.42 1.16 0.49 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16.71 0.0927 5 0.40 0.81 0.51 0.00 0.4 0.32 0.58 1.35 0.58 1.10 1.95 0.0889 4 0.79 0.1060 2 0.016 0.0468 3 0.0399 5 0.43 0.5 0.66 0.0915 2 0.48 19.46 0.70 0.Part I.53 0.40 0.76 1.38 0.27 0.0765 9 0.0 1.0760 8 0.26 1. for Volume Reduction of LNG Mixtures Molecular Mass of Mixture x1 M 1 -140°C -145°C -150°C -155°C -160°C -165°C 16.0440 7 0.1043 4 0.23 17.4 0.8 0.50 1.12 0.0849 6 O2 32.23 0.172 0.10 0.29 0.18 0.74 21.03 23.25 1.49 0.01 0.18 1.0591 5 0.11 16.57 19.24 0.0 0.0894 4 0.0 0.65 20.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0542 8 0.doc] April 2004: 2-21 (366) .31 0.33 1.21 1.12 0.0781 8 0.44 0.45 0.81 0.0 1.48 0.0906 0 0.34 0.26 25.0418 1 0.0922 1 0.0315 1 0.56 0.13 0.56 1.08 0.0933 0 n-C6H14 86.38 18.0 1.8 0.04 0.0755 7 0.39 1.15 17.61 0.49 1.76 0.0916 7 0.31 17.41 0.17 1.16 0.32 0.57 0.30 0.122 0.92 1.88 0.5 1.44 0.21 0.91 0.05 0.19 0.0399 6 0.35 1.0776 4 0.1032 6 0.27 0.27 17.05 0.83 1.10 1.0095 7 0.03 0.67 1.30 0.21 0.61 0.47 0. m3/kmole.1048 9 0.94 0.0325 2 0.09 1.15 0.0920 6 0.0336 7 -170°C -175°C Molar Volume.43 1.0792 8 n-C5H12 72.13 1.13 0.19 0.34 1.6 0.89 22.25 0.26 0.0 1.6 0.04 0.88 0.53 1.33 0.0502 1 0.60 0.0911 3 0.0 1. 146 0.25 0.37 0.15 24.2 0.06 0.55 0.0926 0 i-C5H12 72.19 17.10 0 -09 0.17 0.05 0.0298 0 0.1065 9 0.2 0.61 1.0904 7 0.65 1.52 0.146 0.0771 1 0.42 1.37 0.74 1.75 1.7: Correction. at various temperatures Latent Heat Heat required for a change of phase can be expressed by Clausius Chapeyron equation: Equation 2-33 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .48 1.Search Main Menu i-C4H10 58.23 0. at various temperatures Table 2.20 0.82 0.1054 5 0.85 1.75 0.120 0.0 1.0 0.

TS where: F is a measure of the useful work done exclusive of expansion work.Search Main Menu dP ∆H = dT T∆V Specific Heats This is defined as the amount of heat required to raise a unit of mass a degree of temperature. This equation is used in calculating the ratio of specific heats for a mixture which is used in compression calculations. at a constant temperature and pressure we can write: Equation 2-36 ∆S = ∆H T Free Energy We also will consider later another thermodynamic property called the free energy F. It can be defined by the equation: Equation 2-35 dS = dQ T where: Q is the heat absorbed by the system.Part I."S" Another well known property that is used in some calculations is the entropy which depends only on the condition of the system. Entropy .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . They are measured at Constant pressure Cp Constant volume Cv For a perfect gas it can be shown Equation 2-34 Cp = Cv + R for a mole of a compound where: R is the gas constant. Therefore.doc] . For a change of phase and for most applications we know dQ = dH.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . It is defined by the equation: Equation 2-37 F = H . April 2004: 2-22 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

in Katz7 and in the GPSA Data Book. 2. Also Maxwell. in Maxwell6.doc] April 2004: 2-23 (366) . These plot enthalpy versus entropy at various temperature. In the new English GPSA Data Book figure numbers are different.2 Enthalpies The enthalpies of pure compounds are given in many tables.3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . in Chemical Engineer's Handbook. 98 onward. In the Metric GPSA Data Book from Figures 17-4 to 17-9 there are Mollier charts for several compounds.Part I. It can be shown that Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . pressures. For mixtures of gases at high pressure there is a problem. etc. Similarly. gives data on individual compounds. Also we can write the equation: Equation 2-39 ∆F 0 P − R = ∆H 0 P − R − T∆S 0 P − R where: the subscripts P and R respectively represent products and reactants of a chemical equation. the book "Thermo Properties of Hydrocarbons"16 gives this data.Search Main Menu For a chemical reaction the change of free energy can be expressed by the equation: Equation 2-38 ∆F 0 = RT ln K where: K is the chemical equilibrium constant.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . p.

It makes use of the acentric factor "w" and the use of factors for a simple fluid and the deviation from a simple fluid.doc] . The basic assumption in that a mixture of hydrocarbons in vapour state has the same enthalpy of a single compound having the same mole weight as mixture. 133 shows a plot of the change of enthalpy vs Pr at various Tr where Pr is the reduced pressure and Tr is the reduced temperature. 150 psia to 3000 psia. These charts are good for doing a quick calculation of heat duties. A similar graph on P. Here are two: Total Enthalpy Charts In the GPSA Data Book there are a series of charts giving the enthalpies vs temperatures and mole weights at various pressures. P. 17-1. Charts are given for liquids and gas at an ideal gas. ⎜⎜ RT C ⎠ ⎝ April 2004: 2-24 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . These charts are generally good for gaseous mixtures. Curl and K.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .S.800 kPa. The equation used is: Equation 2-42 ⎡⎛ H 0 − H ⎞ 0 0 ⎟⎟ + ϖ H − H = RTC ⎢⎜⎜ ⎢⎣⎝ RTC ⎠ ⎛ H 0 − H ⎞⎤ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎝ RTC ⎠⎥⎦ 1 where: H° is the ideal gas enthalpy H is enthalpy at the desired condition ⎛H0 −H ⎜⎜ ⎝ RTC 0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ = effect of pressure on a simple fluid ⎠ 1 ⎛H0 −H ⎞ ⎟⎟ = the correction for the deviation from a simple fluid for pressure. Similar figures and data are given in the metric GPSA book from 1400 to 20. 136 show the effect with slightly different parameters for enthalpies.Part I. There are several methods. This method is explained in detail in the GPSA Data Book. Pitzer20.F. Curl and Pitzer Method Another way to calculate the difference in enthalpy at high pressures is to follow the method of R. We are interested in mixtures which complicate the calculations. 134 and P.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Equation 2-40 ⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎛ ∂V ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ =V −T ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂P ⎠ T ⎝ ∂T ⎠ P or with the compressibility factor Equation 2-41 RT 2 ⎛ ∂Z ⎞ ⎛ ∂H ⎞ = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ P ⎝ ∂T ⎠ P ⎝ ∂P ⎠ T Katz on P.

Assume Pk = 3000 psia.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . This is found by enthalpy calculations.20 iC5 0.01 0.006 30 0.666 0.67 0.005 44 0. Let's first see if there is much liquid condensed.Search Main Menu The values for these items are given in the GPSA Data Book as follows: H° is plotted vs.14 Solution First find the amount of heat to be removed in the chillers.09 nC5 0.196 0.3) ⎛H0 −H ⎜⎜ ⎝ RTC 0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ for a simple fluid is given graphically on Figure 17-13.62 C2 3. Mix Vapour P Mole Wt.09 C6+ 0. The following is the result of a computer flash calculation: Comp.586 0.00 C1 95.18 nC4 0. Moles of Feed k 937 0 Moles Vapour Moles Liquid Mole Wt P Mole Wt.Part I. Liquid C1 95.10 0. in Figure 17-1 & 17-12 ω is given in Figure 16-1 (Pg.26 C2 3.18 0. ⎠ 1 ⎛H0 −H ⎞ ⎟⎟ is given graphically on Figure 17-14.29 2.005 58 0.81 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .044 16 15. Component Mole % N2 0.29 nC4 0.36 C3 0. of P Mole Wt.177 0.10 0.046 0.20 0.91 0.90 2. Example Problem 2.89 iC4 0. Run a flash calculation at 0°F. 16.29 0.005 0.065 0. ⎜⎜ ⎝ RTC ⎠ To handle mixtures the procedure is to find the average ω by mole fraction pseudo Tc by mole fraction pseudo Pc by mole fraction Then use these values in the equation given previously.10 2.131 0.01 C3 0. temp.30 9.29 15.003 58 0.11 3.62 2. The example problem given below shows the application of the total enthalpy method.457 3.2 Calculate the duty required to chill 100 MMSCFD of a gas at 937 psig of the composition listed below from 40° to 0°F using propane as a refrigerant.174 95.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .67 iC4 0.doc] April 2004: 2-25 (366) .

6) Heat Content Inlet = 200 (186.42 99.198. flowing: 100.4C in and -17.09 0.12 4.086 0. Kg flowing = 2.06 0.831.11 0.000 KJ/hr Heat Content Out: Vapour = 440 (84670)(.004 72 Main Menu 0.06 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .94 = 84670 kg hr 23.94 32. Heat Content Outlet (convert mole liquid a gas % to mass %) Vapour = 170 (186.6 24 = 84670 kg/hr at 6200 kPa .037.06 3.4 = 500 KJ/kg gas H-17.79 C6+ 0.9985) = 37.94 = 186.0015) Total = 31. Flow is 283. (Figure 17-12 GPSA Data Book) HO°F = 170 for gas (Figure 17-14 GPSA Data Book) HO°F = -10 for liquid (Figure 17-14 GPSA Data Book and mole wt of 32.235 lbs hr 379 24 H40°F = 200 BTU's/lb.004 72 0.335.Part I.7 = 440 KJ/kg gas H-17.000.086 0.6) Heat Content Inlet 84670 (500) = 42.004 84 0.534 BTU's/hr Now let us do the problem in metric units.018 0.Search iC5 0.609.235) (.247.119 0.7 out. Number of lbs.06 3.918 kJ/hr April 2004: 2-26 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .92 16.Figure 17-11 SI GPSA Data Book H4.doc] .000 16.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .14 0.235) (.9985) Liquid = -10 (186.235) = 37.61 Let us use the enthalpy chart method.09 0.79 nC5 0. We will use primarily the 1000 psia chart.100 m3/day Pressure is 6556 kPa Temperature is 4.014 0.004 0.7 = -105 KJ/kg liquid (MW = 32.923 0.076 16.000 16.000 BTU/hr.466 B'IU's/hr Duty (Difference) = 5.

583 kJ/hr Main Menu Duty (Difference) = 5.88 NGPA . Here are the average deviations of the values of some of the important correlations. 185.3. A study of J.335kJ/hr Total = 37.3 Correlation Methods All the various correlations i.doc] April 2004: 2-27 (366) .4 KW 2.57 Rice Property III 1.149. use the data shown in Maxwell for gases in solution. When we have liquids and vapours occurring together we have to take into account the heat accompanying a change of phase or the latent evaporization or condensation. etc.new values 2. Redlich Kwong. 94 to 127.60 Modified BWR 1. We have been discussing essentially the enthalpies of gas. Latent heats for pure compounds can be found from the thermo property tables or the Mollier diagrams given in the GPSA Data Book from the data in Maxwell.e.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . BWRS. These of course are more accurate and should be used for detailed design.Search Liquid = -105(84670)(. shown in Figure 2. % Deviation from Actual Value % Deviation from Actual Value Power's Generalized Correlation 1.04 NGPA . Figures 17-14 and 17-15 of the GPSA Data Book gives enthalpies of saturated liquids.417 kJ/hr = 1440. give enthalpy data for each individual mixture.old values 11. Powers (presented at the 1971 Annual Convention of the NGPA) showed the results of 8 different enthalpy correlations at temperatures from -250°F to +250°F -156°C to +121°C) and at pressures from 0 psig to 2000 psig (101 to 13890 kPa). For systems that remain liquid the difference in enthalpy between two temperatures is found by multiplying Cp(T1 . Soave. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .00 The newer Soave.46 Johnson & Colver 2.67 CPY 3. p.0015) = -13. Peng Robinson correlations give much better accuracy. To handle the case of compounds at conditions above their critical points but still in a liquid.7.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . We should also discuss liquids and mixtures of liquids. Prausnik.T2) or subtracting the enthalpies.Part I.

e. Multiply each enthalpy by the wei~it fraction of the appropriate phase and add enthalpies together.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .7: Enthalpy of Gases in Solution Therefore. Therefore. 4. This is expressed by the equation Equation 2-43 ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ ∂P ⎠ H µ =⎜ where: µ = Joule-Thomson coefficient This type of expansion occurs through a throttling valve. Further. Calculate enthalpy of each phase at outlet conditions using compositions found from 2. can be used. Processes Using Enthalpy Joule Thomson Expansion. a well choke or a refrigeration chiller feed valve. Then proceed as follows: If you are chilling a rich gas in which there is lots of condensation and you wish to find heat duty: 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Also a chart such as Figure 15-23 of the GPSA Data Book on page 15-17. i. 5. the Mollier type diagram can be used to find the temperature on a change of pressure. Run a flash calculation at outlet temperature and pressure to see amount and composition of liquid and gas phases. The process occurs at constant enthalpy.doc] .3. Find enthalpy at inlet temperature and pressure 2. 3.the procedure when we have either vapourization or condensation occurring in an exchanger is to calculate composition of vapour and liquid at outlet condition as well as at the inlet conditions. Subtract enthalpy in 1) from 4) and multiply by lbs/hr flow rate to find duty in BTU' s per hour. Calculate the weight fraction of liquid and gas present.4 1.Part I. National Tank has published a good chart April 2004: 2-28 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 2.

as shown in H2S are present in the gas. The ideal gas heating value is calculated by the equation: Equation 2-44 H ideal = ∑ xi H i i where x1. A very important part of the calculation of this value is the reference state. See pg. H2 . In older gas contracts the gross value is stated as saturated with water vapour at 60°F and 30" Hg pressure. A calorimeter on pipelines measures the heat content as saturated with water vapour. This has been discovered by some field work by G. 2. + x n bn ) 2 A correlation for H if present is also given in the GPSA Data Book. whether it is ideal gas or liquid or whatever.5 Process Using Entropy Adiabatic compression or expansion takes place at constant entropy. x2 . In most applications in the gas industry the gross heating value is used.9825.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...e.This is the value obtained by measuring the heat formed and cooling the products of combustion to 600F including condensing the water vapour..6 for each component.. The newer contracts just take a continuous sample.. 2.4 Heats of Combustion The next property to mention is the heating value or the heat of combustion. H. are the mole fraction of each component..3. Data for equation 2-45 is also found in Table 2.. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ... To find the heating value in this case multiply the gross dry basis by 0. analize same and then calculate the gross heating value using the latest GPA data..Part I. BTU's/lb weight in a vacuum or air. This is particularly important in compressor and expander calculations. 17-19 of GPSA Data Book for further explanation of this calculation. H1. Thus the Mollier chart can also be used in this regard.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu on thAs.. These are two kinds of heating values: 6.. GPSA Standard 2172-72 explains this calculation further as does page 16-34 of the GPSA Data Book. The GPSA has set up a standard for this calculation for mixture.8 or Metric values in 2. The real gas heating value H is set by the equation: Equation 2-45 Hr = H ideal Z Z is found from Equation 2-46 ( Z = 1 − x1 b1 + x 2 b2 + . Net Value ..doc] April 2004: 2-29 (366) .. x. i.. are the ideal gas heating values from Table 2. Gross Value .9.In this case the water is not considered to be condensed. Gas specific gravity can also be calculated using equation 2-45. Palmer and others of Maloney Steelcraft Ltd.

99927 (i) 0. and should be determined.5 0.9916 0. April 2004: 2-30 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .8 0.5225 2517. h) Properties of hexanes plus fractions may vary widely. IGT Bulletin 32 for other components. by a mutually agreeable method.1825 Isopentane 2.0068 3262.7 0.9981 0.99973 0. g) Applicable for mixtures containing less than 0. IGT Bulletin 32 for nonhydrocarbons.Search Main Menu Table 2.9667 0.00048 -0.00060 ---- Hydrogen Sulfide 1. f) For the hypothetical gas. 1atm (760 mm Hg) Comppressibility Factor Z.4911 4009.0217 Helium 0.0164 Oxygen 1.37 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .283 n-Heptane(g) 3. .0985 Nitrogen 0.0696 325. Note: To prevent confusion.9820 0.4911 4000.920 (f) 0.1744 n~Butane 2.1 0.0382 1768.0640 (d) Carbon Monoxide 0. e) Pseudo value for mixtures containing less than 1 % He.99953 0. note that Ideal Specific Gravities shown in IGT Bulletin No.7 0.9903 0.5539 1009. at 60°F.0436 Ethane 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .8: Properties of Natural Gas Components (Imperial) Component a b Ideal Gas Specific Gravity Ideal Gas Heating Value Btu/cf at 60°F.~5" for C. 1969.9753 4756.283 Hexanes plus (h) (h) (h) Summation Factor. b Hydrocarbons Nonhydrocarbons Air 1.9672 ---- 0.0068 3252.8 0. 3.1382 ---- 1.6 0.02 1.0202 Carbon Dioxide 1.920 (f) 0.9696 0. c) For combustion to gaseous SO2.Part I.0270 a) NGPA Publication 2145-71: "Physical Constants of Paraffin Hydrocarbons and Other Components of Natural Gas" for hydrocarbons. i) AGA Report No.99432 0.0917 Propane 1. 32 are based on 1961 molecular weights and referenced to real air. values in this Table are based on 1969 molecular weights and ref evenced to ideal air.2377 n-Hexane 2. 1 atm Methane 0. d) Pseudo value for mixtures containing less than 20 % CO2. b) ASTM DS 4A: "Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons C1 to C.9435 (f) 0.05 percent heptanes.017 (e) Hydrogen 0.C4.99959 0.9671 321.2276 n-Pentane 2.4596 5502.0000 ---- 0.5195 ---- 0.1765 637 (c) 0.1048 ---- 0.3 0.9482 (f) 0.2 0.1342 Isobutane 2.doc] .

654 0. note that Ideal Specific Gravities (Relative Densities) shown in LGT Bulletin No.9672 ---- 0.972 0.5539 37.5225 93. i) AGA Report No.3847 Hexanes plus (h) (h) (h) Component Summation Factor. 101.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . values in this Table are based on 1969 molecul.910 (f) 0.0005 -0.791(c) 0.325 kPa (abs) Comppressibility Factor Z @ 15°C.0985 Nitrogen 0.0640(d) Carbon Monoxide 0.4911 149.779 0.9810 0. b) For combustion to gaseous 502.9996 0.4911 149.3. 32 are based on 1961 molecular masses and referenced to real air.0000 ---- 0.948 (f) 0.05% when the gas contains less than 1% of C6 paraffin.9641 0.2280 n-Pentane 2. Fig.017 (e) Hydrogen 0.0173 Oxygen 1.319 0. d) Pseudo value for mixtures containing less than 1% He.0696 12.9981 0.556 0.9997 0. 16-1.0224 Helium 0.9903 0.1382 ---- 1.9993 (i) 0. h) Properties of hexanes plus fractions may vary widely.9915 0.doc] April 2004: 2-31 (366) .942 (f) 0. 101.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .9: Properties of Natural Gas Components (Metric) a b Ideal Gas Relative Density Ideal Gross Heating Value 3 Mj/m @ 15°C.4596 205. b Hydrocarbons Nonhydrocarbons Air 1.0068 121.9943 0.1765 23.3000 n-Heptane(g) 3.0436 Ethane 1.9753 177.1969.0200 Carbon Dioxide 1. f) The error in calculating heating value is less than 0.325 kPa (abs) Methane 0.032 0.ar masses and referenced to ideal air.1830 n~Butane 2.694 0.0922 Propane 1.5195 ---- 0.1048 ---- 0.9671 ---- 0.05% of 01+ paraffins and C9+ aromatics.1378 Isobutane 2.Part I.9665 0. aromatics and less than 0. and should be determined by a mutually agreeable method.2408 n-Hexane 2. g) and C.9995 0.091 1. c) Pseudo value for mixtures containing less than 20% 002.0006 ---- Hydrogen Sulfide 1.1895 Isopentane 2.852 (f) 0. Note: lb prevent confusion. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .426 0.0068 121.0382 66.Search Main Menu Table 2.43 1 0. e) For the hypothetical gas.0265 a) GPSA Engineering Data Book (SI).

Search Main Menu Figure 2.Part I.doc] . Gas April 2004: 2-32 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Gr. Reduction Curve Based on .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .7 Sp.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .8: Natural Gas Expansion-Temp.

it increases with temperature.Part I. C02. 16-24 of GPSA Data Book which plots temperature vs.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Note that N2. Another way is to calculate the reduced temperature and reduced pressure and use. Viscosity is measured normally in metric units of centipoise.Search 2.) 2. Except at very high values pressure does not affect viscosity. i. The viscosity of liquid sulphur is quite special. 170.) 7. viscosity vs. A much more extensive discussion is given in the chapter on viscosity in Maxwell6. Multiply by .000672 to convert to British Units.e. 16-23 of the GPSA Data Book.1 Liquids Data for liquids is given on Fig.9 shows the data. for hydrocarbons. (lb/ft sec. It is defined by: µ= Shearing Stress Rate of Shear Stress It is the internal friction in a fluid that reduces fluid flow.5 Main Menu Viscosity Another important property is viscosity. Fig.5. etc. Kinematic Saybolt. Here the viscosity in centipoise is plotted versus temperature. H2S air are more viscous at same temperature as compared to hydrocarbons. 169.5. gravity at different pressures.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The conversion from absolute viscosity to other types of viscosity are given in the GPSA Data Book. Figure 2. 16-28 in the GPSA Data Book which gives a ratio µ at high pressure vs µ atmospheric pressure. Similarly Katz7 gives data for individual compounds on Pg. The viscosity of gas at high pressure can be found by use of Fig. 2. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 16-25 in metric version) of the GPSA Data Book gives the viscosity of gases at low pressure (essentially atmos.2 Gases Figure 16-27 (Fig.doc] April 2004: 2-33 (366) .

Search Main Menu Figure 2.doc] . on Viscosity of Molten Sulphur April 2004: 2-34 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .9: Effect of Temp.

Part I.10: Thermal Conductivity of Normal Paraffinic Hydrocarbons Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 2.doc] April 2004: 2-35 (366) .

on P. p. In the GPSA Data Book it is calculated from the equation: Equation 2-47 σ 0. 214.Part I. p. Lenoir.10.Hydrocarbon liquids conductivity is given in Figure 2.8 Molecular Weights of Hydrocarbons (MW) Sometimes it is desirable to find MW of condensate. See Figure 16-18 of the GPSA Data Book.6 Main Menu Thermal Conductivities Liquids . 2. 185 gives data at low pressures (also this is given in GPSA Data Book. p. Problems 7.Search 2. 127 of Katz. 215 and 216 gives data on miscellaneous gases and hydrocarbon gases vs MW. A gas of the composition given below is to be recycled to recover the sulphur.29 This is shown as Figure 16. Also Katz. Figure 4-119. The Energy Resources Conservation Board has stated that 60% of the volume of raw gas removed must be replaced by the recycled sweet pipeline gas produced from a April 2004: 2-36 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Maxwell.31 in the GPSA Data Book. condensate and lpg's. Junk and Cumming15. This can be done from API gravity and mean average boiling point which is determined from an ASTM distillation. Fig. Gases .25 = P (d1 − dV ) M Where: ό = surface tension P = parachor from Figure 16-34 M = molecular weight of compound dL = density of liquid at temperature of system dV= density of vapour at temperature of system Also. At high pressures. have developed charts similar to that used for viscosity. (Figure 16-29 in the metric version) of the GPSA Data Book or p.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .7 Surface Tension Data on surface tension for hydrocarbons is given in Figure 16-31. 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . They give a thermal conductivity ratio vs Pr and Tr where thermal conductivity ratio is: k at high pressure k at atmospheric pressure from 16. 16-29). 16-29 and 16-34 of the GPSA Data Book a method for adjusting for high pressure (Weimag and Katz method) and mixtures is given. Also some data for H20 is given in Maxwell.

condensate in barrels per day.sweet gas must be returned at that pressure. b) The reservoir pressure is 4300 psia . c) The design plant recovery efficiencies are: Sulphur Condensate Butanes Propane 95% 100% 100% 85% d) The fuel gas required for plant operation is equivalent to 2% of the raw gas feed but sweet gas is used. Also. butane in barrels per day and propane in barrels per day recovered by the plant. Data a) Raw gas flow to the plant is 300 MMSCFD (at 14.05 The raw gas reservoir temperature is 200°F. 1 2 3 4 Process Heating Required BTU/hr 10x10 6 6 5x10 Design Efficiency % * 70 65 25x10 6 75 40x10 6 75 * Based on Gross Heating Value Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.55 C7+ 3. e) The gas analysis is: Component f) Mole % N2 0.90 C6 0. Determine the amount of make-up gas that must be supplied to the facility to handle this requirement or the amount of gas that is available for sale. The heating load of a processing plant is made up of 4 furnaces. The process duty on each of the furnaces is as follows.4 psia and 60°F as the base measuring condition).06 CO2 2.doc] April 2004: 2-37 (366) .06 nC4 1.Search Main Menu processing plant that is built for extracting the products produced. Furnace No.94 C1 57. determine quantity of sulphur in long tons per day.50 H2S 17.74 nC5 0.50 C2 9.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .94 iC4 1.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The efficiency of each is also given.80 C3 3.96 iC5 0.

Assume that all the C3+ is removed from the incoming gas during the process.e.doc] .3 C3 1. The amount of gas that is available is 300 MMSCFD (at 60°F and 14. The gas is delivered from the wellhead through a heater to a pipeline that operates at 1200 psig.Part I. You are to determine the heat duty of the high pressure heating coil in BTUs per hour.25/MMBTU on an interruptable basis and $l.8 iC4 0. The exit gas from the plant must be returned at 985 BTU 's/SCF as measured by a Thomas Calorimeter. the plant residue gas).5 C1 83. A gas of the following composition is to be processed for ethane and propane plus recovery. Component Mole % N2 3. The fuel that is used as a standby is n-butane which can be sold for 25¢/US gal when it is not used as fuel. Assume fuel gas is supplied from down stream of plant (i.Search Main Menu Gas is available at $l.2 C2 10.7.3 nC4 0.4 C5+ 0. The wellhead pressure is 2000 psig at this flow rate and it is at 75°F.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . How many days interruption could the process plant stand per year and still break even if it used interruptable gas instead of firm gas? A well produces gas at 25 MMSCFD. April 2004: 2-38 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .696 psia).50/MMBTU on a firm basis. The sketch below shows the flow scheme.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The gas is sweet and the gravity of the gas is 0.5 Determine the barrels per day of pure ethane that can be removed.

McGraw Hill. McKee. 46.J.W. Conxnings. 140. Vol. M. K. Starling. Proceedings 62 Gas Processors Convention. 27. Oklahoma. L. Han. Reading List 1. 10. 3433—3440. C. 146.S. 1989. Han. 20.S. The Canadian Natural Gas Processing Association Research Fund. 265. 18. Hydrocarbon Processing.J. K. D.E. 167. Part 14". p. p. W. and C. p. Alberta. Ch. Tulsa. 101.. Thermal Properties of Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon Data Book. 1197.Y. "Application of the BWRS Equation to Natural Gas Systems". 129. 1958. 50. 77.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Savidge. J. 2. Trans AIMS.B. 14. "Thermo Data Refined for LPG.S. Curl and K. Standing. Sciance. Vol.S. 31. 9. Vol. D. Part II". p. September 1967. 15.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . P.Part I. K. 13. E. R. R. Vol.L. R. p. 45. Part 15". 0. Feb. Gamson. Kwong. Redlich and J. Wichert and K. "Equation Predicts Supercompressibility For Wet Sour Gas". 59. Robinson. Van Nostrand. February 1972. Soave. Katz. Clover. Review. 1974.E. p. G. Aziz. 49. Oil and Gas Journal.B. Lenoir.W. Chemical Engineering Progress. p. January 2. No. 13. Starling and M. J. "The Des~gn Implication of Equation of State Evaluations". p. Vol. 44. 12.J. 265. No.. Palmer. Calgary.Search Main Menu References 1. G.S. 107. July 1955. 19. p. Pitzer. White. Vol. Maxwell. and Dauber. Bishnoi and D. 2. Pitzer. 2. Pitzer. 1942.S. 1949.ACS. Can. M. No. Gas Processing of Canada. Gulf Publishing Co. 8. Hydrocarbon Processing. January-February. "The Volumetric and Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids. No. Jarl and E.E. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. C. June 1972. W. 6. 1958. 3. F. 5. Hydrocarbon Processing. 5.E. 1951. 15. March 10—13. Lin. May 1972. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 173. and D.B. Chem.L. et al. Shepvich. Robinson. 7. D.N. Feb. p. 539. and K.doc] April 2004: 2-39 (366) .S. 4. J.. p. Mannan arid J. "New Mixing Rules for the BWR Parameters to Predict Mixture Properties". Vol.J. K. Vol. 16. Starling and M. 2. curl Jr. p. 54.R. E. Feb. Chemical Engineering Progress. 233. p. 1983. 1949. 1972. 11. Katz. p. 1971. 76th National AIChE Meeting. 9.E. p. Canjar Maning.M. 17. Chemical Engineering Science. 50. "Thermo Data Refined for LPG. Peng and D. 1976. Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering. 1953. Private Communication. 20. S. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals. 1958. Hopke and C.

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1 • What are Phases? • The Phase Rule. 3.Search 3.Part I. only under extreme pressure. Another way is to use the Clausius Clapeyron Equation which explains how a phase is changed. PT and PVT • Diagrams • Retrograde Phenomena • Binary and Complex Systems • Non-ideal Systems What is a Phase? A single continuous media containing one or more substances in which the relation between temperature. Solid Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This equation can be expressed as follows: Equation 3-1 dP ∆H = dT T∆V where: ∆V is the change of volume ∆H is the heat content of the phase change P is the pressure at the phase change T is the temperature at the phase change Thus a phase change occurs when there is a finite change in volume and heat content when the pressure and temperature are constant.0 Main Menu Phase Behaviour of Natural Gas Systems 3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Also it is hard to compress.2 What are Some Phases and Their Features? Gases Distinguishing feature is that it occupies the space of container and it can be compressed easily. pressure and volume can be expressed by a continuous equation is a phase. Liquid It takes the shape of the bottom part of a container.doc] April 2004: 3-1 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . PV.

who in 1845 worked out phase diagrams for substances such as N2. i. CO2.Part I. three dimensional diagram. who in 1892 discovered the retrograde condensation phenomena.1 represents such a diagram.5 a) Faraday. c) Gibbs.Search Main Menu It has definite shape and is not compressible. 3. Some of the more important pioneers are: 3. April 2004: 3-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 History This is an old subject. This is considered later in this section.e. We can have several liquid and solid phases.3 Why Study About Phases? We encounter many physical conditions in handling fluids in which two phases are present. The diagram shows when a single phase and when two phases are present. Single Component Systems Let us consider a single component. We do have the special case of elemental sulphur in gases containing amounts of H2S. 3. d) Kuenen. etc. in another section (Vapour. H2S. who in 1876 enunciated the phase rule. i.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . SO2. In studying about phases we initially will try to understand visually what happens between phases and later.liquid equilibria) set up mathematical relationships to predict phase conditions.e. In the gas industry we are lucky in that we only need to consider liquid and gas phases. who in 1869 noted the continuity of gas and liquid phases at high pressures and temperatures.doc] . a) Fluid flow in gathering lines b) Distillation c) Absorption d) Heat transfer operations. vaporization. Figure 3. b) Andrew. however not more than one gas phase. This led to the concept of the critical point.

Surface B Liquid and Vapour in equilibrium.2) in which planes of constant volumes are taken.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 3-3 (366) . the case of three phases present is shown as the line SLG.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . These are: PT diagrams (Figure 3. Let us consider projections of this model onto a two-dimensional surface. Surface C Solid and Vapour in equilibrium. volume of one unit of Mass).1: Three Dimensional Diagram for a Single Component Also. SLG Three phases present.3) in which various lines of constant temperature are taken. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Main Menu Figure 3. We have two normal types of diagrams.Search Surface A Solid and Liquid in equilibrium. PV diagrams (Figure 3.Part I.e. Note: V is specific volume (i.

2: PT Diagram .3: PV Diagram . Some examples of solid.doc] .Part I. Liquid.Single Component • If we follow T1 there is no change of phase. When going from D to E the phases are Solid .Search Main Menu Figure 3. April 2004: 3-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . gas systems are: AlCl3 Phthalic anhydride Iodine CO2 Figure 3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . • If we follow T2 we go from liquid to liquid plus vapour to finally vapour. Gas.Gas.Single Component When going from A to B to C the phases are Solid.

It is the unique point for substance where the liquid and gas phase become identical.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 3. Note: lines of constant temperature are called isotherms. you remember that in Figure 3.5 i Pentane 3378 460. It would contain liquid of specific volume.2: Critical Data (Metric) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0 -11. Main Menu Also consider the conditions of vessel containing a certain weight of material with temperature T3. When reducing the pressure along the curve ACB no change of phase occurs. the boiling point is given: Table 3.9 Table 3.6 Propane 4247 369.Part I.1: Critical Data (Imperial) Critical Pressure lb/in2 abs Critical Temperature °R Boiling Point °F Methane 668 343 -259 Ethane 708 590 -127 Propane 616 666 -44 i Butane 529 735 11 n Butane 551 766 31 i Pentane 490 829 82 n Pentane 489 846 97 n Hexane 437 914 156 n Heptane 397 973 209 n Octane 361 1024 258 Carbon dioxide 1071 548 -109 Hydrogen Sulphide 1306 673 -77 Nitrogen 493 228 -320 Critical Pressure kPa Critical Temperature °K Boiling Point °C Methane 4605 190. and vapour of specific volume.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .0 -0.Search • If we follow T3 we go from solid to solid plus liquid to liquid plus vapour to vapour.8 -42. • If we follow T4 we go from solid to solid plus vapour to vapour. Each individual substance has a definite critical temperature and critical pressure. There is also a critical temperature and pressure for mixture which will be discussed later. Here are some data on common critical points.5 Ethane 4881 305. a.8 27.5 -161.doc] April 2004: 3-5 (366) .1 i Butane 3647 408. Also. The point C in PV diagram and the top point on the liquid vapour line in PT diagram is called the critical point.7 n Butane 3799 425. Also. b.).6 Critical Points Please refer to the PV diagram (Error! Reference source not found.3 -88.2 the liquid vapour line stopped at a high pressure and temperature.

0 78. vapour and solid lose their significance unless at least two phases are present.6 36. e) An isotherm represents the intersection between the P-V-T surface and an isothermal plane.doc] . This rule applies to systems in equilibrium and states that the number of April 2004: 3-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3 Main Menu Note: The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapour and liquid phases are in equilibrium when the vapour pressure is one atmosphere. 3. The surface which this relationship describes has dis continuities in it because of the existence of vapour-liquid. 3.Part I.Single Component A functional relationship of the form Equation 3-2 f(P.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . g) The vapour pressure of a material is the pressure where two or more phases may co-exist at any fixed temperature.0 -60 Nitrogen 3399 120.Search n Pentane 3371 469.7 68. h) The terms liquid. and solid-vapour equilibrium.2 125.7 Carbon dioxide 7384 304. solid-liquid.4 n Octane 2487 569. d) The salient features of the P-V-T surface may be conveniently projected onto P-T and P-V planes to facilitate both qualitative and quantitative representation.T.7 n Heptane 2737 540.2 the line between surfaces B and C is the vapour pressure curve and gives the pressure of single component above a pure liquid of that component at the temperature specified.V) = 0 exists for single component systems. c) The critical point is the unique condition where the properties of the liquid and vapour phases become identical. b) The triple point is the unique pressure and temperature where solid.5 -195.7 Vapour Pressure In Figure 3. 3.8 a) Summary .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2 Hydrogen Sulphide 9004 373.1 n Hexane 30 13 507.0 98. liquid and vapour can all exist in equilibrium for a single component system. f) The boiling point of a pure material is the temperature where the vapour pressure is one atmosphere.9 The Phase Rule Before proceeding to more complicated systems we should review the phase rule which Gibbs first enunciated in 1876.

2+2=l+F F=3 Thus you have to specify the pressure.doc] April 2004: 3-7 (366) . temperature.Search Main Menu components plus 2 equal the number of phases plus the degrees of freedom (or the number of independent variables to determine the system) C+2=P+F Where: C = components P = number of phases F = number of degrees of freedom or number of variables required-to determine-system. but the most common practice is to select pressure. b) For a system of methane and ethane as a liquid. and of a continuous single phase fluid region is applicable to any system regardless of its complexity. The concept of two or more phases co-existing.T. Some examples are: a) For water boiling (two phases present) 1+2=2+F Thus it is necessary to specify a variable such as temperature or pressure to define the system. The choice is arbitrary. Figure 3. Every point represented on such a diagram will have a particular specific volume associated with it. That is we may arbitrarily specify one additional variable and for a binary system. the functional relationship becomes: f(P.V. and composition.4 shows a schematic representation of the P-T-X behaviour of a typical binary system including part of the vapour-liquid equilibrium region. of the critical point.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Any three dimensional representation of the behaviour of a system containing more than one component will of necessity be capable of showing the values of only three of the possible variables. The region of solid formation has been Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . as determined by the functional relationship above.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Thus by specifying different temperatures a vapour pressure curve can be determined. 3. The fundamental difference between single component systems and complex systems is that every time we add one more component we gain one additional degree of freedom.10 Systems of More Than One Component A qualitative study of the phase behaviour of single component systems has revealed all of the essential features which are encountered even in complex systems. It is obvious from this relation that a three dimensional model can no longer be used to pictorially represent the complete behaviour of even a vinary system. temperature and the composition of the solution to define the system. three degrees of freedom are needed to define the system.Part I. but the coordinates of volume will not be represented on the diagram. of vapour pressure.X) = 0 where: X is the composition.

Similarily.e.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.3 has become a saturated liquid surface M in Figure 3. In this figure let us consider going from point 1 to point 4 by increasing the pressure. and what were surfaces have become volumes.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . commonly called the bubble point surface and the dew point surface.doc] . 14 shows the diagram for a two component system with only liquid and vapour present. then to 4. These two surfaces. On a P-V-T surface this occurs every time the single phase region intersects a two phase region. It continues until point 3 is reached where total condensation is experienced (bubble point). This locus. In this way the saturated liquid line of Figure 3.7). This two-phase volume is terminated at the left side of the figure by the vapour pressure curve of pure A denoted by the line 6-7. The critical point has become a critical line or critical locus for the binary system. (It will be noted that since volume has been omitted in this diagram.6 is the PT phase diagram for a mixture of a fixed composition. form the upper and lower boundaries of a vapour-liquid volume. terminates the bubble and dew point surfaces at the high temperature side of the diagram. indicated by 7-10-9. i. Let us consider PT diagrams. the curve 6-7 is really the projection of the vapour liquid surface for A as seen in Figure 3. but on a P-T-X diagram it never occurs at pressures and temperatures in the vapour liquid region.1) .4 and the saturated vapour line has become a saturated vapour surface N. the vapour pressure curve 8-9 for pure B terminates the region at the right side of the diagram. It will be appreciated that the additional degree of freedom means that what were points for one component are lines for two components. At point 2 condensation starts (dew point). Another useful diagram is the TX diagram (Figure 3. The characteristic features of the diagram are somewhat more difficult to visualize than they were in the P-V-T diagram for a single component. Figure 3.5 on P. where the pressure is constant. April 2004: 3-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . what were lines have become surfaces. This is because the only lines one sees in space are those formed when two surfaces intersect non-tangentially. The diagram is terminated on the P-x plane by an arbitrarily isothermal plane which leaves its trace 6-11-8 on the bubble point surface and 6-12-8 on the dew point surface.Search Main Menu excluded because of the complexity of the diagram and because it is seldom pertinent in gas processing studies. Figure 3.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 3-9 (366) .Search Main Menu Figure 3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.4: Schematic Representation of P-T-x Behavior of a Typical Binary System Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Constant Composition April 2004: 3-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I. Different Composition A PT diagram for constant composition can be shown as: Figure 3.Two Components.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Two Components (A & B).[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 3.6: PT Diagram .5: PT Diagram .doc] .

doc] April 2004: 3-11 (366) .Part I. Figure 3.8.8: Vapour Liquid Composition Diagram This figure is also important in distillation.9 shows a temperature composition for a minimum boiling point separation.7 the top curve is the composition of the vapour and bottom curve is composition of liquid. This shows how two components can be separated by distillation. This is shown in Figure 3. such conditions as maximum or minimum boiling point for mixtures occur. The critical point is formed by the intersection of the dew point and bubble point surfaces. At temperature T1 the gas composition is xG and the liquid composition is xL . The highest pressure at which two phases can exist together is the cricondenbar and the maximum temperature at which two phases exist is the cricondentherm.8 are for ideal solutions. When non—ideal solutions occur.7 and 3. Also note that the critical point for a binary system is not necessarily the highest temperature or pressure where two phases can exist together for any composition. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . For example Figure 3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Please note that Figures 3. We also have a useful representation by the composition diagram with P and T constant.7: Temperature Composition Diagram In Figure 3.Search Main Menu Figure 3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

but not so with a mixture. let us consider a few definitions. This varies with pressure.12 Multicomponent Systems It is not possible to graphically represent the detailed behaviour of systems containing more than three components. Take a mixture of Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane Butane Pentane 20% 20% 20% 10% 10% 20% If the bubble point is determined it will be close to the boiling point of methane at the pressure of the system. i. while the dew point will be closer to the boiling point of pentane at the pressure of the system. 3. much as in the case of a binary system. However.9: Non-ideal Temperature Composition Diagram 3.11 Definitions Before considering further multi-component systems. or in the case of systems April 2004: 3-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . For a system to totally condense it is at its bubble point and for a system to totally evaporate the system has to be at its dew point.doc] .Part I. the essential features may be depicted for systems of a fixed composition on P-T coordinates.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . These are: Bubble Point This is defined as the temperature at which the first sign of vapour appears. It varies.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Dew Point This is defined as the temperature at which condensing takes place.Search Main Menu Figure 3.e. with pressure and is the same as the boiling point for a single component system at pressure of the system. of course. With a pure substance the bubble point and dew point are the same.

For obvious reasons.13 Retrograde Phenomena Let us next consider the case in Error! Reference source not found. and the third could be C4 and C5. For example. Havlena1 et al. The reverse of the above procedure. i.10 is an important diagram which depicts a multi—component system with a fixed composition. then at that point 50% of the fluid liquefies and then progressively evaporates. components made up of mixtures of selected components from a complex system.10: Retrograde Phenomena I 3. this latter technique is not rigorous. At W liquid begins to form on pressure reduction and continues until R is reached where the maximum amount of liquid is developed. on a ternary diagram using pseudo pure components. Figure 3.Part I. as most higher pressure gas rich reservoirs exhibit this phenomena.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Thus liquids will drop out in the reservoir when the pressure is decreased and may be lost. discuss this in some detail. Figure 3. then a continued reduction of pressure causes the liquid to vapourize until the point Y is reached when a 100% vapour again occurs. These liquids may be re-evaporated by dry gas if a cycling scheme is used. one could be C2 and C3. one component could be C1. This phenomena is retrograde condensation and is particularly important in natural gas reservoirs.e. going from Z to X. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . approximately 30%.. on decreasing the pressure from B to E. At constant temperature. a continuing increased amount of vapour is formed.doc] April 2004: 3-13 (366) . that is.Search Main Menu of variable composition. is called retrograde evaporation. Another phenomenon is. for a system containing C1 to C5. when the pressure is reduced from point X to point Z. on increasing the temperature of a liquid at constant pressure from A to D the bubble point is reached first then vapourization continues with increasing amounts being formed until 100% vapour is formed at C. if the pressure reduction hits right at the critical temperature of the mixture. but nevertheless it is sometimes useful for a qualitative description of certain phase behaviour phenomena.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Normally.

This is called isobaric retrograde condensation. Figure 3.Part I. 3.14 Typical Reservoirs Let us look at the phase envelopes of various types of reservoirs.Search Main Menu Also. a) Crude Oil b) Dry Gas c) Wet Gas d) Condensate In the following Figures TF is the reservoir temperature and TS is the separator temperature. PF is the initial reservoir pressure.doc] .11: Retrograde Phenomena II 3.12: Oil Reservoir Phase Envelope April 2004: 3-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 Oil Reservoir Figure 3. between R and C an increase of temperature at constant pressure can cause liquid to drop out.11.14. if the critical point is located as in Figure 3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

gas forms and continues to form.3 Wet Gas Reservoir Figure 3.Part I.13: Dry Gas Reservoir Phase Envelope In this case.14. 3.2 Dry Gas Reservoir Figure 3. Even when the temperature is reduced to that at the separator because of the Joule.14. as the pressure is decreased no condensation occurs.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .14: Wet Gas Reservoir Phase Envelope Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Thompson effect.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The reservoir temperature is well above the critical. no condensation occurs.doc] April 2004: 3-15 (366) . 3.Search Main Menu Reservoir temperature is less than critical. As pressure decreases during production.

particularly ideal solutions. etc. Also we can get both maximum and minimum boiling points.14. Weiland2 reports on this. 3. except that the separator temperature goes into the two phase region and liquid drops out. partial pressure component A = (mole fraction of A in vapour) (Total Pressure) c) Ideal Solution. It shows that as the temperature and pressure increase. more sulphur is dissolved.R.doc] . such as CO2. when the gas is produced out of a reservoir and the pressure and temperature are April 2004: 3-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.4 Condensate Reservoir Figure 3. the following principles have been followed: a) Ideal Gas Law PV = RT b) Dalton Law of Partial Pressure.16 The Sulphur / H2S System A special case of phase behaviour occurs in gas systems in which there is a very high concentration of H2S at high pressures. The reservoir will sometime in its life be in the two phase region.Search Main Menu This is the same as a dry gas. The well known work of D. two liquid phases can be formed.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Figure 3. With hydrocarbons the ideal solution principle is generally followed. Condensate will also normally exist in the separator.15: Condensate Reservoir Phase Envelope The reservoir temperature is between critical and cricondentherm. Therefore. 3. Volume of solution of a mixture is equal to the sum of the volume of each individual component.16 shows some data for 50% H2S. 3. The problem that occurs is that at high pressures and temperatures gas containing high percentages of H2S seem to dissolve elemental sulphur. however. In general.15 Ideal Systems We have discussed primarily ideal systems.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . when a non— hydrocarbon is present.

as the condensate seems to dissolve the deposited sulphur. elemental sulphur is precipitated out.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .175. He developed a correlation that indicated the probability of deposition. This elemental sulphur plugs the well tubing and gathering lines. He found that with high H2S wet gas streams (i. Hyne3 has made a study of sour gas reservoirs in Alberta to see when the problem of deposition occurs and what causes it.Search Main Menu dropped. those containing a lot of condensate) deposition did not occur.B.e. This correlation plots the wellhead temperature times the wellhead pressure and 1 + C 5+ % of the gas versus the formation temperature and pressure. J.Part I. This is given in Figure 3. Probably at high pressure H2S forms polysulphides which disassociate on reducing pressure to H2S and elemental sulphur according to the reaction [ ] H2Sx = Sx-1 + H2S Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 3-17 (366) .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

D. J.G. 2. Griffiths. Alberta. p. Schweitzer and C. 1963. J.E. 25.R. R. Kiel. Muller. 4— 9. June 10. Dissertation. January 19. "Study Aids Prediction of Sulfur Deposition in Sour Gas Wells". 1969. April 2004: 3-18 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . p. 89. Wales. 107. "Hydrocarbon—Systems Phase Behaviour". 68. 3. J. Nov.Part I. Erbar and R. 1968. Havlena. 1981. Maddox. 1968. R.D. Reading List 1. May 27. D.doc] . Paper presented to the 19th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference and 3rd symposium on Catalysis. 117. J.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Oil and Gas Journal. p.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . H.F.H. Oct.R. 4. Pot and O. Oil & Gas Journal. 1959. O.B.Search Main Menu References 1. "The Sulphur/Hydrogen Sulphide System". Reservoir and Pressure Decline Studies". "Canadians Cycle Condensate. "Phase Rule and Equilibria Relations".B. Hunter. Welland.R.A. October 19. Ph. Edmonton. Hyne. Also presented to the Society of Petroleum Engineering. Paper 88—39—4 at 39th Annual Meeting of the Petroleum Society of the CIM (1989). Hyne and E. Chemical Engineering. Katra and B. Texas A & M.N. 5. Oil and Gas Journal. 1958. p. Z. Tomcej. 2.

6.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 2. 5.1 Main Menu Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Data and Computations • Importance of vapour liquid equilibrium data • K factors • Convergence pressures • Calculation of dew and bubble – points • Equilibrium flash calculations Introduction The natural gas industry is fortunate in that there is published a great deal of data on physical properties. We are very fortunate as compared to crude oil systems which do not have equilibrium data for individual components but have to use correlations depending on average boiling point. characterization factor.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 4-1 (366) . 3. 4. Inlet separation calculations. including vapour liquid equilibrium constants.0 4. We use vapour liquid equilibrium data for: 1. Absorption calculations. Tower pressure calculations. 7. Two phase pipeline flow calculations. 4.2 Equilibrium Constants What is the equilibrium constant? It is defined as "K" where Equation 4-1 Ki = yi xi where: yi = mole fraction of component "i" in gas phase. etc. 4. Distillation calculations.Search 4.3 Ideal Equilibrium Ratio Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Refrigeration calculations. xi = mole fraction component "i" in the liquid phase. Reservoir calculations.Part I.

This is sort of an ideal vapour pressure.1 Main Menu Raoult Law For an ideal gas and liquid the following equation applies: Equation 4-2 Pi = PVPi xi This states that the partial pressure of a component above a solution is equal to the vapour pressure at temperature and pressure of system for the pure component times the mole fraction of "i" in the liquid.doc] . a long way from the critical pressure.Part I. i.3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . It can be defined by the equation: Equation 4-7 April 2004: 4-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Combining the above equations Equation 4-4 y i Pt = PVPi xi or Equation 4-5 y i PVPi = xi Pt or as we have defined Equation 4-6 Ki = y i PVPi = xi Pt The above equation is restricted to substances at low pressures.2 Dalton's Law Equation 4-3 Pi = Pt y i Partial pressure of component "i" in system = mole fraction of "i" in the gas times total pressure of system.Search 4.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .e. 4. We can extend the application of calculated K to higher pressures by use of the term fugacity "f".4 Modifications of Ideal Equilibrium Patios The previous K value is based on both ideal gas and ideal solution laws.3. the fugacity = the vapour pressure when the vapour behaves as an ideal gas. 4. that obey the ideal gas and ideal solution laws.

pure "i").e. Now for the equilibrium f iv = f il Equation 4-11 Ki = yi f = li xi f vi If non-ideal solutions are experienced activity coefficients γ iL which are a measure of the deviation from ideal solution have to be introduced and Equation 11 becomes Equation 4-12 Ki = 4. from the above equation it can be developed that Equation 4-8 P ln 1 f = vdP P RT ∫0 This applies for gases. If there is no difference the fugacity is equal to fugacity of the pure component times the mole fraction. Now. (i. Using fugacities and assuming ideal solutions we have: Equation 4-9 f i v = y i f vi where f vi is the fugacity of the component "i" as a vapour at the pressure and temperature of the equilibrium system. Similarly a Raoult Law type of equation can be developed: Equation 4-10 f i l = xi f li f li is the fugacity of component "i" as a liquid at the temperature and pressure of the system.e. For liquids a similar type of equation can be developed using the difference between the actual change in volume and the change in volume of an ideal solution. pure i).doc] April 2004: 4-3 (366) .5 y i χ iL f li = xi χ iV f vi Actual "K’s" Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu RT dlnf = VdP and f° = P° when P° approaches 0.Part I. (i.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

6 Measurement of Actual "K’s" Actual K's are determined by taking a mixture of pure compounds.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I. Tech. That is the pressure at which for this set of data all values of "K" converge to one. Figure 4. It should be noted how the actual "K" converges to 1 at high pressure. 4.1: Comparison of "K’s" April 2004: 4-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . In the literature there are data for many systems -benzene. Also given in this manual are K values for various oils as a function of their boiling point. From these measurements and by calculations an extensive set of K values for methane to Decane. H2S. This applies for any temperature and for each component..1 shows how the K values vary depending on how they are determined. etc. Many others such as Kobayshi. at Rice University and Robinson at the University of Alberta have continued this work.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . and some other components have been published in the GPSA Data Book. Figure 4. The K values as plotted in the GPSA Data Book are given for various convergence pressures. This is called the convergence pressure. toluene. pioneered a great deal of this work. also many chemical systems.Search Main Menu The above ways of calculating "K" are satisfactory part of the time but not always. Sage and Lacey at Cal.doc] . subjecting them to various pressures and temperatures in special cells and determining by proper sampling procedures the composition in the liquid and gas phases. particula~zly as systems approach critical conditions.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Kwong3 equation can also be used. At the critical pressure and critical temperature of system "K" must equal 1. As can be seen at low pressure the selection of the convergence pressure is not important. Bono. It is calculated primarily from the composition of the system. Seader4 and the Prausnitz Chueh12 and the Soave18 methods for calculating "K". Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0 for all components.doc] April 2004: 4-5 (366) . c) A graphical correlation like the GPSA Data Book along with the proper convergence pressure. 4. pressure and . The Haddon and Grayson5 data used by the API are also of this type of approach. The three major methods are as follows: (Starling. pressure and .8 Convergence Pressure To consider method c) as given above we must consider the convergence pressure.48 for a 5000 cony.3. a) An equation of state for both the vapour and liquid phase -primarily the BWR (Benedict. At 500 psia K = .64 for an 800 cony.2. since we no longer have two phases but we have a single.37 for 5000 cony. Rubin2) equation and its modification by Starling15 is used for this although the Redlich. For a binary system we can see this effect if we plot K versus the pressure at a constant temperature as shown in Figure 4. pressure. The effect of convergence pressure selection can be seen from Figure 4. Prime example is the Chao.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Carnahan and Kwok1 give a good discussion of these methods).7 Main Menu Methods of Determining "K" There are several methods for determining "K". The concept of convergence pressure is used as a means of correlating K data. We will start with a discussion of the c) approach first.Search 4.Part I. At 150 psia the K values are all the same. b) An equation of state can be used for the vapour and a liquid theory equation used for the liquid. Webb. At 1000 psia K = 1 for 800 and 1000 cony. Thus it can be seen that convergence pressure is the critical pressure of a binary and that it has for its critical temperature the temperature in question. phase. For two phases to exist the heavier phases' "K" must be less than one and lighter phases' "K" must be greater than 1. pressure.

T .. temperature and composition or Equation 4-13 K = φ (P.Part I. Figure 4. x1 .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...2: Binary System "K's" As was stated the convergence pressure is a means of correlating K data for a particular composition..[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3: Effect of Convergence Pressure on “K’s” In general we can say the equilibrium constant is a function of pressure....doc] .Search Main Menu Figure 4.x n ) April 2004: 4-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ... x 2 .

0% or greater in a raw mixture.5 PK The chart on Page 18-5 of the GPSA Data Book can be used for this....Search Main Menu Applying the phase rule for a two phase system the number of independent variables to determine K can be expressed by Equation 4-14 K = φ ' (P. it is usually methane) as the light component of a two component system..9 d) How to Find The Convergence Pressures At relatively low pressure. Hence.) Therefore Equation 4-16 K = φ " (P. PK ) For a binary system Equation 4-17 PK = φ IV (T ) Equation 4-18 K = φ V (P.. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .. Press.doc] April 2004: 4-7 (366) .. x1 ... For natural gas systems it has been found that the convergence pressure is a function of temperature and the composition of the liquid phase.. T ) Thus for a binary system PK is independent of the composition (or independent of the lightest component).Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ... The method is to take as the lightest component present in any significant quantity (1.Part I.. A visual estimate is usually good enough.. T .. 4..[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .x n − 2 ) Now let Equation 4-15 PK = φ " (T .5 there are several methods... x1 . The heavy component is estimated from the composition of the remaining components.. P1 The method given below is probably satisfactory. Join the heavy and light component together as shown on the Figure and read off PK against operating temperature... if the liquid phase composition is known.x n − 2 ) ( PK = Conv..... x 2 . x 2 ..e. e) At conditions of P < 0. the convergence pressure is found by the step-wise procedure listed below. i... P < 0..

a) Lightest component greater than 1.0% (moles). Method of Winn 1. Read the convergence pressure (ordinate) at the system temperature (abscissa) from Figure.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Run a flash calculation at an assumed PK.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Estimate convergence pressure and calculate liquid phase analysis. 5. Straight mole % can be used and then join the light and heavy components together in the form as given in figure on Page 18-5 of the GPSA Data Book. Trace the critical locus of the binary consisting of the light component and pseudo heavy component. repeat the entire procedure. If the differences between the assumed and calculated compositions are significant. 2. calculate it using the K values and overall system composition. If the liquid composition was initially assumed. 3. These are other methods.Part I.1% in the liquid phase. 4. • Haddon and Grayson5 • Winn • Lenoir and White Method of Haddon and Grayson1 1. obtain K-values for the components from the appropriate convergence pressure K-charts. 7. Divide liquid into two components. April 2004: 4-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . b) Rest of components.doc] .) 3. 6. 2. When the averaged pseudo heavy component is between two real hydrocarbons. Identify the lightest hydrocarbon component which is present at a concentration of at least 0. (A shortcut approach good for most hydrocarbon systems is to calculate the weight average Tc only. Read off PK at the operating temperature. Using the convergence pressure determined in Step 4 together with the system temperature and system pressure.Search Main Menu If the liquid phase composition is unknown. Calculate the mass average critical temperature and critical pressure for the remaining heavier components to form a pseudo binary system. Calculate critical temperature of pseudo heavy components by any method. Check if this is same as assumed value and if not redo procedure. 1 An earlier method proposed by Haddon alone requires the calculation of the liquid phase weight composition and an iterative type of calculation to find critical temperature and pressure of the pseudo heavy component. it has to be assumed (estimated) and subsequently checked. an interpolation of the two critical loci must be made. 1. 5. 4.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Also Example Problem #1 shows this method. Assume a convergence pressure and calculate a liquid phase composition (molal volumes satisfactory). 4. 3.4: Winn Method for Convergence Pressure Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 2. 3.4 shows how this is done. Figure 4.Search Main Menu 2.doc] April 2004: 4-9 (366) . Note: Must estimate effective boiling point of the heavy component while doing this. Multiply pressures obtained by corresponding weight fraction of heavier component. Find intersection of operating temperature with binary critical pressure for each heavier component and the lightest component. Divide the system into a fictitious light component and fictitious heavy component. The sum of these values is the calculated PK 5. Check to see if general assumption was OK Figure 4. Method of Lenoir and White 1. Calculate weight fraction analysis based on lightest component free basis. Calculate the effective BP of the light component (EBPL) from data on effective EP of compounds given in article and graphs showing correction factors as compared to lightest component.Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

5: Lenoir & White Method for Convergence Pressure 4.5.5 for an EBPL of some fixed values.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 4.11 “K” Data by Means of Analytic Methods These methods take into account the specific behavior of each component in the mixture and in one case the relationship of the components to each other. 5. it is added to the start or finish (or to both ends) of the regular PK curve. The method is reported to be good for heavier mixtures as found in refinery streams. A typical set of curves is shown in Figure 4. a correction factor called the Pressure Function is calculated and depending whether the non alphatic is in the EBPL or EBPH function. 4. The method requires the calculation of the convergence pressure as previously discussed. etc.doc] . To correct for non alphatics such as H2S. These charts are used as a standard by the API. etc. 3. Calculate effective BP (EBPH) of heavy component in similar manner to No. CO2. Recalculate liquid component to see if assumed value is OK A short cut method assumes that EBPL ~ εBP of lightest 7% EBPH is εBP of heaviest 40%. C6H6.Search Main Menu Figure 4.10 Other "K" Data Using the Convergence Pressure Concept Haddon and Grayson developed a whole series of charts of "K" which are slightly different than the ones given in the GPSA Data Book.. From curves for various EBPL versus lines of constant EBPH read off convergence pressure at operating temperature.Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The presence of these compounds usually give higher convergence pressures. This is shown in Figure 4. April 2004: 4-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 6. They are particularly suited to computer calculations.

Search Main Menu "K" Data by the Chao-Seader Method This was the first general correlation to try to account specifically for non idealities in the liquid phase. The equation used is Equation 4-19 Ki = γ i vio φi where: γi = activity coefficient of a component in the liquid solution where the fugacity of i in the liquid Equation 4-20 f i = γ i xi f i PureL ( f i PureL is fl i in 11) vio is the fugacity coefficient for the pure liquid component at the system conditions Equation 4-21 vio = f i PureL P and φi = fugacity coefficient for a component in the vapour phase Equation 4-22 φi = fi f = iP Pi yi γi is found from the molar volume of "i" and the solubility parameter for the system according to the equation Equation 4-23 V (δ − δ ) ln χ i = i i RT 2 where Vi = liquid molar volume of "i" δi = solubility parameter for "i" δ = solubility paramter for the system The solubility parameter is defined by Equation 4-24 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.doc] April 2004: 4-11 (366) .

Or 0 vi0 and vi can be found from the two following equations. D. C. All the above can be found from properties of pure components. are constants as are B. etc.Search δ= Main Menu ∆E 0.25(PR − 0.6) TR where: A. Equation 4-26 log(υ i ) = A0 + 0 A1 + A2TR + A3TR2 + A4TR3 + (A5 + A6TR + A7TR2 ) PR + ( A8 + A9TR ) PR2 − log PR TR Equation 4-27 log (υ i ) = A + BTR + 1 C 3 + DTR − 0. It is Equation 4-28 P= RT a − 0.doc] . φi is found by use of the Redlich Kwong equation also given in Chapter 2. A2. This is the same as in the method of finding the enthalpy given in Chapter 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . etc.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .5 v − b T V (V + b ) or in terms of the compressibility factor z Equation 4-29 April 2004: 4-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 Vi Where: ∆E is the change in internal energy going from a liquid to a vapour. Equation 4-25 log υ i0 = log(υ i ) + ω log (υ i ) 0 1 where: 0 vi = fugacity coefficient for a simple fluid which can be found in charts of Edmister14 1 vi = fugacity coefficient correction factor from Edmister14 ω = accentric factor as discussed in Chapter 2 and listed for each compound in the GPSA Data Book in Section 16.Part I. 0 vi is found using the Pitzer accentric factor "ω".

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . "K" Data by the Soave Redlich Kwong Equation18 As discussed in chapter 2.Part I. The Soave Equation "K" is available from the GPSA as a computer program. "K" Data by the Peng Robinson Equation As discussed in Chapter 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . these authors also modified the Redlich Kwong Equation Equation 4-33 P= RT a(T ) − v − b v(v + b ) + b(v − b ) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .000 kpa) and temperatures of 100°F to 500°F (75°C to 260°C). Also the liquid should not contain more than 30% methane by mole fraction. The Grayson Streed16 modification which is a very similar method to the Chao-Seader has been used very successfully at temperatures of -200°F to 900°F (-130°C to 480°C) and to 3000 psia (21.000 KPA) There is also a modification by Wilson of the Redlich Kwong Equation that is available through the GPSA as the mark V computer program9. Then φi can be found from Equation 4-31 ln φi = (Z − 1) Bi A 2 ⎛ 2 Ai Bi ⎞ ⎛ BP ⎞ − ln ( A − BP ) − − ⎟ ln⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟ B B ⎝ A B⎠ ⎝ Z ⎠ The limitations of the Chao-Seader Equation have been well discussed by Lenoir He suggests the equation is good for pressures up to 2000 psi (14. This program is considered to give good data over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Soave developed a modification of the Redlich Kwong Equation Equation 4-32 P= RT aT − V − b v(v + b ) Suitable rules for mixes using interaction coefficients are proposed.Search z= Main Menu 1 A2 ⎛ h ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ 1− h B ⎝1+ h ⎠ Equation 4-30 h= BP z where: A and B are constant for component expressed in terms of their critical conditions and are for the mixture Ai and Bi are for the pure component and Z is the mixture.doc] April 2004: 4-13 (366) .

Part I.1.2) Equation 4-34: C D E ⎞ cρ 3 d⎞ d⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ P = RTρ + ⎜ B0 RT − A − 02 + 30 − 04 ⎟ ρ 2 + ⎜ bRT − a − ⎟ ρ 3 + ⎜ a + ⎟ αρ 6 + 2 1 + χρ 2 exp − χρ 2 T⎠ T⎠ T T T ⎠ T ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ( ) ( Where: p is the absolute pressure T the absolute temperature ρ the molar density R the universal gas constant. "K" Data by the Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation (Starling Modification) The BWRS equation (Starling's modification of the BWR equation of state) has the same basic form as the BWR equation.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . but contains two additional adjustable parameters.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5.doc] ) .Search Main Menu This equation can be used to find "K" accurately over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Table 4. Mixing rules used to obtain mixture parameters for the BWRS equation are as given in Table 4. The BWRS equation has the following form (see also equation 2. It is available as a computer program through the GPSA.BWRS Equation B0 = ∑ x i B0i b i 3 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j A0i 3 A0 j 2 ⎠ ⎛ m1 j C 0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j C 0i 2 C 0 j 2 ⎠ 1 2 3 = ∑ xi bi 1 3 i ⎛ mij A0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 χ 1 = ∑ xi χ i 1 3 a 3 α 1 3 April 2004: 4-14 (366) 1 3 = ∑ x iα i 1 3 i 1 3 i ⎛ mij D0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 = ∑ xi a i i c 2 1 = ∑ xi ci 1 = ∑ xi d i 1 3 i 4 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j D0i 2 D0 j 2 ⎠ d 1 3 3 i Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . with mixing rules given in Table 2.1: Mixing Rules .

the same as used in the BWRS mixing rules as previously discussed.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . "K" Data by the Prausnitz-Chueh Correlation This method uses the same basic equation as the Chao—Seader but uses different methods for finding the fugacity. etc.e. Equation 4-36 2∑ y i aij bi abi V ⎛V + b ⎞ ln φi = ln + − i 1. i. Perform a flash calculation on the mixture using arbitrary "K". It is applicable to all types of gas processes including cryogenic expander and absorption of oil plants.Part I. Prausnitz has allowed for the effect on the presence of other components on the constants for individual components in calculating the fugacities. The BWRS equation is a very good overall thermodynamic prediction method available in the gas processing industry. 2.Search ⎛ mij E 0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 Main Menu 5 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j E 0i 2 E 0 j 2 ⎠ where xi is the mole fraction of the "ith" component for the homogeneous phase under consideration. The small "a" and "b" are the constants in the Redlich equation. Now the fugacities of individual components in the vapour phase and liquid must be equal. 4.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . and parameters with subscript "i" refer to the "ith" pure component. For example. activity. etc. 3. It may not be accurate for heavy gas reservoir systems such. i.doc] April 2004: 4-15 (366) . The procedure for calculating "K" is as follows: 1. as gas condensates or volatile oils or for natural gas—heavy crude systems at processing conditions. in the calculation of φi of Equation (18) the Redlich Kwong equation is still used by a binary interaction coefficient is added. The BWRS mixing rules contain a binary interaction parameter (mij) for each pair of components.5 2 V −b V −b RT b ⎝ V ⎠ RT b b ⎤ ⎡ V +b ⎢ln V − V + b ⎥ − ln z ⎣ ⎦ This equation corresponds to Equation (31) but the interaction coefficient aij is added and "a" and "b" are evaluated differently and have different mixing rules. Equation 4-35 fiv = fil Therefore steps 1. molar volumes. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This data is found from experimental data on binary systems. This method of course requires computer programs for its use but is generally quite good. The interaction parameters have little effect on bulk properties such as density and enthalpy but can greatly improve K-value predictions. Using the BWRS equation above for fugacity calculate the individual fugacities for each component.5 ln ⎜ ⎟+ 1. 3 are replaced until this condition is satisfied. For example. From the vapour and liquid composition calculate the vapour and liquid density.e. 2.

1 11.50 1.63 500 2.3.122 1.65 2.686 13.24 7.0267 .273 C2 .134 1.0010 Table 4.2 and 4.58 3.44 3. Table 4.51 1.0045 iC5 .85 3.12 1.00 300 P-V-T Mark V Choa-Seader K-Value Pc = 944 Table 4.0044 .4: Recommended Ranges of Application of K-Value Predication Methods Item Chao-Seader April 2004: 4-16 (366) Grayson Stread Lee-Erbar 20 SBWR Soave RK K-Val 21 Peng Robinson Mark V Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .76 1.18 1.0256 iC4 .49 800 1. Some comparative data versus experimental values are given in Tables 4.27 2.Search Main Menu The other important change is that the requirement of sometimes having a hypothetic liquid state for the development of the term vi0 is avoided by the development of an assymetrical standard state.801 C1 2.03 6.0008 .7 6.144 .46 1.0011 .9 6.94 2.0233 .74 1.806 1.49 1. For the details of the method please refer to reference 12 or suggested reading reference 2.0085 .160 .51 1.0206 .56 1.554 .67 1.0031 .0085 .3 10.267 CO2 .0054 .0052 .0005 .28 1.516 .60 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .167 1. 4.2 150 7.548 .56 1.0005 .147 .615 2.63 400 2.364 .0008 .559 .0018 .45 2.2: Comparison of Experimental Methane K-Values at -75°F Taken from the C1 – C3 Binary Data 1972 Charts 1966 Charts PK = 1000 PK = 1000 Soave Prausnitz Chueh 10.12 P psia Experimental 100 10.338 1.316 2.11 2.07 600 1.0075 .13 2.2 7.72 700 1.10 1.0009 .32 900 1.1605 C3 .561 12.36 1.76 1.28 1.3: Comparison of Natural Gas Condensate K-Values with those Predicated by Several Correlations for -100°F and 400 psia Comp.049 12.65 6.0261 .0045 .25 3.48 3.80 5. i. The selection of the appropriate equation of state or method for "K" values is given in references 4 and 5 of the reading list.14 1.925 2.0055 .12 A Comparison of the Methods of Determining "K" The accuracy of the various equations has been checked under special conditions.164 8.24 1.57 10.167 .65 10.56 3.0221 .33 1.0029 .144 .159 .0211 .77 1.73 7.10 10. low temperatures and high pressure.66 2.45 1.e.1 8.90 2.8 10.0055 .0073 nC4 .0016 nC5 .08 2.doc] .61 2.0068 .938 2.Part I.80 1.46 2.129 2.35 1.39 1.36 3. Experimental 1972 Charts PK = 900 psia 1966 Charts PK = 900 psia Soave P-V-T Mark V Choa-Seader K-Value N2 12.30 1.0014 .

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .pressure .0 Equation 4-39 xi = yi Ki Now since we know "y" we calculate the temperature or pressure (the one not given) at which x's add up to 1 or 100%. upper limit 1500-2000 psia 2500 psia 1500 psia 3000 psia 5000 psia Atmos to 1800 5000 psia 1500 psia Pressure:Valu e of Conv.0 and Equation 4-38 n ∑x i =1 i = 1. H2S. Liquid not to contain >30% CH4 Best for H2 containing systems.Part I. no C7+.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . can be used for hydrocarbo ns above CS limits. Bubble Point Calculation Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . ethane K’s sensitive to C7+ Excellent low temperatur e K except close to critical point Excellent low temperatu re K. N2 C7+ prediction s erratic No H2 - No data for H2 or He Not accurat e with high CO2 Comments Excellent Ks 0 below 0 F provided pressure below conv.Search 0 0 0 0 +900 F +300 F +300 F +600 F +300 F +800 F +200 F Pressure. problems with 10 compone nt mixtures Probably the best correlatio n for K Not accurat e when CH4 is >30% in liquid 4. methane and ethane K’s sensitive to C7+. Methane. Point 80% 80% 85% 90-95% 90-95% Not stated Up to critical point Not stated Component limits - - Paraffin hydrocarb ons only.13 0 -300 F 0 +500 F 0 -260 F 0 Temp upper limit 0 -260 F 0 -100 F 0 -260 F 0 Temp lower limit 0 -200 F Main Menu 0 -260 F -240 F 0 0 Calculations Involving K Factors Dewpoint This is when the first drop of liquid begins to form. CO2.doc] April 2004: 4-17 (366) . Equation 4-37 n ∑y i =1 i = 1.

Initially assume PK = 2000 psia Comp.45 0.50 Total 100.50 0. Equation 4-41 n ∑y i =1 i = 1. the liquid component.70 C3 1.30 93.1 Find the dewpoint of the gas given in the table below. In this case we wish to determine when the first bubble or gas starts to form. 172 NGSMA Book (1957) = 1800 psi.0 45. Now check assumption of PK . if using curve on P.16 10.00 80.17 0.Part I.030 4.04 6.62 0.06 C1 91.60 iC4 0. when: Equation 4-42 Kx = 1.07 4. Set up a table as shown below.0 Make a table x.048 6.42 * 1957 K data see examples further on in book on effect of different "K" data.03 102.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The operating pressure is 1000 psia.63 0.084 3. If using the GPSA (1972) data book = 1800 psi.5 0. Mole % 0° F K1000 Y K * − 20 Try K 1000 Y K −30 Try K 1000 Y K N2 0.00 0. i. Example Problem 4.81 nC4 0.0 Note: All these calculations are best done using some sort of computer program if it is available.8 50.doc] .39 14.90 1. Y = Kx.2 April 2004: 4-18 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .47 0.4 0.016 7. Find the proper temp.Search Main Menu The reverse of a dewpoint calculation is a bubble point calculation.29 0.05 5. Example Problem 4. or press.060 5.7 54.12 13.5 11.16 0.31 0. By interpolation the dewpoint is -27°F.12 0.06 4.00 C2 5.80 1.30 7. Now here we know x.42 13.20 0. 222 NGPSA (1966) = 1900 psi. These illustrations are given for example only.022 5.45 0.2 0.63 2. if using curve on P.04 7.75 iC5+ 0.e. We add up all the y's from the equation: Equation 4-40 y i = K i xi so that the sum of y = 1 or 100%. K.72 0.13 12.52 0. The gas is the overhead from an absorber.

30 0.10 2.5 11.00 Total 100.75 3.20 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Assume this pressure is 10 psi greater than the accumulator pressure.75 C1 91.0 2. The condensing temperature is 80°F.46 12.doc] April 2004: 4-19 (366) .6 100.5: A Comparison of a Dew Point Calculation Using Different K Data Comp.40 0.30 89. The overhead product has an analysis of the following: Mole % C2 3.72 0.9 0.29 0.44 0.04 3.0 45.90 1.030 4.00 80. overhead accumulators.72 0.98 93.8 Total 102.9 8.0 0.99 Vapour Liquid Calculations Another important calculation is determining the amount of liquid and vapour present in a mixture when the pressure and temperature are known.060 5.00 0. Mole % NGSMA K 0 1000 Y K NGPSA K 0 1000 Y K NGPSA 0 K1000 Y K N2 0.30 7.95 47.30 0. where: F = feed as 1.47 0.0 C3 95.17 iC5 0. Mole % 80 K150 KX 80 K160 KX C2 3.021 5. Comp.7 8.47 nC4 0.0 0.50 C2 5.63 0.084 3.40 14.00 or 100 moles Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .135 12.63 2.9 0.9 0. Solution Find the accumulator pressure by doing a bubble point.42 0. Table 4.1 43. This can happen for inlet separators. etc.50 C3 1.12 0. low pressure separators.17 9.31 0.16 10.046 6.20 0.96 9.0 Assume a PK of 800 psi.1 iC4 2.088 3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .060 5.98 78.Part I.1 C3 95. condensate feed tank.17 0.0 iC4 2.3 psig.7 2.0 0.60 iC4 0. Determine the tower operating pressure.Search Main Menu At depropanizing tower is operating with all the overhead product condensing.52 0.0 Bubble point pressure is 160 psia.084 3. A comparison of a dew point calculation using different K data is shown below. Tower pressure is 170 psia or 155.71 0.030 4.

doc] . 3. 2. Select "K" for each component at the temperature and pressure of the system.Part I.Search Main Menu V = overhead moles in units of feed L = bottoms moles in units of feed z = mole % or mole fraction of feed y = mole % or mole fraction component in overhead x = mole % or mole fraction component in bottom Equation 4-43 F =V + L or for component i Equation 4-44 z i F = y iV + x i L Now Equation 4-45 y i = K i xi Equation 4-46 zF = KxV + xL Equation 4-47 zF = x(VK + L ) Divide both sides by L and transpose Equation 4-48 zF L x= V K +1 L Now Equation 4-49 n ∑ x = 1.0 i The method actually is as follows: 1. Assume an L and thus a V. Calculate L from April 2004: 4-20 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

73 0.42 9.45 4.02 0.012 1.Search Main Menu Equation 4-50 n ∑ i =1 n x=∑ i =1 zF =L V K +1 L 4.00 1.02 16.12 C1 ⊕ Assume L = 88.001 59.73 1.21 nC5 1.14 11.931) (378.12 C6 3.25 4.01 2. For example methyl mercaptan data is given in the literature (see Haddon and Grayson article).21 83.027 4.06 0.22 1.06 0.031 1.11 1.009 1.012 1.02 100.68 ⎛ V ⎞ ⎜ K +1⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ z ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ K V +1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ 48.01 0.931 moles per day and the composition is given in the following table.31 1.53 1.96 8.98 88.42 7. The amount of rich oil is 65.75 0.26 1. Amount of vapour per day = 4.92 C3 6.21 4.01 iC4 2.00 "K" Data for Special Compounds or Systems These are discussed in some detail in the GPSA Data Book and in the literature.96 0.038 1.3 Rich oil from an absorber is sent to a rich oil flash drum which operates at 100°F and 300 psig. 5.93 2.084 1.009 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .03 0. Assume L = 90.63 10.08 iC5 1.3 0.10 0.0 moles Comp.004 3.63 1.75 MMSCFD 100.007 1.73 1.9) = 2. It is supposed to have a “K” value of about 10% greater than isobutane. Check this value against assumed value. hydrocarbon systems with hydrogen ⊕ Computer Values from NGSMA (1957) 1 Assume to be decane (C10).004 3.96 1.10 C2 4.28 1.18 6.034 1.66 1.02 0.Part I.73 0.00 0.97 1.11 1.98 11.001 59. Repeat calculation until assumed value is equal to calculated value.21 1. Example Problem 4.56 0. Could also possibly use data from "K" versus Boiling Point Curves.28 0. Assume C10 to be Lean Oil Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .08 0.51 88.230 4.10 0.07 5. Also.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .61 Assume PK = 5000 (Convergence pressures are quite high with absorber oils).99 1.01 0.doc] April 2004: 4-21 (366) . It is desired to determine the composition and quantity of gas that comes from the rich oil flash drum.71 0.02 0.25 0.74 0.73 1.73 3.29 0.93 7.080 5.02 (65.21 7.37 0.00 1 Total Note: 88.97 moles z V K +1 L Moles of Liquid Moles of Vapour Mole % Vapour 6.12 1.025 4.00 59.04 100 K 315 K V +1 L nC4 4.85 0.56 5. Feed Mole % N2 00.03 4.13 C10 59.

Determine the ∆T at each end of the exchanger. The Peng Robinson or the Soave methods give reasonable values for sour gas "K's" from the computer programs. The refrigerant enters the exchanger as a liquid and leaves as a vapour.7 iC5 5. a) Air cooling-product condensing temperature 120°F.0 C1 83. b) Cooling Tower water. c) Once through river water product condensing temperature 70°F.4 iC4 10. Example Problem 4.5 A Heat exchanger in a LNG plant which is chilling natural gas from +60°F to -20°F has as the chilling medium a mixed refrigerant of the composition listed in the table below.6 The fractionation is such thet the top product is not to contain more than 2.0% of iC5 and the bottom is not to contain more than 3. For determining the "K's" for sour gas the method of Lenoir and White or the Soave method is probably as good as any when using charts. Also please read Section 25 of the English GPA data book for general discussion on Equilibrium Ratios.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . To find the "K" value for heavy components we can either use data in the NGPSA book for various boiling point materials or by plotting of log "K" versus 1 for various components in the mixture at Tb the system pressure and extropolate to the Tb of the heavy component. Mole % April 2004: 4-22 (366) N2 1.6 nC4 21.0 nC5 11.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] . d) Propane refrigeration product condensing temperature 40°F Example Problem 4.5 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The presence of H2 particularly modifies the “K” value for methane and other gases considerably.8 C3 35. Determine the type of cooling medium that has to be used with this tower.6 C6 10. Other methods are given in Campbell. product condensing temperature 95°F.0% of nC4.Search Main Menu and nitrogen have been discussed in some detail by Lenoir.4 An existing tower that has a design operating pressure of 100 psia is available for use in debutanizing a hydrocarbon feed of the following composition: Mole % C2 0.Part I.3 C7+ 4.

2 nC5+ 0.Part I. Use the following data: Feed Gas Composition Mole % C1 93.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .96 C3 1.08 nC5 0.4 iC4 0. At the first separator 680 psia and -90°F 2.2 Main Menu 100.0 Example Problem 4.10 This gas is received at 700 psia and 60°F.25 iC4 0.12 C6 0.8 C3 1.doc] April 2004: 4-23 (366) .10 nC4 0.4 nC4 0. The following conditions should be investigated: 1.5 iC5 0.32 nC4 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Please estimate what fraction of the mercaptan will remain in the gas phase after the above referred to chilling has taken place (within 10%). Some concern has been expressed as to whether most of this material will stay in the gas.01 C2 10.00 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .47 iC5 0.6 You are to recommend to your company what "K" correlation to use for an ethane recovery facility that is to process gas of the following composition: Mole % C1 86.5 C2 2.Search H2S 6. At the second separator after the expander in which the gas from the first separator is expanded to 300 psia and -135°F Example Problem 4. It has a high methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) content.55 iC4 0.7 A gas of the composition given below is cooled to -120°F and 350 psia in an expander plant.35 C3 2.5 C02 3.15 100.54 C2 4.

Part I.doc] .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search April 2004: 4-24 (366) Main Menu Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Progress Symp. Vol.A.F. K. Industrial Engineering and Chemistry Fundamentals.C. J.I. Vol. "Computer Calculations for High Pressure Vapour-Liquid Equilibria". 1197. J. "Gas Conditioning and Processing". 1969. Vol. Kwok. 1976. Edmister.I. Eng. 19. 48. ~. Cheuh. "An Empirical Equation for Thermodynamic Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures". Benedict. Chem.C. Lenoir.S. "predict K at Low Temperatures". Tulsa.C. Peng and D. 7. Lenoir and G. Redlich and J. 8. Callas.G. Hydrocarbon Processing. 9.C. "The Thermodynamics of Solutions.B.M. S. 4. Starling. p. Ser. 1968. "A Study of Thermodynamic Correlations".B. Carnahan and Y. 27. Soave. p. 531. Sec. February. Kowk. L. 1968. 10.P. 10. 747. Starling.T. "New Charts for Hydrocarbon Vapour-Liquid Equilibria". K.68. Sept. Campbell.Ch.E. 15. N. 48. 1951.. 249. Haddon..N. Proceedings.M. p.doc] April 2004: 4-25 (366) .B. Streed. November 1967. "Simplified Nomographic Presentation . 163. J. O. 18. Vol. Webb.D. 7.. 14. Edmister. No.L. Grayson and C. 12. 1961. J. Seader. K. Rev.E.Search Main Menu References 1. Grayson. 1972. Published by J. Progress Symp. Vol. Starling and J. The Mark V Computer Program. Eng.M. N. Winn. 1942. 1963.G. Erbar and W. J.T. "Convergence Pressure in Hydrocarbon Vapour—Liquid Equilibria"~ Chem. J. W. The GPA.F. 223. B.L. Bono. p. Series in Hydrocarbon Processing. Oklahoma. Powers. Prentice Hall.J. 5. Presented to the 71st National AIChE Meeting. Physics. G. 13. VII. Hydrocarbon Processing. J. 21. K. Chem.F. S. March. 49. Inc. Proceedings of Sixth World Petroleum Congress. Lee.Y. 1974.Part I. 37. Share Comp.C. 20. Vol. A. "A General Correlation of Vapour in Hydrocarbon Mixtures". 7. Texas. 59. prausnitZ. 11. C. 207.G.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 53.C. Chemical Engineering Science. 16. 47th N.L.Hydrocarbon Vapour~Liquid Equilibria". Houston. 17. 1972. "Need Equilibrium Ratios. Campbell. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . No. Vol. W.C. Vol. Rubin. "Predicting Convergence Pressure Petroleum Refiner.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Haddon. 1961. H. 173. An Equation of State". p. 19. Do It Right". Hydrocarbon processing. p. Texas. p.. Bono. 46. D. J. 3. 6. "Applied Thermodynamics". Vol. 1949. IEC Fundamentals. Carahan and Y. and P. Chao and J. No.B.H. 44. 1970. No. 40. J. 169. Robinson. 4. White. No. 3. February. Engineering Service Chem. 11. Chem. M. 2.W.B.. 1968—1969. Lenoir. September. Ser. Proceedings of the NGPA Annual Meeting. p. No. 15. and H. Oklahoma. Kwong.M. 9. Norman. 9.538. 2. p. 1976.. 121. 1953. p. 1958.

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Reading List

1.

**D.B. Robinson, "An Analysis of the Convergence Pressure Concept", Canadian J. Pet. Tech.,
**

Vol. 9, p. 28, 1970.

2.

**J.M. Prausnitz, "Advance made in Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Thermodynamics", Oil & Gas
**

Journal, June 2, 1969, p. 61.

3.

**D.B. Robinson and G.J. Besserer, "Phase Behaviour Properties of Natural Gas Systems",
**

Gas Processing/Canada, May - June, 1972.

4.

**R.L. McKee, W.E. While and T.E. Daubert, "The Design Irn~lications of Equation of State
**

Evaluations", Proceeding the 62 GPA Convention, March, 1983.

5.

**R.F. Wilcox and S.L. White,"Selecting the Proper Model to Simulate Vapor Liquid
**

Equilibrium", Chemical Engineering, October 27, 1986,

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5.0

5.1

5.2

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**Water Hydrocarbon Systems
**

•

Water solubility in natural gas and natural gas liquids.

•

Effect of chemical composition on solubility.

•

Gas hydrates and their nature.

•

The probability of forming gas hydrates, and the preventing of their formation.

•

Effect of chemical composition on hydrate formation.

**Why Do We Consider These Systems?
**

a)

**Water is present in most reservoirs and raw gas is usually considered to be saturated in
**

the reservoir. This may not be the case, but no detailed work has been done to show

that reservoirs are not saturated.

b)

**The presence of water can cause the formation of what is called hydrates. These are
**

chemical compounds of 2~ and hydrocarbons. If they form in pipelines they cause

serious plugging problems.

c)

**The presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can cause freezing of liquid lines and
**

stoppage of fuel flow.

d)

Water systems can be corrosive, particularly when acid gases are present.

Typical Water-Hydrocarbon Systems

The systems of water and various hydrocarbons are quite complex. Many liquids, hydrate and solid

phases occur. Figure 5.1 shows the temperature composition diagram for propane and water at a

fixed pressure of 300 psig (2200 kpa).

To see what happens to a mixture of propane and water, let us consider a 50% C3 and 50% H2O

mixture at about 350°F (176°C) and then cool it. Initially it is a gas (G). Upon cooling, a liquid

phase that is essentially water (L1) is formed and the gas becomes richer in propane but is still just

a gas (G, L1 are present). On further cooling, a propane rich liquid is formed (L2) and only two

liquid phases are present (L2 and L1). Further cooling brings the formation of a propane water

hydrate (H) while the propane rich liquid remains. More cooling brings about the formation of solid

propane while the hydrate compound remains. The pressure, temperature diagram for C3 and H2O

is shown in

Figure 5.2. Similar types of diagrams can be developed for other hydrocarbon-water systems. (See

Katz, Pages 190 forward).

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Figure 5.1: Temperature Composition Diagram Propane Water

Figure 5.2: Pressure Temperature Diagram Propane Water

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Water Content of Natural Gas

**Sweet Gas (Hydrocarbons Only)
**

Natural gas can contain considerable amounts of water vapour, particularly at high temperatures

and low pressures. Figure 5.3, wltich is a reproduction of the chart given in the GSPA SI Data Book

shows that as the pressure is increased the water content of natural gas is decreased. This chart

also can be used to illustrate why the specification of a water content of 4 lbs per MMSCF for

pipeline gas is required in Canada.

The dewpoint of a gas at 800 psia (5500 kpa) with a water content of 4 lbs per MMSCF (65 mg per

m3} is 14°F (-10°C). Since pipeline gas gets down to a temperature of +25°F (-4°C) in the winter

even when in a buried pipeline three feet under ground,a water content higher than 4 lbs/MMSCF

would result in water condensing in the pipeline which would result in several problems.

Gas Containing Significant Amounts of Non-Hydrocarbons

In the case where there are significant quantities of non-hydrocarbons such as nitrogen, hydrogen

sulphide or carbon dioxide present, the water content of the gases are quite different than

compared to that obtained from Figure 5.3. Nitrogen does not hold as much water as natural gas.

Katz, on pages 197 and 198, discusses this. The acid gases, H2S, and CO2 can hold a much

greater amount of water, particularly at high pressures. This is explained by the fact that both water

and the acid gases are polar compounds and hydrocarbons are not.

Figures 15-21 and 15-22 in the GPSA Data Book give the water content for pure H2S and CO2 for

calculation purposes.

To find the actual water content of gases containing large amounts of non-hydrocarbons, it is best

to consider each non-hydrocarbon component separately, then add the separate fractions of the

gas to find the total water content. The equation for this is

Equation 5-1

**Wmixture = YHCWHC + YH 2 S WH 2 S + YCO2 WCO2
**

Where:

Y is the mole fraction of each component.

An example of this procedure is given in Example Problem 5.1. This method has worked out quite

successfully at Pine Creek, Alberta, where it was found that water content of the sour gas that was

to be dehydrated was much higher than that obtained from the sweet gas curves. (For a description

of the facilities and some special test work for this field see A. Masuda and P. Krachy).

Method of Wichert

Moore, Heidemann, and Wichert have developed a new method for estimating the water contents

of sour natural gas based on extensive field tests of sour gas in Canada. Figure 5.7, 5.8, and 5.9

show this data to sour gas up to 40% acid gas and from 300 to 10,000 psia (2068 to 68,947 kpa).

Note:

The figures are given for H2S as the acid gas component. CO2 is considered to hold about

75% of what H2S does, thus if you had a mixture of 20% H2S 16% CO2 and the rest

hydrocarbons you would use data for 32% H2S - 68% HC.

Example Problem 5.1

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**Determine the expected water content of gas of the composition given below. The gas is in the
**

reservoir at 3000 psi and 160°F

Mole %

N2

0.4

H2S

35.0

C02

10.0

C1

53.6

C2

1.0

Method 1

Use the partial water content for each major different component. See Figure 15-21 and Figure 15

- 22 from the GPSA Data Book for the CO2 and H2S water content. Then the calculation becomes:

Mole %

**Individual Water Content
**

lbs/MMSCF at 160°F

Partial Water

Content

Source of Data

Sweet Gas Comp.

55.0

130

71.5

Fig. 15-14 GPSA Data Book

H2S

35.0

500

175.0

Fig. 15-22 GPSA Data Book

CO2

10.0

220

22.0

Fig. 15-21 GPSA Data Book

Total

268.5

Method 2 (Wichert’s)

H2S

35.0

CO2

10.0 equivalent 7.5 Acid Gas 42.5%

HC

57.5

**From Chart 5.8 and by interpolation water content = .78 BBls/MMSCF = 0.223 lbs H2O/MMSCF
**

Note:

**Experimental data on high acid natural gas of a similar composition give a water content
**

data of just over 300 lbs/MMSCF. Thus, either method can be used for calculating water

content at high acid gas concentrations.

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Figure 5.3: Water Contents of Natural Gas with Corrections for Salinity and Relative Density

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Figure 5.4: Water Contents of Natural Gas Mixtures

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Diethanol amine absorbs about twice as much and sulphinol considerably more than this. are giveh in Katz on P.6 Hydrocarbons in Water The problem of dissolving hydrocarbons by water is primarily that of physical absorption. fi = HXi . Equation 5-2 Pi = HXi where: Pi = partial pressure of component i in gas H = Henry constant for system Xi = mole fraction of i or if fugacities are used. 5.5 The Measuring of The Water Content Water content can be measured by: a) The use of a Bureau of Mines Dewpoint detector in which the gas is chilled to the point of condensation of the water. Special data should be collected for the absorption of natural gas by the various sweetening solvents. For drying liquid propane from storage wells CaCl2 pellets are often used. etc.doc] April 2004: 5-7 (366) .Search 5.e. Generally hydrocarbons that have been in contact with water must be dried before being stored.. as Fig. Actual data needs to be published on these systems. A salt tower is often satisfactory for the heavier compounds like diesel oils.4 Main Menu Water Content of Liquid Hydrocarbons Data for the solubility of water in varying hydrocarbons is presented in GPSA Data Book.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . c) Using chromatography techniques .7 Hydrates Gas hydrates are loose chemical compounds of hydrocarbons and water. 15-9. A Henry's law equation or a modification of it can be used. 207. this removes the free water. b) The use of chemical tests: Karl Fisher Reagent. Data for the solubility of specific compounds or products. Henry's law constant for various gases given in Perry and Katz. P. 5. Some typical formulae are. Figure 5. propane. 15-13. i. These values are a function of temperature only. 5. This is used for trace water determinations.: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 gives the data for monoethanol amine. Hydrocarbons from propane through lube oil are given. Particular care has to be taken when using this apparatus that a water dewpoint and not a hydrocarbon dewpoint is recorded. such as natural gas.as described by Lukacs and Robinson.Part I.

A clathrate compound is one formed by the complete enclosure of one or more species of a molecule in a suitable structure formed by another species.5: CH4 Dissolved in 25% NEA Solution Gas hydrates belong to a class of substances called clathrates (see #4 of the Reading List) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Gas hydrates have some properties ascribed to chemical compounds and April 2004: 5-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search CH4 - 7 H2O C2H6 - 8 H2O C3H8 - 17 H2O Main Menu Figure 5. When the host structure is water the clathrate is called a hydrate.

alcohols. (kpa) Max.1: Size of Hydrocarbon Molecules Hydrocarbon Molecular Dimension °A C1 3.451 C9 8. Note that: The maximum diameter of the cavities is 67 Angstroms. C5 will hydrate at 32°F (0°C) and C6 will hydrate at a lower temperature than this. psia CH4 C2H6 ** Pres. H2S b) Structure II a diamond shape lattice with up to 17 H20 molecules per gas molecule for heavier molecules.778 Note: Hydrate can form with liquid hydrocarbons present but the right conditions of free water present. proper temperatures and pressures have to occur.882 C2 4.418 C3 5.341 nC4 4.997 iC5 5. C2 H6. water forms the framework and hydrocarbon fills voids in the centre of the framework or in cavities formed by the water molecules. i.2: Hydrate Formation Conditions Min.061 iC4 5.Part I.doc] April 2004: 5-9 (366) .e.However. In both cases. It should be noted that hydrocarbons from C1 to nC4 inclusive only form hydrates. This applies for the smaller molecules like CH4.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Pentanes and heavier do not above 32°F (0°C) . Temp.909 C7 8. Gases with a hydrogen from atom in the polar position do not hydrate.769 nC6 5. 5. A gas having a molecular dimension greater than this diameter cannot form hydrates. ** °F (°C) 400 (2790) 33 (1) 600 (4185) 40 (4) 1000 (6970) 50 (10) 80 (558) 33 (1) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 shows the molecular dimension of hydrocarbons. Table 5. ammonia. thus C7 and heavier do not hydrate.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .88 C8 7. Table 5. Here are some examples of hydrate conditions: Table 5.8 Conditions for Hydrates to Form Hydrates form only when free water is present and the system is at a proper temperature and pressure. H2S and CO2 do. etc.Search Main Menu sometimes behave as solutions of gases in crystalline solids. Two types of structural lattice are generally: a) Structure I a body centre cubic lattice with 7-8 H2O in framework.32 nC5 5. They resemble wet snow in appearance.

62 at 900 psia.doc] . To find the hydrate condition of a gas at given pressure. then follow the slope of the guide line to April 2004: 5-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 5. CO2 and H2S are given in the GPSA Data Book. 15-12.Search 400 Note: (2790) 57 Main Menu (14) ** Hydrates will form if pressure above these values and temperature below these values. Baillie and Wichert have developed a graphical method for calculating hydrate temperature of sour natural gas. For example. Calculate the relative density (specific gravity) of the gas mixture.9 Calculation of the Possibility of Hydrates Forming The possibility of a hydrate forming can be calculated by using the hydration formation graph on Fig. C2. The method is given below and uses Figure 5.e. to find the hydrate temperature of a gas with a gravity of 0. Figure 15-7 to p.12 (imperial units). 1. Enter the main graph at the pressure on the left side (sloping axis).[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . When K Y = 1. 2 shows how above calculation is done. For N2 and hydrocarbon compounds heavier than nC4 take K as infinity.11 (metric units) and Figure 5. Example Problem No.0 Make a table showing given gas composition. a calculation similar to a dewpoint one should be done. Drop down to the gas relative density (gas gravity) line. For n butane take K values for ethane. The equation that is used is: Equation 5-3 K v−s = y xs where: Kv-s = equilibrium constant for vapour solid equilibrium y = mole fraction of HC on a water free basis xs = mole fraction of HC in the solid on a water free basis Values for Kv-s for C1. C3. Another method of calculating the hydrate temperature is by the use of the hydrate equilibrium constant "Kv-s".0 then this is the temperature at which hydrate will form. Interpolate between lines. Equation 5-4 Y ∑ K = 1. 15-1 of the GPSA Manual. and move to the right to the H2S concentration line. one reads off the chart that it is 60°F. i.Part I. For K value not given in the charts K use the following: 1. iC4. 2. then find Y for assumed temperature.

move to the right to the C3 concentration of the mixture and then drop down to the pressure line. 3. Move either right or left to obtain the C3 content adjustment in 0°C (0°F). Obtain the temperature adjustment for the C3 content from the top left side of the page. The result is the estimate of the hydrate temperature at the given pressure for the gas mixture.Search Main Menu the temperature scale at the bottom of the graph. 4.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Read the temperature in 0°C (0°F). Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I. Enter this graph along the H2S scale. Add the C3 adjustment~obtained in Step 3 to the value obtained in Step 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 5-11 (366) . The values on the left side are negative.

doc] .Search Main Menu Figure 5.6: Hydrate Chart for Sour Natural Gas (SI Units) April 2004: 5-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

7: Hydrate Chart for Sour Natural Gas (Imperial Units) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 5.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 5-13 (366) .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

0 ∞ 0. generally they form in areas of great turbulence.2 0. as often when a well is choked at the wellhead.5 ∞ 0.0 0.0 1. Add chemicals to the gas to combine with the water. Check hydrate temperature using this value.0 ∞ 0.0 Total 107.8 C3 1.3 ∞ 0.Part I. the following methods can be used: 1. called the Hanunerschmidt equation.0 ∞ 0.1 1.2 C1 78.6 0.2 ∞ 0.doc] .0 nC5 0.4 iC5 0.0 0.85 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . b) When free water is present.2 0. 2. By interpolation the hydrate point is 69°F. this condition can occur.3 ∞ 0. 15-2. 15-2 to 15-6 of the GPSA Data Book are graphs showing the permissible expansion of natural gases without hydrate formation.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .85 3.18 66.9 temperature is 67°F.).5 * nC4 0. To prevent hydrates from forming.15 0.5 92.10 12.16 7. Comp. This is quite important. From 15-1. hydrate 28.0 C6 1.4 10.4 C2 3. A well known equation. 5. glycols and sometimes ammonia. P.7 = 0.6 * Use Kvs value for ethane for n Butane.5 0. The chemicals mostly used are methanol.15 2. Remove the water from the gas so that free water will not condense out.0 ∞ 0.8 1. is used to determine the concentration of chemical in the final solution.71 . Glycols are generally used for continuous processes while methanol is used for emergencies.0 0. Equation 5-5 April 2004: 5-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 25. Mole % Kvs at 65°F Y K Kvs at 70°F Y K N2 4. Also.2 Determine the hydrate point of the gas of the composition given in the table below when the gas is at 1200 psig.Search Main Menu Example Problem 5.4 0.25 25.10 The Prevention of Hydrates Hydrates form under the following conditions: a) At proper conditions of temperature and pressure.6 1. Also given in Fig.37 17. 3.21 64. This is a good check (The value by the Wichert chart is 71.0 H2S 6. Keep the gas above the hydrate temperature.3 CO2 4. If gravity of gas is calculated from composition it is equal to 20.

doc] April 2004: 5-15 (366) . and 2222 for glycols. wt. K = a constant = 2335 for methanol.Search d= Main Menu KW 100M − MW where: d = number of °F gas hydrate freezing point is lowered.Part I. From Figure 5. ethanol. Assuming mono ethylene glycol (mol. Gas Pressure 1000 psig Gas Temperature from well 85°F Ground Temperature 40°F Gas Specific Gravity 0.75 Total gas handled per day 8 MMSCF From the hydrate formation curve. When the gas is cooled to 40°F it will contain 9 lbs/MMSCF. the hydrate depression required is 67 .1) is utilized. d in °C then k = 1297 for methanol. With 8 MMSCF of gas being processed daily. = 4000 for glycols In metric units i. of compound used for hydrate suppression. W = wt % of final glycol concentration. M = mole wt. the following substitutions are made in the Hammerschmidt equation and W determined: X (67 % Glycol) W (dilute glycol) d= 4000W 100 M − MW 27° F = 4000W 6210 − 62. it is determined that a saturated gas with a specific gravity of 0.1 lbs H2O/MMSCF.3 Determine the amount of 67% by weight mono ethylene glycol to be circulated in a gas gathering unit that has a central glycol concentration unit. Example Problem 5. 62.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .e.3 it is seen that saturated gas at 85°F and 1000 psig contains 39.75 at 1000 psig has a hydrate point of 67F.1W W = 29. Thus we can calculate the concentration of final glycol solution and if we know what the initial concentration is (for hydrate inhibition solution strengths used are about 75% to 80%) then the amount to circulate can be calculated. Thus.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 % by wc – EG final concentration.40 or 27F. ammonia. this amounts to Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Part I.1) − 62.4°C = 690 mg/m3 Water content at 4.4°C = 170 mg/m3 Difference = 520 mg/m3 mg / hr = kg 520 (226.86 kg/hr April 2004: 5-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4°C Gas flow = 226. From Figure 5.5% by wt.564 m3/day Solution Gas Hydrate temperature = 19. Example Problem 5.4°C Depression Required = 15°C Hammerschmidt Equation: 15 = 2222W 100 (62. total concentration.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .91) X = 3.86 lbs/hr required probably should design pumping capacity for about double this amount.1 − 1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (8) = 10lbs / hr ⎝ 24 Hours ⎠ that is condensed and has to be handled by the glycol.5 % is calculated.4°C Ground temperature = 4.91 hr 24 Now solve by glycol balance: 0.295 (x + 4.4°C Ground Temperature = 4.doc] .67 X = 0.67 EG/Hr 0.Search Main Menu ⎛ 39. Assuming hydrate depression is to be achieved by injecting 67 % by weight ethylene glycol.295 (X + 10) X = 7. the injection rate required to produce a final glycol concentration of 29. Do this by a glycol balance.3: Water content at 29.67X = 0.564) = 4.4 Data Gas pressure 6995 kpa Gas temperature from Well = 29.1W W = 29. Let: X = lb of 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

3 C2 2. Its composition is as follows: Mole % H2S 5. each bed is on for 4 hours and then 4 hours and cooling.5 H2S 26.doc] April 2004: 5-17 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . e) The design absorptive capacity of the sieve is 10% adsorption.5 C1 63.3 C1 57.Search 5. b) The design flow for gas through a mole sieve dessicant bed is 30 feet per minute.5 C02 7. Determine the length and diameter of the mole sieve vessel. d) The bulk density of the molecular sieve is 43 lbs/cu.Part I.6 A gas well flows at the rate of 20 MMSCFD directly to a gas plant.1 Main Menu More Example Problems Example Problem 5. feet. c) Allow 2 feet on either side of the molecular sieve bed for an entrance chamber and for a disengaging space.7 C02 12. The gas has the following composition: Mole % N2 0. The gas composition is as follows: Mole % H2S 27. The temperature of the gas leaving the well is 100°F (after the choke) and it is 80°F when it reaches the plant. Here is some additional information. a) The wellhead flowing pressure is 2600 psia and the temperature is 140°F.3 Another gas well is found adjacent to the gathering line 1 mile from the plant.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .3 C3 0.8 iC4+ 0.1 The dehydration a 4 hour cycle. on regeneration unit is to be designed to handle 50 MMSCFD of gas on. It produces only 5.0 C2 1.0 MMSCFD and the temperature of the gas leaving the choke is calculated to be 60°F with no heater. g) The unit's design operating pressure is 1440 psig. It is located 2 moles from the plant. f) The gas is to be dried to a dew point of 10°F prior to entering the pipeline. Example Problem 5.0 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .10. That is. The reservoir pressure is 3000 psia and at 160°F.7 C3 0.5 It has been decided to use a molecular sieve unit to dehydrate a gas produced from a reservoir.

Data: Ocean minimum temperature 42°F Reservoir Pressure 3000 psia Reservoir Temperature 160°F Wellhead temperature under flowing conditions 110°F Plant entrance pressure 1200 psia The gas composition is: Mole % April 2004: 5-18 (366) C1 87. It is planned to control the hydrates in the line by injecting an 80% ethylene glycol solution at each welihead.doc] . The anticipated maximum flow is 200 MMSCFD.2 C2 5.0 nC4 2.Part I. The glycol will be recovered at the plant and re-used.6 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Determine the amount of glycol required for this operation. B.5 iC4 0. It is anticipated the flowing wellhead pressure will be 2500 psia and it will be choked at the well to 1400 psia and then transported along the bottom of the ocean to a central processing plant on the B. Do you think it is necessary to put a heater at the second well before the choke? If so. The pipeline pressure at the first well is 1200 psia. how hot would you heat the gas from this well? Assume temperature drop along the initial gathering line is directly proportional to its length.5 Main Menu The pressure of the gas at each well is 2000 psia.7 Assume gas field has been discovered just off the Gulf Islands between Vancouver. at the second well 1100 psia and the plant 1000 psia.6 C3 3. Example Problem 5.0 C3 1. and Vancouver Island.2 iC4 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search C02 1.C.C. The gas composition is as given below.4 iC5 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0 C1 87. Express as an 80% glycol solution in lbs/day.0 C2 5. mainland at tidewater.

6. No. Oil & Gas Journal. Sloan. Hydrocarbon Processing. University of Oklahoma.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A. P. Ng. J. 47. Anthony and J.B. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Krachy. March 1967. Vol. P. Moore. P. 1986. 6.M. J. Reading List 1. December 1963. January/February 79. P. Lukacs and D. 1969. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. July/August. August 4.G. 40. P.doc] April 2004: 5-19 (366) . DB. August 8. Hutton. Hydrogen Sulphide and Carbon Dioxide". P. 26. E. Energy Processing/Canada. J Campbell.Search Main Menu References 1. C. Letter. E. "Molecular Sieves Dehydrate High-Acid at Pine Creek". Baillie and E. Robinson and H. Sharma and J. 4. 4.M. Robinson. Robinson and J. 1987. 66.Part I. 293. 5. 126. 131.J. Oil & Gas Journal. P. 6. "Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases". February 1971. "How to Estimate H20 in HydroCarbons". 3. 2. R. June 1968. Wichert.B. "Hydrate Formation in Systems Containing Methane. Canadian Petroleum Technology.J. D. P. Heidemann. S. 3. Journal of Society of Petroleum Engineering. "Hydrate Formation and Inhibition in Gas Condensate Streams". 37. 1990. R. R. Wichert. 1966.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Campbell. April 6. 2. McKetta. Masuda and P.D. Dekker. Oil and Gas Journal.

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and is often characterized by a minimum force required to cause flow.1.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . the viscosity "µ" is a constant at a set temperature while for a non-Newtonian. Figure 6.Search 6. when a fixed quantity of the substance is taken. primarily with Newtonian fluids. Figure 6. it is not. We are concerned in this course. and in the natural gas industry.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .1 shows the difference between the two classes.2 Classes of Fluids There are two major classes of fluids. For Newtonian fluid.2.1. 6.1 Introduction 6. this material assumes the shape of the container that holds it as contrasted to a solid which is a fixed shape (liquid takes half of bottom of container if not enough present). we should define the two classes.Part I. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . a non-Newtonian fluid is a material like a plastic or tar. 6.1: Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Properties Another way to show the difference between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is to plot the viscosity versus the shear rate as shown in Figure 6. Newtonian and non-Newtonian. or the shear stress is not directly proportional to the rate of shear stress. For example. However.0 Main Menu Flow of Fluids • Energy relationship • Gas flow • Liquid flow • Two-phase flow • Measurement of flow and equipment for making fluids flow.1 What is a Fluid? A fluid can be defined as a substance which. etc. A fluid can be either a gas or a liquid.doc] April 2004: 6-1 (366) .

doc] . (kg/m3). 6.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . It is defined as: µ= ShearingStress Rate of Shearing Strain Or we can consider the following diagram: Figure 6.Search Main Menu Figure 6.ft.1. Viscosity µ = a particular fluid property.4 Definitions Let us define some common physical properties of a fluid: Density ρ = mass of substance per unit volume.2: Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Viscosities 6. etc.1.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . normally lbs/cu. (high vacuum. ie.3: Physical Properties of Fluid The Force (F) per unit area (A) applied to make the top layer move at a velocity (dv) a distance (dy) from the stationary plane can be expressed by the following equation: Equation 6-1 April 2004: 6-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.. It is the internal friction in a fluid that reduces flow.).3 Other Comments We also wil limit ourselves to systems in which the fluid is a continuous substance. we are not considering systems in which there are only a few molecules present as different laws apply.

1. This is defined as follows. the friction factor "f" is correlated against the Reynolds Number. 6. Equation 6-2 Re = (Diameter of Pipe )(Velocity of fluid )(Density of fluid ) D v ρ = Vis cos ity of fluid µ The Reynolds Number is important as it defines the fluid in a system. Reynolds Number Another well known item concerned with. because fluids that have the same Reynolds Number are dynamically similar and when applied to geometrically similar systems.time metric system.5 Symbols In the course of this section we will be using many symbols. There are many other units that viscosity is expressed in due to the variety of means of measuring it.doc] April 2004: 6-3 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . etc. along with the common units: F = Force (lbs normally) [Newton] ρ = Density (lbs/cu.ft.) [kg/m3] µ = Viscosity ( lbs kg ) [or in poises or ] ft x sec m − sec D = Pipe diameter (ft) [m] d = pipe diameter (in) [cm or mm] v = Velocity (ft/sec) [m/sec] G = Mass velocity (lbs/ft2sec) [kg/m2/sec] gc = Gravity (32.Search F dv =µ A dy or =µ Main Menu dγ dt where: µ = the viscosity of the fluid y = shear stress t = time This property has the dimensions of mass and is normally expressed as centipoise in the length . For example.2 ft/sec2) [980 cm/sec2] note: sometimes has unit ft hr 2 w = Work (BTUs or ft. they behave identically. ie.Part I. lbs} [kilojoules] Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Kinematic. fluids is the Reynolds number. The main ones are as follows. Engler.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Saybolt.

lbs) [kilojoules] L = Length of pipe (ft or miles) [m] W = Mass flow lb sec ⎡ kg ⎤ ⎢⎣ se ⎥⎦ A = Cross-sectional area (ft2) [m2] V = Volume (normally specific volume.2 Energy Equation Consider the following system for 1 lb. 6.2. (or 1 kilogram) of material flowing: April 2004: 6-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu q = Heat (BTUs or ft.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0 6.2. lbs} [kilojoules] Q = Flow (SCFH or SCFD) [m3/Hr or m3/day] z = Height or Potential (ft) [m] Z = Compressibility Factor u = Internal Energy (BTUs or ft. f’ = the factor dependent only on Reynolds Number for the system. This can be expressed by the equation: Equation 6-3 F= f ′ρAν 2 2g c where: A = the area of the solid in contact with the fluid. V = the velocity of the fluid.2 Energy Equations 6.Part I.1 The Drag Law Whenever a fluid flows past a solid object or a solid object passes through a fluid. ρ = the density of the fluid. cu.doc] . a force "F" is required to overcome the friction developed. gc = the gravity./lb) [m3/kg] P = Pressure (normally psi) [kpa] T = Temperature (normally in °R) [°K] S = Gas gravity compared to air = 1.ft.

let us consider the case where no outside work occurs. We will also consider the case in which there is no outside heat.4: Material Flowing Through a Heat Exchanger An energy equation can be written from Point 2 as compared to Point 1. Let us consider the Drag Equation for flow in pipes where F (force) is required to overcome friction. Equation 6-8 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Equation (5) reduces to Equation 6-6 ⎛ v2 ⎜⎜ + ∆ VdP ∫1 ⎝ 2g c 2 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + ∆z + lw ⎠ For an incompressible fluid this can be expressed as: Equation 6-7 ⎛ v2 + ∆⎜⎜ ρ ⎝ 2g c ∆P 6.3 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + ∆z = lw ⎠ Basic Equation for Incompressible Flow Equation (7) can be used to develop the Fanning Equation or the Darcy Equation for flow in pipes. Equation 6-4 u2 + v2 v 22 + z 2 + P2V2 = u1 + 1 + z1 + P1V1 + q + w 2gc 2g c or Equation 6-5 ⎛ v2 ∆u + ∆⎜⎜ ⎝ 2g c ⎞ ⎟⎟ + ∆z + PV = q + w ⎠ Let lw = lost work (work to overcome friction or other changes).doc] April 2004: 6-5 (366) .Search Main Menu Figure 6. This would be part of the term "w" in (5) above.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.2. However.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] . replacing F' from (8) we have: Equation 6-10 lw = 2 f ′Lv 2 Dg c Now substitute in the energy equation for a non-compressible fluid in which there is no change in elevation or potential energy or change in velocity.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Now let f = 4 f ' f'= fm 4 We can now express the pressure loss in the familiar Darcy Equation where "f" is the regular friction factor. (Equation (7) modified). lw . Assume that the fluid moves a distance dL then the energy lost in ft. lbs. is FdL.Search F′ = f ′ Main Menu ρπDLv 2 2g c The area is πDL. (Moody Friction factor) Equation 6-12 ∆P = fmρLv 2 2g c D April 2004: 6-6 (366) in lb ft 2 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Equation 6-11 lw = ∆P ρ = 2 f ′Lv 2 Dg c This is a form of the Fanning Equation. This is equal to the lost work. Now the mass of fluid moved is equal to: ρπD 2 dL 4 or lw per unit mass of fluid is expressed as follows: Equation 6-9 lw = F ′dL ρπD 2 dL = 4 4F ′ ρπD 2 Now.Part I.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 ρ fm Lv 2 144 D (2 g c ) The friction factor is sometimes expressed as the Fanning Friction . this so called Moody diagram gives different values for different types of flow. (Does not drop very fast with increasing Re. We normally have this type of flow.2. Friction Factor The friction factor has been correlated vs Reynolds Number. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . In Figure 6. occurs below Re.5 and 6. = 4000. This is the value ε/D shown in Figure 6.5.8. = 2000 Transition Range Between Re.Factor ff which is ¼ of fm. No. Note: The roughness of pipe affects the friction factor. These types of flow are listed below: Laminar Flow A flow in which fluid flows in straight lines.doc] April 2004: 6-7 (366) . in rough pipe). = 2000 to 4000 Turbulent Flow Above Re.Part I.Search Main Menu or the Darcy Equation in lbs/in2 Equation 6-13 ∆P = Note: 6.

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 6.doc] .5: Friction Factors for Commercial Pipe April 2004: 6-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

2.5 Main Menu Flow Pattern in Pipe Let us consider flow patterns in pipe.7: Velocity Profile vs Reynolds Number 6.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Number. Figure 6.doc] April 2004: 6-9 (366) .3 Liquid Flow We are concerned primarily with the flow of liquids in pipes and will not discuss flow over weirs or in channels. In GPSA Data Book on pages 10-10 and 10-11 charts these are giving pressure drops in psi/l00 ft.6 shows some typical flow patterns. Figure 6. Figure 6.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . There are many formulas giving the pressure drop in pipes. A good basic formula that can be used is the Darcy-Wiesbach formula (for turbulent flow). Also data in kpa/l00 m are given in the SI GPSA Data Book on the same page number.Search 6.6: Flow Patterns in Pipe This can be contrasted if the ratio of the average velocity "v" divided by vmax is plotted against Re. Equation 6-14 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

and the roughness factor "e" and thus e/D. This is also reproduced in Ludwig. etc.Search ∆P = Main Menu fW 2 L 5715 ρ D 5 where: ∆P = pressure drop psi f = friction factor from Colebrook-White chart (Figure 6. lbs/cu. This table applies primarily to pump and compressor discharge piping. kg/m 3 Optimum Velocity ft/sec m/sec 100 (16.43) 50 (8.Part I. As can be seen from Figure 6.8. "f" is a function of the Re. we can find "f" from the Hagen-Poiseuille Law which is: Equation 6-15 f = 64 Re where: Re = the Reynolds Number. lbs/sec. it is not possible or correct to just take the straight length of pipe. valves.5).0 (1.0 (1.9. If we have laminar flow.16 (3. as is shown in Figure 6. tees.ft. Vol.. use at least 20% of straight length pipe in process plants and 10% for pipelines.05 10 (1.ft. L = length in feet. D = inside diameter in ft.Moody Value) W = Flow. All fittings have to be taken into account.2. P. No.10.9 . This is a balance between pressure drop and power required for pumping. Because of the complexity of elbows.1: Recommended Velocities in Pipe Fluid Density lbs/cu. If you do not have the actual number of elbows. The following table gives some economic velocities.009) 6.2 . (fm .87) April 2004: 6-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 10-14.78.4.3.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .55 .. thus an equivalent length is calculated.doc] . This optimum size has been worked out for several conditions. I.1 . etc. ρ = density.8 or Figure 6. We have been concerned with measuring pressure drop. GPSA Data Book. This is straight length plus equivalent length of fittings as determined from Fig. Actually prime concern is to determine the most economic size. tees.018) 5.8. Table 6.05 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Another way of obtaining the pressure drop is to use the data as given in the Ingersoll Rand's "Cameron Hydraulic Data" in which the pressure drop (head loss) for various sizes of pipe is given for water and HC fluids against a viscosity.602) 10 .

34.9.8 .016) 39 .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .1 (0.5 .94 .112 (23.0016) 78 .5) 0.doc] Main Menu April 2004: 6-11 (366) .0) 0.160) 19.Search 1 (0.01 (0.Part I.18.9 .2) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .59 (11.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .31 (5.

doc] .8: Friction Factor VS Reynolds Number April 2004: 6-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 6.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

4 100 psig 60 – 80 18.4 1.4 .2 500 psig 30 – 40 9.5 – 2.doc] April 2004: 6-13 (366) . Etc.3 300 psig 40 – 50 12.2 .12.1 .3 – 0.9 – 1.05 .Allowable Velocities ft/sec m/sec Pressure (atmospheric) 80 – 100 24.18.Part I.3 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .8 * 0.3: Gases .3 (max) 1 (max) 0. Table 6.1 Compressor Suction 30 9.4 200 psig 50 – 60 15.Search Main Menu Figure 6. Table 6. Pump Discharge 5-8 5-8 3-5 Pump Suction 1 (max) 3 (max) 1 (max) Gravity Flow 0.6 * * Should check on the pressure drop available basis also.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Allowable Velocities ft/sec Boiling Liquids Light Hydrocarbons and Water Viscous Oil.3 (max) Gravity Flow 0. Pump Discharge 1.15.1 Compressor Discharge 70 21.5 * 1–2* meters/sec Boiling Liquids Light Hydrocarbons and Water Viscous Oil.2: Liquids .30.6.24.5 Pump Suction 0.2 1000 psig 10 – 20 3.15 * 0. Etc.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A thorough review of the actual installation should always be made.3 .5 * 2.4 0.5 – 2.9: Optimum Pipe Size Determination This data can also be expressed more specifically for particular services as follows: Suggested Allowable Velocities or Pressure Drops in Process Plants The following data is to be used as a guide.2 .

9 Pump Discharge 5-8 4 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Solution Line No. However. an economic balance equation should be developed.0 500 and greater 1.e. this is a balance.05 25" of Mercury 0.5 The problem of long transmission lines is slightly different. However.02 0. i. Pump discharge pressure is normal maximum for pipe.75 6 Rundown to Storage 5-8 3 1.2 6 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . pump stations are usually located every 100 miles or less.5 50 .Allowable Pressure Drop Steam Pressure PSIG PSI/100 ft 10 – 50 0.1 You are to size the butane splitter feed and bottoms piping from the feed drum to the tower as shown by the sketch below.Search Main Menu Table 6. For rough sizing about 6 to 10 psi per mile can be used.doc] Comments * .10 15" of Mercury 0. higher velocities probably can be used.4: Vacuum Systems .5: Steam Systems . Since the cost of pump stations is higher than pumps alone. Flow (Usgpm) 1 234 Pump Suction 2 234 3 146 April 2004: 6-14 (366) Service Allowable Velocity Size (inches) (ft/sec) Pressure Drop (Psi/100 ft) Velocity (ft/sec) 1 10 0.15 Table 6.500 1.Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .024 KPa) or 720 psig (5065 KPa) depending on the flange rating of the valves in the system. Also. 1440 psig (10.Allowable Pressure Drop Vacuum psi/100 ft 28" of Mercury 0. Example Problem 6.

5 – 2. The gas law equation for this condition is such that Equation 6-17 P2 V1 = P1 V2 Isothermal flow is usually taken for flow in long pipelines and formulas developed for flow in pipelines are usually based on isothermal flow. For flow through nozzles at high speeds.2 30 3 33.4 101. however. cancelled out in the general equation by a change in internal energy due to a change in pressure.14 Pump Suction 0. etc.Search Main Menu * Should check length of line and available pressure drop.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .16 Rundown to Storage 1.4 Gas Flow The flow of gas is complicated because it is compressible and the pV in the flow equation cannot be reduced to Vdp but the term pdV has to be considered also.14 Pump Discharge 1. Flow (m /hr) Service Allowable Velocity (m/sec) Size (mm) Pressure Drop (kpa/100 m) 1 53. Generally it is best to let a process control valve take about one third of the available pressure drop in the system. It may be that 4 inches is best.doc] April 2004: 6-15 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3 254 2 2 53. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 75 45 Control Valves Another item to consider is control valve sizing. 3 Line No.Part I. We have to consider two types of flow: Adiabatic Flow Flow is an insulated pipe in which no heat is transferred. This pdV term is.5 – 2. The gas law equation for this is: Equation 6-16 Pvk = Constant or ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎝ V2 ⎠ k where k= CP CV Isothermal flow The gas is kept at a constant temperature. 6. adiabatic flow is considered.

Assume work = 0 and potential is zero.1 Main Menu Adiabatic Flow Let us firsts consider adiabatic flow q = 0. for adiabatic reversible flow Equation 6-25 April 2004: 6-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search 6. Therefore Equation 6-22 v 22 − v12 = P1V1 − P2V2 + CV (T1 − T2 ) 2gc Equation 6-23 v 22 − v12 PV PV = P1V1 − P2V2 + 1 1 − 2 2 2gc k −1 k −1 or Equation 6-24 v 22 − v12 k (P1V1 − P2V2 ) = 2gc k −1 Now.4.doc] .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . then Equation 6-18 P1V1 = U 2 − U 1 + v 22 − v12 + P2V2 2gc Now Equation 6-19 CV (T2 − T1 ) = U 2 − U 1 and Equation 6-20 PV = RT also Equation 6-21 CV = R k −1 where: k is the ratio of specific heats.

Part I.10.doc] April 2004: 6-17 (366) . if W is the weight of gas passing through a nozzle.10: Maximum Flow of Compressible Fluid The maximum rate of flow can be found by differentiating W with respect to P2 and settling result to 0. W at the throat of a nozzle Equation 6-27 W= A2 v2 V2 and assuming v12 is small.Search k ⎛ρ ⎞ P2 ⎛ V1 ⎞ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ P1 ⎝ V2 ⎠ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠ Main Menu k Equation (24) becomes Equation 6-26 ⎡ v −v ⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ P1 ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ P2 ⎟ ⎜ =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 − ⎜⎜ 2gc ⎝ k − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠ ⎢ ⎝ P1 ⎢⎣ 2 2 2 1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ k −1 k ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦ We can use this equation for gas flow through nozzles.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . flow meters.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . we obtain Equation 6-28 ⎛ 2kg c ⎞ ⎛ P1 ⎞ ⎛ P2 W =A ⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ k − 1 ⎠ ⎝ V1 ⎠ ⎝ P1 If plot of W versus 2 ⎞ k ⎛ P2 ⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜ ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ k −1 k P2 is made we will get a plot as is shown in Figure 6. Equation 6-29 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . For example. Call P2 at this condition Pc. P1 Figure 6. orifices.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 32. Note: The velocity of sound is the maximum velocity that can occur in gas pipes. where: vc = velocity of sound.Part I. Field flare stacks are sometimes sized for close to sonic velocities when the maximum amount of gases are being flared.4. we can write the general energy equation in the following form: Equation 6-32 April 2004: 6-18 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Have horizontal flow.lbs/mole M = mole weight of gas in lbs Zc = compressibility factor at outlet conditions or when velocity reaches that of sound. 6.2 Isothermal Flow Next let us consider isothermal flow which.2 ft/sec2 R = 1541 ft. Tc = Temperature when gas is at velocity of sound or at pressure Pc in °R. Plant flare stacks are sized at lower sonic velocities. about 0. etc. ft/sec gc = gravity.5 P1 will not increase the flow.doc] . This lower value is necessary as higher than 0. (Usually 0. No mechanical work in system 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . If we assume: 1.2 can often cause blow out of a flame.2 of sonic velocities. A reduction of the pressure below the value of Pc or when P2 < 0. This occurs at end of pipe.Search Main Menu 1 Pc ⎛ 2 ⎞ k −1 ⎟ =⎜ P1 ⎜⎝ k + 1 ⎟⎠ The velocity at this point can be shown to be: Equation 6-30 vc = 2gc k (P1V1 ) = k +1 kPc ρc or. in English units Equation 6-31 vc = kg c Tc zc R M which is the velocity of sound at the critical pressure. is the normal flow in most gas gathering lines.8 of sonic velocity). pipelines.

doc] April 2004: 6-19 (366) .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Equation becomes: Equation 6-33 VdP + vdV fv 2 dl + =0 gc 2gc D or Equation 6-34 2 g cVdP 2dv fdl + + =0 v D v2 Integrating this equation between points 1 and 2 we obtain: Equation 6-35 v12 P1 ⎡ v2 fl ⎤ P −P = ⎢2ln + ⎥ g cV1 ⎣ v1 D ⎦ 2 1 2 2 or if we neglect the acceleration or kinetic energy change we can obtain the equation for long pipes v fl >> 2 ln 2 D v1 Equation 6-36 P12 − P22 flv12 = g c D1 P1V1 P12 or Equation 6-37 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search VdP + Main Menu d (v 2 ) + dR = 0 2gc Change in pressure + Change in velocity + Lost work to overcome friction = 0 Now dR = fv 2 dl 2g c D (This is the drag law) where: l = length of line.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .11 ---- 38.Flow in P .3 Common Formula for Gas Flow We can change the above equation to units in which we have a friction factor and common units.Search Main Menu ⎡ flv12 ⎤ P1 − P2 = P1 ⎢ 1 − 1 − ⎥ g c DP1V1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 6.Temperature base in °R °K T .gas specific gravity ---- ---- Za .Pipe diameter in inches cm L .Pressure in Ps .Friction factor k April 2004: 6-20 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1842 f .Pipe length in miles km S .4. A typical equation that covers all cases for horizontal flow: Equation 6-38 1 Ts ⎡ (P12 − P22 )d 5 ⎤ 2 Q=K ⎢ ⎥ Ps ⎣ fLSTZ a ⎦ where: Q .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Operating temperature in °R °K d .77 0.average compressibility between that at P1 and P2 ---- ---- See Figure 6.Part I.doc] .Pressure base in English Units Metric Units SCFD m3/D psia bars = kPa 100 psia bars = kPa 100 Ts .

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Figure 6.11: Recommended Friction Factors for Gas Flow

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A short discussion of finding

Main Menu

1

ε

is desirable. The factor is correlated against the Re. No. and

,

f

D

the roughness factor. ε is the height of the roughness in inches and D is the diameter in inches (Or these could be in cm). Here are some roughness data.

**Table 6.6: Roughness Data
**

Low Pressure

Pipe Size

ε

(4"-10" of H9 Vacuum)

2-8

0.01"

(100 – 250 mm of H9)

8 - 30

0.007"

(2 - 10 psig)

All

0.0025”

(15 - 170 kpa)

All

0.0025”

(>10 psig)

All

0.0025”

(170 kpa)

All

0.0025”

New Pipe

All

0.0007"

5 yrs old

All

0.002"

10 yrs old

All

0.0025

15 yrs old

All

0.003"

Med. Pressure

High Pressure

**There are some other well known empirical formulas. In these the friction factor is expressed as a
**

function of either the Diameter (Weymouth) or the Re. No. (Panhandle).

The Weymouth formula which is often used assumes that

1

is a function of the diameter "d".

f

That is:

f =

0.032

d

1

3

The formula is:

1

T ⎡ P 2 − P22 ⎤ 2 2.667

Q = 433.5 b ⎢ 1

⎥ d

Pb ⎣ STLZ a ⎦

or S.I.

Equation 6-39

Q = 0.0037

April 2004: 6-22 (366)

1

2

Tb ⎡ P − P ⎤ 2.667

⎢

⎥ d

Pb ⎣ STLZ a ⎦

2

1

2

2

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Main Menu

where:

d = pipe diameter in inches (mm)

L = line length in miles (If L in feet constant is (km) 30,490 instead of 433.5)

P1, P2 = pressure in psia at points 1 and 2

Q = SCFD at Tb and Pb (m3/d)

S = specific gravity

T = °R (°K)

Tb = base temp °R (°K)

Pb = base pressure, psia (Kpa)

Charts in the GPSA Data Book plot (Page 10-3) plot flows vs P12 − P22 / km and pipe sizes for the

formula. The Weymouth formula is usually used for sizing gathering lines.

Another common formula is the Panhandle. Here the friction factor is taken as:

1

= θ (Re) 0.73

f

This formula is given on the following pages. Please note that E is the pipeline efficiency 0.92 for

clean transmission lines and 0.88 for gathering lines.

Note:

**E is the pipeline efficiency usually it is taken as 0.92, but can vary from 0.85 to 0.95
**

depending on operating conditions.

6.4.3.1

**Summary of Equations for Single Phase Gas Pipelines Using One-Step
**

Calculation Procedure

Capacity

General Equation

Equation 6-40

⎛T

Q = KE ⎜⎜ b

⎝ Pb

Equation

Panhandle

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

α

⎛ P12 − P22

⎜⎜

⎝ Ta LZ a

β

⎞ Dχ

⎟⎟

ν

⎠ S

System of Units

Field

K

435.87

Panhandle

SI

4.596 x l0

Panhandle

Eastern

Field

737

Panhandle

Eastern

SI

10.02 x l0

-3

-3

α

β

γ

υ

1.0788

0.5394

2.6182

0.4606

1.0788

0.5394

2.6182

0.4606

1.02

0.510

2.530

0.490

1.02

0.510

2.530

0.490

**Upstream and Downstream Pressures
**

General Equations

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α

⎧⎪

⎛Q⎞

2

P1 = ⎨ P2 + K ⎜ ⎟

⎝E⎠

⎪⎩

Panhandle

Panhandle

χ

β

χ

⎫⎪

⎛ Pb ⎞ S

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

T

LZ

⎬

a

a

ν

⎪⎭

⎝ Tb ⎠ D

α

⎧⎪

⎛Q⎞

2

P2 = ⎨ P1 − K ⎜ ⎟

⎝E⎠

⎪⎩

Equation

β

⎫⎪

⎛ Pb ⎞ S

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

T

LZ

a

a⎬

ν

⎪⎭

⎝ Tb ⎠ D

System of Units

Field

SI

1

1

2

2

K

α

γ

υ

2

0.8539

4.8539

1.8539

2

0.8539

4.8539

1.9608

2

0.9608

4.9608

1.9608

2

0.9608

4.9608

1.279 x l0

-5

1.8539

2.157 x l0

4

Panhandle

Eastern

Field

2.385 x l0

-6

Panhandle

Eastern

SI

8.315 x l0

3

Main Menu

β

Diameter

General Equation

⎛Q⎞

D = K⎜ ⎟

⎝E⎠

Equation

α

⎛ Pb

⎜⎜

⎝ Tb

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

β

⎛ Ta LZ a

⎜⎜ 2

2

⎝ P1 − P2

System of Units

χ

⎞ S

⎟⎟

⎠ 1

K

α

β

γ

υ

0.1759

Panhandle

Field

0.0982

0.3819

0.4120

0.2060

Panhandle

SI

7.8133

0.3819

0.4120

0.2060

0.1759

Panhandle

Eastern

Field

0.0736

0.3953

0.4032

0.2016

0.1937

Panhandle

Eastern

SI

6.1684

0.3953

0.4032

0.2016

0.1937

**Definition of Parameters and Units
**

Parameter

Units

Definition

Field

SI

D

Inside diameter of pipe.

inch

mm

E

Pipeline efficiency factor, expressed as a fraction

----

----

S

gas gravity relative to air = 1

----

----

L

total length of pipeline

mile

km

Pb

reference pressure for standard conditions

psia

kPa

P1

upstream pressure

psia

kPa

P2

downstream pressure

psia

Q

gas flow rate at standard conditions

Tb

Ta

April 2004: 6-24 (366)

3

kPa

3

ft /day at Tb, Pb

m /day at Tb, Pb

reference temperature for standard conditions

°R

°K

average temperature of the flowing gas

°R

°K

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average compressibility factor of the flowing gas

Za

----

Main Menu

----

**When there is a significant difference in head between the start and finish of a transmission loss the
**

change of potential energy ∆z must be taken into account. This can be done by the use of the

following equation:

Equation 6-41

ln P1

∆z S

=

A Ta Z a

P2

where:

English Units

Metric Units

ft

m

S = gas gravity

----

----

Ta = ave temperature

°R

°K

Za = ave compressibility

----

----

psia

kpa

100

psia

kpa

100

54.34

29.28

∆z = head difference

P1 = Pressure at 1

P2 = Pressure at 2

A = Constant

**When sizing short process lines in vapour service the following formula can be used:
**

Equation 6-42

∆P100 =

W2

e

⎛ 0.000336 f f ⎞

⎟⎟

⎜⎜

d5

⎠

⎝

where:

∆P100 = Pressure drop/l00 ft

ff = Fanning friction factor

W = Flow lbs/hr

ρ = density lbs/cu.ft.

d = diameter in inches

See GPSA Data book page 10-5 and 10-6 for solving this formula,

or in metric units:

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W 2 ⎛ 62530 x 10 2 f ⎞

∆P

⎜

⎟⎟

=

100 M

ρ ⎜⎝

d5

⎠

where:

∆P = kpa

f = Fanning Friction Factor

W = Flow kg/hr

d = inside diameter in mm

ρ = density

6.4.4

kg

m3

Line Sizing

**The prime problem is to determine what size to make pipe for carrying gas. This again is an
**

economic balance. The general data given in the table on optimum velocity can be given or the

more detailed data given previously in Table 6.3: Gases - Allowable Velocities can be used.

6.4.5

Gathering Pipelines

**For gathering lines from wells to a processing facility, etc. we have a different problem. The well
**

initially can be at a very high pressure - 3000 to 5000 psig (20,684 to 34,473 kpa) depending on

depth. It is necessary to do a study of the maximum pressure in the pipeline vs well deliverability vs

wall thickness, etc. Usually the maximum pressure allowable in the line is 1440 psig, (about 10024

kpa) which is the maximum pressure rating for 600 ANSI raised face and ring joint flanges. There

are, of course varying other pressures used depending on special circumstances, such as

recycling, etc. For pressure drops varying values are used. They are affected by the length of the

line, etc. About 10 - 50 psi/mile is sometimes used.

Also, if wellhead pressure is set by pipe flange considerations and the processing facility outlet

condition is set by the transmission company (usually 900 psig) then the allowable and available

pressure drop is set. Example Problem 2 in Chapter 14 shows how a gathering system is sized.

6.4.6

Gas Transmission

**To size gas transmission lines a different set of conditions have to be reviewed. A detailed study of
**

pipe diameter versus compressor HP has to be made after the design volumes for both initial and

future conditions have been determined. Some of the factors considered and the rules of thumb for

initial design are:

1.

**Design pressure limitation - either 600 ANSI rating or 400 ANSI rating valves, flanges,
**

etc., are used, usually 400.

2.

The optimum compression ratio of generally taken as:

3.

•

for reciprocating machines - 1.3 to 1.5.

•

centrifugal machines - 1.2 to 1.3.

The spacing of compressor stations is:

April 2004: 6-26 (366)

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•

reciprocating machines – 80 - 100 miles apart.

•

centrifugal machines – 40 - 50 miles apart.

4.

The pressure drop used is 5 - 15 psi per mile.

5.

The ease of installing the pipe.

6.

The place where looping will be done.

7.

The storage of gas required.

6.4.7

Main Menu

Steam

**Another fluid to be considered is steam flow. This is also a compressible fluid and the general flow
**

equations could be used. However, a specific formula for saturated and superheated steam has

been developed along with nomographs. Generally it is desirable to keep the pressure drop in

steam lines low so as to prevent condensation. (See Fig. 10-10 in the GPSA Data Book for

determining pressure drop in steam lines). For steam lines the following allowable pressure drops

are often used:

•

1 lb/100 ft for 50 to 500 psig systems.

•

About 0.5 psig for 50 psig systems or lower pressures.

•

For pressures above 500 psig, use 1.5 lbs/100 ft.

**In terms of velocities, the following are often used:
**

•

20 psig - 100 ft/sec

•

150 psig - 130 ft/sec

In steam condensate systems, make sure the pressure drop is low, ie. about 0.5 psi per 100 ft.

6.5

Two Phase Flow

6.5.1

General

The next consideration is two phase flow. We are concerned with the flow of gas and liquids only.

Flows of gases and solids such as occur in cat crackers or slurry flows do not concern us.

Two phase flow occurs quite commonly in gathering lines from wells to a processing facility. It is

possible to separate at the wellhead and have a gas line and liquid line. However, even this does

not solve the problem as retrograde condensation can cause liquid to form in the gas line and

lowering of pressure can cause the liquid to vaporize.

What are some of the problems with two phase flow?

1.

Gas and liquid tend to separate in the pipe and gas flows are 2 to 10 times faster than

the liquid and thus leaves the liquid behind. There is a drag on the interface between

the phases and roughness on surface. This consumes energy and causes increased

pressure drop.

2.

Liquid accumulates in valleys and thus increases pressure required to flow fluid.

3.

**Two phase lines are very unstable and have widely varying pressure drops. A change
**

in flow rate causes a line to unload liquid or to accumulate it, thus the phenomenon of

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Flow in which liquid flows along the bottom and gas along the top of the pipe.Liquid forms a film around the pipe wall and gas flows at a higher velocity down the centre. Bubble Flow . Spray or Dispersed Flow . 4. They are: Equation 6-44 ⎡⎛ ρ g ⎞ ⎛ ρ L ⎞⎤ ⎟⎟ ⎜ λ = ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢⎣⎝ 0.This is similar to stratified flow except that gas flows at high velocities and disturbs the interface so that waves are formed which travel in the direction of flow.3 Formulas for Various Types of Flow The types of flow obtained under various conditions have been correlated as a function of the mass velocity "G" of the gas. 5. Plug Flow . 2. Figure 6.3 ⎠⎥⎦ 1 2 and Equation 6-45 April 2004: 6-28 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 6. Annular Flow . 7. Wave Flow .In this flow there are alternating plugs of gas and liquid which move along the upper section of the pipe. Kern. the gas and liquid densities.5. gas bubbles move along the upper section of the pipe at about the same velocity as the liquid. The lower section is liquid.A slug of liquid is formed from a wave and moves at much greater than normal velocity. Two parameters are used.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .In this.Part I.1 6.075 ⎠ ⎝ 62. the liquid is entrained in minute drops and is dispersed throughout the gas.Search Main Menu slugging. the surface tension of the liquid and the viscosity of the liquid. A good review of two phase flow is an article by R. Stratified Flow .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . For horizontal flow we can have: 1.In this flow.2 Types of Flow Let us review the various types of flow. The total pressure drop in a two phase flow system is often expressed by the equation: Equation 6-43 ∆Ptotal = ∆Ptwo phase flow + ∆Pelevation change + ∆Pacceleration change The most important pressure drop considerations are the ∆Ptwo phase flow and the ∆Pelevation difference .12 shows several of the types of flow to be expected. This is the same as froth flow in which the entire pipe is filled with a froth.doc] . 6. A two phase line is actually a pipeline system that is an extremely long storage tank. Slug Flow . 3.5. the mass velocity of the liquid "L". The pressure drop due to an acceleration change is usually neglected as was discussed when considering the equation for isothermal gas flow (See equation (35)).

When increasing liquid flow we go from stratified flow through slug or plug flow to bubble or froth flow.3 ⎞ ⎟ ⎢u L ⎜ Ψ= χ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ρ L ⎟⎠ ⎣ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ 1 Main Menu 3 where: γ = the surface tension of the liquid. These equations are formulas for the function θ2GTT where θGTT is the correction factor in the equation: Equation 6-46 2 ∆PTP = ∆PGφGTT where: ∆PTP = pressure drop for two phases ∆PG = pressure drop for gas alone in total pipe ∆PL = pressure drop for liquid alone in total pipe Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . G and λ Lλψ . Baker gives equations for each type of flow.Search 73 ⎡ ⎛ 62.doc] April 2004: 6-29 (366) . generally the type of flow goes G from stratified flow to dispersed flow.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Figure 6. i.e.14 correlates the type of flow versus functions relative to the above referred to parameter. It will be noted that in increasing the gas flow.12: Two Phase Flow Pattern Sketches Figure 6.Part I.

where: "L" is the liquid mass flow.815 = L0. above this.8 Slug Flow Equation 6-50 φGTT 1190 x 0. negative values are obtained.17 Stratified Flow Equation 6-49 φGTT = 15400 x L0. For wave flow use graph of work of Schnieder.75 L0. April 2004: 6-30 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.ft. of total pipe cross sectional area. ⎝ ∆PG ⎠ Froth or Bubble Flow Equation 6-47 φGTT = 14.doc] . White and Huntington shown in Figure 6. lb/hr/sq.5 Annular Flow Equation 6-51 φGTT = (4.2 x 0.315 x 0.13 based on the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation for two phase flow.343−0.1 Plug Flow Equation 6-48 φGTT 27.021d Note: For Annular Flow only for up to 10" lines. so use 10" for sizes larger than 10" as far as “d” is concerned. 1 ⎛ ∆P ⎞ 2 All the equations are based on a factor x which equals ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ .3125d )( X )0. For dispersed flow use data from Figure 6.15.8 − 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu The pressure drop. is equal to the pressure drop due to gas alone multiplied by the correction factor θ2GTT . x2 is found and then the two phase flow pressure drop is found by going over to the curve and then up to the gas phase pressure drop. when both phases are in the turbulent range for two phase flow.855 = L0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

go up to the appropriate ∆P for the vapour and read off the ∆Ptwo phase .Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .20 give a simple way of finding the two phase pressure drop for annular and bubble flow respectively. lb/hr/sq. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .13 can be used to find the two phase pressure drop. The method is the same as for dispersed flow. find x. of total pipe cross sectional area. Figures 6.6 ⎛L⎞ x = 1.doc] April 2004: 6-31 (366) .8 ⎛ ρ g ⎟=⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝G⎠ ⎜ ρ ⎝ l ⎠ ⎛ ∆Pliquid x =⎜ ⎜ ∆P gas ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎛ µl ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎠⎝ µg ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.19 and 6.6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝G⎠ 2 1. Equation 6-52 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞1.8 ⎛ ρg ⎜⎜ ⎝ ρl ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ Another simplification that can often be made is to calculate the term G λ and if it is greater than 80. That is.Search Main Menu "G" is the gas mass flow.000 then the flow is dispersed (spray) and figure 6. The term x can be found quite simply by considering the general liquid and gas flow equations and deleting the appropriate constants and symbols. enter the nomograph against the appropriate line.2 ≈ 1 .2 and for hydrocarbon-liquid vapour mixtures flowing at equilibrium Equation 6-53 ⎛ µl ⎜ ⎜µ ⎝ g ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.ft.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

doc] .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .13: Two phase flow unit losses for dispersed flow April 2004: 6-32 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 6.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .14: Flow Pattern Regions Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 6.doc] April 2004: 6-33 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 6.15: Two-Phase Wave Flow April 2004: 6-34 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .Part I.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 6.16: Liquid Holdup in Pipelines Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.doc] April 2004: 6-35 (366) .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . March 1958 April 2004: 6-36 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] . Oil & Gas Journal.Part I.17: Elevation Factor Correction Chart from Flanigan.Search Main Menu Figure 6.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Search Main Menu Figure 6.Part I.doc] April 2004: 6-37 (366) .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .18: Flanigan Efficiency Factor Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Flanigan Efficiency Factor for Metric Units April 2004: 6-38 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .Part I.

doc] April 2004: 6-39 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 6.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .19: Annular Flow Unit Loss Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

20: Bubble Flow Unit Loss April 2004: 6-40 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 6.Part I.doc] .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

which can be quite substantial.8 to 1. For example.doc] April 2004: 6-41 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5. 6. Figure 6.5.1 The Flanigan Procedure a) Find superficial gas velocity (velocity with no liquid present) “U” b) Find “R”.6. the amount of liquid that will drop out is 5% of the total volume of the gathering system. “E” is a function of the liquid content and the gas velocity. We can have up to 80% by volume liquid.32 GE Time Sharing has this as a program. we should mention liquid holdup. if the factor x changes from 0. The percent volume of pipe occupied by liquid is correlated by the factor x.17. This is done by the formula: Equation 6-54 ∆PH = ∑h F e ρL 144 where: ∑ h = height of the hills which the line covers Fe = elevation factor ρL = liquid density Fe is obtained from data developed by Flanigan as a function of gas velocity and given in Figure 6. Method of Gregory.Part I. This figure also can be used to illustrate the instability of two phase lines as a slight change in x can cause a considerable volume of liquid to come out of a line. Mandhane and Aziz10 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .16 shows this data. This explains the slugging that often occurs when increases in flows to a plant are required.4 Main Menu Liquid Holdup Before we consider pipeline design.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .0. therefore it is necessary to allow for this in calculating the two phase pressure drop. 6.5. Note: 6.6 Method of Flanigan5 for Two Phase This is quite a simple method for calculating ∆PTP.7 U R 0. Note: 6. the bbls of liquid per MMSCF of gas c) Calculate d) Read off pipeline efficiency from Figure 6.5. It is called FLANIS.Search 6. It was developed for natural gas and condensate systems and probably is not applicable to other systems because physical properties of fluid are not taken into account.5.18 e) Calculate pressure drop from the Panhandle formula. inserting proper pipeline efficiency. The method consists of finding a new efficiency factor “E” for the Panhandle formula.5 Pressure Drop Due to Elevation Change In two phase flow liquid can accumulate in valleys.

Knowing the predicted flow pattern. Then after the type of flow is determined.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . In particular. ∆Pf.doc] . from the table above. 3. co-workers at The University of Calgary. and the friction pressure drop.Search Main Menu Recently Gregory and Aziz13. one then selects the particular methods recommended for predicting the liquid holdup. The various types of flow to be expected are shown on the diagram. EL. Elongated Bubble Hughmark Chenoweth and Martin Stratified Agrawal. They developed a slightly different flow diagram which is shown as Figure 6. Table 6. are calculated for an increment of pipe length using the methods selected above.21. Wicks. the superficial gas and liquid velocities. VSG and VSL respectively. are calculated for the conditions existing at the inlet of the pipeline.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Annular Mist Lockhart and Martinelli Chenoweth and Martin Dispersed Beggs and Brill Modified Lockhart and Martinelli Note: Computer programs for each of the available at the University of Calgary. EL. and Govier Wave Chawla Dukler.21 and the values of VSG and VSL calculated above. developed a more sophisticated method for finding the pressure drop in two phase flow situations. Using Figure 6. Equation 6-55 (∆P )increment ( ) = ∆Pf + ∆Z + ρ M where Equation 6-56 ρ M = ρ L E L + ρ G (1 − E L ) April 2004: 6-42 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . a correlation for calculating the liquid holdup and pressure is selected according to the next table. The total pressure drop over the increment of pipe length is then determined from the relation. 2. The friction pressure drop. ∆Pf. Gregory. and liquid holdup. the expected flow pattern is determined. their method is as follows: 1. Gregory and Govier Agrawal.7: Suggested Methods for Pressure Drop and Hold Up Calculations Flow Regime Holdup Prediction Method Pressure Drop Prediction Method Bubble. This plots the superficial liquid velocity versus the superficial gas velocity. For the given transportation problem. 4. and Cleveland Annular.Part I.

800 Actual density at average conditions = 7. Assume 8 in.2 Determine the size of a gas gathering line to handle 60 MMSCFD of a gas with an expected liquid content of 12 BBLs per MMSCF. The gas is to be delivered to a processing plant at 950 psig. a rather involved computer program is required to properly follow this procedure.65 Z at average conditions = 0.194 Z Q in ft/sec Pd 2 Q = Flow MMSCFD P = Press psia Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . For completeness.0 miles and the sum of the elevation difference is 500 ft.Part I. However.doc] April 2004: 6-43 (366) . some provision must be made to account for changes in the physical properties of the gas and liquid phases. In short. via Flanigan Formula. superficial gas velocity. changes in the slope of the pipeline at irregular intervals require that a variable length increment be possible. Some of the properties of the gas are: SG = 0. The procedure is then repeated for a new increment of pipe length. This can be further complicated by the existence of a temperature gradient in the direction of flow.ft. Determining the superficial velocities of the gas and liquid generally requires a phase behavior calculation. an iterative calculation is required over the incremental length to match the downstream pressure to the flowing phase volumes. ∆Z+ is zero for horizontal or downhill flow. Solution Pressure drop available for flow = 250 psi Let us use the method of Flanigan. in view of the general accessability of computers. EL is calculated from a holdup prediction method.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . where: U= 31.0 lbs/cu. Equation (55) should also be modified to include pressure loss due to kinetic energy effects. using the conditions at the downstream end of the previous increment as the basis of the calculation of new values of VSG and VSL. This is also the case where the flow is predicted to pass through a flow pattern transition.100 lbs/cu. The maximum delivery pressure at the wellsite is 1200 psig. Example Problem 6. 5. Since the amount of gas flowing in the pipeline generally increases with decreasing pressure. As the conditions change along the pipeline.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The length of the line is 10. diameter pipe. In practice. provision for this must be built into the program. The pipeline profile must be available as input data. The average temperature in the pipeline is 70°F.ft. the proposed design strategy is not well suited to hand calculations. Calculate U. Some of the properties of the liquid are: Density = 44. this is not believed to be a serious limitation.Search Main Menu and ∆Z+ is the change in elevation for which the flow is uphill.

Search Main Menu d = diameter inches Z = compressibility factor Figure 6.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .12 )(500) = 18. Fe = 0.doc] .3 psi 144 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .21: Two Phase Flow Types U= 31194 (60 )(0.3 ft sec From chart.Part I.12 Pressure drop due to elevation difference ∆PH = ρ L Fe ∑ h April 2004: 6-44 (366) 144 = 44 (0.800 ) (8) (1100) 2 = 21.

5394 ⎛1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝G⎠ 0.7 0. U 13. This is probably okay for size but let us try a 10 in.65 ⎠ 0.078 ⎛ P12 − P22 ⎜⎜ L ⎝ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.5394 ⎛1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝T ⎠ 0.5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 530 ⎠ 0. increases as velocity is slowed down.87 E ⎜⎜ 0 ⎝ P0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 1. The superficial gas velocity is U.Part I.6182 ⎟ 10 ⎜ ⎝ 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .4 + 77 = 104 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Find pressure drop due to friction.3 + 195 = 213 psi.18 ∆PH = 44 (0.5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 530 ⎠ 0.078 6 ⎛ 1215 2 − P22 ⎜⎜ L ⎝ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0. Panhandle Equation and solve for P2: ⎛ 520 ⎞ 60 x 10 = 435.32 R (12)0.87 (0.6 ft sec Fe from chart = 0.80 ⎠ P2 = 1138 psi The total pressure drop is 27.65 ⎠ 1.77 )⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14.doc] April 2004: 6-45 (366) . ⎛T Q = 435.4606 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0. the pressure drops for hills.65 ⎠ 0.Search Main Menu Next calculate the pressure drop due to friction: Find 21.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 psi 144 Note how this rises as diameter increases.5 8 2.32 From graph.80 ) (10) (1100) 2 = 13.5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.3 U = = 9.6 = = 6.25 0.86)⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14. U= 31194 (60 )(0.87 (0.8 ⎠ 0.65 ⎠ 1. We put this efficiency in the Panhandle Equation (Equation (40)).5 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2. Now put this efficiency into the.0781 6 ⎛ 1215 2 − P22 ⎜⎜ 10 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.17 R From the graph the line efficiency is equal to 77%.5 d 2.18)(500 ) = 27.4606 0.6182 P2 = 1020 The total pressure drop is 18.4606 ⎛1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝Z ⎠ 0.5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.32 2. diameter line.6182 Solve for P2 ⎛ 520 ⎞ 60 x 10 = 435. line efficiency is equal to 86%.

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**Unless there was a method of continuing to keep the wellhead pressure up, it would probably be
**

better to make the line 10" instead of 8" - although 8" would do.

This problem could also be solved by the Baker Method. The procedure is to find the type of flow,

from the graph that correlates

G

λ

vs.

Lλ Ψ

G

then find the value of θGTT for the type of flow. The pressure drop due to friction is then found from

the formula:

2

∆Ptwo phase = φGTT

∆PG

**The elevation pressure drop is found as previously illustrated. This is shown below.
**

Solution using the Method of Baker (Modified by Kern)

First find λ

⎡⎛ ρ ⎞ ⎛ ρ ⎞⎤

λ = ⎢⎜ G ⎟ ⎜ L ⎟⎥

⎣⎝ 0.075 ⎠ ⎝ 62.3 ⎠⎦

1

2

⎡⎛ 7.10 ⎞ ⎛ 44 ⎞⎤

= ⎢⎜

⎟⎥

⎟⎜

⎣⎝ 0.075 ⎠ ⎝ 62.3 ⎠⎦

1

2

= 8.1

**Find G assuming a 10" line
**

2

⎞⎟ = 60 x 10 (0.69)(29) = 2.96 x 10 6 lb

Gas Flow ⎛⎜ lb

day

⎝ day ⎠

384

G=

G

λ

=

lb

2.96 x 10 6

hr

=

226000

2

sq. ft.

⎛ π 10 ⎞

⎟⎟

24 ⎜⎜

⎝ 4 144 ⎠

226000

= 28000

8.1

Must find Ψ since

G

λ

< 80,000, to find type of flow.

2

73 ⎡ ⎛ 62.3 ⎞ ⎤

⎟ ⎥

⎢u L ⎜

Ψ=

χ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ρ L ⎟⎠ ⎥

⎦

⎣

1

3

χ = 22 dynes cm; u L = 0.5

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73 ⎡ ⎛ 62.3 ⎞

Ψ=

⎟

⎢0.5 ⎜

22 ⎢⎣ ⎝ 44 ⎠

2

⎤

⎥

⎥⎦

1

Main Menu

3

= 3.3

Also find L

L=

**12 (60)(350)(0.7 )(144 )
**

= 13200

78.9 (24 )

Find ordinate on Figure 6.14

=

Lλψ

G

13200

(8.1)(3.3) = 1.56

226000

**Type of flow from Figure 6.14 is annular. Find pressure drop for gas
**

alone ∆P100 (from GPSA Data Book).

= 0.2 psi/100 ft.

Use Figure 6.19 for finding ∆Ptwo phase

First find X

1.8

⎛ 13200 ⎞ ⎛ 7.10 ⎞

1.8

x2 = ⎜

⎟ ⎜

⎟ (1.6 ) = (0.058) (0.16)(1.6) = 0.00152

⎝ 226000 ⎠ ⎝ 44 ⎠

From Figure 6.19

φ2 =

∆PTP

= 1 .2

∆PG

∆Ptwo phase = 0.24 psi

∆PTP = 0.2 (1.2 ) = 0.24

100 foot of pipe

**or read directly off of Figure 6.19.
**

Total drop exclusive of elevation change

= 0.24

5280

(10) = 127 psi

100

which is relatively close to the Flanigan Method. i.e. total drop would be 27.4 + 127 = 154.4 psi.

6.6

Measurement of Fluids

Section 1 of the GPSA Data Book should be reviewed in connection with this section.

6.6.1

Units of Measurement

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1.

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**Gas - primarily as standard cubic feet per day at varying pressure, bases, but one
**

temperature, 60°F. The pressure bases are:

15.025 psia

14.900 psia

14.730 psia

14.650 psia

14.400 psia

In metric units it is generally m3/day at 15°C and 101.325 kPa

**Liquids - normally Barrels Per Day for crude oil.
**

For LPG's - Imperial or U.S. Gallons per day.

For gasoline or other finished products -thousands of Imperial Gallons per Day.

For plant process streams, pumps, discharge, etc. - U.S. gpm. In metric units generally

m3/hr or m3/day.

For accounting purposes, considerable interest is now being shown in mass

measurement in lbs/hr or Kg/hr.

Steam - lbs/hr or Kg/hr.

6.6.2

2.

Measuring Instruments

**Orifice Meter Equations - The prime measuring instrument is the differential pressure meter,
**

primarily the orifice plate. In this device a restriction is placed in the pipeline to induce a

pressure drop as shown in Figure 6.22

**Figure 6.22: Orifice Plate Representation
**

The pressure drop that occurs is shown in the graph below

**Figure 6.23: Pressure Drop in Orifice Plate
**

The general equation for an orifice meter is:

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Equation 6-57

W = C 0 A0

2 g c ρ (∆P )

⎛A

1 − ⎜⎜ 0

⎝ A1

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

2

where:

CO = constant ≈ 0.62

AO = area of orifice opening

ρ = density of fluid

gc = force of gravity

∆P = pressure drop

A1 = area of pipe

W = mass flow

This general equation has been changed into the following specific equation for gas by the

American Gas Association in their report No. 3 reference. (Now ANSI/API 2500)

Equation 6-58

Q = C hw Pf

where:

Q = rate of flow in cu.ft./hr at the base conditions

hw = measured pressure drop in inches of water

Pf = static pressure in psia (upstream value)

C = constant determined from the following data, all of which are available in the GPSA Data

Book or AGA Report No. 3

= (FB)(FPB)(FTB)(Y)(Ftf)(Fpv)(FR)(Fg)(FL)

These are:

FB = Basic orifice factor which depends on where the differential pressure is measured and

the ratios of orifice diameter to pipe diameter (β ratio).

FPB = Pressure base factor

FTB = Temperature base factor

Y = Expansion factor

Fg = Gravity of the gas

Ftf = Flowing temperature correction

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Fpv = Super compressibility factor =

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1

. The sour gas correction as developed by Wichert

Z

**and Aziz as given in chapter 2, should be included in this factor if sour gas is being
**

measured.

FR = The Reynolds number factor

FL = Correction for location other than 45° Latitude

For steam, the same equation, i.e. (58) is used by a different set of factors make up the constant

C’. (See page 1-11 in the GPSA Data Book.)

For liquids, the static pressure is not a factor and the equation is

Equation 6-59

Q h = C ′ hw

where:

Qh = flow, US gallons per hour

C’ = the orifice constant determined from a set of factors for liquids as given in the GPSA

Data Book.

6.6.3

Two Phase Flow Measurement

**E. Wichert of Canadian Fina has developed a reasonably accurate method. This method consists
**

of measuring the two phase flow with a standard orifice using the gas properties and the measured

differential, then correcting the measuring flow by means of the equation below:

Equation 6-60

⎛ 1 + R HL E ⎞

⎟⎟

QTWE = QMP ⎜⎜

⎝ 1 + RTL S ⎠

where:

QTWE = Total hydrocarbon well effluent MMSCFD

QMP = The rate of flow obtained by using the properties of the gas phase with the multiphase

meter readings for flow calculations.

RHL = liquid to gas ratio BBls/MMSCF

E = equivalent volume of liquid as a vapour at standard conditions MMSCF/BBl

RTL = RHL+RW

RW = water/gas ratio BBls/MMSCF

S = function of gas molar density (from Figure 6.24) at above 700 psia S = 0.0024 ρ.2

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Figure 6.24: Function of Gas Molar Density

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**Orifice Meter Installations
**

The installation of orifices requires special care, particularly the presence of a close course of

turbulence upstream has to be avoided. Some typical meter run installations are given in the

GPSA Data Book (Page 1-8). These give the upstream and downstream requirements of straight

pipe.

The measuring accuracy of an orifice meter is considered to be about 2%. Some companies claim

1% with extra long runs, no turbulent sections upstream, etc.

Venturi Meters

These operate on the same principle as an orifice (a differential pressure). However, the loss of

pressure in the meter is much less. The coefficient of discharge is 0.92 to 0.98 compared to 0.62

with an orifice. As we know, it has a smoothly contoured throat rather than a sharp edge.

**Figure 6.25: Venturi Meter
**

The Venturi is used primarily in large water lines, not gas lines. Use the general equation given

previously with CO - .92 to .98, .98 above 100,000 Re.

Flow Tube

**Figure 6.26: Flow Tube
**

This is smaller than Venturi, measures small differences in pressure. It is sometimes used in large

gas lines.

Area Meters

These are taper tubes with plugs in some. The pressure drop remains the same but area is

allowed to vary by the motion of the meter.

Volume Meters

For low pressure, volume meters, such as the wet test meter, are used. The meter, half filled with

liquid, has rotating blades which measure flow.

Turbine Meters

In this velocity of rotation is proportional to flow rate. API Standard 2534 covers turbine meters.

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There are several types of liquid meter provers. A very good summary of measurement calculation is shown on Fig. These are discussed in the GPSA Data Book. There is now a move to mass flow measurement. are used for measuring liquids.doc] April 2004: 6-53 (366) . This is discussed on Pages 1-12 and 1-13 of the GPSA Metric Data Book.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . often positive displacement meters such as rotating lobes.. 3-2 and Fig. wobbling discs. pistons. particularly for finished products. Another instrument that is coming into prominence is the vortex meter which measures the number of vortices produced. Both turbine and positive displacement liquid meters require periodic prooving to check counter registration versus gross volume. etc.Part I. However.Search Main Menu Liquid Meters All the above referred to meters can be and are used for liquids.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 3-3 on the new English GPSA Data Book which are reproduced here. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search April 2004: 6-54 (366) Main Menu Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.Search Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] Main Menu April 2004: 6-55 (366) .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .7 Main Menu MOVING OF FLUIDS The two main pieces of fluid moving equipment are pumps and compressors. Capacity For the capacity an allowance of 10% above material balance figures should be used. 5. Terminal pressure in tower .from process flow sheet. Net positive suction head available (NPSH).7.e. Pressure drop in discharge piping – calculate..Search 6. if available). Determine the difference in elevation. reciprocating. 4.doc] . 1. Operating temperature. or actual value. Head. first make a sketch of the system as shown in the sketch accompanying the example problem. Add 5% over plus. 3. This leaves three classifications.10 psi (normally.10 psi (or take about 1/3 of total available system drop). Capacity (use about 10% above process flow sheet for ordinary services and 25% for reflux services). To find the pump head required. such as centrifugal. 4. 5. Head For determining the head. However. or discuss the type of compressor to use. The first five are obtained from flow diagrams or physical property tables. Heat exchange pressure drop . 2. we would like to review some of the problems in selecting the proper pieces of equipment to do the job.Part I. 6. list pressure drop pump has to overcome. 7. Fluid being pumped. Specific gravity of fluid at its operating temperature and 60°F. Viscosity at operating temperature. turbine.1 Specification of Pumps There are several process items to be selected by an engineer specifying a pump. 2. or discuss the advantages or disadvantages of reciprocating or centrifugal compressors. The NPSH is found from the formula: April 2004: 6-56 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 6. We are not going to touch on all various types of pumps.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 6. i. This gives the head required. Control valve & controller pressure . etc. These are: 1. gear. NPSH This determines whether a pump will cavitate or not. 3.

H. Younger and J.Part I.) 80 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 6-57 (366) .27: Mixed Butanes from a Feed Tank Head Calculations Head in Feet 1 psi = 4' for C4 Terminal Pressure (200 psig) Suction Pressure (50 psig) Net Pressure Difference (150 psi) 600 Elevation Difference (50 .3 Calculate the head and NPSH required for pumping 60 US gpm of mixed butanes from a feed tank that operates at 50 psig and 80°F into a fractionating tower that operates at 200 psig. An example problem will illustrate this sizing of pumps. Cavitation causes pits.F where: P1 = actual pressure in suction drum VP = vapour pressure of liquid being pumped H1 = minimum level in suction tank H2 = height of impeller eye above grade F = friction loss in the suction line to the pump in feet The reason that NPSH is so important is that it is a measure of cavitation or vapourization possibilities in a pump.10 psi ea. in pump impeller. Example Problem 6. Reuter .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .2) 48 Control Valve (10 psi) 40 Heat Exchangers (. etc.Search Main Menu Equation 6-61 NPSH = P1 – VP + H1 – H2 . The following sketch illustrates the system.L. Refer to the article by A.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . for further discussion on the calculation of heads and NPSH. Figure 6.

Gas to be compressed and its properties.Search Piping (400 equivalent feet) 48 Sub Total 816 Add 5% for safety factor 42 Total Main Menu 858 NPSH Calculations Use formula NPSH = (Pi .F) Feet Pi (Suction pressure 50 psig) 200 VP (Vapour Pressure at suction temp 50 psig) 200 H1 6 H2 2 F (Assume 1 ft. Patio Pressure Drop 6 or less 3% 7 to 36 5% over 36 10% See example problem 1 in Section 10. 6. etc.e. unless it is higher) 1 3 6. Gas pressure at suction end of compressor. Discharge pressure. Calculate in the same manner as for pumps.VP) + H1 – H2 . use process flow sheet flow plus 5% to 10%.4 You are to size the pipeline to carry waste water fran a settling basin in a plant to a river.8 Example Problems Example Problem 6.7. Specify discharge pressure with the following additional margin: Comp.2 Compressor Specifying In this case it is necessary to specify the following: 3.doc] . Equation 6-62 CP =K CV Gas temperature at suction end of compressor.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.. The design flow rate is 200 US gpm and the profile and length of line is as follows: April 2004: 6-58 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . i. Flow in SCFM or SCFD.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . mole weight and ratio of specific heat.

Calculate the cost of your gathering system and show it on a sketch.Part I. The gas gravity is 0. The plant is to receive the gas at a minimum pressure of 600 psia.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .65. This line goes through a river valley 1000 feet deep.doc] April 2004: 6-59 (366) . Approximately how much greater is the pressure at the upstream side of the pig when the pig is in Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The well deliverability pressure is 705 psia. MMSCFD #1 8 #2 15 #3 20 #4 12 #5 30 The cost of installation of a pipeline is $6000/inch diameter mile. Example Problem 6. The wells have the following deliverability.Search Note: Main Menu Make the line the same size throughout.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .6 A large gas gathering line is pigged every day.5 You are to size a gathering system for the field shown in the sketch below. Example Problem 6. Assume that the reservoir has a water drive and the deliverability pressure will never decrease.

It contains liquid of 50 BBls/MMSCF with a density of 40 lbs per cubic foot. Note: Express your answer in feet of head. Example Problem 6.250" ID) and the flow is 140 MMSCFD. The cavern is 2000 feet deep. April 2004: 6-60 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .9. above grade and the minimum liquid tank level is 10 ft.doc] . The gas gravity is 0.000 BPD. The operating pressure is 1100 psig and the operating temperature is 70°F.5 4" 60 4 3" 140 8 Example Problem 6.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Length of line from well to dehydration is 1 mile.000 BPD. The gas gravity is 0.70 and the liquid's density is 45 lbs/cu.7 and the Z factor is 0.7 Determine the line size for a gas gathering line delivering gas to a heater located as shown in the sketch. The pump station suction pressure is to be 25 psia above the vapour pressure of the propane at the maximum pipeline temperature.000 BBls capacity.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The flow in the lines is to be 40. The pipeline pump station is one mile farther down the line from the injection point. a) Determine the heat duty required by the vapourizer. The suction line is only 20 ft long and is 12 inches in size. It is 2 miles long. It is being pumped out of this vessel into a pipeline at a rate of 200. Make your choices from these line sizes. Also in the 12 mile pipeline there is a section of 6" pipe that is used to cross a lake. Example Problem 6. Data on pressure drop for various line sizes are shown in the following table.2 as the means that holds pressure in the cavern.9 Propane is kept in a refrigerated storage vessel at +20°F which has 120. The gas contains 30 BBls per MMSCFD of liquid.Search Main Menu the bottom of the valley as compared to the pressure at the top of the valley on the downstream side of the valley? The line size is 20" (19. At the wellhead pressure is 800 psi.ft. Also estimate the NPSH required for the pump if the pump suction is at 2 ft.Part I. A vapourizer is put in to keep the pressure on the when pumping is in progress. Size ∆P Gas Only psi ∆P Liquid Only psi 8" 10 1 6" 20 1. The gas flow is 15 MMSCFD. The best line is one with the lowest pressure drop.8 You are to specify the head required for pumping propane from storage bullets that operate in a plant in which the local temperature goes down to -20°F through a 8" pipeline approximately 12 miles long and into a salt storage cavern that has brine specific gravity 1.

• Assume a 5 psi pressure drop across the FRC valve and orifice meter in propane injection line. • The maximum temperature in the pipeline at any time is 65°F.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.doc] April 2004: 6-61 (366) .Search b) Main Menu Determine head and capacity of the propane pump in and US gpm. • Assume pure propane for your calculations. • Assume that the 100.000 barrels is moved at one time. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The sketch below shows the proposed system.

Talwar. White and. N. 3. 87. Younger and J. 8. Reuter. 1968. Cameron Hydraulic Data . II and III.W. June 17. 7.Y. "How to Size Process Piping for Two Phase Flow". 14. "Economic pipe diameter and fluid flow calculations".L. 2.J. N. Coates. R. Gregory. Ludwig. Hydrocarbon Processing. Pipeline News. Progress. 1984. E. Dec.L.E. Baker. 6. D. Eng.W. L. Chemical Engineering. April 2004: 6-62 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 45. 4. March 12. Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants. "Two Phase Flow Measurement with Orifice". New York. 2. "Designing for Two Phase Flow". 10. Flanigan. Gulf Publishing Co. 1966.L. 1958. June 16 1961. "Sizing of Pipes for Process Plants". Trans ASME Journal of Basic Engineering. Page 85. Reading List 1. Vol. P. P. P. Aziz.. 14. 1965. transmitted to the Oil and Gas Conservation Board in September 1964.Y. 1945. 12. Chemical Engineering. May 1971. 108. Lockhart and R. 192.doc] . R. Huntington. presented to the May 7 1974 meeting of the Petroleum Society of the CIM.. "Correlation for Two Phase Wave Flow" Pipeline Industry.69-.Published by Ingersoll Rand Co. D.F.Search Main Menu References 1. Oil & Gas Journal. Brown. E. Dec. 11. "Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two Phase Flow". J. H67. 132. R. July 1964. New York. July-September 1975. P.rR. "Some Design Considerations for Two Phase Flow in Pipes".N. 6. 139 to Jan. 3. 10. Parts I. F. Feb. 29. Oil & Gas Journal. 1986. Petroleum Engineering. Chem. P. 1962. "Design of Pipelines for Multiphase (Gas Condensate) Flow". Oct.M. Aziz. 9. P. Simpson.E. Anderson and T. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. "Report on Two Phase Flow Measurement in Windfall Field".Part I. M. A. Gregory and K.W. G. Jan.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . "Test prove two phase efficiency for offshore pipelines". P. "Measurement of Multiphase Streams by Orifice Meter".. 1954. chemical Engineering. R. Wichert. 196Q.H. O. 4. 419. Oil & Gas Journal. 19. G. 3. 13.H.W. 3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . O. 5. J. L. Cameron Hydraulic Data Published by Ingersoll Rand Co. "Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of Two Phase Gathering System". Kern.A. March. Schweikert. Oct. paper presented to the May 7 1974 meeting of the Petroleum Society of the CIM. P. Schneider. P. 1965. Page 39.. "Designing Pipelines for Simultaneous Oil and Gas Flow". P. 117. Feb. Murdoch. Martinelli. "Selecting Pumps and Compressors". Russel. "Optimum Economic Design of Pipeline Facilities". Mandhane and K.

of course. i. osmosis.2 Types of Processes Considered Mass transfer operations we wish to consider are: • • Gas .Liquid ¾ Distillation of Fractionation ¾ Absorption ¾ Stripping Liquid-Liquid ¾ • 7. absorption and adsorption 7.0 Main Menu Mass Transfer • The principles of mass transfer and a review of unit operations based on mass transfer. 7.1 Introduction 7.1 What is a Mass Transfer? It is the movement of one or more compounds between phases. then this operation is called a stage. You can.1.e. Also if there is no membrane present we have a form of mass transfer in thermal diffusion.1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Continuous Transfer 3. etc. particularly when there is a permeable or semipermeable membrane.Solid ¾ Adsorption ¾ Desorption Primary Concepts There are three primary concepts in mass transfer. gas diffusion. have mass transfer between miscible phases. Batch Transfer Stages and the Ideal Stages If two insoluble phases come together so that the various components can distribute themselves between the phases and the phases are mechanically separated. These are: 1. We are primarily interested in transfer between liquid and gas but we do encounter in natural gas processing the transfer of mass between two liquid phases which are immiscible. then an ideal stage has been reached. If enough time is allowed for complete equilibrium to occur such that additional time will not change the composition.3 Liquid-Liquid Extraction Gas . distillation.1. Stages and the Ideal Stages 2.doc] April 2004: 7-1 (366) .Search 7. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

We also have stages in such apparatus as leaching tanks.1: Distillation Tray Let us consider the equilibrium relationships around this tray.doc] . xC3 = mole fraction of C3 in liquid. Vn-1 = Moles of vapour to tray n.Part I.. in the mining industry.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Ln+1 = Moles of liquid to tray n. If we know the temperature and pressure on the tray we can calculate the composition of one phase if we know the other. In the ideal stage concept the rate of mass transfer is only considered by the approach to equilibrium that the actual stage obtains as compared to that theorectically possible. Vn = Moles of vapour from tray n.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The liquid leaving tray n is in equilibrium with the vapour leaving it. K = equilibrium constant.Search Main Menu Let us consider a distillation tray as shown. Figure 7. This is normally expressed as efficiency. Thus. if we have a component such as C3 we can write the equation for tray n: Equation 7-1 YC3 = KxC3 where: YC3 = mole fraction of C3 in vapour. We also have a mass balance and generally a molar balance as follows: Equation 7-2 Ln+1 + Vn−1 = Vn + Ln where: Ln = Moles of liquid from tray n. etc. Continuous Transfer April 2004: 7-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

concentration difference between passing gas and surface no longer great enough for transfer to completely take place. again.doc] April 2004: 7-3 (366) . mass transfer.e. not to the main body. Water evaporates because there is a driving force from pure water to the amount of water that the air can hold. A difference of concentration exists only when a system is not at equilibrium. Batch Transfer In both previously discussed cases we have a continuous process in which the transfer is from the main bulk of one fluid through the interphase between the two fluids to the main bulk of the other fluid. This is a very quick action.Search Main Menu This occurs in packed towers. etc. Figure 7.2 Types of Diffusion Two types of diffusion from one phase to the other are: 7. For example.Part I.the general rate equation of: Rate = Driving Force Re sis tan ce In general the driving forces are concentration differences while the resistances are normally film thicknesses.e.2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This is. i. pure ammonia and pure water brought together. The process continues until surface is saturated and then break-through occurs. i. Rate Equation . that of water in a pan outside on a dry day. consider a system of ammonia and water. 7.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . there is a driving force of a difference in concentration between the ammonia in the vapour and in the water. In adsorption we have a slightly different case.2: Mass Transfer System Let us also consider a slow action. Since ammonia dissolves in water. The components are transferred from the main fluid to the surface of the other fluid.1 Molecular Diffusion Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

7. have a beaker of water and add ink slowly or the evaporation of water in air. in a single phase. nevertheless. which may be written for steady one dimensional transfer as: Equation 7-3 J A = − DAB dC A dZ Equation 7-4 J B = − DBA dCB dZ where: JA and JB = molar fluxes of A and B relative to the molar average velocity of the mixture.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . the solute molecules moving from a place of high concentration to one of low concentration.e.Part I. The rate at which the solute molecules move at any point. in any direction.doc] . Z = distance in the direction of diffusion CA & CB = molar concentrations of A and B DAB and DBA = molecular diffusivities of A in B and B in A respectively. always present in highly developed turbulent flow. uniformity of concentration is achieved by molecular diffusion which is the ultimate process. Of course. depend on the concentration gradient at that point. the solution is spontaneously brought to uniformity by diffusion. therefore. therefore. Now for a perfect gas: CA = PA RT and CB = PB RT where: PA and PB = partial pressures of A and B April 2004: 7-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . that molecular diffusion is the mechanism of mass transfer in stagnant fluids. For non-reacting systems of two components A and B.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3 Rate of Diffusion We have seen from the simple demonstration that as long as there is non-uniformity (of concentration) in a given solution. by means of the molecules' thermal energy. the molar fluxes of A and B are described by Fick's Law of Diffusion. 7. within each eddy. must. One can see. i.Search Main Menu This is movement from one phase to the other or. This rate can be conveniently described in terms of a molar flux or: moles/(time) (area) the area being measured in a direction normal to the diffusion. i.e.2 Eddy Diffusion By means of agitation you can increase diffusion rate extensively. equilibrium comes much quicker. or in fluids that are moving in laminar motion although it is. stir beaker above.2.

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Obtain the Lennard-Jones force constants (ε/k and σ) for both components of the mixture from the Table in API data book. concentration.doc] April 2004: 7-5 (366) .2 = diffusion coefficient of component 1 in component 2 in square feet per hour.5 1. 2 where: D1.e. etc. ΩD = collision integral for diffusion. in pounds per square inch absolute. p = pressure. state of aggregation. for the binary gas systems. Molecular diffusivity (DAB or DBA) is a characteristic of a constituent and its environment (i.Part I. use equations 8 and 9 in the API data book with the critical temperature and volume listed in Chapter 1 and the critical compressibility factor in Chapter 2 of the API data book: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . M2 = molecular weights of components 1 and 2. If the compounds of interest are not listed.2 = arithmetic average of the collision diameters for 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . respectively.).2 components 1 and 2. in degress Rankine. The following equation is recommended for estimating diffusion coefficients in binary gas systems at pressures less than 500 psia: Equation 7-7 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟ 0.5 D1. The negative sign in equations (3) to (6) emphasizes that diffusion occurs in the direction of a drop in concentration. 2 ) Ω D 0. pressure. σ1. in angstrom units.04381T ⎜⎜ + M 1 M 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ = 2 p (σ 1. temperature. M1. T = temperature.Search Main Menu R = gas constant T = absolute temperature So that equations (3) and (4) become Equation 7-5 JA = − DAB dPA RT dZ Equation 7-6 JB = − DBA dPB RT dZ where: J = flux relative to average mole velocity of mixture. The kinetic theory yields several theoretical expressions of the following form. Procedure to find "D" 1.

Calculate the Lennard-Jones force constants for the mixture with equations (10) and (11): Equation 7-10 σ 1.333 zC 1. Equation 7-11 ε1. 0. Zc = critical compressibility factor. interpolate the collision integral. k = Boltzmann constant. 2 = 1 (σ 1 + σ 2 ) 2 where: subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the components and 1. Note: Calculate the diffusion coefficient using equation (7).2 where: σ = Lennard-Jones collision diameter. Vc = critical volume. in cubic feet per pound. in degrees Rankine. Tc = critical temperature. in angstrom units.2 in the API data book. Equation 7-9 σ = 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] . Equation 7-12 April 2004: 7-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .6 where: ε/k = Lennard-Jones potential parameter. in degrees Rankine. 13A1. The following equation is recommended for estimating diffusion coefficients in dilute liquid binary solutions. Fig. Using this value. 2 using the ε 1. M = molecular weight.Part I. 4. c 2. 2 / k result from equation 11 and the temperature of interest in degrees Rankine.2 refer to the mixture. ΩD from Table in API data book.3TC Z C 3. 2 ⎡⎛ ε ⎞ ⎛ ε ⎞⎤ = ⎢⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ k ⎣⎝ k ⎠ ⎝ k ⎠⎦ 3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Equation 7-8 ε k = 65.5 Calculate the dimensionless group. kT / ε 1.7402 (MVC )0. The equation may be used directly or approximated conveniently with a nomograph.

Ψ2 = 1. The magnitude of this molar flux of the mixture relative to stationary coordinates will be: NA +NB The flux of components A and B relative to stationary coordinates are now the resultant of two quantities (vectors): 1. they are clearly in the opposite direction for component B.6 Obtain D1. is the sum of that resulting from the bulk flow and that due to molecular diffusion (i. estimate µ using chap. Obtain M1 and M2 from Chap.5 Methyl alcohol 1.5T D1.0 and 2. In the absence of experimental data. The flux caused by molecular diffusion. in centipoises ρ1 = saturated liquid density of the solute at the normal boiling point. in grams per milliliter Procedure 1.0 Ethyl alcohol 1. The flux caused by the bulk flow.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The total flux of A relative to stationary coordinates. 2.2 in the API data book. estimate a value between 1. Going back to equations (5) and (6). 13A1. and obtain ρ1 using the methods or figures in Chap. Whereas these vectors are in the same direction for component A.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .e. in degrees Rankine µ = viscosity of the solution.9 Water 2. For other associated solvents not listed in the following table. (All chapters refer to API Data Book).doc] April 2004: 7-7 (366) . Fig. Determine the association parameter for the solvent.Part I. then. 1.2 directly from equation 12 or with the nomograph. 11 procedures. in square feet per hour Ψ2 = association parameter for the solvent M2 = molecular weight of the solvent M1 = molecular weight of the solute T = temperature.Search Main Menu 1. Ψ2 Nonassociated solvents 1.6 where: D1.59 x 10 −7 (Ψ2 M 2 ) 0. 2.2 = diffusion coefficient of solute (component 1) in solvent (component 2). we can consider first the general case in which a steady bulk flow is imposed upon the fluid mixture in the direction in which component A is diffusing. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .6 based on the relative associative tendency of the solvent: Solvent 3. 2 = ⎛M ⎞ µ ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠ 0. 6. for a gaseous mixture).

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . (6) and (7) Equation 7-14 N A = J A = − NB = − JB but PA +PB = P = constant therefore Equation 7-15 dPA dP =− B dZ dZ and from equations (5). (16) and (13) may be combined and integrated for constant D to give: Equation 7-17 NA = ( D PA − PA2 RTZ 1 ) (steady stage equimolal counterdiffusion) also for liquids: NA = ( DAB C A1 − C A2 Z ) where: Z = Z1 – Z 2 April 2004: 7-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . In the case of equimolal counter diffusion (process often approximated in the distillation of binary systems) the total molal flux with respect to stationary coordinates is zero (A and B diffusing in the opposite direction and at the same molal rate) so that: NA = -NB then from equations (5). (6) and (14) Equation 7-16 DAB = DBA = D At steady state NA and NB are constants.Search Main Menu Equation 7-13 N A = (N A + N B ) PA DAB dPA − P RT dZ Two special cases of molecular diffusion are customarily considered: 1.doc] .Part I. Equimolal Counterdiffusion. 2. so that equations (5). Unimolal Unidirectional Diffusion.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

In such as case: Equation 7-18 NA = DP ⎛⎜ PB2 ln RTZ ⎜⎝ PB1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ which may be written as: Equation 7-19 NA = DP ⎛ PB2 − PB1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ RTZ ⎜⎝ PB log mean ⎟⎠ or Equation 7-20 NA = ⎞ D ⎛ P ⎟ PA − PA2 ⎜⎜ RTZ ⎝ PB log mean ⎟⎠ 1 ( ) (unimolal. because of the bulk flow. unidirectional diffusion) where PB log mean = 7. For the case of steady state unimolal. C A1 and C A2 are in concentration at Z1 and Z2.4 PB2 − PB1 PB ln 2 PB1 Mass Transfer Coefficients Consider the distribution of a solute (A) between two immiscible phases in contact with each other.doc] April 2004: 7-9 (366) . as represented by the figure below: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . the flux of component B in one direction. unidirectional diffusion in gases. Component B is therefore motionless in relation to stationary coordinates and NB = 0.Search Main Menu PA1 and PA2 = partial pressures of A at Z1 and Z2 respectively.Part I. is equal to the flux of B in the opposite direction because of the molecular diffusion.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 7. April 2004: 7-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3: Mass Transfer Curve The first phase may be gaseous and the second phase liquid. for the gas and liquid phases respectively.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . A point on the equilibrium curve gives the equilibrium compositions of the two phases. can be defined as follows: Equation 7-21 ( N A = k g YA − YA* ) where Equation 7-22 kg = DAB RTZ Equation 7-23 ( N A = k L X A* − X A ) where Equation 7-24 kL = DAB Z where: YA and XA are the concentrations of component A in the bulk of gas and liquid phases.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . the individual mass transfer coefficients kg and kL.doc] . If transfer takes place from the gas to the liquid. A point located above the curve indicates that component A is being transferred from the gas to the liquid and a point below the curve indicates that component A is being transferred from the liquid to the gas. It is assumed that local equilibrium prevails at the interface where the compositions are YA* and X A* . YA will then denote the composition of the gas phase and XA the composition of the liquid phase.

Part I. Equations (21) and (23) show that Equation 7-25 YA − YA* k =− L * XA − XA kg Interfacial concentrations X A* and YA* are often unknown and frequently impossible to determine at a given location at the interface and it is then more convenient to use overall coefficients Kg and KL. There are respectively YAL the equivalent of XA in terms of Y and XAG the equivalent of YA in terms of X.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Figure 7.4: Mass Transfer Across Film Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 7-11 (366) .4 and 7.5.Search Main Menu Let us consider what happens in the above transfer as shown in Figures 7. defined in terms of overall concentration differences as shown below: Equation 7-26 N A = K g (YA − YAL ) Equation 7-27 N A = K L ( X AG − X A ) The locations of YAL and XAG are shown in the figures.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

5: Mass Transfer Curve The relationships between the individual coefficients of equations (21) and (23) and the overall coefficients of equations (26) and (27) are shown in the following equations: Equation 7-28 1 1 m = + K g kg kL Equation 7-29 1 1 1 = + K L kL m kg and Equation 7-30 1 1 = Kg m KL where: m = the slope of the equilibrium curve.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .Search Main Menu Figure 7.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . when: 1 m gas phase is controlling = kg kL April 2004: 7-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

9°F (36. 7. The difficulty in separation can be roughly measured by the difference in boiling points of compounds at atmospheric pressure.Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .2°C) n butane 31. Table 7.0°C) n hexane 155.7°F (68.5°C) isopentane 82.1°F (27. A continuing process of vapourization and condensation takes place in distillation until relatively pure top and bottom products are obtained.e.1°F (-0.5 Review of Processes Depending on Ideal Stages Now let's consider three mass transfer operations that depend primarilty for analysis on the ideal stages.7°F (-42°C) isobutane +10°F (-12.1 Distillation In this process different compounds are separated by the application of heat to transfer the more volatile components from the liquid to the gas.6°C) This shows that the separation between C3 and iC4 is easier than between iC5 and nC5.doc] April 2004: 7-13 (366) .5.1: Boiling Points for Light Hydrocarbons propane -43. The rate equations are then modified to the following form: Equation 7-31 N A A = k g a (Y A − Y A* )V0 = k L a (X A* − X A )V0 = K g a (Y AG − Y AL )V0 = K L a ( X AG − X AL )V0 where: VO = the volume of the tower a = interfacial area per unit volume (assumed value) 7.8°C) n pentane 96. i.Search Main Menu when: 1 1 liquid phase is controlling = k L mk g The total interfacial area (A) for mass transfer in a column is usually not known and in such cases mass transfer rates are frequently based on unit volume of the equipment instead of the unit interfacial area.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A more accurate measure of the difficulty of separation is the relative volatility which is expressed as α Equation 7-32 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

The converse is true of the heavy key.2 Absorption In this operation a soluble component in the gas phase is dissolved in the liquid phase. it is the lightest component in the bottom. This is done by either physical absorption or by chemical reaction. It appears primarily in the bottom and is the heaviest component in the top.4 Terms Used Let's review some terms involved in distillation.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The key components in multicomponent separation are those components that are being separated. 7. 7.Part I.Search α= Main Menu Kl Kn where: K l = equilibrium constant of the light key component and K Kn = equilibrium constant for the heavy key component concerned in the separation.5. both at the same temperature and pressure. That is. absorption and stripping.5. i.3 Stripping This is the opposite of absorption. it is the removal by the application of heating or by the application of a lean gas of the soluble liquid components.e. 7. the light key appears mostly in the top and slightly in the bottom. The components appear in both the top and bottom of a column.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .5. April 2004: 7-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . It is actually distillation when heat is applied to generate the stripping medium.

6.6: Typical Distillation System 7.Part I.1 Tray Types Let us consider the operation of a tray in a tower. Primarily these operations are conducted in tall towers filled with trays or plates or packing. 7. The chemical industry uses packed towers of much greater diameter. The oil industry relies more on trays rather than packing for large diameter towers and packing for small diameter towers (24" or less) [60cm or less].doc] April 2004: 7-15 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .6 Equipment Let us now consider the type of equipment used for these operations. Packed towers are coming more into use in the oil industry. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 7.

The sieve tray normally has the greatest capacity with least flexibility in service.9: Valve Tray Sieve trays are a series of perforated holes in which both gas and liquid can pass through or just have the gas going up and the liquid going down a downcomer as in the previous type of trays.8: Bubble Cap Tray Another common tray is the valve tray Figure 7. The chief object is to get good contact. The operating range is limited because of weeping. Figure 7. DEA and other sweetening solvents All new towers. Also there can be serious problems in corrosive or fouling services. The operation of various types of contacting devices on trays and the limits on tray operation are shown on Page 21a which are reproduced from the new English GPSA Data Book. ripple trays. It is still quite widely used. 7. valve trays LPG Fract. The prime example of obtaining this contact is with the bubble cap.6. * Condensate Stabilization All new towers. disc and doughnut trays. however. The floating valve cap tray has the next greatest capacity and a wider range of operation.Search Main Menu Figure 7. Figure 7. April 2004: 7-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The bubble cap tray is the old standby but is being replaced with other higher capacity trays.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A summary of trays used in gas processing is as follows: MEA. Linde trays.7: Flow Across a Tray The object of the tray is to make sure liquid and gas come in intimate contact and have the opportunity to reach as close as possible to equilibrium. side to side pans.Part I.2 Tray Selection Type of tray depends on service. uniflux trays. valve trays.10: Sieve Tray There are also such trays as turbo girds which are similar to sieves.doc] .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . It can be designed so that it cannot shut in fouling service.

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 7.3 Detailed Tray Diagrams Flow Through Vapor Passages Limits of Satisfactory Tray Operation for a Specific Set of Tray Fluid Properties Valve Trays Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .6.doc] April 2004: 7-17 (366) .Part I. Sieve trays used in Old Plants.Search Main Menu Sieves quite often * Sieve trays used for hot pot in one case and intalox saddles in another.

Search Main Menu Top Two Trays of a Bubble-cap Column Table 7.doc] .2: Comparison of Tray Types Type Bubble Capacity Third Turndown Efficiency Cost st nd Third Third st nd Second Second First First 1 &2 Valve Second 1 &2 Sieve First Third Revised from Kitterman & Ross2 7.4 Packing April 2004: 7-18 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .6.Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Berl saddle 4. Raschig ring 2.doc] April 2004: 7-19 (366) .7.Part I. 7. The number of stages depends on whether distillation or absorption is to be practised. 7.7.2.2. For gas loaded towers the old Brown & Souders3 equation can be used: Equation 7-33 v=K ρ L − ρV ρV where: v = the allowable superficial velocity (empty tower) ft/sec ρL = density of liquid at tower conditions Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 7.7.1 General There are two problems process wise in tower sizing. Packing provides extensive surface for liquid and gas contact.7.7 Tower Sizing . These are the tower diameter and the tower height. Packing is usually made of ceramic. The tower height is dependent on the actual number of stages required for a separation and the distance apart these stages are.2. 7. This occurs primarily with liquid loaded towers. the tower diameter is not particularly a function of the transfer process but primarily a function of the gas and liquid load and the tower internals. high pressure drops and packing of the tower. The determining of these number of stages will be discussed shortly. however the flooding point is a function of both liquid and gas rates.Trayed Towers 7. metal or carbon shapes to give extensive surfaces.7a shows a typical packed tower and packing shapes.Search Main Menu The other type of contacting device widely used is packing. However.2 Diameter Determinations 7. The names of the common shapes are: 1. Pall rings (Flexi rings are like pall rings) The pall ring is considered to be the most efficient packing at present. Entrainment is caused by high gas velocity and towers that are gas loaded are generally limited by entrainment.7. Figure 7.2 Flooding This occurs primarily whenever the downcomers fill up with liquid and any change of liquid or gas flow causes very erratic performance.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Intalox saddle 3.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Eckert19 gives a good review of different packings.1 Entrainment This is the carryover of liquid particles from one stage to another.3 Gas Loaded Towers Towers are generally either gas or liquid loaded.

Part I.3 MMSCFD Actual Test (based on when significant entrained occurred) was 84.. For a 24 inch tray spacing the value of K varies from 0. For exact size the present practice is to specify the vapour and liquid loading.18.Search Main Menu ρV = density of vapour at tower conditions K = a constant Or Equation 7-34 Gmax = C ρ V (ρ L − ρ V ) where: Gmax = allowable mass superficial velocity lb/ft2/hr C = a constant. Section 19 of the most recent English GPSA Data book gives a good review on tower capacities and calculations of same.2 MMSCD Use the previously given equations and data to give approximate diameter. and Nutter (tray manufacturers) have prepared design manuals for tower sizing for English and metric calculations. which depends on the surface tension of the liquid in the tower and the distance between the plates. and allow the tray manufacturer to select the tray size and tower diameter for you.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This applies through tower diameter determination. Clitsch. both maximum and minimum. the process and operating conditions.11. To use the data given here it is probably easiest to calculate v and G in English units and then convert to m/sec or kg/hr m3 respectively.15 to 0. Here are the data obtained: Brown & Souders allowable gas velocity was 69. Values for K are given in Perry. given in Figure 7. For example a test on a 6 ft diameter absorber with bubble caps was conducted. etc.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Koch.6 MMSCD Bubble cap allowable velocity per article by Zenz was 85.doc] . April 2004: 7-20 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 7-21 (366) .Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Typical Packed Tower Layout and Common Packing Types Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

doc] .11: Tray Capacities April 2004: 7-22 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 7.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . However. Figure 7. Old recommended values have been 50% of downcomer full of liquid for ordinary services and 35% for foaming service.doc] April 2004: 7-23 (366) .2. Downcomer maximum design liquid load is about 200 bbls/ft2/hr or 0. In general the height of liquid in the downcomer can be calculated from the following equation: Equation 7-35 h = 2 (h w + how ) + hv + h D where: h = the height of clear liquid in downcomer. how = height of liquid over weir. The height of the liquid in a downcomer can be calculated as outlined below and is related to all the other pressure drops on a tray.12: Hold Up on Tray Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . many towers have been operated at 60% without instability so it is recommended 50% be used all the time.3 ft/sec velocity.4 Main Menu Liquid Loaded Towers In liquid loading the prime consideration is the liquid backup in downcovers.7. Downcomer should not normally take up more than 15% of tower cross-sectional area. hD = pressure drop due to liquid flow under down spout. hw = height of weir.Part I. hv = pressure drop due to vapour flow through tray.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search 7. that is the height of liquid in a downcomer. This is a simplification but is generally accurate.

Search Main Menu Figure 7.13: Packed Tower Correlation 7. This plot is shown in Perry. For foaming solutions use 0.17 ρ V (ρ L − ρ V ) 2 p 2 versus 0.1 inch of H2O/ft of packing.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .S.1 L where: April 2004: 7-24 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Figure 7.doc] . This correlation shows pressure drop lines.13.2 ⎛ Lp ⎜ ⎜G ⎝ p ⎞ ⎛ ρV ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ρ ⎠⎝ L ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 1 ⎛ρ ⎞ G µ F p ⎜⎜ W ⎟⎟ ⎝ ρL ⎠ 32. Stoneware Book.8 Tower Sizing Packed Columns For the design of packed columns the generalized pressure drop correlation can be used. The design procedure is to size the tower to operate at about 80% of flooding which is about 0. This plot is given in Figure 7.13 is a plot of: Equation 7-36 0. The U. It is a plot of the gas flow multiplied by several factors pertaining to the type of packing and the fluids being fractionated against a liquid to gas ratio.25 to 0.Part I.5 inch of H2O/ft.

To find the height of the equipment we wish to find the number of trays or the height of packing.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Packing Size HETP 5/8" 6" to 12" 3/4" 12" to 18" 1" 18" to 24" 1 1\2" 24" to 30" 2" 30” - 7.1 General In this case we are trying to separate the more volatile component from a less volatile component. The temperature Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Distillation 7.5 Hy-Pak™ Metal 45 Super Intalox Saddles® Ceramic 60 30 Super Intalox Saddles® Plastic 40 28 18 Pall Rings Plastic 75 55 40 26 17 Pall Rings Metal 70 56 40 27 18 Intalox Saddles® Ceramic 725 330 200 145 92 52 40 22 Raschig Rings Ceramic 1600 1000 580 380 255 155 125 95 65 37 Raschig Rings 1/32” Metal 700 390 300 170 155 115 Raschig Rings 1/16” Metal 410 300 220 144 110 93 62 32 Berl Saddles Ceramic 170 110 65 45 900 240 16 Here are some very approximate inch height of equivalent theoretical plate (HETP) for Pall Rings.3: Packing Characteristics Packing Factors (Fp) .doc] April 2004: 7-25 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .9.9 Tower Height .Part I.Search Main Menu L = liquid mass flow lb/hr/ft2 G = gas flow mass velocity lb/hr/ft2 ρv = gas density lb/ft3 ρL = liquid density lb/ft3 ρw = density of water µL = liquid viscosity in centipoise Fp = packing factor as given in the following table Table 7.(DUMPED PACKING) Packing Type Material Nominal Packing Size (inches) 1/4 IMTP ® 3/8 1/2 Metal 5/8 3/4 51 1 1.25 1.50 2 3 12 40 24 18 29 26 3. Let us first review some phase diagrams for two component systems.

more of A and less than B. This.15: Vapour Liquid Composition Diagram If the system is an ideal solution than Raoult's law applies.e. that: April 2004: 7-26 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This is how we can separate two components.e. ie. is at constant pressure. i. The liquid would have a composition of 3. Two-phase exists. Let us now see what a diagram of the relation between the composition of the gas phase and the liquid phase looks like.14: Temperature Composition Diagram for Two Components Consider a system of composition 1 at temperature 't'.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Figure 7. of course.vapour and liquid. The vapour would have a composition at 2.Search Main Menu composition diagram for a two component ideal system at constant pressure can be shown as follows: Figure 7.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . smaller amount of A than at 1 and greater amount of B than at 1. i.Part I.doc] .

Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . i. First of all let us consider a tower and its auxiliary components.Part I.Search Main Menu Equation 7-37 PPa = x a VPa where: PPa = partial pressure of A VPa = vapour pressure of A and an ideal gas in vapour phase. Equation 7-38 yA = PPa PT where: PT = total pressure then the vapour liquid line is expressed by Equation 7-39 y a = xa VPa PT or if we have K data Equation 7-40 y a = K a xa 7. Dalton's law applies.e.doc] April 2004: 7-27 (366) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2 Two Component Distillation Let us consider the distillation of two components a and b.9.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The method is as follows: April 2004: 7-28 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . • There is not a significant heat of solution or a significant change in HV .Part I.16: Typical Distillation System for Two Components Consider: y = vapour composition of a (mole fraction) x = liquid composition of a (mole fraction) z = feed composition of a (mole fraction) 7.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .Search Main Menu Figure 7.3 McCabe Thiele7 Method of Finding Number of Ideal Stages for a Two Component System We make the following assumptions: • Constant molal liquid flow down the tower to feed tray and then constant molal liquid below feed (but a different value).HL throughout the tower.9. • Similarly constant molal vapour flow in the two sections of the tower (but different in each section).

First we take a vapour liquid diagram for component A (See Figure 7. First let us take a molal material balance around enriching section (top section).19.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 7. Fig. We know that vapour from top tray y1 = XD. 3. Assume vapour leaving tray n is in equilibrium with liquid leaving tray n. 2.14 and 7.doc] April 2004: 7-29 (366) .19).Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search 1. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I. Main Menu For whole column for component: Equation 7-41 F=D+W where: F = Feed in moles D = Overhead product W = Bottoms product For a single tray: Equation 7-42 Vn +1 + Ln −1 = Vn + Ln or a component Equation 7-43 Vn +1 ( y n +1 ) + Ln −1 ( x n −1 ) = Vn y n + Ln x n And since we have constant molal vapour flow and liquid flow: Equation 7-44 y n +1 + x n −1 = y n + x n V = L + D = D (R + 1) we know composition of XD and XW (products we wish). Plot on diagram.

17: Tower Enriching Section Equation 7-45 R= L D For component A: Equation 7-46 V y n +1 = L x n + D x D Divide by V: Equation 7-47 y n +1 = L D xn + x D V V Equation 7-48 y n +1 = L D xn + xD D (R + 1) D (R + 1) Or we can say: Equation 7-49 y n +1 = x R xn + D R +1 R +1 This gives a line with a slope of L R = which intersects the point XD y1.19. April 2004: 7-30 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.doc] . We draw this line on V R +1 the plot. We can also do a material balance around the bottoms section.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Figure 7.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 7.

As yet. We set this value on the 45° line (where y = ZF.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 7. Next we determine a factor "q". This depends on the condition of the feed.18: Tower Fractionation Section We find that the operating line will be a line with a slope of Equation 7-50 L L = V L −W which passes through XW which is on the 45° line of y = x. when x = ZF). however. "q" is defined by the equation: Equation 7-51 q= L − L HV − H F = F HV − H L This is proved by enthalpy balance on the feed plate where HV is the heat content of a saturated vapour of the composition of the feed.Part I.doc] April 2004: 7-31 (366) . Now a q line for the feed can be established in which the slope is: Equation 7-52 q q −1 and it starts at zF. The condition of the feed sets the L so we work on feed instead.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Actually on the feed tray it can be shown that Equation 7-53 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . HL is the heat content of a saturated liquid of the composition of the feed. First of all we know the composition of the feed ZF. we have not determined the value of L . HF is the actual heat content of feed.

This has the slope L L −W and is the stripping section operating line.Part I. We are now ready to find the number of theoretical plates. These two lines are drawn on Figure 7. the line is vertical: Equation 7-55 q 1 =∞= 0 q −1 We can determine q from the properties of the components and thus draw the q line.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Now if we have a saturated vapour feed then the line is horizontal: Equation 7-54 q =0 q −1 or if a saturated liquid.Search y= Main Menu z qx − F q −1 q −1 where: zF = composition of the feed.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . April 2004: 7-32 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .19.doc] . From the intersection of the q line and the rectifying operating line we can join a line to XW.

may be removed if the analysis is based on enthalpy balances as well as material balance and equilibrium considerations. 7. like feed tray location.Part I.doc] April 2004: 7-33 (366) . Then the number of theoretical trays is found by counting the number of horizontal lines.X Diagram The assumption of constant molal latent heat and constant molal overflow in the analysis of fractionating columns is not true for most practical cases. The method was first proposed by Ponchon and Savaritt. There are some refinements.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .19: McCabe Thiele Diagram From a known XDy1 we find x1 on the equilibrium curve by going horizontally to the equilibriums curve. We then drop down to the operating line to find the point x1y2 and continue this way until xw is reached. The liquid solution enthalpies include both sensible heat and the heat of mixing of components: Equation 7-56 H L = C PL (t L − t 0 ) M av + DS where: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 Ponchon8 – Savarit9 Method for Number of Ideal Stages Use of H .Search Main Menu Figure 7. This limitation. that can be worked out. we find x1 in equilibrium with y1. and also the simplifying assumption of zero heat of solution of liquids and vapours.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .9. Binary vapour-liquid equilibrium can be plotted on coordinates of enthalpy vs concentration (at constant P). See Page 539 in Katz5 for this method.

Search Main Menu HL is liquid enthalpy CPL is specific heat tL is liquid temperature t0 is reference temperature Mav is average mole weight DHS is heat of mixing.ARM rule.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . April 2004: 7-34 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . A typical H-xy diagram is shown in Figure 7.Savarit method represents a graphical solution of the equations of SOREL (material and energy balance equations for each plate). The Ponchon .20.doc] .Part I. A typical H-xy diagram is shown below where xy are the concentration of the liquid and vapour phases respectively. The method of analysis is based on the graphical addition and subtraction of the properties of streams of liquid and vapour streams by the LEVER .

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The flow rates will be designated as F (feed).doc] April 2004: 7-35 (366) . Consider a system as shown in Figure 7.Savarit Diagrams A brief description of the LEVER . D (distillate) and W (bottoms). Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .20: Ponchon .Search Main Menu Figure 7.ARM rule is given below.Part I.21 in which a binary mixture is fed into a column under such condition that it forms an equilibrium mixture of vapour and liquid.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

doc] .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .21: Vapour Liquid Program An overall material balance and a component material balance (for the more volatile component) can be written as follows: Equation 7-57 F = D +W Equation 7-58 F z F = D y D + W xw Substituting for F from equation (57) and rearranging (58) we obtain: Equation 7-59 D z F − xw = W yD − zF which provides a relationship between the rates of D and W and the composition of the streams. substituting for F from Equation 57 and rearranging to get Equation 7-61 April 2004: 7-36 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 7. We can also write an enthalpy balance for the column: Equation 7-60 F H F = D H D + W HW and again.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . on the enthalpy-composition diagram representing feed.Savarit Diagrams Equation 7-64 Distillate W F = Bottoms FD Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Streams D and W are in equilibrium and must be at the ends of a tie line through F.Search Main Menu D H F − HW = W HD − HF By combining equations (59) and (60) we can obtain a relationship between rates. distillate and bottom streams must be on a straight line.22: More Ponchon .Part I. Figure 7. compositions and enthalpies of the streams: Equation 7-62 D z F − xw H F − H W = = W yD − zF HD − HF The proportionality between enthalpies and compositions expressed in this equation (60) can also be rearranged to give: Equation 7-63 z − xw y − zF 1 = D = F slope H D − H F H F − H W with a common po int T which indicates that joints W. F and D.doc] April 2004: 7-37 (366) .

and Equation 7-67 F z F = D x D + W xw Equation 7-68 F H F + qr = D H D + W H W + qc where: qr and qc are the total heats put into and removed from the reboiler and condenser.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . operating under steady state conditions (shown in Figure7. F = D + W.4.23). as follows: From equation 57. To represent qr and qc on the H-X diagram we can convert them into BTU/lb by noting that Equation 7-69 QD = qc D BTU lb of D Equation 7-70 QW = qr W BTU lb of W The overall enthalpy balance can now be written as: Equation 7-71 F H F = D (hD + QD ) + W (hB − QW ) or Equation 7-72 F H F = ∆ D + ∆W April 2004: 7-38 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . we can write the overall balance.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 Analysis of a Fractionating Column For a column. respectively.doc] .Part I.9.Search Main Menu Equation 7-65 Bottoms F D = Feed WD and Equation 7-66 Distillate F W = Feed WD 7.

doc] April 2004: 7-39 (366) . All pairs of passing streams within the column can be related to the points which represent ∆D and ∆W. hD + QD) and the stream ∆W has the coordinates (XW. The enthalpy balance for the top of the column.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu where the stream ∆D has the coordinates (XD.Part I. for example. hW – QW) Equations (71) and (72) can be represented as a straight line (after the method just described) and this is done in Figure 7. is Equation 7-73 Vn H n = Ln +1 H n +1 + DhD + q c Equation 7-74 Vn H n − Ln +1 H n +1 = D (hD + QD ) = ∆ D Equation 7-75 L Vn +1 H D − 0 h0 = h0 + QD D D Vn +1 = L0 + D Equation 7-76 L0 h0 + QD − H D = D H D − h0 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .24.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .Search Main Menu Figure 7.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .23: PS Tower Analysis Diagram April 2004: 7-40 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.

25: Calculation of Number of Theoretical Stages in Rectifying Section Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 7-41 (366) .Search Main Menu Figure 7.24: Further PS Diagrams Figure 7.Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 7.Part I.doc] .26: Calculation of Number of Trays in Stripping Section April 2004: 7-42 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 7-43 (366) .27: Overall Tray Calculation Figure 7.28: Minimum Reflux Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 7.

7. To determine the minimum reflux and the minimum number of plates one method is to follow that outlined in Maxwell.The heavy component.refers to bottom product as subscript and moles/bottom prod. Calculate minimum reflux ratio (when we have an infinite number of plates). α . Heavy Key Component (HK) . One short cut method is based on the following: 1.9. This is done by quite complex methods. 3. Key Component . D .moles of any product/100 moles in distillate or bottoms of feed April 2004: 7-44 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Subscript LK and HK .5 Multicomponent Mixtures The next problem is determining the number of trays for a multicomponent mixture. Page 230.The components that appear in both the top and bottom of fraction tower.distillate or overhead product as a subscript (mols./100 moles feed) W . Let us define some quantities. appear primarily in the overhead.Part I. There are a few short cut methods and also some general plate calculations using primary computers. Calculate minimum number of equilibrium stages (when we have an infinite reflux). dist. appear primarily in the bottoms. This is the so-called Fenske Underwood Method.29: Total Reflux ∆D is at infinity.The light component.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Extrapolate the tie line which passes through the feed point F until it intersects the vertical line at XD.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .mean light and heavy key components.doc] ./100 moles feed X . Figure 7. Light Key Component (LK) .The relative volatility is the ratio of the K at a specific condition ot temperature and pressure for a component to the K value for the heavy key component. 2. Therefore the operating lines are vertical. Calculate actual number of equilibrium stages from minimum reflux ratio and minimum equilibrium stages using actual reflux.

For ease take just arithmetic average of temperature and pressure at top and bottom and use this for finding α.means any heavy component exclusive of LK and HK O .Part I. then multiply all three α's together and take 1/3 of this value. Then knowing θ find Rmin. This is done by the use of two equations: Equation 7-78 α x α 1 x1F α 2 x 2 F + + KK + n nF = 1 − q α1 − θ α 2 − θ αn −θ Equation 7-79 α x α 1 x1D α 2 x 2 D + + KK + n nD = Rmin + 1 α1 − θ α 2 − θ αn −θ where Equation 7-80 q = heat ratio of feed used in McCabe Thiele Method = HV − H F HV − H L xF = composition in feed (mole fraction) xD = composition in overhead product (mole fraction) Rmin = minimum reflux θ = a mathematical term but can be estimated from knowing αLK > θ > αHK The method in general is to find θ. α at bottom of tower at bubble point of bottoms.Search Main Menu x .doc] April 2004: 7-45 (366) . take the average tower temperature and pressure.moles reflux/100 moles feed Now to find the minimum number of plates the Fenske Equation can be used. Van Winkle and Todd18 have developed a graph giving approximate values of θ. and find α.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Let SM be minimum number of plates: Equation 7-77 SM α LK = ( X LKD )( X HKW ) ( X LKW )( X HKD ) Since we have assumed the final product's composition we can find SM. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A method of doing this is the Underwood correlation.30 shows this data.mole fraction of any component in liquid L . Figure 7.means any light component H . The next problem is to calculate the minimum reflux. To evaluate α should find α at the top of the tower at dew point of distillate.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Search Main Menu Figure 7.Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .30: Underwood θ Values April 2004: 7-46 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .

5-1.0-5.31: Economics of Number of Trays Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . An actual reflux is an economic balance between tower height (low reflux compared to minimum. For special columns an actual economic analysis should be run.doc] April 2004: 7-47 (366) .Part I. Page 169.0 10-12 4.0 10-12 4. May 1968.0-2.5-2.4: Common Reflux Values O/D Reflux Overhead Product Reflux to Feed Deethanizer ---- 0.0 Butane Splitters Stabilizer Pentane Splitters Note: Typical application is 1. This is shown as a nomograph and is given as Figure 7.6-2.Search Main Menu Now to find the actual number of plates a graph has been prepared by Gilland12 giving the ratio of Actual Number of theoretical of plates to minimum versus actual reflux to minimum. in Hydrocarbon Processing. The next item in the method is to pick an actual reflux. and the tower diameter (high reflux and thus high through-put).0 Debutanizer 2-3 0. It is based on the equation: Equation 7-81 S − S min R − Rmin = f S +1 R +1 Mapstone .2 x minimum for an economic reflux rate. developed this nomograph.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .0 Depropanizers 4-6 1.0 2-3 0. The figure below shows the type of results that will be obtained: Figure 7.32. Here are some values that are commonly used: Table 7.0-5. thus giving a high number of trays).

doc] .Search Main Menu Figure 7.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .32: Gilliland’s Calculation for the Number of Theoretical Plates April 2004: 7-48 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

7 nC4 13.2 7.8 8.1 C2 8.5)(6.5 0. The top temperature is 100°F and the bottom temperature is 310°F. The actual required number of trays is determined by Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3) so SM = 12.5 The method of Fenske will be used.7 ) = 925 (0.3 6. since we know minimum number of trays.1 5.0 13.92 Now the Fenske equation: Equation 7-84 SM α LK = ( X LKD )( X HKW ) ( X LKW )( X HKD ) Equation 7-85 (1. Feed Composition Mole % Overhead Product Moles/100 moles feed Bottoms Product Moles/100 moles feed Cl 5.8 C3 21.5 25. The anticipated separation is also given in the table below. Equation 7-82 α LK = KC 3 KiC 4 Use NGPSA "K" data and assume PK = 2000 Equation 7-83 α LK = 1.3 Now from Figure 7.5)(0.Part I.Search Main Menu Example Problem 7. The minimum reflux ratio for the separation is 2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . the theoretical number of trays = 18.0 (O/D) and the operating reflux ratio is expected to be approximately twice the minimum.6 = 1.0 iC5 7.4 C6 25.4 12.0 0.74)SM = (20.74 0. Comp. minimum reflux and actual reflux. Find αLK .doc] April 2004: 7-49 (366) .2 nC5 12.For simplification.0 20.1 Determine the number of theoretical trays required for depropanizing a feed of the composition given below. The tower is to operate at 300 psig. we will take it at 300 psig and 205°F.5 iC4 7.32.

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This is determined by dividing the tray efficiency into the theoretical number of trays.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 7. The next problem is the number or actual plates required.6 Efficiency We have determined the number of theoretical plates or equilibrium required for a separation. Another method is to use the correlation of density and of flood as developed by Koch Engineering and shown as Figure 7. For a rough guide use E for fractionator absorbers ~ 75% 35% for C5 as key components. E (overall efficiency ) = n * (number of theoretical trays ) n (number of actual trays ) The tray efficiency can be correlated against α of key comp.Part I. viscosity of feed.doc] . This also applies only to Fractionators.9.206 log 10 ⎢⎜ ⎟⎜⎜ HK log 10 ⎜⎜ ⎢⎣⎝ D ⎠⎝ Z LK ⎝ Plates below feed ⎠ ⎞⎛ X LKW ⎟⎟⎜⎜ ⎠⎝ X HLD ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ It should be noted that most actual towers have 3 feed nozzles. 25% for C3 as key components. Here is a well known formula for locating the feed tray: Equation 7-86 ⎡⎛ W ⎞⎛ Z ⎛ Plates above feed ⎞ ⎟⎟ = 0. April 2004: 7-50 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 30% for C4 as key components. The location of the feed plate is also quite a detailed calculation.Search Main Menu subtracting 1 from the ideal number of trays to take care of the reboiler and dividing the remaining number by the tray efficiency.33. X µ.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .33: Efficiency Correlation Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 7.Part I.doc] April 2004: 7-51 (366) .

carrier fluid Figure 7. 5. If we allow gas phase and liquid to come together they will eventually reach equilibrium. Raoult's Law (when have ideal solution and gas) Equation 7-87 Pv = Pvp x where: Pv = partial pressure of solute in the gas x = mole fraction of the solute in solvent.10 Tower Height Absorption 7. assume pure gas with solute and in liquid assume pure solvent and solute. for fixed temperature and pressure conditions.10. Consider first a two component system in both gas and liquid phases. Thus we can.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] .material being absorbed Solvent .Part I. This law is more often applicable. In gas. here are some curves for NH3 in air and water: Solute . Pvp = vapour press.1 General Main Menu Let us consider what happens in a tower when absorption takes place.Search 7. April 2004: 7-52 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . get an equilibrium curve showing the relation between the concentration of the solute in the gas phase and in the liquid phase. Henry's Law.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .34: Absorption Curves These curves can sometimes be expressed by: 4. For example.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . We plot an equilibrium curve with ordinates of: Y = moles solute moles inert carrier gas and X = moles solute moles inert solvent in liquid Figure 7.36 shows the tower to which Figure 7. 7.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .35 refers. It is generally applied to dilute solutions.doc] April 2004: 7-53 (366) .Part I.Search Main Menu Equation 7-88 Pv = m′ x where: m' = Henry's Law constant. Note: Henry's Law constant is determined experimentally.10. Let us consider a counter current absorber.2 Absorption of a Single Component As in distillation we can apply a graphical method for solving the number of theoretical plates required in an absorber absorbing one component from an inert carrier gas and with a non-volatile solvent. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .35: More Absorption Curves Figure 7.

Consider the material balance around an abosrber plate "i" as shown in Figure 7.Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . This was developed by Kremser and modified by Brown and others.ft. of inert liquid.3 Multicomponent Absorption For multicomponent absorption problems we need to introduce the absorption factor concept.10. of insoluble carrier gas. the trays are numbered from top to bottom.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .36: Counter Current Absorber where: G = moles/hr/sq. L = moles/hr/sq.37 in a "n" number trays absorber.Search Main Menu Figure 7. Thus the number of trays can be stepped off. 7.Y2 . A material balance can be written to show that the operating curve of slope L passes through G X1. A stripper operates with operating curve below equilibrium line.Y1 and X2. Note: The absorption calculations as contrasted to some distillation calculations. Equation 7-89 L0 ( X i − X i −1 ) = Vn +1 (Yi +1 − Yi ) where: April 2004: 7-54 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .ft.

Vn+1 = moles rich gas entering absorber. in gas leaving "i'. Yi+1 = moles of single comp. in liquid leaving "i". Figure 7. Yi = moles of single comp. Xi = mole of single comp. Xi-1= moles of single comp. in liquid leaving plate i. in gas from plate i per mole of rich gas. Note: X is mole ratio and x is mole fraction.Part I. in gas to plate i per mole of rich gas. Li = moles of liquid leaving plate "i". Equation 7-92 y i = K i xi and Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . yi = mole fraction of comp. xi = mole fraction of comp.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . in liquid to plate i per mole of lean oil.37: Tray Numbering in Absorption The actual mole fractions of vapour and liquid are Equation 7-90 yi = Yi (Vn +1 ) Vi Equation 7-91 xi = X i L0 Li where: Vi = mole of gas leaving plate "i".doc] April 2004: 7-55 (366) .Search Main Menu LO = moles of lean oil entering the absorber.

where: April 2004: 7-56 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Substitute Equation 7-94 Yi = K i L0 Vi Xi Li Vn +1 also Equation 7-95 Yi −1 = K i −1 L0 Vi X i −1 Li −1 Vn +1 Now substitute in (89) for Xi and for Xi-1 in terms of Y and find Yi.Part I.Search Main Menu Equation 7-93 Yi −1 = K i −1 xi −1 Ki and Ki-1 are the equilibrium constants for a single component or tray i and i-1 respectively.doc] . Equation 7-96 Li −1 Yi −1 K i −1 Vi −1 Li L+ K i Vi Yi +1 + Yi = Equation 7-97 Let A= Li Li −1 L or Ai = or Ai −1 = KV K i Vi K i −1 Vi −1 We have Equation 7-98 Yi = Yi +1 + Ai −1 Yi −1 L + Ai We can eventually expand this equation to the following if we assume A is constant through tower. Equation 7-99 Absorption % = Note: Yn +1 − Y1 A n +1 − A0 = n +1 Yn +1 − Y0 A −1 The left hand of the equation above is the amount of a single component absorbed.

in gas leaving top plate/mole of rich gas.doc] April 2004: 7-57 (366) .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . i.e. with 100% stripped lean oil. XO = moles of comp.38: Stripper Operation We can also write a similar equation for stripping: Equation 7-101 X m +1 − X 1 S m +1 − S = m +1 X m +1 − X 0 S −1 where: X1 = moles of comp. in rich gas entering column/mole of rich gas. YO = moles of a single comp. This assumes that “A” is constant through the tower which is not necessarily so because L V changes and the temperature affects K. Yn+1 = moles of single comp. Y1 = moles of a single comp.Part I. "YO" = 0. in liquid in equilibrium with stripping medium per mole of rich oil. in rich oil entering stripper per mole of rich oil. Xm+1 = moles of comp. in stripped lean oil leaving stripper per mole of rich oil. in gas in equilibrium with lean oil per mole of entering gas. Let us next consider a stripping column as shown.Search Main Menu n = the number of theoretical stages. Figure 7. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A chart of absorption factors "A" where "A" versus Equation 7-100 Yn +1 − Y1 Yn +1 − Y0 versus number of plates is given on Figure 15-51 of GPSA Data Book.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Find effective plate "i" from value of A for key absorption component. KV 3. S = stripping factor KV . Calculate from rich gas rate and lean oil rate. 4. 5. Go to chart Figure 15-50 in GPSA Data book and read the number of theoretical trays required for the desired key component recovery. the oil rate and the % absorption of the key component 1.6 More exact methods for finding absorption factors 7.10.e. L from rich oil rate (have to estimate amount of liquid absorbed) and rich gas rate.Part I. i.Search Main Menu m = number of theoretical stripping trays. This gives a very conservative value (a larger number of trays than probably required). the oil rate and % absorption of the key component.as long as it is not too much lower than that assume that it is probably OK to use.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 4. 7.10. 7.10. one that is being absorbed 50 to 80% (mostly C3). Calculate 2. April 2004: 7-58 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Go to chart Figure 15-51 in GPSA Data Book and read the number of theoretical trays required for the desired key component recovery.4 Simplified Method for Finding the Number of Trays for Absorption (Short Cut Method) Given the gas rate. From operating temperature and pressure find K for the key component and thus calculate A= L (Key comp.10. one being absorbed). Calculate % recovery of other components for this number of trays and the same L ratio but V a different K value because of a different component. L Same chart as used for the absorption factor can be used for stripping.1 Horton & Franklin Method Find effective plate and use conditions there. thus it is probably better to use one of the methods discussed further on. 2. VK Kremser Brown Method of Finding the Number of Trays for Absorption Let us consider the Kremser Brown method of finding the number of trays for a specific absorption. Given the gas rate. Check to see that L assumed is OK . From operating temperature and pressure find K for key component and thus calculate 3.5 L .doc] .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . V 1.6. 7.

1 . 7.4 . n = leaving nth plate (bottom of tower conditions). 1 = entering 1st plate (top of tower conditions).8 1. 7. and thus find “A”.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .0 .0 .Search Value of "A" Ratio 0.4 0.10.25 − 0.Part I. Li and Temperature.0 .7 Encountered Problems Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2 Edmister Method The Edmister17 method uses an absorption factor based primarily equation Equation 7-105 Ae = An ( A1 + 1) + 0.7 4.0 0.0 0.9 0.6.6 Main Menu i n Find Vi from equation Equation 7-102 Vi = V1 n +1− i n Equation 7-103 1 Vi V n = 1 Vi +1 Vn +1 By material balance find Li = L0 + Vi +1 − V1 We find the temperature by use of the following equation Equation 7-104 Tn − Ti Vn +1 − Vi +1 = Tn − T0 Vn +1 − V1 Thus we have Vi.--- 0.0.doc] April 2004: 7-59 (366) .5 where: Ae = effective absorption factor.1 1.0 0.0.10.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1.4.

7796) (60) (24) = 13.10.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . As can be seen the temperature in the tower varies a great deal. of gas absorbed/lb. The tower operates at 900 psig and 0°F.39: Temperature of Absorption 7. Example Problem 7. The gas flow is 50 MMSCFD to the tower and the lean oil rate is 200 US gpm of a 140 mole wt.2 Calculate the number of theoretical plates required to absorb 80% of the propane in the gas of the composition given in the table below.Search Main Menu Let us consider some of the problems in using a constant “A” or “S”.13 April 2004: 7-60 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Find: A= L VK V = Rich = 50 x 10 6 = 132.2 Changes Throughout the Tower L changes throughout the tower.1 Temperature Effects A typical temperature profile in an absorber is shown in Figure 7. on page 519.7.doc] . 7. Figure 7. solvent.7. oil with a gravity of 50° API.400 moles / day 140 K C3 at 900 psig and 0°F = 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I. The moles of liquid increase as material is absorbed throughout V the tower and the moles of rich gas obviously decrease.33) (. f) Simplified or Shortcut method.39. A graph is given in Katz telling the maximum temperature rise against lbs.000 moles / day 379 L = Lean Oil = 200 (8.10.

29 0.067 (.067 moles/day L1 = LLean Oil = 13.30 132.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .400 = = .63 0.57 C2 5.5 = A n (A1 + 1) + .28 nC4 0.4 nil 0.12 0.13 80 (given) 1.21 C3 1.000) = 8963 moles/day Ln = 13.63 2.30 iC4 0.9 3.400 : A1 = 13.400 = 0.037 100 0. of trays for 80% C3 absorption = 3.30 C1 0 K 900 psig * * .78 VK 132.0.016 100 0.363 moles/day : An = 22.Estimated by calculating L for each component and using 9 theoretical trays.13) Number of trays required = 9 g) Use Edmister's Method.1 1. Gas Analysis: Estimate of % Absorption ♠ Moles/100 moles Feed Absorber 9.13) Find Ae = A n (A1 + 1) + .72 0.6 3.Using PK = 5000 and NGSMA (1957) K's ♠ .Part I.8.11 Adsorption Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 7.0.13 No.000 .000 moles/day Ln = LRich Liquid = LLean Oil + LLiquids Absorbed LLiquids Absorbed = 0679 (132.12 Total 6.963 = 123.363 = 1.000(.84 123. Mole % N2 0.25 .25 .00 91.400 + 8963 = 22.052 97 0.31 0. VK Find A1 and An V for An = VRich Gas 132.79 Comp.48 21.Search A= Main Menu L 13.13) V and A1 = VLean Gas = 132.000 (.doc] April 2004: 7-61 (366) .31 C5 0.5 = 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Quite often the inter-molecular force is greater than the force between the gas itself and it condenses on the adsorbent even though the vapour pressure of the condensate is greater than pressure of the substance in the gas at this temperature. We will consider only gas adsorption. This phenomena is reversible. We actually obtain equilibrium of material in a gas phase versus percent adsorbed on bed. 7.11. There are two types.1 Physical Adsorption (van der Waal's Adsorption) In this there is inter-molecular attraction between the molecules of the adsorbent (material which is adsorbing) and absorbate (material which is being adsorbed). Such operations as drying or leaching are the reverse of this. This type of adsorption can be described by the so-called Freundlich Equation Equation 7-106 wi = α ( pi ) n where: w = the concentration of adsorbate on adsorbent lb/lb ρi = partial pressure of adsorbate α = constant n = constant 7.1 Equilibrium Data As in other mass transfer operations we have experimental equilibrium data.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .11.40: Adsorption Curve April 2004: 7-62 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu This is the phenomena of mass transfer from a gas to solid (or liquid to solid). Heats of adsorption in this case are similar to heats of sublimation. A typical adsorption equilibrium curve is shown below Figure 7.11.Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .2.2 Chemical Adsorption In this case a chemical reaction takes place and if chemical bond is strong the process is not easily reversible. 7.

7.Search 7.Part I.41: Component Adsorption Data For propane and butane the amount of adsorption can be calculated from the following equations for C4. Figure 7. log S = 0.0765 T k M log y T M log k y + 0. For example. a lot of internal pores. log S = .42 shows this.7770 + 0.4 How Adsorption Proceeds We are mostly concerned with the adsorption of H20 and HC and how facilities for doing this job are designed.41 which shows data for C4. gas mask charcoal has 1.3 Main Menu Nature of Adsorbents These are usually granular in form. This can be obtained from dynamic equilibrium curves as shown in Figure 7.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Let us consider how the adsorption of C3. 7. First of all.000.5 Sizing of Beds To determine length of bed. meters of surface per Kilogram of substance. In particular they are characterized by having an extensive internal surface.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 7-63 (366) . i.11. C4. Figure 7.11.e.000 sp.6098 where: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .0.11. need to know volume of adsorbent to use. C5 and C6 adsorption. C5+ proceeds.0988 for C3. water is adsorbed with the heavier hydrocarbons and finally the light ones.

Part I. Figure 7. During the operation of the tower the feed composition is changed to that also shown in the table. °R M = molecular weight of Component k = Vapour Liquid Equilibrium constant y = Mole fraction of component in the inlet gas If we wish to find the length. April 2004: 7-64 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . find amount of to be adsorbed in cycle time. The design feed composition and the top and bottom composition is given in the table below. The velocity of the gas sets the diameter.42: Adsorption Progress with Time 7. set percent recovery.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu S = component saturation US gallon/100 lbs adsorbent T = absolute temp. Determine what the increase in ref lux ratio has to be to make the separation. It is usually about 40-45 ft/mm. then from equilibrium curves or equations the quantity of adsorbent is determined by adding the quantity required for each component.12 Example Problems Example Problem 7.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .3 A debutanizer is designed so that the overhead product has only 2% of isopentane in it and the bottom has only 3% n-butane in it.doc] . as a superficial velocity. Thus the length can be determined. usually 20 to 30 minutes.

Comp.Search Main Menu Comp. The tower operating pressure is 100 psia. Assume an overall tray efficiency of 75%.0 22.0 9.5 ---- ---- iC4 10.2 2.5 20.0 9.0 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 1.6 C7 10.1 iC5 8.4 ---- 16.0 ---- 10.9 C6 25. Example Problem 7.0 17.5 ---- 18.5 12. An existing condenser is to be used that has a duty such that it is able to totally condense 7 times the amount of overhead product produced.5 6.5 nC4 16.0 0.6 7.0 3.5 21.0 ---- 29.5 The tower has 17 actual trays.0 ---- 9. This condenser will condense the overhead product 100°F using cooling water.5 It is planned to install a depropanizer the split as given in the table below.5 12.5 iC4 10. Assume that the tray efficiency is 70%.5 Total 100.0 C7+ 18.7 ---- 10.3 ---- nC4 15. Mole Percent Comp.9 19.5 C8 21.5 6.0 25.9 nC5 10.4 iC5 10.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .9 C6 9. Tower top temperature is 120°F.0 4.0 ---- C3 40. Example Problem 7.Part I.4 A fractionation tower is designed to split a feed (as given in the Table) into a top and bottom product.0 20. Feed Top Product Bottom Product iC4 10.5 ---- ---- nC4 20.0 The minimum reflux based on the overhead products is 4 to 1.5 ---- 21.0 9.0 1. Calculate the number of actual trays required for this separation.0 100. The average temperature is 150°F which is the feed temperature.7 ---- iC5 17.0 100.5 0.5 39.5 C6 10.0 15. the composition of which are also given in the Table.0 33.0 67.1 2. Moles Design Feed New Feed Moles Overhead Moles 100 Bottom Moles 100 Design Bottom Moles 100 New Feed C3 0.5 0.5 10.5 10. Feed Moles Overhead Moles / 100 mole feed Bottom Product Moles / 100 mole feed C2 4.doc] April 2004: 7-65 (366) .5 20.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .7 nC5 8.9 2.0 ---- 10.8 ---- nC5 23.9 ---- 8.

e) Assume PK for any calculation of 2000 psia.000. If propane is worth $7.15 nC5 0.000 extra to install.Part I. It is proposed to increase the recovery of propane and heavier by using a lower molecular weight oil of 100 MW chilling the oil and gas so that the average tower temperature is 0°F.6 An existing absorption unit handles 300 MMSCFD at 14.60 iC5 0. Assume the tower operates 350 days/year.22 Assumptions a) The value of the C3 and heavier in the gas is $1.27 C3 1. Gas Analysis Comp. The overhead product to be produced is 25.Search Main Menu The minimum reflux ratio for the separation is 1. including all auxiliaries.34 C2 5. c) The present unit is designed for 40% C3 recovery. Each tray more than required with the 1.3 times the minimum actual reflux cost $30. determine the payout for the proposed facility. The cost of this revamp is estimated to be $6. Assume the fuel is burned in a furnace that is 75% efficient. The tower is operating at a pressure of 200 psia.000 BTU's/BBL. d) The tower operating pressure is 600 psia. Extra trays are to be added if they pay out in the fuel savings obtained by reducing reflux requirements.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .000 BPD.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 psia and 60°F of gas of the analysis given below. April 2004: 7-66 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .50/BBl. b) The extra operating costs.000. The oil rate is minimum for this recovery.70/BBl and C5+'s are $9. Example Problem 7.000.00/Barrel.3 times the minimum costs $500. the same (GPM). are considered negligible. The heat of condensation of a barrel of overhead product is 33. The oil circulation rate is to remain the same (i. The tower average temperature is 160°F.32 nC4 0.8.e. Determine how many trays are required in the tower.92 iC4 0. Assume the trays are 80% efficient.18 C6 0. Moles C1 91. C4’s are worth $7.00/MMBTU's delivered to the plant. except raw materials costs. The cost of fuel is $1. Data A tower with an actual reflux ratio 1. The pay out time is to be 2 years to less.05/MM BTU's.doc] . It is operated at an average temperature of 80°F with 160 MW oil.

P. P. Handbook of Natrual Gas Engineering.R. F. Savant. No. 2. 24. Chem.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 44. 603.7 ---- nC5 3. G.2 ---- nC4 5. Mole % Moles/Day C3 12. May 21. Katz. 17. 1947. 1384. 9.0 ---- C6 2. Chemistry.J. 1922. Thiele. Example Problem 7. C4.Ch. Published by the American Petroleum Institute. Petroleum Engineering. 7.. and Eng.3 ---- Lean Oil 70. 168. Hydrocarbon Processing.E. A. M. National Petroleum News. 741.L. Ponchon.. Franklin.Part I. 43. P. API Petroleum Data Book. G. 32. M. 8. 14.. 1946. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . i. 34.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Arts et Meliens. 1967. 1932. Washington. Temperature at the top is 220°F and temperature at the bottom is 400°F. Modern. 1948. 42. 1963.Search f) Main Menu Assume just pure products recovered. 75. Vol. 13 (20) 55. 1934.2 ---- 100. P. Progress. E. 1959. Ind. P. 16. Fenske. and Ross. Smith.V. P. D. 1220.C. 112.7 A rich oil of the following composition is fed to a stripping tower with 8 theoretical trays. Tech. 9. J. 54. 2101 L Street North West. etc. do not calculate impurities of commercial C3.G. 45.E. Mapstone. W. Kitterman.. 11. 4. 5. Brown. 10. 1932. McCabe and E. 1940. P.6 ---- iC5 2. P.e. 130.I.doc] April 2004: 7-67 (366) . 57. Hydrocarbon Processing. and Eng. 6.. Chemistry. Gilland. 1961. M. Edmister. O'Connell. P. Souders and G. 26. 1921. i. Comp. Chem. md. May. 13. 5. Eng.C.e. P. Trans." Ind. Kremser. L. Horton and W. P. Underwood. 3. EngN Chem.S..W.. D. W. May 1968. Chemistry. Eng. stripping gas (in SCFD) to remove most of the butane and lighter. See Page 569 of the book by Buford D. Chemistry. H. 15. "Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes. md. 90% of the nC4. 1930." McGraw Hill. 12. 1940. M. 65. 17.B. Eng. Zenz. A. The average tower pressure is 200 psia. "Graphical Design of Fractionating Columns.0 ---- iC4 4. NO. 482. P.0 10.R. Eng. 98. 13. A.E. Eckert. No. References 1.000 You are to find the amount of 18 mole wt. 18. Ind. McGraw Hill. Progress.

Burns. 20. P. Maddox. 2. Main Menu Reading List Mass Transfer Operations 1. P. P. Fair. 3. 5. P. 90. Magoulas. 1951. "Hydrocarbon Processing". Hydrocarbon Processing. 1968. P. 156.S. Chemical Engineering.N.doc] . 39. P. P. April 22. April 2004: 7-68 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . "How to Design Amine Absorbers". R.R. Progress.R.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..G. T. Maxwell. May 1967. Chemical Engineering. "Modern Design of Distillation Columns".3. P. "Calculations for Multicomponent Distillation. Lygeros and K. 3.Search 18.D.L. "Sorption Processes". Olsen. 75. "Column Flooding and Entrainment". Sept. Eng. November 1984. 128. Fair. P.L. 43. 6. Dec. 147 and December 1984. 55. "Estimating Separation Efficiency. Chemical Engineering. Van Winke and W. 1961.G. 112. 1967. Canadiah Peti~o1eurh. J. D. 136. P. Van Nostrand. J. 18. J. March 1970. Ross. N. and W. "Hydrocarbon Data Book". Maddox and M. 21. 20. 1971. Vital. Grosal and P. Boles. December 1986. Oil & Gas J.J. Sept. 60. R. P. Eckert. July 14. October 1984. Chem. Todd.1. 1970.N. "Design to Avoid Operational Problems". A. 19.Part I. 11. 4. Kitterman and M. K. Chemical Engineering.

4 The student should read and study in some detail: Chapter 8 . without appreciable displacement of the particles of that body.1 shows the system.Search 8. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 8-1 (366) .Heat Exchangers and Chapter 10 . K = thermal conductivity.Air Cooled Exchangers of the new English GPSA Data Book as a supplement to this chapter. dt = temperature difference.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 Conduction The transfer of heat from one part of a body to another part of the same body or from one body to another in physical contact with it.1 Main Menu Heat Transfer • General theory and types of heat transfer. or integrated at a steady state Equation 8-2 Q= K A(t1 − t 2 ) x Figure 8. We are primarily interested in the rate of transfer so that we can size equipment for heat transfer properly. • Types of equipment and equipment design criteria.0 8. For steady state conduction the rate equation of Equation 8-1 Rate = driving force resistance or dQ = KA dt dx where: dQ = heat transfer rate. 8. There are three types of heat transfer4.Fired Equipment.1. A = area of transfer. dx = thickness of place in which the transfer is taking place.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I. Introduction This is the transfer of energy between a source and a sink. Chapter 9 .

It is the actual amount of energy that is absorbed or radiated as compared to a black body which has the value unity.very high.e. Natural convection occurs when there is no except because of heat transfer.2 Convection This is the transfer of heat from one point in a fluid to point in the fluid. Forced convection occurs when in motion.3 Radiation This is the transfer of heat from one body to another not in contact with it by means of wave motion. This heat transfer is expressed by the Boltzmann equation: Equation 8-4 dQ = σε dA T 4 where: σ = a constant ε = emissivity for the substance involved T = the absolute temperature.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . dt = the temperature difference. This is the type of heat transfer is mostly encountered in gas processing.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 8. the fluid properties.Search Main Menu Figure 8.doc] .1: Heat Transfer System The value of K depends on material: For insulators . dA = the differential area from which heat transfer takes place. the "ε" needs defining. h = a film coefficient which depends on fluid flow rate.1. The transfer of heat between two surfaces can be expressed as: April 2004: 8-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . pumped or agitated. 8.very low. etc. i.1. This type of transfer is expressed by the equation Equation 8-3 dQ = hAdt where: A = area of transfer. For conductors .Part I.

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Figure 8. 8. Fixed Tube Sheet .cannot remove tube bundle and thus cannot clean mechanical outside surface of tubes. Figure 8.Part I. Figure 8.doc] April 2004: 8-3 (366) . These can be divided mechanically as follows: 1.173 A1 ⎢ε 1 ⎜ 1 ⎟ − α12 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 100 ⎠ or in metric [ Q12 = 2.can remove tube bundle and clean outside of tube surface.2 Heat Exchange Equipment There are many types of heat exchange equipment. Also Figure. 300 ft2 (28 m2) or lower.6 in the GPSA Manual shows some other configurations. Shell and Tube Exchanger Many tubes inside a single shell. Use in dirty services: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2: Radiation System Both convection type heat transfer and radiation type heat transfer will be considered later in this section.06 x 10 7 A1 ε 1T1 − α12T2 4 4 ] α12 = absorptivity at point 2 Quite often α12 = ε1 and the equation can be simplified. Double Pipe Exchanger One pipe inside the other. 8.2 shows the system for which the equation applies.3 shows the many types of flow that can be expected in shell and tube exchangers.Search Main Menu Equation 8-5 4 ⎡ ⎛ T ⎞4 ⎛T ⎞ ⎤ Q12 = 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . A few of the more important types are given in the following discussion. used in small size. 2. Use in clean services: • LPG service • Sweet gas to gas exchangers Floating Head Exchangers .

Part I. • Sour condensate • Rich/lean Amine Main Menu U Tubes .2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search 3.can remove tube sheet and clean shell side satisfactorily but need clean tube fluid. Coil in box exchangers April 2004: 8-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Used mainly in reboiler service: • Amine still reboiler Figure 8.doc] .3: Shell and Tube Heat Transfer Equipment 8.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 Other Liquid to Liquid Exchangers Other liquid to liquid exchangers sometimes used are: 1.

Part I.4.Search 2.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4: Plate and Fin Liquid to Liquid Exchanger 8. Main Menu Figure 8. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 3. When Air Cooling is used higher operating pressures are needed. The choice between Air Cooling and Water Cooling requires close study. This is particularly costly when refrigeration compressors are needed.doc] April 2004: 8-5 (366) . Water Cooling gives lower temperatures and thus lower operating pressure but generally requires a cooling tower.5 shows some details of aerial coolers. Plate and fin . Often stacks have to be put on these exchangers to make sure recirculation is minimized. Trombone exchangers (Falling film on outside of pipes). Figure 8.a series of corrugated fins and a plate as shown in Figure 8.2 Air Exchangers In this case air is used instead of water as the cooling medium.2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . These units consist of a finned tube section in which the fluid to be cooled is sent through and a fan which either blows air through the tubes or induces it through same. There have been many problems in locating these units properly in plants because of recirculation problems.

28 U Tube 1.Part I.0 Floating Head Tube Sheet 1.5: Aerial Coolers 8.2 .Search Main Menu Figure 8.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .08 Kettle type U Tube with enlarged shell 1.4 April 2004: 8-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1.doc] . Table 8.3 Costs The relative costs of the various exchangers considered are given in the table below.1: Exchanger Costs Exchanger Type Relative Cost in Carbon Steel Fixed tube sheet 1.

5 .2.1 Open Tube Section Air Cooled 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .3. Often some type of alloy is worthwhile because of its longer service life. • How far away from tubes should the fire be.8 .1.8 .4 Main Menu Furnaces There are of course.Part I.000-130.8 .7 Open Tube Section Water Cooled 0.6: Typical Furnace A good conservative design is to use 10-12.Search Double Pipe 0.1.0. 8.1 Heat Exchangers In most cases in gas processing the equipment used for heat transfer uses convection as the primary method of heat transfer.1. many types of furnaces. Generally the following equation expresses the mechanics: Equation 8-6 Q = UA∆T where: Q = heat transfer rate BTU/hr (Watts) A = area required for transfer ft2 (m2) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 Pipe Coil 0. • The tube material . Generally they look like: Figure 8.8 8.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .close review should be made to see if really carbon steel should be used.doc] April 2004: 8-7 (366) . such as: • Whether to put tubes vertical or horizontal.000 kjoules/m2) as a heat flux in the radiant section.000 BTU/square feet (110. Furnace design is a special science which has many problems.3 Equipment Sizing 8.

6 we use the equation given below: Equation 8-8 ∆TLMT = (T1 − t 2 ) − (T2 − t1 ) ln T1 − t 2 T2 − t1 or Equation 8-9 April 2004: 8-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . H2 = Enthalpy of material at temperature (T2) (and pressure P2 if a gas).7: Counter Current Exchanger To determine the average temperature difference for the exchanger shown in Figure 8.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.e. Q . CP = the specific heat. by the equation: Equation 8-7 Q = WC P (T1 − T2 ) = W (H 1 − H 2 ) where: W = mass flow rate.This is determined by a heat balance around the exchanger.doc] . ∆T . T1 = the entrance temperature on one side of the exchanger. This is generally what is to be determined. Let us then consider the other items in the equation.Search U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Main Menu Btu ' s Watts hrft 2 ° F m 3 °C ∆T = the temperature difference °F (°C) The size of the equipment required is determined by the area "A" for heat transfer.6. Figure 8.First let us review the temperature in a double pipe exchanger as shown in Figure 8. i.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . H1 = Enthalpy of material at temperature (T1) (and pressure P1 if a gas). T2 = the exit temperature from the same side of the exchanger. In this case we have what is called true counter flow.

This factor is a function of the terminal temperature and the number of shell passes and tube passes. we do not have true counter or co-current flow. The average temperature is given by: Equation 8-10 ∆TM = F∆TLMT where: F = a factor which is determined from the ratio of temperature difference on each side of the exchanger "R" where R= T1 − T2 t 2 − t1 and temperature efficiency P which is the tube side temperature difference divided by the difference between the hot temperature entering the exchanger and the cold temperature entering the exchanger. is calculated. That is. Figure 8. We have another problem in regular shell and tube heat exchangers.doc] April 2004: 8-9 (366) . some counter flow.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .1 on page 8. Figure 8. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . For this a factor by which the true log mean temperature is multiplied. ie. P= t 2 − t1 T1 − t1 ∆TLMT is the true log mean temperature.8: Typical Exchanger Configuration For example we have some cross flow. The charts on pages 9-5 and 9-6 of that manual should be used for air exchangers.Part I.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . some cocurrent flow. The charts on pages 8-3 and 8-4 of the GPSA Data Book cover the important cases for determining F.Search ∆TLMT = Main Menu ∆THOT END − ∆TCOLD END ∆THOT END ln ∆TCOLD END This equation can be proved to apply for both counter current and parallel flow.2 of the GPSA Data Book solves this equation for us graphically.

hi . This is normally determined by the exchanger manufacturer for the conditions given in a specification sheet. An equation that is often used is the Sieder and Tate equation8 Equation 8-12 hi Di ⎛DG⎞ = 0. µ = fluid viscosity lbs/ft2/hr. Figure 9-7 on Page 9-8. µw = viscosity of fluid at tube wall temperature lbs/hr/ft2. We are considering only heat transfer without a change of phase (i. a knowledge of overall U's is of particualr value to the gas engineer.14 versus the Reynolds Number. This is given as Figure 9-7 of the GPSA Data Book. where: hi = heat transfer coefficient BTU/hr/sq.Search Main Menu The most important item in an exchanger sizing is "U". These are somewhat conservative.027⎜⎜ i ⎟⎟ K ⎝ µ ⎠ 0.14 This equation has been expressed in graphical form by plotting Equation 8-13 ⎛ h D ⎞⎛ C µ ⎞ j ≡ ⎜ i ⎟⎜ P ⎟ ⎝ K ⎠⎝ K ⎠ −1 3 ⎛ µ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ −0. For determining hO and hi there are several empirical equations. Figure 8-6 and Figure. In a heat exchanger the heat transfer rate across a tube can be given by: Equation 8-11 1 1 1 D0 = + +R U 0 h0 hi Di where: UO = overall heat transfer area based on outside of tube surface.ft/°F (W/M2°C).doc] . no boiling or condensing). R = fouling factor as given in the TEMA ratings and discussed later.the inside film coefficient. To see how the U is determined we will review how U is calculated. G = mass velocity lbs/ft2/hr (kg/m2-s). April 2004: 8-10 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 9-5 of the GPSA Data Book gives some common values to be expected. The GPSA Data Book gives a chart for determining hi. Figure 8-8 gives the chart for hO.8 1 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ 3 ⎛ µ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎜ ⎝ K ⎠ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0. However.e. Cp = fluid specific heat BTU/lb/°F. The Parameter L/D is also shown on the chart.Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . We will review the method used and give an example problem. K = fluid thermal conductivity BTU/hr/ft/°F. hO = film heat transfer coefficient based on the outside of tube surface. D = tube ID in feet.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Search Main Menu L = length of a single tube in ft.14 where: De = equivalent diameter = Gs = 4 x free area wetted perimeter Mass Flow shell cross flow area The shell cross flow area is found at the centre of the bundle and is given by the formula: Equation 8-15 As = ID (C ′ B ) PT (144) where: As = shell cross sectional area in ft2. To find hO we use a similar type of equation of a slightly different form developed by Colburn9. ⎛ h d ⎞⎛ cz ⎞ J = ⎜ O O ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K ⎠⎝ k ⎠ −1 3 ⎛ z ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ zw ⎠ −0. The form is: Equation 8-14 ⎛DG h0 De = 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] April 2004: 8-11 (366) .36 ⎜⎜ e s K ⎝ µ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0. C' = clearance between tubes in inches.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .55 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ K ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ µ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.14 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Thus if we know the Re Number and the other fluid properties we can use Figure 9-7 in the GPSA Data Book and find hi. B = baffle spacing in inches.Part I. hO .the outside film coefficient. PT = pitch (distance between centres of tubes). ID = shell ID in inches.

[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.9: Heat Transfer for Fluid Flowing across Tube Banks The figure below shows these symbols.doc] .Search NS = Main Menu DO Gm z Figure 8. Equation 8-16 h D ⎛C µ ⎞ j= 0 0⎜ P ⎟ K ⎝ K ⎠ April 2004: 8-12 (366) −1 3 ⎛ µ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ −0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Figure 8.14 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Z is used as a viscosity symbol) where j is plotted versus the Reynolds Number. which is reproduced from an old edition of the GPSA Data Book.9.10: Tube Arrangement and Symbols We then have a similar graph as for inside tubes (Figure 8.

Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 8-13 (366) .33 ⎛ G1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ G2 ⎠ 0.Part I. For example: Figure 8.27 ⎛ K1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ K2 ⎠ 0. For Shell and Tube exchangers the GPSA Data Book has developed a slightly different method of calculating the overall "U" (see pages 8-5. It is based on finding the resistance for both inside and outside tubes based on a set of standard values as given in Figure 8-8 on page 8-7 of the GPSA Data Book.67 ⎛ C P1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ CP2 ⎠ 0.27 ⎛ K1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ K2 ⎠ 0.33 ⎛ G1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ G2 ⎠ 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .2 A similar equation can be given for the shell side resistance. Equation 8-17 ⎛µ ⎞ f = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ µ1 ⎠ 0.6 ⎛ D02 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ D01 ⎠ 0.4 where: r1 = the standard value at "1". 8-6 and 8-7 of the GPSA Data Book).67 ⎛ C P1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ CP2 ⎠ 0.Search Main Menu Probably should use De but the figure has been corrected so as to use DO’ which is the outside diameter of the tube. This is ⎛µ ⎞ f = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ µ1 ⎠ 0.8 ⎛ D02 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ D01 ⎠ 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .11: Thermal Resistance of Typical Uniform Deposits r 2TUBE SIDE NEW CONDITION = f (r1)TUBE SIDE STANDARD CONDITION where: f is for turbulent flow on the tube side.

8.3. dirt.2 Typical Fouling Resistances April 2004: 8-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . i.e. material and finish • Fluid velocity • Operating time since last cleaning Economic Considerations Economic factors entering into the determination of permissible extent of fouling are: • Initial cost of exchanger • Variation of cost with size • Frequency of cleanings required • Cost of cleaning.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . HC oil or methane. 8-7 and Fig. including loss of production • Depreciation rate • Tax rate • Maintenance rate (exclusive of cleaning costs) • Fluid pumping charges • Desired net return on investment 8.doc] . water.2. Figure 8.Search Main Menu For pressure drop a similar set of ratios is given. it is important in design to provide a fouling allowance appropriate to the expected operating and maintenance conditions.10 which is from the TEMA Manual shows the effect of fouling thickness upon resistance for several types of deposits. Physical Considerations Among physical factors influencing the extent of heat exchanger fouling are: • Nature of fluid and material deposited • Temperature of fluid • Temperature of tube wall • Tube wall.3. particularly Fig. should be used. with reasonable service time between cleanings.1 Considerations in Fouling Resistance Evaluation The determination of appropriate values for fouling resistance involves both physical and economic factors. even for identical services. 88 give tables of all standard relationships and values. Please refer to Section 8 of the GPSA Data Book for further details. 8.2 Fouling Resistances Effect of Fouling Products of corrosion. In order that heat exchangers shall have sufficient surface to maintain satisfactory performance in normal operation. or other foreign materials which deposit on heat transfer surfaces increase the overall thermal resistance and lower the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger. many of which vary from user to user.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.2.3. When using this method the appropriate standard fluid.

doc] April 2004: 8-15 (366) . Deposition of dust from gas. Palen and Knudson1. A more scientific approach to fouling resistance has been proposed in two articles by Taborek. Reitzer Proportional to th supersaturation to the n power. Фr = the rate of removal. Palen and Knudson discuss these models in some detail and present some experimental data on specific fouling test work. the user may be guided by the values tabulated on pages 43. similar trends are seen with other types.46. Watkinson Proportional to concentration difference and to Arrhenius temperature values.45. Combination of diffusion and reaction controlled. Equation 8-18 d (x f K f ) dt = φd − φr where: xf = thickness of the fouling deposit. However. Ritter. Taborek. This reference should be contacted for more data on fouling. Assume all particles reaching wall stuck. Aohi. Фd = the rate of deposition. Ritter. However. Table 8.Part I. They state that the basic fouling equation is as follows.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Proportional to fouling layer thickness and shear stress. Figure 10 shows how the fouling resistance builds up with layer thickness. neglecting removal makes model questionable for Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu The tables (given at the end of this chapter) present typical fouling resistances referred to the surface on which they occur.44. Aohi. In the absence of specific data for setting proper resistances as described in the previous paragraphs. Beal Proportional to concentration gradient as function of tubulent and None postulated. These are given in the Table below. None. dt Many models solving this general equation have been developed. In the case of inside surface fokling these values must be multiplied by the outsideinside surface ratio.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Kf = the effective thermal conductivity of the fouling layer. or Equation 8-19 dRf d (x f K f ) = dt dt where: d Rf = net rate of fouling accumulation. Used same as Kern and Seaton.2: Comparison of Fouling Models Model Deposition Term Фd Removal Term Фr Characteristics of Fouling Type Kern and Seaton Proportional to concentration of foulant. Reaction rate controlled or diffusion rate controlled (The two mechanisms were combined in an attempt to fit both decomposition and sedimentation data). Sedimuntation.

doc] . Dropwise gives very high coefficient but requires special conditions. is less than 2100. 8.76 K ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎝ µΓ ⎠ 1 3 where: h = heat transfer coefficient BTU's/hr/ft2/°F.3 Main Menu high velocity and loose material.12: Condensing Methods The equations that can be used for calculating "h" are as follows. In vertical tubes the flow is down the tube and accumulates as the condensate flows down the tube. Also two types of situations exist as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. There are two types of condensing . However. g = gravity (4.Part I. For vertical tubes Equation 8-21 ⎛ gρ 2 ⎞ h = 0.Search Brownian diffusivity.e. Generally the flow is laminar i.925 K ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎝ µΓ ⎠ 1 3 For horizontal tubes Equation 8-22 ⎛ gρ 2 ⎞ h = 0.12. April 2004: 8-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Usually film condensation is considered to take place. the film coefficient for condensing is determined from quite a different formula for determining "hO".18 x 106) ft/hr2.dropwise of film.3. K = thermal conductivity of liquid BTU/hr/ft°F.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . In horizontal tubes it also accumulates when flow is inside and drops to the next tube when condensation is on the outside of the tubes. Reynolds No. Condensers The same equation is used for sizing condensers as heat exchangers: Equation 8-20 Q = UA∆T and all the parts of the equation are determined as indicated in Section A.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

Search Main Menu ρ1 = density of liquid lbs/ft3.Part I. "Г" may be found from Equation 8-24 Γ= W 2nL for inside tubes where: L = length of tube in feet.12 shows a typical condensing curve for an amine still overhead condenser. n = number of tubes. In vertical tubes it can be calculated by just dividing the flow of condensed liquid by the tube perimeter.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The equation does assume that the flow of condensed fluid is laminar. µ = viscosity lbs/hr/ft. These equations can be applied for both inside and outside tubes. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . When flow is in horizontal tubes.doc] April 2004: 8-17 (366) . Figure 8. This usually has to be found from a condensing curve when a multi-component mixture is being condensed. d = diameter of tubes in inches. Another important feature of condensers is to calculate the overall ∆T.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . The equation to use is Equation 8-23 Γ= W nπ d 12 where: W = flow lbs/hr. Г = tube loading lbs/hr/ft. For outside tubes Equation 8-25 Γ= W 4 nr L where: nr = no. of tubes at centre of exchanger. The calculation of Г is particularly important.

Thus April 2004: 8-18 (366) Q decrease for a while as ∆Tsolid-liquid increases.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3. Often in a hydrocarbon mix with only a few components the condenser entrance and exit temperatures can be found from the dew point and bubble point respectively and sometimes the log mean ∆T can be used as the average ∆T. However. as will be seen shortly. This is shown in A Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .13: Multi-Component Condensing The overall ∆T is found by breaking area into several sections and finding ∆T for each section and the area required for each section.14: Types of Boiling Very high values of h can be obtained in the boiling in the manner shown in Figure 8.4 Reboilers In this equipment we can again use Equation (7) if only convection heat transfer is experienced. What happens is that film eventually blankets the boiling surface as shown in Figure 8.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search Main Menu Figure 8. Figure 8.Part I.14(a) but this is only for low ∆T.doc] .14(b). the calculation of "hO" is based on a different formula and. The curve itself is calculated by determining amount of material that condenses at each temperature and the latent heat at that temperature.13. often the heat flux Q/A is the limiting design criteria. 8. For boiling liquids consider the conditions shown in Figure 8.

000 BTU/ hr/ ft2 for water systems (194.000 kJ/ hr/ m2 ) and <30. particularly on Page 9-12.Part I.000 for water systems (330.000 BTU/ hr/ ft2 for organics (130.6 where: λ = latent heat of evaporation.000 kJ/ hr/ m2 ) Please refer to the English GPSA ('87) for more specific heat flux ranges. Q/A < 20.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 8. For natural circulation: Q/A < 12.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Kern7 recommends the following values.15: Heat Flux in Boiling Thus we normally design reboilers for a heat flux.000 kJ/ hr/ m2 ) and Q/A < 18. ρL = density of liquid.000 for organics (220. ρv = density of vapour. higher fluxes can be used. in which normally partial vapourization only occurs. Or the maximum flux can be calculated from the following equation: Equation 8-26 ⎛ ρ − ρV ⎛Q⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 143 ρV λ ⎜⎜ L ⎝ A ⎠ max ⎝ ρV ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0. The maximum temperature difference between the surface and the boiling fluid can be found from Equation 8-27 (t S − tb )max = 1 ⎛Q⎞ ⎜ ⎟ m ⎝ A ⎠ max where: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .000 kJ/ hr/ m2 ) For forced circulation.doc] April 2004: 8-19 (366) .

m = a constant characteristic of the material being boiled.425 ΣL The symbols are as given before and the units are as previously given and where: γ = surface tension dynes/cm. April 2004: 8-20 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Detailed comparison is made of pressure drop allowed on the air side versus the required area.P. ∆T is normally calculated for cross flow type of exchanger. U is calculated as previously indicated for regular exchangers.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Union Carbide has developed a new tube for boiling called a porous boiling tube (See Martin).718 1 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ 3 ⎛ S ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ K ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝l⎠ 0.1378 ⎜⎜ r m ⎟⎟ K a (12) ⎝ 12µ ⎠ 0. Fair.02⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ CPG ⎝ µ ⎠ −0.296 Fr where: h = coefficient of heat transfer for high fin tubes BTU/hr/sq ft/°F. per minute is often used. the boiling coefficient for various materials. dr = root diameter of tube in inches.E.e.R. An excellent article on the types of heat exchangers just discussed is "Design of Heat Exchangers" by R. Lord. The correction factor as obtained from Figures 9-3 and 9-4 in the GPSA Data Book on page 9-5 and 9-6 is used. tb = boiling temperature.3 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ K ⎠ −0. P.6 ⎛ PL χ ⎞ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ p ⎠ −0. h for boiling can be calculated from the following equation: Equation 8-28 ⎛ DG ⎞ h = 4. Slusser. Σ = surface condition factor 1. A is usually expressed as a bare fin tube area.= pressure psia. lower for stainless steel. An air velocity of about 675 ft. Ka = thermal conductivity of air BTU/hr/sq ft/°F/ft.doc] . Equation (11).C. i. Also. For finned tubes the h can be found from the following equation: Equation 8-29 ⎛d G ⎞ h dr = 0.0 for steel or copper. which is equivalent to about 3000 lbs/hr ft2 (4 kg/sec/m2).5 Air Exchanaers In air exchangers the equation (6) is used. Minton and R. P . 8.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I.Search Main Menu ts = surface temperature °T. This article also gives varying values of hbr. m is available from article by J. It is a good article on reboilers in general.3. The outside film coefficient for air can be found from Figure 9-9 on page 9-10 of the GPSA Data Book which plots hO versus air velocity.

the different sections use different equations for calculating the area.3. σ = constant 0.987 for 20 rows. Tt = the tube temperature °R (add 100°F to average fluid temperature to determine this). generally 15.Part I.000 BTU/hr/ft2 in the radiant section and 10. 8. α = a factor of comparison of what a tube sees in a furnace and given in Figure 8. This varies with the tube material used and fluid being heated. l = fin height in inches df .6 shows a typical furnace.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .dr/2. For convection in the radiant section the following equation can be used: Equation 8-31 QRc = hrc ART (Tg − Tt ) Table 8.810 for two rows to 0. (total exposed tube surface area) (tube length times center to center distance).16. area in each section is about the same.doc] April 2004: 8-21 (366) . This is usually set between 10. t = fin thickness in inches.173 x 10-8 BTU/hr/sq ft/°R. The rate of heat transfer can be calculated from the formula: Equation 8-30 QRr = σαAcp F (Tg4 − Tt 4 ) where: QRr = radiant heat transfer rate in radiation section.6 Furnaces Furnaces are normally sized by the heat flux allowable Q/A = . Figure 8.000 to 15.Search Main Menu Gm = maximum flow of air at minimum area lbs/sec/ft2.17 and Figure 3 and Table 8.000 BTU/hr/ft2.3. Tg = the gas temperature °R.16 and 8. S = distance between fins in inches S = 1-nt/n. F = an exchange factor as given in Figures 8. Fr = row factor from 0. Cp = specific heat of air (about 0. However.24 BTU/lb/°F).000 BTU/hr/ft2 overall.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . About 70% of duty is in the radiant section and about 30% of the duty is in the convection section. n = number of fins per inch.3: Beam Lengths for Gas Radiation Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . To find this it is necessary to use "L" the beam length which is given in the next Table. Let us first consider the radiation section. Acp = cold plane surface area sq ft. Most furnaces have both a convection section and radiant section. See Example problem in GPSA Data Book starting page 9-7 on sizing aerial coolers.

Search Dimension Ratio Main Menu Mean Beam Length.0αAcp (Tg − Tt ) For the convection section the regular method of finding the overall heat transfer coefficient can be used. Equation 8-33 2.3 x Smallest Dimension 1-3-3 to 1-∞-∞ 1. Air coolers can also be specified in a similar manner. Tf = average outside gas temperature. That is. d = tube OD in inches.57. Wimpress. ART = tube area in the radiant section. 8. A good article on rating fired heaters is one by R.0 BTU/hr/sq ft/°F In the normal furnace ART is about 2 times αAcp and F is often 0.28 hcc = (Gmax )0. What must be specified: • Process Conditions April 2004: 8-22 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . L Rectangular Furnaces. hrc = convective heat transfer coefficient usually about 2. G = mass velocity lb/sq ft/sec. Length-Width-Height. specify an exchanger to fit a heat transfer application.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Let us consider shell and tube exchanger only.14(T f ) 0. Diameter-Height 1-1 2/3 x Diameter 1-2 to 1-∞ 1 x Diameter where: QRC = convective heat transfer rate in radiation section.N.4 Specifying Exchangers Let us now consider what normally people in the gas processing business wish to do. To calculate the outside “h” the following equation is used.8 x Smallest Dimension 1/3 Cylindrical Furnaces.4 where: hcc = convection section outside film coefficient.doc] .Part I.6 d 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . (In any Order) 1/3 1-1-1 to 1-1-3 2/3 (Furnace Volume) 1-2-1 to 1-2-4 2/3 (Furnace Volume) 1-1-4 to 1-1-∞ 1 x Smallest Dimension 1-2-5 to 1-2-∞ 1. QRC can be expressed as Equation 8-32 QRc = 7.

4. Figure 8. viscosity. i. 8.4. 8. All rather similar except B and C allow smaller diameter tubes.e.doc] April 2004: 8-23 (366) .19 below explains this. and TEMA division. 8. normally ¾” and either 16 or 20 ft. specific heat. either R or C or B. should tell exchanger manufacturer all about fluids.4. thermal conductivity. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Search • Physical properties of fluid involved • Performance conditions • Mechanical design conditions • Materials of construction • Codes 8.1 Main Menu Physical Properties If it is not a well known fluid. etc. actual fluid. its gravity.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3 Codes Normally unfired pressure vessel code of Province.4 Mechanical Design Conditions Specify tube Ф and length. Also tube layout and pitch (clearance between tubes) should be given.Part I.4.2 Material of Construction Specify for fluids involved (only if special materials required). for U bundles or gas to gas exchangers which have 40 and 50 ft.

Part I.17: Gas Emissivity April 2004: 8-24 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .16: Absorption Efficiency of the Tube-banks Figure 8.Search Main Menu Figure 8.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .doc] .

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Figure 8.18: Overall Radiant Exchanger Factor

Figure 8.19: Tube Layouts

8.4.5

Performance Conditions

**Overall heat transfer coefficient and the fouling factors. These are generally left up to exchanger
**

supplier and checked by purchaser.

Listing in TEMA, given earlier, gives typical values for the fouling factor.

8.4.6

Process Conditions

**This is the main part of the specifications for purchaser.
**

Heat Transferred

The quantity of fluid flowing is determined from plant process balance. Heat to be transferred from

process balance, but modified for temperature limits, as discussed.

Pressure Drop

This is an economical consideration, pump capacity versus exchanger surface. (See GPSA Data

Book for calculations of actual drop). Here are some guidelines:

Normal Maximum Allowed

Exchanger

shell side

10 psi

tube side

10 psi

Coolers

as above

Condensers

shell condensing side

3 psi

tubes, cooling side

10 psi

shell side, boiling

1 psi

tubes side, condensing

1 psi

Reboilers

Chillers

same as reboilers

Air Coolers

**process side as above - air side, generally set velocity of air about
**

600 - 700 ft./min.

Fluid Location

Some general rules are:

In Shell:

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•

Boiling liquid.

•

Condensing liquid.

•

Cleanest of two fluids.

•

When no other considerations - hot fluid (handles expansion better).

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In Tube:

•

Dirty fluid.

•

High pressure fluid.

•

Condensing fluid when boiling a fluid.

•

Corrosive fluid.

•

When no other consideration — cold fluid.

Temperatures

These may be set by process balance but there are some special considerations:

Cooling with Water - Cooling water outlet temperature is set by scaling or corrosion conditions.

This should be calculated by the stability index - see pages 11-9 and 11-10 in the GPSA Data

Book. When this cannot be done do not go over 120°F (50°C). There is also an economic balance

on how much to cool with water and how to cool with other fluids.

Economic Temperature Approach - It is necessary to consider what is the economic temperature of

the other fluid in an exchanger. Let us consider separate types of heat exchanger equipment:

h)

**Condensers - a single component condensing; condenser temperature set by pressure of
**

system, no sub-cooling considered. Figure 8.20 below shows this.

**Figure 8.20: Single Component Condensing
**

a)

**Multi-Component - Condense to within 10°F (5°C) of cold fluid outlet temperature. No
**

crossovers considered. Also we need a condensing curve in this case. Generally consider

enthalpy of condensing i.e. for hydrocarbons use dewpoint at entrance to exchanger and

bubblepoint at exit from exchanger.

b)

**Water Exchangers - Can heat up water to point that scaling starts unless water is treated.
**

This is determined by stability index (Fig. 11-9 in GPSA Data Book). If no data, maximum

temperature 120°F (50°C)

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c)

**True Counter Current Exchangers - i.e. Gas to gas exchangers, double pipe exchangers. No
**

problem with cross-overs here. If flow of fluids is quite different and there is a large difference

in temperature at one end, approach can be brought to 10°F (5°C) at other end.

d)

Cross Flow Exchangers - Consider the flow in the exchanger shown in Figure 8.21.

**Figure 8.21: Crossflow Exchanger without Baffle
**

Without internal shell baffling T2 could not be less than t2 as there would be reverse of heat flow. If

horizontal baffling is used we now have better counter flow as shown in Figure 8.22.

**Figure 8.22: Crossflow Exchanger with Baffle
**

T2 can be less than t2. However you should be careful. Try to limit cross-over to less than 20°F

(11°C) in a single shell.

e)

**Reboilers, Chillers - If one fluid is at constant temperature and the other is varied, i.e. chillers,
**

steam heaters, etc., use 10°F (5°C) approach as shown in Figure 8.23.

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Figure 8.23: Chiller Temperature Curve

8.5

Heat Transfer to Buried Pipelines

**The problem of designing systems such as heater or hot water tracing systems is actually
**

calculating the loss of heat from the buried pipe and making sure the liquid flowing through it does

not cool to a temperature below the hydrate formation temperature of the fluid. The length of line

that can be used before reheating or how much the gas has to be heated can be calculated from

the following equations (34) and (35).

Equation 8-34

Q = UA

(T1 − t ) − (T2 − t )

ln

T1 − t

T2 − t

where:

U = the overall heat transfer coefficient for transfer from buried pipes to the ground.

A = area of transfer, i.e. pipe perimeter times its length.

T1 = the initial gas temperature.

T2 = the final gas temperature. The final temperature is some temperature above hydrate

point (usually about 5°F).

Q = the rate of heat transfer at steady flow rates BTU's/hr.

t = the ground temperature.

and

Q = WC P (T1 − T2 )

or using enthalpies as Cp are not readily available = W (H1 — H2)

Equation 8-35

Q = W (H 1 − H 2 )

where:

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**W = the rate of flow, lbs/hr.
**

Cp = the specific heat of gas.

T1 = as previously — initial gas temperature.

T2 = as previously — final gas temperature.

H1 = enthalpy of material at initial gas temperature.

H2 = enthalpy of material at final gas temperature.

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U's value, varies considerably with the soil conditions. The

table below gives some experimentally determined values.

**Table 8.4: Overall Heat Transfer to Ground
**

2

Soil

BTU/hr/ft /°F

2

(W/m /°C)

Clay and gravel

0.618

(3.51)

Shale and muskeg mix

0.500

(2.84)

Muskeg

**0.400 (after system
**

stabilized and muskeg

around pipe dried)

(2.27)

2.000 (Wet)

(11.30)

Silty gravel

0.600

(3.41)

Wet soil

1.500

(8.52)

**A good design value is 0.65 BTU/hr/ft2/°F (3.69 W/m2/°C).
**

If insulated pipe is used a design value of 0.15 BTU/hr/ft2/°F

(0.85 W/m/ft) for overall heat transfer coefficient can be used. Field tests show that the actual

values generally run a little lower than this (down to 0.10).

Example Problem 8.1

Calculate the area required for a rich to lean amine exchanger that is to heat the rich amine from

140°F to 210°F using lean amine at 255°F. The rich amine flow is 1700 US gpm and the lean

amine flow is 1600 US gpm. For simplification assume the properties of rich and lean amine are

the same, i.e. the specific gravity of the amine solution is 1.020 and the specific heat at average

conditions for both products is 0.95.

1. Find outlet temperature of lean amine.

1700(8.33) (1.020) (60) (.95) (210-140)

= 1600(8.33)(1.020)(60)(.95)(255-t)

t = 181°F

2. Find the log mean temperature

∆T =

**(255 − 210) − (181 − 140) = 43
**

ln

7.

45

41

**Find the heat duty (amount of heat to be transferred).
**

Q = 1700 (8.33)(1.020)(60)(0.95)(210-140) = 57,000,000 BTU

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8.

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**Find the area required
**

Q = UA∆T

A = Q/U∆T

Now U from NGPSA book Figure 8-6 on page 8-5 = 130.

A=

**57,000,000
**

130(43)

= 10,200 ft 2

Next let us go through a more detailed rating for this how this area would be determined in actual

practice. Here are some additional design conditions:

Allowable pressure drop, tube side

10 psi

Allowable pressure drop, shell side

10 psi

**We will plan to use an exchanger with ¾” OD tubes 20 ft. long, 14 BWG on a 1" square pitch. The
**

shell baffles will be spaced every 12". To illustrate the calculations we will used a 2 shell pass, 4

tube pass exchanger. Some additional physical properties of the amines are:

µ (viscosity in cp)

2

K (thermal cond.) BTU/hr/ft /°F/ft

Lean Amine Shell Side

Rich Amine Tube Side

0.38

0.5

0.312

0.312

**The assumed overall fouling factor will be 0.0030.
**

The method of solution is to assume a number of tubes and thus the area, then find the overall heat

transfer coefficient using the assumed number of tubes and then calculate the new area and see if

this comes close to the assumed area. The overall coefficient U is found from the equation:

1

1 1 D0

=

+

+R

U h0 hi Di

hO and hi are found from the curves on Fig. 8 and Fig. 9-7 of the GPSA Data Book. These curves

are based on the Sieder and Tate equation inside tubes:

0.8

⎛ DG ⎞ ⎛ C P µ ⎞

hi Di

= 0.027⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜

⎟

K

⎝ µ ⎠ ⎝ K ⎠

1

3

⎛ µ

⎜⎜

⎝ µW

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0.14

and by the Colburn equation for outside tubes:

⎛D G⎞

H 0 De

= 0.36⎜⎜ e ⎟⎟

K

⎝ µ ⎠

0.55

⎛ CP µ ⎞

⎜

⎟

⎝ K ⎠

1

3

⎛ µ

⎜⎜

⎝ µW

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0.14

These equations apply only over the turbulent flow range. Please note that the common symbols

have been used above. In the GPSA Data Book slightly different symbols are used. Since we

have a 2-4 exchanger we must correct the log mean temperature difference. This is done using the

Figure 8-3 on page 8-3 of the GPSA Data Book.

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P=

210 − 140

= 0.608

255 − 140

R=

255 − 181

= 1.051

210 − 140

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**∆T = F∆TLOG MEAN = 0.89(43) = 380 F
**

For a first try let us assume 700 tubes per pass. This gives an area of heat transfer of

700 (0.1963) (4) (20) = 11,000 ft2

Let us first find hi

G=

1700(8.33)(1.02 )(60)

= 182 lb / sec . ft 2

0.2679

700

144

**G is the mass velocity
**

Now use Figure 9-7 in the GPSA Data Book.

NR =

**DV 0.584(182 )
**

=

= 213

Z

0.5

J1 = 1400 from curve

⎛ h D ⎞⎛ CZ ⎞

1400 = ⎜ i i ⎟⎜

⎟

⎝ K ⎠⎝ K ⎠

−1

3

Z

ZW

⎛ z

Ignore viscosity correction ⎜⎜

⎝ zW

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0.14

CZ 0.95(0.5)

=

= 1.52

K

0.312

Solve for hi

1400 =

hi (0.584 ) 1

0.312 1.15

hi = 852

Let us try the new method given in the GPSA Data Book in Section 8 of that manual. Let us for

example calculate hi. Use water as reference fluid.

r 2 = fr1 = f (0.0009 )

⎛µ ⎞

f = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟

⎝ µ1 ⎠

⎛ µ2 ⎞

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ µ1 ⎠

0.47

0.47

⎛ K1 ⎞

⎜⎜

⎟⎟

⎝ K2 ⎠

0.67

⎛ 0.5 ⎞

=⎜

⎟

⎝ 0.764 ⎠

⎛ C P1 ⎞

⎜⎜

⎟⎟

⎝ CP2 ⎠

0.33

⎛ G1 ⎞

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ G2 ⎠

0.8

⎛ Di 2 ⎞

⎜⎜

⎟⎟

⎝ Di1 ⎠

0.2

0.47

= 0.819

**Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I
**

University of Calgary

Printed: 26 April 2004 - [Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology - Part I.doc]

April 2004: 8-31 (366)

75(181) = = 356 Z 0.67 ⎛ C P1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ C ⎝ P2 ⎠ ⎛ G1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ G2 ⎠ 0.38) = = 1.0 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0. ( ) 60 1 (12) 4 aS = = 1. Next let us find hO.09 )(1.8 in this section NS = D 0 Gm 0. Then Gm = 1600(8.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . First must find Gm across tubes.75(1.2 = 1.8 ⎛ 0.25) Find hO from Figure 8. ft 2 60(1. Find cross sectional area across which flow occurs.33)(1.8 ⎛ Di 2 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ D ⎝ i1 ⎠ ⎛ 0.Part I.0009 ) = 0.62 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 62 ⎠ = 1.35)(0.312 ⎠ ⎛ 1.Search ⎛ K1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ K2 ⎠ 0.0 r 2 = 0.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .02) = 181 lbs / sec .2 Main Menu 0.33 0.312) = 715 0.doc] .09 0.15 K 0.35 0.95 ⎠ ⎛ 265 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 182 ⎠ 0.016 0.819(1.15) April 2004: 8-32 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .25 1(144 ) Ignore longitudinal flow.358 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.016 )(1.33 = 1. (Shell ID )(Opening between tubes )(BaffleSpacing ) Pitch (144 ) aS = Let us assume a 60" shell ID (This is actually obtained by a tube count).312 h0 = 1800(0.0011 hi = 1 = 908 r This checks close enough with previous values of hi = 852.67 = 1.95(0.38 h D ⎛ CZ ⎞ J 0 = 1800 = 0 0 ⎜ ⎟ K ⎝ K ⎠ −1 3 CZ 0.

001 Brackish Water . Find jO = 2000 and hO = 878.003 .001 .006 .002 Minimum .001 . Schuylkill .004 . And Less Over 3 Ft. You should now check pressure drop in shell and tubes.284) + 0. Find new hi.001 .001 .003 Chicago Sanitary Canal .002 Untreated .002 .Search Main Menu We can now find U from the equation: 1 1 1 D0 1 1 (1.004 City of Well Water (i. Great Lakes) .008 Cooling Tower and Artificial Spray Pond River Water Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ./Sec.010 .004 .0030 = 0.002 . We will find it is OK.e.005 .0054 = + U 878 874 So U = 185 Area = 57.001 .005 .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .000 = 8160 ft 2 184(38) This is close enough.003 Delaware. 1 1 1 (1./Sec.002 .003 .284) + 0.000.0057 = + +R= + U h0 hi Di 715 852 So U=170 Now check again using 500 tubes. Water Velocity Ft.003 .004 .001 .003 .001 . And Less Over 3 Ft. 3 Ft. We have assumed a much smaller shell.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .002 Great Lakes .002 . This gives an area for heat transfer of 500(0.Part I.001 .400°F* 125°For Less Over 125°F Water Velocity Ft.002 .003 .001 . Sea Water .doc] April 2004: 8-33 (366) .0030 = 0.002 Treated Makeup . Table 8.003 East River and New York Bay .008 .1963) (4) (20) = 7850. 3 Ft.003 .002 . Find new Gm and new Ji factor (600 in this case) hi = 974 Similarly find hO.5: Fouling Factors Fouling Resistances for Water Temperature of Heating Medium Temperature of Water Types of Water Up to 240°F 240°F .002 Mississippi .002 .002 .001 .003 .

) .003 Hard (Over 15 grains/gal.0005 Exhaust Steam (oil bearing) .003 Fouling Resistances for Natural Gas-Gasoline Processing Streams Gases and Vapors April 2004: 8-34 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .002 Main Menu * Ratings in columns 3 and 4 are based on a temperature of the heating medium of 240° .005 Engine Jacket .0005 . Fouling Resistances for Industrial Fluids Oils Fuel Oil .001 Liquids Refrigerant .001 .002 Industrial Organic Heat Transfer Media .01 Engine Exhaust Gas .001 .001 .001 .001 Quench Oil .Part I.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .001 Solvent Vapors . these ratings should be modified accordingly.004 .doc] .002 .003 .005 .Search Muddy or Silty .01 Steam (nonoil bearing) .002 Compressed Air .0005 Fouling Resistances for Chemical Processing Streams Gases and Vapors Acid Gas .003 .001 Liquids MBA & DEA Solutions .001 Engine Lube Oil .001 Molten Heat Transfer Salts .002 . If the heating medium temperature is over 400°F and the cooling medium is known to scale.004 Gases and Vapors Manufactured Gas .0005 .400°F.002 DEG & TEG Solutions .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .001 .001 Caustic Solutions .002 Vegetable Oils .001 Refrigerant Vapors .002 Stable Side Draw and Bottom Product .001 Boiler Blowdown .002 .003 .001 Industrial Organic Heat Transfer Media .0005 Treated Boiler Feedwater .005 Transformer Oil .001 Distilled .002 .0005 .0005 .001 Stable Overhead Products .001 Hydraulic Fluid .

004 .001 Light Gas Oil . 4 Ft.003 Light Coker Gas Oil .002 Crude & Vacuum Liquids Crude Oil 0°F-199°F 200°F-299°F Velocity Ft.001 Overhead Products .005 .002 Salt * . and Over Under 2 Ft.004 . 300°F-499°F.003 . (Asterisk to apply to 200°F-299°F.004 300°F-499°F 500°F and Over Velocity Ft.005 Asphalt & Residuum .010 Cracking & Coking Unit Streams Overhead Vapors .002 Reformer Effluent .doc] April 2004: 8-35 (366) . and Over Dry .005 * Normally desalted below this temperature range. 4 Ft.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 4 Ft.005 . and Over Under 2 Ft. 2-4 Ft.002 .002 . Velocity Ft.001 Naptha & Light Distillates .001 Kerosene .002 Heavy Gas Oil . 2-4 Ft./sec./Sec.005 .003 .003 Light Liquid Products ./Sec. and Over Dry . Under 2 Ft. 500°F and over).004 Bottoms Slurry Oil (4½ ft.003 Salt * .002 Light Cycle Oil .Part I. 4 Ft.001 Fouling Resistances for Oil Reginery Streams Crude & Vacuum Unit Gases and Vapors Atmospheric Tower Overhead Vapors Light Naphthas .003 Heavy Fuel Oils .007 .006 .004 . 2-4 Ft. Gasoline .003 Heavy Coker Gas Oil .001 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 2-4 Ft.002 Heavy Cycle Oil .003 .006 . minimum) .002 Catalytic Reforming.001 Natural Gasoline & Liquefied Petroleum Gases .001 Main Menu Liquids Lean Oil ./Sec.002 .004 .Search Natural Gas . Velocity Ft. Hydrocracking & Hydrodesulfurization Streams Reformer Charge .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .002 .001 Vacuum Overhead Vapors ./Sec.002 .002 . Under 2 Ft.002 Rich Oil .003 .

doc] . April 2004: 8-36 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . b) ho outside tubes = 50 . The flue gas will enter the convection section at 900°F and exit at 450°F.002 Reboiler Streams .I.002 Main Menu ** Depending on charge characteristics and storage history.002 Recycle Gas .003 8.6 Example Problems Example Problem 8. Assumptions: a) hc for inside tubes = 120 .001 Hydrodesulfurization Charge & Effluent ** . Comp.50° A.001 Liquid Product 30° .001 Liquid Product over 50° A.000 BPD.P. It is planned to use the convection section of a fired heater for this service. .000 for any calculations.5 nC4 11.6 nC5 14. It is supplied to the plant as a liquid at 20. at 500 psia and saturated. charge resistance may be many times this value.5 C3 10. Assume 2"00 bare schedule 80 pipe is used.3 C6+ 21. d) Flow is single pass in the convection hydrocarbon section. Light Ends Processing Streams Overhead Vapors & Gases .Part I.002 Overhead Vapors . c) Use a Pk of 2.5 iC5 13.001 Absorption Oils . Mole % C2 20.001 Liquid Products .002 Alkylation Trace Acid Streams . . Determine the amount of square feet of convection section heat transfer surface required.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .I.2 The following mix is the feed to a substitute gas plant.P.1 It is necessary to vaporize the mix so that it can be fed to a desulphurize reactor which operates only in the vapour phase.5 iC4 8.Search Hydrocracker Charge & Effluent ** .

Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .000.000 BTU's/hr input. The tubes used in the condenser are ¾”. Also assume the fuel is pure methane and is fired with 20% excess air. The sketch below shows the system without the heat exchangers. Water from the Bow River is to be used. The heat transfer coefficient for turbulent water flow is 250 2o BTU's/hr ft2 °F.5 You are to design the heat exchange system for a simple absorption oil system. i.e. The water is fed to convection section at 200°F and 205 psia.3 BTU/lb/°F b) The flow of Boiler feed water is 15 USGM measured at 60°F.000 BTU's/hr.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .3 Determine the square feet of condensing surface required for totally condensing the following mixture from the top of a depentanizer.0 C6+ 14. Comp.75” OD and 0.88 BTU/lb/°F.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .584" ID. Data: a) The specific heat of flue gas is 0.Part I.Search e) Main Menu Use fouling factors . The specific heat of liquid water in range under consideration is 0. Example Problem 8.5 The condenser duty is 30.doc] April 2004: 8-37 (366) . The flue gases enter the convection section at 1500°F and leave at 500°F. The furnace is 80% efficient assuming fuel is measured as net heating value.000.5 nC5 45. The condensing film heat transfer coefficient is 225 BTU's/hr ft2 °F. Example Problem 8. c) The overall "U" for heat transfer is 20 BTU's/hr/ft2 of bare tube surface.0 iC5 35. The condenser operates at 100 psia. Assume that this water has a minimum fouling factor for river water.4 You are to determine the area of the convection tubes in a furnace in which the fluid in the tubes is Boiler feed water feeding a boiler that produces steam at 195 psia. 0. The furnace has a duty of 10. The water design inlet temperature is 60°F and the outlet temperature is 90°F. Mole % nC4 5. Example Problem 8.001 for both sides.

6 nC4 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .8 C3 2. Assume the following costs for exchangers (installed). 2 $/ft of surface Lean Oil Rich Oil 8 Lean Oil Propane 10 Lean Oil Water 7 Rich Oil Exhaust Steam 6 Rich Oil Fired Heater 30 Determine the exchangers to use in the circuit by the minimum installed costs for exchangers.2 nC5 1.doc] .2 iC4 0. Comp. Mole % C1 84. 700 API oil and is circulated at the rate of 250 US gpm.Search Main Menu The lean oil is a 140 MW.0 iC5 1.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . April 2004: 8-38 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . BTU/ft/sq.Part I./°F Lean Oil Rich Oil 80 Lean Oil Propane Refrigerant 110 Lean Oil Cooling Water 100 Rich Oil Exhaust Steam 130 Rich Oil Fired Heater 80 * (assumed "U") Assume Firebox equivalent temperature of 1000°F.8 Assume the following overall heat transfer coefficients. The exhaust steam available is 55 psig and saturated. Gas of the composition given below flows at a rate of 200 MMSCFD to the absorber.ft.0 C2 7. The cooling water available is at 60°F and can be raised to 90°F in the exchanger.

Part I.Search Main Menu For any calculations using "K" assume a Pk of 4000 and if needed assume lean oil has same "K" as decane. assume that the specific heat of lean oil over the whole range of temperature is 0. Assume that 5 wt % of the rich oil flashes when passing through the let down valve from the absorber and that the heat of flashing is 100 BTU/LB. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 8-39 (366) .65 BTU/LB/HR.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Also assume an 80% C3 absorption and essentially 100 C4+ absorption. For simplification.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .60 BTU/HR/LB and the specific heat of rich oil over the whole range of temperature and process conditions 0.

J. 5. 130. 30. Process Heat Transfer. Wimpress. p. Raeben. P. 19. Progress. April 8. Trans. 1980. Performance and Applications" Chemical Engineering Page 121. 133. Martin. A. Chemical Engineering p.68. A. 4. S. 2. 6. Hydrocarbon Processing.C. 26.doc] .P. 1936. P. Minton and R. 3. 69. 0. Petroleum Refiner. April 2004: 8-40 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Scancia and G. Green. 1429. Taborek. Vago and G.K. 65. Oct. New York. P. Theoditis "Heat Exchanger Types. 6. 1950. 1972. Tate. P. July 1969. Kern. P. 5.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association Inc.B. Vol. Colburn.Search Main Menu References 1. 1968. 2." Chemical Engineering Progress. 1970.Part I. Chemical Engineering. J. 105. 6. Ind. p. Slasser. P. Chemical Eng.Y. Lord. Knudson. Palen and J.P. 59. P. April 30. Chem. Feb. 29. 1980. AIChE.N. R.E. "Heat Exchanger Optimization. 115. 55. R. McGraw Hill. July 1972. Feb. Oct.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . P. P. Aioki. Sieder and G. "Heat Exchangers Materials of Construction". R. Picozzi "Heat Exchanger Specifying and Selecting" Chemical Engineering. Reading List 1. Oct. Petro Chem. and Chemical Eng. Goyal.N. R. 1970. 7. 8. 59. N. Jenson.J. 1980. Progress. J.Q. Ritter. 28. 6.. 9. B. C. E. T.R. & Eng. F. 6. 1933.W. 3. P. 7. Devore.E. Jan.. Fair.N. R. Oct. 96. Hydrocarbon Processing. No.G. Eng. 149. "How to Specify Heat Exchangers. "Guide Lines on Exchangers".. D." Chemical Engineering. 174. 1960. G. August 1985. 4.. 1963.J.

Introduction In handling natural gas and its associated products we are concerned with physical laws for the most part.0 9. The reaction is said to be at equilibrium when the rate of forward reaction Equation 9-4 A + B⇒C + D is occurring at the same rate as the reverse action Equation 9-5 C + D⇒ A + B Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The simplified equations representing this process are: Equation 9-1 H 2S + 3 O2 + SO2 + H 2O 2 Equation 9-2 SO2 + 2 H 2 S + 3S + 2 H 2O To get a better understanding of how this process works and how to design the reactor in which these reactions occur. there are chemical reactions taking place and in order to deal with these a knowledge of the chemical kinetics of the system is necessary.doc] April 2004: 9-1 (366) .2 Chemical Reactions Let's generalize and consider some simple chemical reactions.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Chemical kinetics is a study of the rates and mechanisms of reactions. • A preliminary discussion of the design of reaction vessels for chemical reactions.Part I.Search 9.1 Main Menu Chemical Kinetics • A review of the types of reactions. In the recovery of this product it is necessary to burn the H2S in the acid gases from the sweetening unit to form SO2 and to react the SO2 with the remaining H2S to form elemental sulphur. however. 9. For example: Equation 9-3 A + B⇔C + D The arrows here indicate a state of dynamic equilibrium.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . a study of the chemical reactions and the rates at which they occur is necessary. Occasionally. Good examples of reactions in which chemical kinetics should be considered are the reactions involved in the production of sulphur.

moles/litre while in the British Engineering units they are lb. As a result the forward reaction continues until all of the reactants are consumed. Equation 9-10 NaCl + AgNO3 → AgCl ↓ + NaNO3 A reaction also could be in the gaseous state and from which one of the products is readily condensed and removed from the reaction. The square bracket [ ] stands for "concentration of". Sulphur condenses out and the reaction tends towards completion.doc] . Applying this law to the above elementary reaction one may write: Equation 9-6 Rate (forward) = k1 [ A] [B ] and Equation 9-7 Rate (reverse) = k 2 [C ] [D ] When the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.Part I. This may happen if a product is a precipitate which settles out of solution or if a gas forms which boils out of a liquid.moles/cubic foot. the reactions continue) is achieved.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . From these values one can determine the change in free energy ∆F. the rate of the reverse reaction is reduced because of the lower concentration of this material in the rate equation. To determine whether a reaction will go under certain conditions we need to determine the free energy of each of the reactants and products under the proposed reaction conditions. system the units are gm.S. For example. the following reaction goes to completion in an aqueous solution.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . If during a reaction one of the products is removed from the system. Therefore Equation 9-8 k1 [ A][B ] = k 2 [C ][D ] or Equation 9-9 k1 [C ][D] = K equilibrium = k2 [A][B] The expression for the equilibrium constant K is normally written with the concentrations of the products in the numerator and those of the reactants in the denominator.Search Main Menu The law of Mass Action states that the rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the molecular concentrations of the reactants with each concentration raised to power equal to the number of molecules of each species participating in the process. In the C. This happens in the case of sulphur production.G. April 2004: 9-2 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .e. In the equilibrium expression developed above the quantities in the square brackets are given in molar concentrations. dynamic equilibrium (i.

However. Since the products are in the numerator of the expression. Desorption of the product from the surface.Search Main Menu ∆F = the sum of Free Energies of the Products . it means that Kequilibrium will be large. Equation 9-12 SO2 + 1 O2 2 ⎛ VO ⎞ → ⎜ 2 0 5 ⎟ → SO3 ⎝ 450 C ⎠ This reaction may be followed by hydration to yield sulphuric acid. HF is used as an acid catalyst. 2. in most gaseous reactions the catalyst is an adsorbent of one or more of the reactants and provides a site on which the reaction may take place. it means that the reaction has little tendency to go to give products and may have little chance of commercial success. V2O5 is used as a catalyst.3 Catalysis A catalyst may be defined as (a) a substance which causes a reaction to go under conditions at which it may not go in the absence of a catalyst or (b) a substance which increases the rate but is not consumed by the reaction. Diffusion into the pores of the catalyst. Both of these alternatives may occur.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Examples of a number of reactions which occur in the presence of catalysts are: 1.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . In this reaction natural clays and synthetic zeolites are used as catalysts. Diffusion of the products out of the pores.Part I. The mechanism of catalytic action is generally quite complex. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 9-3 (366) . lighter gasoline components are products. 4. The function of a catalyst is either (a) to increase the rate of a chemical reaction or (b) to increase a particular reaction to proceed in preference to another. 4. Adsorption of reactants onto the surface. There are many other examples. For gaseous catalytic reactions to occur. Many different catalysts are used in industry. 5. In the cracking of heavy hydrocarbons of petroleum. In the formation of SO3 from SO2 in air. By thermodynamics it is known that Equation 9-11 ∆F = − RT ln K equilibrium If the ∆F for the reaction is larger in a negative sense. 3. 7. In the alkylation of isobutylene with isobutane. this means that the reaction will go strongly to completion and is likely to be a good commercial reaction. 9. Diffusion from the exterior of the catalyst into the gas stream.the sum of Free Energies of the reactants. Diffusion of the reactant to the surface of the catalyst. If the value of Kequilibrium turns out to be very small. the following steps take place: 1. 3. Chemical reaction on the surface. 6. 2. In the production of sulphur as given by equation (2) Bauxite is the catalyst mostly used.

The energy of activation is always positive and must be supplied to the reactant molecules before they can form the intermediate complex which can then decompose to yield the products.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2). Figure 9. It is thought that the catalyst permits the reaction to go more easily by permitting intermediate complexes to form which have lower "energy of activation" that is observed when the reaction is performed in the absence of a catalyst.3. To understand "energy of activation" let us consider the following energy diagrams which describe what happens when (a) exothermic and (b) endothermic reactions occur (Figure 9.doc] .Search Main Menu Any one of these steps may actually control the catalytic rate.Part I.1 and Figure 9. The effect of a catalyst can be seen in Figure 9.1: Exothermic Reaction April 2004: 9-4 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The effect of a catalyst on a reaction is to reduce the height of the activation energy peak and thereby to permit the reaction to occur at lower temperatures.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I. Equation 9-13 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 9.Search Main Menu Figure 9.3: Effect of Catalyst on Reaction Rate Figure 9.doc] April 2004: 9-5 (366) .3 is for a reaction in which the equilibrium constant becomes less favorable as the temperature is increased.2: Endothermic Reaction Figure 9.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .4 Reaction Rates Reaction rate is equal to the change in the concentration of a reactant or product with time.

April 2004: 9-6 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . (b) the temperature.Part I. then the powers “a" and "b" are the coefficients of A and B in the equation. then the powers “a''and "b '' need not be the same as the coefficients of the stoichiometric equation. (c) the presence of catalysts and sometimes (d) diffusional or mass transfer processes.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . If the reaction does not occur as this equation suggests.1 Classification of Reactions 9.2 The Order of a Reaction Consider the rate equation in which "r" is the rate Equation 9-14 r = kC Aa C Bb CA and CB are the concentrations of the reactants A and B. The "overall order" of the reaction = a + b.4.4.Search Rate = Main Menu dc dt The rate is affected by (a) the concentration of the reactants. if it is "elementary". The power "a" and "b" give the order of the reaction with respect to A and B. If the reaction goes as indicated by the equation Equation 9-15 aA + bB → products that is. The proportionality constant "k" is also known as the "specific rate constant".[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 9.doc] .

experimental work is required. Consider the equation Equation 9-16 A→R+S where: rate "r" = kCA or Equation 9-17 − dC A = kC A dt Here the negative sign means that the concentration of CA is decreasing as the time "t" increases. However.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 3 or fractional.4: Concentration Vs Time Equation 9-19 − ln CA = kt C A0 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu In order to determine the values of "a" and "b" in the kinetic rate expression. Plots of some function of the concentration of the reactants are made versus time until a mathematical model is obtained which fits the data in the form of a straight line. If one plots CA versus "t" a curve as indicated in the sketch is obtained (Figure 9. The order of a reaction may be 0.4). 2.Part I. 1. if the equation is integrated thus: Equation 9-18 t dC A = k ∫ dt CA0 C 0 A −∫ CA one obtains: Figure 9. Such a curve does not reveal much.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 9-7 (366) .

Consider the reaction Equation 9-21 A + B → 2P Let w and y be the concentrations of A and B initially. Figure 9. then at time t Equation 9-22 CA = w − x Equation 9-23 CB = y − x Upon integration by parts it can be shown that Equation 9-24 April 2004: 9-8 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . a straight line of slope equal to k is obtained when a first order reaction is being studied.5: First Order Reaction Proof that one is dealing with a first order reaction is provided if a straight line plot of the data is obtained.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu which may be rewritten as Equation 9-20 ln C A = −kt + ln C A0 and which is in the form of a linear equation y = mx + b. For a second order reaction it is desirable to change the form of the expression and to let x be the number of moles of A or B converted.Part I. If one plots lnCA versus t.doc] .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Figure 9. There are other methods for handling third order and fractional order reactions.5.7: Batch Reactor Semi-Batch In semi-batch operation the reactants are fed and allowed to react for a set time. the reaction takes place and then the products are separated upon completion of the reaction.6: Second Order Reaction Again the slope of the straight line yields the value of the rate constant k.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .Part I. When a catalytic reaction is involved.1 Types of Reactors Simple Batch In the batch operation the reactants are loaded into the reactor initially. 9.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .5 Reactor Process Design 9. Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Figure 9. the design work becomes complicated because you do not know which step controls. Pilot plant work is needed to determine experimentally which of the several possible controlling factors actually controls. it may be concluded that the reaction is second order.doc] April 2004: 9-9 (366) .Search Main Menu 1 y (w − x ) ln = kt w − y w( y − x ) If the left hand side is plotted versus time and a straight line results.

/hr (kg/hr or m3/hr). In reactor design work the terms VR W and are often used.ft. Feed is introduced and product removed continuously. F = flow rate in lbs/hr or cu. W = weight of catalyst.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . April 2004: 9-10 (366) F F and is called "space velocity". VR W Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 9. F F where: VR = volume of the reactor.10: Plug Flow Reactor This is essentially a pipe or tubular reactor.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .8: Semi-Batch Reactor Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors Figure 9.9: Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Feed is introduced and product taken of f continuously with this type of reactor. The inverse of these terms. Most larger industrial processes are performed in continuous reactors whether the reaction is homogeneous or heterogeneous. Plug Flow Reactor Figure 9.doc] .

the reactor must be large to get much throughput. If a low space velocity is required.11: Flow Reactor .Search Main Menu where: F = lbs feed/(hr)/(cu. of reactor volume) or can be CF of flow/CF of Reactor Volume VR generally work out to be reciprocal hour as shown next or in the equivalent metric units of flow and volume.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . FAO = Feed of A / hr Figure 9.Fractional Conversion Disappearance of A in the reaction section is Equation 9-25 − rA dv = 9.doc] April 2004: 9-11 (366) . F 1 = lbs feed/(hr) (lb of catalyst) = W hr If laboratory work indicates that a high space velocity is permissible it means that a smaller plant scale reactor may be used. since (1-XA) is the unconverted fraction Equation 9-27 FA = FA0 (1 − X A ) Equation 9-28 dFA = d (FA0 (1 − X A )) = − FA0 dX A Therefore Equation 9-29 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .ft. Let us consider a flow reactor and develop an equation for use in design.Part I.5.2 moles of A reacting x volume of fluid in segment considered (time )(volume of reacting fluid ) Material Balance Input = Output + disappearance by reaction Equation 9-26 FA = (FA + dFA ) + (− rA )dv Now.

rA .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . FAO = the feed rate in lbs/hr or cu. April 2004: 9-12 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . -rA = the reaction rate which is a function of the reactant concentrations. and the reaction rate. Knowing the conversion required.doc] . rA . as shown below.Search Main Menu FA0 dX A = (− rA )dv This equation accounts for the small fraction of A converted in the section dv of the reactor./hr etc.Part I. is not known. Sometimes the reaction rate. one can calculate the volume of reactor or the weight of catalyst required. Rearranging the equation and integrating: Equation 9-30 VR X Af dX dv = ∫0 FA0 ∫X A0 − rAA Equation 9-31 VR = FA0 X Af ∫ X A0 dX A − rA the design equation. For catalytic reactors the design equation becomes: Equation 9-32 W = FA0 X Af ∫ X A0 dX A − rA where: W = the weight of the catalyst used. VR = the reactor volume.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .ft. where: X = the fractional conversion of the feed. Instead of determining it you may plot conversion versus reciprocal space velocity. the feed rate.

Search Main Menu Figure 9.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . S6. S8.6 Sulphur Plants This has been an elementary treatise on reaction kinetics.Part I.12: Conversion Versus Reciprocal Space Velocity From the curve for a specific conversion X. S2.ft. 9.) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . are most e prominent. For example. This is based cu.e. In common reactions the space velocity has been determined. The reactions involved are: Reaction Furnace Equation 9-33 H 2 S + 3 O2 → H 2O + SO2 2 ∆H = −124 to 138 kcal Reactor Equation 9-34 2 H 2 S + SO2 → 2 H 2O + 3 S e e ∆H = −21 to − 35 kcal The term 3 S e is used because of the many forms of S in the vapour (i. catalyst on the total volume of gas feed to the reactor.ft. for sulphur production the common value of space velocities used are 700 to 900 cu. one can calculate VR or W for a given feed rate F.doc] April 2004: 9-13 (366) ./hr of flow or 1/hr.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Let's follow through the design of a sulphur plant reaction system to see the considerations that are involved in the design of such a system.

There is some elemental sulphur formed by free flame conversion in the waste heat boiler. Figure 9.14: 1st Converter in a Sulphur Plant Cool the gases from the reactor in a sulphur condenser. The equilibrium reaction of (2) above is favoured at low temperatures 400°F to 500°F (205°C to 260°C) 2. (218°C) 4. Some of the problems are: 1.according to equations (33). Figure 9.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Reheat the gases to about 450°F (232°C) and send to #1 converter. 3. then cool the effluent gases through a waste heat recovery boiler and a sulphur condenser as shown in the figure below.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . The reaction equilibrium can be shifted to the right by removing one of the products. therefore we must keep reaction above a dewpoint of 350°F. Partially burn the H2S .Part I. (176°C).13: Start of a Sulphur Plant 2. There is considerable heat evolved from the reaction. Again reheat to 440°F (225°C) and send to the next converter.Search Main Menu The design of a reaction system of this process is quite complex. 3. The condensation of liquid sulphur on the catalyst poisons it. 5. Therefore the process has evolved as follows: 1. April 2004: 9-14 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . Generally the temperature is kept above 425°F.doc] .

Example Problem 9. additional converters are often put in.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .ft. Which system will give the greater % conversion? • Assume complete removal of the sulphur after each converter.15: 2nd Converter in a Sulphur Plant 4.00 80 1. Determine whether the two reactors sized for space velocities of 600 cu. • Assume that the % H2S on the Y axis is based on the H2S present in the feed to each reactor. Considerable amounts of it can be made by isomerizing n pentane.2 Isopentane is a very desirable high octane blending stock.7 Example Problems Example Problem 9. Below is listed the conversion data.00 70 2. Normally the two converters are sized for the appropriate space velocity and the third is a backup. of catalyst. The condensers and reheaters are sized by common heat transfer calculations. per hour/cu.00 95 0.82 lbs/hr of feed lbs of Catalyst Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .Search Main Menu Figure 9.Part I.ft.doc] April 2004: 9-15 (366) .00 30 10. The converters are sized by allowable space velocity. 9.ft. of catalyst or three reactors sized for space velocities of 1000 cu. Mole % Converted of nC5 iC5 Space Velocity 10 20. If further conversion is desired a further reheat and catalytic conversion step is carried out. per hour/cu.00 50 4. This process occurs by passing the n pentane through a reactor filled with a platinum catalyst.1 The graph attached shows the conversion of H2S to element sulphur versus the reciprocal space velocity at specific pressure and at specific temperature range.17 90 1.42 85 1. Because of governmental regulations on sulphur recoveries and discharges to the atmosphere.ft.

• For ease in calculation assume that both iso and normal pentane have a density of 5. April 2004: 9-16 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .00/lb of catalyst needed.Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . Determine which scheme you would use based on the lowest capital cost.Search Main Menu The production of n pentane is 5000 B/D and it is wished to produce an isopentane product containing 90 mole % iC5.doc] . • Assume product leaving the pentane splitter is fractionated so as to produce a 90% iC5 10% nC5 stream and that the bottoms is a stream containing 90% nC5 and 10% iC5. • Pentane splitter 60¢/lb of feed/hr to it. • Assume that the reaction gives a yield of a volume product for a volume feed and that it occurs in the liquid phase. Two possible schemes are proposed.Part I. Data • Reactor installed cost $5.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .2 lbs/US gallon.

Part I.Search Main Menu Figure 9.16: H2S Converted to S Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .doc] April 2004: 9-17 (366) .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .

Part I List of Key Terms List of Example Problems List of Equations Reference of Key Equations .Search Main Menu Appendix 1.0 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .

...................................................................................................................................................................1-8 Total Sulphur .1-7 Water Content .......................................................................................................1-6 n Butane (nC4H10 or nC4) .............................................................................................................................................................Part I...........................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ....1-6 Isobutane (iC1......1-5 Nitrogen (N2) .........1-8 Delivery Pressure .............................1-12 Sulphur .........................1-5 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) ..........................................1-3 Cyclic or Ring Hydrocarbons.....................................................................................................................................................................................................1-6 Ethane (C2H6 or C2).......................................................................................................................................................1-4 Nonhydrocarbon Components ..............................methyl mercaptan or C2H5SH ...........................................1-4 Aromatic hydrocarbons .....................................................1-5 Methane (CH4 or C1) .....................................1-12 Enthalpy or Heat Capacity......................................1-8 Mercaptan Content.............................................................................................................................2-20 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-3 Naphthenic hydrocarbons .....................................................................................................................1-6 Pentanes and Heavier (C5H12 or C5 or heavier) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................1-8 Ethane .............1-8 CO2 Content ..........................................................1-8 H2S Content .............................................................................1-12 Pentanes .............................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .....................doc] April 2004: A ..........................................................................Search Main Menu List of Key Terms Aliphatic or Chain Hydrocarbons.....................................................................................1-5 Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) ......................................................................................1-8 Delivery Temperature.....................................................1-6 Propane (C3H8 or C3)........................................................1-2 Olefin hydrocarbons ...........1-7 Hydrocarbon Dewpoint......................................................................................1-8 O2 Content..............................................................1-5 Carbonyl Sulphide (COS)..............................1-6 Heating Value............1-6 Mercaptans (CH3SH ......................................................................................................~H10 or iC4) .......................................................................ethyl mercaptan) ........................................19 (366) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-4 Methyl Mercaptan and Ethyl Mercaptan.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...........20 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-9 "K" Data by the Chao-Seader Method .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-12 Method of Haddon and Grayson................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6-15 April 2004: A ................................................................................................................ 4-8 Method of Lenoir and White..................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................................................................................................................... 6-7 Transition Range......................................................................................................... 2-22 Total Enthalpy Charts .............................................................................................................................................."S" ................................................. 6-13 Control Valves........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6-7 Turbulent Flow ............... 4-15 Dewpoint ...... 4-13 "K" Data by the Peng Robinson Equation ............................................................................................................................ 3-1 Bubble Point..................................................................doc] ...... 6-15 Adiabatic Flow....................................................................................................................... 5-3 Method of Wichert.......................................................................................................... 3-1 Solid ..................... 6-2 Viscosity..................................................................... 4-14 "K" Data by the Prausnitz-Chueh Correlation ................................................. 2-24 Curl and Pitzer Method ............................................... 5-3 Density ........................................ 2-24 Gases............................................................................................................................................................................................Search Main Menu Latent Heat ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-2 Reynolds Number ....................................................... 6-15 Isothermal flow................................... 4-13 "K" Data by the Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation (Starling Modification).......................................................... 2-21 Specific Heats ............................................... 4-11 "K" Data by the Soave Redlich Kwong Equation18 ................ 2-22 Free Energy ..................................... 4-8 Method of Winn................................................................................................... 2-22 Entropy ............................ 3-1 Liquid ................................................................................................................................. 3-12 Dew Point.............................. 4-19 Sweet Gas (Hydrocarbons Only) ............. 6-3 Laminar Flow ....................................................................Part I...................................................................... 6-7 Suggested Allowable Velocities or Pressure Drops in Process Plants ..................... 4-17 Vapour Liquid Calculations ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ................................ 4-17 Bubble Point Calculation................... 5-3 Gas Containing Significant Amounts of Non-Hydrocarbons ....

............................................................................7-17 Limits of Satisfactory Tray Operation for a Specific Set of Tray Fluid Properties.................................................................................................................6-52 Venturi Meters ..............6-30 Stratified Flow...........................................(DUMPED PACKING) .............................6-56 Stages and the Ideal Stages ......................6-24 Froth or Bubble Flow .................................................7-25 Double Pipe Exchanger....................................................................................................................7-1 Continuous Transfer................................................................................................................................................................6-38 Orifice Meter Installations...............doc] April 2004: A ........................................21 (366) .............................6-52 Flow Tube...........................................................6-23 Upstream and Downstream Pressures ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-24 Definition of Parameters and Units....................................7-21 Packing Factors (Fp) ..6-30 Flanigan Efficiency Factor for Metric Units.............................................................................7-3 Flow Through Vapor Passages .....................................................8-3 Effect of Fouling ...........................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-17 Valve Trays ...............................................................................................................................................................6-52 Turbine Meters ........................................................8-25 Fluid Location ..................................................................................................6-52 Liquid Meters.........................................8-3 Shell and Tube Exchanger ...................................................................................................................6-56 NPSH .........................................................................................................................................Search Main Menu Capacity .................................................................6-30 Plug Flow..........................6-56 Head........................................................................................................................................................................................................................8-25 Pressure Drop ............................................................................7-2 Batch Transfer..........................................................................................................................................................6-30 Annular Flow .................................6-30 Slug Flow......7-18 Typical Packed Tower Layout and Common Packing Types .................................................................................................................................................................................6-52 Area Meters................................................................................................................................................8-25 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................................................Part I............................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-23 Diameter......6-53 Capacity ................8-14 Heat Transferred ........................................................................................................7-17 Top Two Trays of a Bubble-cap Column..........................................................................................................6-52 Volume Meters .........................

.......................................8........................................................................5........................................................................................... 5-3 Example Problem 5......................................4.............................................................. 6-60 Example Problem 6.....................................................................................2................ 4-22 Example Problem 4.......................................... 2-25 Example Problem 4...... 6-60 April 2004: A ...................................3.............................................................. 6-59 Example Problem 6........................................1................................................................................................ 4-18 Example Problem 4.................................................................4...................................... 2-7 Example Problem 2. 4-23 Example Problem 4................... 4-22 Example Problem 4..................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Example Problem 5...............6............................................. 9-10 Plug Flow Reactor........................................22 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .................................3....................Part I............................................................................................... 6-58 Example Problem 6.........................................................................................2......................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ............................................................................6.......................................................................................................................................................................7........................1.... 5-18 Example Problem 6................................. 4-23 Example Problem 5................. 4-21 Example Problem 4.................................................................................................................................................................................................Search Main Menu Temperatures................................................................................................................................................... 9-10 Reaction Furnace.................................. 5-17 Example Problem 5..................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......6...................................2..............................................................................................doc] .....................................5..................................... 6-43 Example Problem 6............................................................... 9-9 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors..... 4-18 Example Problem 4................................................................................................................................................................. 9-13 Reactor .............................. 9-13 List of Example Problems Example Problem 2.................... 5-15 Example Problem 5..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5................................ 5-16 Example Problem 5...................................................................................................................................................................................1........................................................................................... 5-14 Example Problem 5...................................................................................................... 6-57 Example Problem 6........... 6-59 Example Problem 6.......................................................................................7...7........ 8-26 Simple Batch..................................................1.................................................................................................................................................................3......................................................... 9-9 Semi-Batch .............................4............. 6-14 Example Problem 6..........................................2..

.................................................................................................2 ............................2-2 Equation 2-4 .............................8-29 Example Problem 8......................................2-5 Equation 2-8 ................................................................................................................................................................2-5 Equation 2-11 .2-2 Equation 2-3 ....................................................2-6 Equation 2-14 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-7 Equation 1-2 ..........2-2 Equation 2-5 ..................................................8-37 Example Problem 9.......................................6-60 Example Problem 7..............................................1-9 Equation 2-1 ......................................2-5 Equation 2-10 ...................doc] April 2004: A ...............................................................7-67 Example Problem 8..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-2 Equation 2-2 ....................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ........................................................................................Search Main Menu Example Problem 6........................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..................7-64 Example Problem 7..............................................3 .................1 ................................4 .....8-37 Example Problem 8................................................................................................2-3 Equation 2-6 ............................................................23 (366) .............................7-65 Example Problem 7...............................................................2-6 Equation 2-12 .................7-49 Example Problem 7.........2-6 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .....5 ........2 ....................................................................................................................7 ..................................................................................................................2-6 Equation 2-13 ...........9-15 List of Equations Equation 1-1 ..................................................................................................8-37 Example Problem 8....................................................................................................................................................................................................................8-36 Example Problem 8.....................................................................2-4 Equation 2-7 ...................................5 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................3 ..............7-66 Example Problem 7...............................1 .............................................................................................................................................................................................2 ........................7-60 Example Problem 7..................................................................................................................1 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 .........................4 ....Part I............................................................................9-15 Example Problem 9..........................7-65 Example Problem 7............................................2-5 Equation 2-9 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 ..................

...................................................... 2-11 Equation 2-22................................ 2-29 Equation 2-45.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..................................................... 2-28 Equation 2-44.............................................................................................................................................. 2-29 Equation 2-46.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-20 Equation 2-33.......................doc] .. 2-18 Equation 2-31................................................................................................................................................................... 2-22 Equation 2-36........................................................................................... 2-22 Equation 2-35.....................................................................................................................................Part I....... 2-11 Equation 2-26....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-6 April 2004: A .................................................................... 2-8 Equation 2-18.............. 2-23 Equation 2-39...... 2-24 Equation 2-41..................................................................................................................................... 2-24 Equation 2-42............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-1 Equation 3-2................. 2-12 Equation 2-29.......................................................... 2-6 Equation 2-16..................................... 2-24 Equation 2-43......................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................................................... 2-29 Equation 2-47................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-23 Equation 2-40........................................... 2-7 Equation 2-17...... 2-12 Equation 2-30........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-11 Equation 2-24............................................ 2-22 Equation 2-37.................................................................................. 2-36 Equation 3-1........................... 2-21 Equation 2-34........................................................................................................................................ 2-11 Equation 2-25............................................. 2-12 Equation 2-27................................................................ 2-11 Equation 2-23............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-12 Equation 2-28............... 2-9 Equation 2-21........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-8 Equation 2-19.......................Search Main Menu Equation 2-15........... 2-20 Equation 2-32..... 2-9 Equation 2-20...................................................................24 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............................................................................................................. 2-22 Equation 2-38...............................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I.......................................................................4-11 Equation 4-21 ......................4-13 Equation 4-31 .......................................25 (366) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-13 Equation 4-33 ...........................................................................................................4-3 Equation 4-12 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-3 Equation 4-11 ...............................................................................................................4-11 Equation 4-20 .......................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ..............................4-3 Equation 4-13 .....................................................................................4-15 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..............................................................................................................Search Main Menu Equation 4-1 .............................................................................................4-2 Equation 4-8 ....................................................................4-3 Equation 4-9 .........................4-7 Equation 4-17 ................4-2 Equation 4-3 .............................................................4-6 Equation 4-14 .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-7 Equation 4-19 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-1 Equation 4-2 .........................................................................................4-2 Equation 4-4 ................................................................................................................................................................................................4-2 Equation 4-6 .........4-13 Equation 4-32 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ................................................................4-12 Equation 4-26 ...........................................................4-11 Equation 4-23 ....................................................4-14 Equation 4-35 ............................................................................................................................................4-7 Equation 4-16 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-7 Equation 4-15 .....................................................4-2 Equation 4-5 ..............................................................4-2 Equation 4-7 ...........4-12 Equation 4-28 .....................................................4-7 Equation 4-18 ...................................4-11 Equation 4-24 ............................................................................................................................................................................................4-11 Equation 4-25 ......................................................................................................................................................................4-12 Equation 4-27 ........................................................................................4-12 Equation 4-30 ......................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..4-3 Equation 4-10 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-12 Equation 4-29 .........................................4-13 Equation 4-34: ................4-11 Equation 4-22 ..............................................................

............................................................................................... 4-20 Equation 4-50............................................................................................................. 5-7 Equation 5-3..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I... 4-20 Equation 4-47......... 4-20 Equation 4-48.......................................................... 6-5 Equation 6-5...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-18 Equation 4-41............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-7 Equation 6-14............................ 6-6 Equation 6-10........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4-20 Equation 4-46...............................................Search Main Menu Equation 4-36... 6-10 April 2004: A ............................................................................................................. 6-6 Equation 6-12......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-20 Equation 4-45................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4-17 Equation 4-40...................... 4-18 Equation 4-42.......... 5-3 Equation 5-2.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-20 Equation 4-44...................................................... 6-5 Equation 6-8....................................................................................................................................................................... 4-21 Equation 5-1............................................. 6-9 Equation 6-15.................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..............................doc] .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-17 Equation 4-39.................................................................... 5-10 Equation 5-4............................................. 6-5 Equation 6-9.................................................................................... 4-15 Equation 4-37........................ 4-17 Equation 4-38.............................................................................................................................................................................. 6-6 Equation 6-11................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-20 Equation 4-49............................................................................................................. 4-18 Equation 4-43.................................................. 6-4 Equation 6-4................................................................................. 5-14 Equation 6-1....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Equation 6-6.............................................................................26 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-10 Equation 5-5... 6-6 Equation 6-13.......................... 6-2 Equation 6-2....................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .............................. 6-3 Equation 6-3...... 6-5 Equation 6-7....................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-30 Equation 6-49 ......................................................................................................................................6-16 Equation 6-19 ...................................................Search Main Menu Equation 6-16 ...................................................................................................................................................6-23 Equation 6-41 ............................................................................6-16 Equation 6-25 .................................................6-18 Equation 6-31 ..............................................................................................................6-17 Equation 6-27 .......6-16 Equation 6-23 .........................................................................................6-25 Equation 6-42 ..................................................................................................................................................................................6-28 Equation 6-45 ...............................................6-19 Equation 6-38 ....................................6-25 Equation 6-43 .....................................................................................................................................................................................Part I........6-16 Equation 6-22 ................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ................6-28 Equation 6-44 ......................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..........6-16 Equation 6-26 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-16 Equation 6-21 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...............................................6-16 Equation 6-20 ...............................................................................................................6-19 Equation 6-37 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-22 Equation 6-40 .............................6-18 Equation 6-32 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................6-18 Equation 6-33 ..6-15 Equation 6-17 .....................................6-17 Equation 6-28 .....................................................................................................................6-30 Equation 6-50 .......................27 (366) ..........................6-29 Equation 6-47 ........6-15 Equation 6-18 ........6-19 Equation 6-36 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-19 Equation 6-35 .................................................................................................................................................................6-16 Equation 6-24 ....................................................................................6-30 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .................................................6-19 Equation 6-34 .............................................6-17 Equation 6-30 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-17 Equation 6-29 .........................................................................................................................................................6-20 Equation 6-39 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-30 Equation 6-48 ...............................................................................................................................................................6-28 Equation 6-46 ..................................................................................

..... 7-5 Equation 7-6...............................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-8 Equation 7-17.......................................................... 7-5 Equation 7-8............................................................................................................................................................................. 6-49 Equation 6-58............................................................................................................. 7-6 Equation 7-9......................................................................................... 7-8 Equation 7-15........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6-30 Equation 6-52................................................................. 7-6 Equation 7-11........................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................................... 7-5 Equation 7-7......................................................................................................................................Search Main Menu Equation 6-51........................ 7-6 Equation 7-13..........................................................................................................................................................................Part I... 7-4 Equation 7-5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-58 Equation 7-1...................................................................................................... 7-9 Equation 7-21......................... 7-8 Equation 7-16............................................................................................................................................ 6-42 Equation 6-56........................................................................... 6-50 Equation 6-60..............................................................doc] ........................................................................................................................ 7-8 Equation 7-14........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-4 Equation 7-4............ 6-49 Equation 6-59........................................................................... 6-57 Equation 6-62............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-6 Equation 7-10........................................................................................................ 6-50 Equation 6-61........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-2 Equation 7-2................................................................................................................................................. 6-42 Equation 6-57......................................................... 6-31 Equation 6-53.. 7-6 Equation 7-12........................ 6-31 Equation 6-54........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-10 April 2004: A .............. 7-9 Equation 7-19................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-9 Equation 7-20................................................................. 6-41 Equation 6-55........................... 7-2 Equation 7-3....................................................................................................... 7-9 ..................................... 7-8 Equation 7-18........28 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................7-27 Equation 7-39 ...............................................................................................................................................7-33 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..................................................................7-11 Equation 7-28 ................................................................................................................................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ...................................................................................................................................................................................7-29 Equation 7-42 .............[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ........................................................................................................................................................7-29 Equation 7-44 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-19 Equation 7-34 .....................................................................................................................................7-27 Equation 7-38 ..........7-32 Equation 7-56 ...................................................7-10 Equation 7-24 .7-12 Equation 7-30 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................7-31 Equation 7-52 ...................................................................29 (366) .......................................................................................7-20 Equation 7-35 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................7-30 Equation 7-50 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-27 Equation 7-41 .........................................................................7-12 Equation 7-31 .......................................................................................7-10 Equation 7-23 ............7-30 Equation 7-46 ..................................................................................................................................................................7-32 Equation 7-55 ..................................................................................7-31 Equation 7-53 ...................................................................................................................................................................................7-11 Equation 7-26 .................................................7-24 Equation 7-37 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-12 Equation 7-29 ...............................................................................................................Part I............7-27 Equation 7-40 .......................................................................................................7-30 Equation 7-49 ......................................................Search Main Menu Equation 7-22 ........................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .......................................7-13 Equation 7-33 ...............................................................................7-23 Equation 7-36 ...............................................................7-29 Equation 7-45 .7-30 Equation 7-47 ....................................................................................................................7-30 Equation 7-48 ....7-31 Equation 7-51 ......................................................................................................7-13 Equation 7-32 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-10 Equation 7-25 ................................7-29 Equation 7-43 .................................7-31 Equation 7-54 ........................................................7-11 Equation 7-27 .......................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-49 Equation 7-86................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-55 April 2004: A ................. 7-39 Equation 7-77.... 7-45 Equation 7-81...................................... 7-49 Equation 7-83.............................................................................................................................................................Part I........................................................................................................................................... 7-36 Equation 7-60.............................................................................................................. 7-39 Equation 7-75........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-36 Equation 7-61.................................................................................... 7-38 Equation 7-67....................... 7-50 Equation 7-87..................................... 7-38 Equation 7-71......................... 7-45 Equation 7-78................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-39 Equation 7-76...................................................................................................................... 7-38 Equation 7-69...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................doc] .................................................... 7-37 Equation 7-64.........................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..................................................................................................... 7-36 Equation 7-62............. 7-45 Equation 7-80....................................................................................................................................................................... 7-38 Equation 7-68........................ 7-45 Equation 7-79...... 7-38 Equation 7-72..........................................30 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............................................................................................................ 7-49 Equation 7-84.................................................................. 7-38 Equation 7-70............................................................. 7-39 Equation 7-74................................................................ 7-55 Equation 7-91................................. 7-54 Equation 7-90............................................................................................................................. 7-36 Equation 7-59... 7-38 Equation 7-66.....................................................................................Search Main Menu Equation 7-57.................................................................................................................................... 7-38 Equation 7-73... 7-49 Equation 7-85........................................................................................................................................................ 7-52 Equation 7-88........ 7-53 Equation 7-89................. 7-47 Equation 7-82.............................................................................................................................................. 7-37 Equation 7-63............................................................................................. 7-36 Equation 7-58............... 7-37 Equation 7-65.............................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................8-3 Equation 8-6 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-56 Equation 7-94 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-59 Equation 7-106 ....................................................................................8-2 Equation 8-5 ..............8-11 Equation 8-16 .................................................................7-56 Equation 7-96 ...............................................................8-8 Equation 8-8 .........................................................8-13 Equation 8-18 ...........................7-56 Equation 7-100 ...........................................................................................7-56 Equation 7-95 ......................8-7 Equation 8-7 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ..................................................................8-1 Equation 8-2 ...........................8-16 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......................................................................Search Main Menu Equation 7-92 .................................8-2 Equation 8-4 .......................................................................................................................................................8-10 Equation 8-12 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-57 Equation 7-102 .........................................................................8-12 Equation 8-17 ..................................................................8-9 Equation 8-11 .........................................................7-59 Equation 7-104 ..............................................7-57 Equation 7-101 ......................7-59 Equation 7-103 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 (366) ...........................7-56 Equation 7-98 ................................................................................................................7-59 Equation 7-105 ....................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .....................................................7-56 Equation 7-99 ......................................................................................................................................................................................8-10 Equation 8-13 ........................................................................................................8-1 Equation 8-3 .....................8-15 Equation 8-19 ...................................................................................................................................7-55 Equation 7-93 ..............................................................................................................8-15 Equation 8-20 ......................................................................8-8 Equation 8-10 ....................................................................................8-10 Equation 8-14 ..............................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ....................................7-62 Equation 8-1 ....8-8 Equation 8-9 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................8-11 Equation 8-15 .........................7-56 Equation 7-97 ..............................................................................................................................................Part I..........

......... 9-7 Equation 9-20............................................................................................................. 8-22 Equation 8-34...........Part I.................................................................................................................................................. 9-8 April 2004: A ....................................................................................................... 8-17 Equation 8-26................................................................. 9-5 Equation 9-14....................... 8-20 Equation 8-29.................... 9-7 Equation 9-18........... 9-1 Equation 9-6...... 8-28 Equation 8-35................................................................................ 8-16 Equation 8-22................................................................................................................................................................ 9-2 Equation 9-10................................................................................................................................................................... 9-6 Equation 9-15.................................................. 8-19 Equation 8-27.................................................................................................................................................... 9-7 Equation 9-17............................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ....................................................... 9-6 Equation 9-16............................................................................................... 9-2 Equation 9-9............Search Main Menu Equation 8-21........................................................................................................................................................... 8-21 Equation 8-31.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-3 Equation 9-12.................................................... 9-1 Equation 9-5. 8-17 Equation 8-24............................ 9-2 Equation 9-11...............................................................................................32 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................ 8-19 Equation 8-28.... 9-2 Equation 9-8....................................... 9-1 Equation 9-4................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-2 Equation 9-7................................................................. 8-28 Equation 9-1............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-20 Equation 8-30.............................................................................................................................................................................. 9-3 Equation 9-13...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-22 Equation 8-33......................................................................................................................................................................... 9-1 Equation 9-2.......... 8-21 Equation 8-32...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-17 Equation 8-25....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-16 Equation 8-23....................................................................................................... 9-7 Equation 9-19...................................................................................................................................................................... 9-1 Equation 9-3...................................................................................................................................................................doc] ...................................................

.........Search Main Menu Equation 9-21 ....................................................................................14 1000 32 100 0........................................................................1-10 100 379 2240 MMSCF 1................9-12 Equation 9-33 ........84 1000 0....................2-2 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......................................................32 LT 1............Part I................................................9-8 Equation 9-25 ...........................................................................................................................................................1-9 = 42 MMSCF = US Gallons 1................................................................................................................2-2 PV = ZRT .............................1-10 ⎜ ⎟ (10......................................................................................................9-13 Reference of Key Equations Wobbe No........................................................................................................................................................................................................................1-12 PV = RT ............................................................................................................................................................................0236 1000 H2S 2 H2S + 1 .............................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ............................... = Gross Heavy Value in BTU / SCF Specific Gravity .....1-10 → H 2O + SO 2 ........................................9-11 Equation 9-28 .1-7 0.....9-13 Equation 9-34 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................08684 = 0............33 (366) .............8BBls ........................................................................................................................1-12 → 2 H 2 O + 3 S ....................................9-8 Equation 9-23 ........[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................9-11 Equation 9-27 ..............................................................................................................................................................9-8 Equation 9-24 ...5 O 2 + SO 2 = 0.............................................................................................9-12 Equation 9-32 ...........................................................................9-11 Equation 9-26 ......................................................................................................................m.............................84 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ .............................08325 ..........................................9-11 Equation 9-30 .........................................54 100 ⎝ 379 ⎠ 1000 CF 2...........9-12 Equation 9-31 .................................................................413 (1000) 9.............................................................................84 10 6 32 = .................................................. ..........................................................................................9-8 Equation 9-22 ....................................42) = 0..........................................................6 1000 6..................doc] April 2004: A ......................................................................................................................................1-10 100 23...............9-11 Equation 9-29 ..................................06770 cu......................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-5 V − b V (V + b ) April 2004: A ......................................................................................................................................................... 2-4 i c 1 3 = ∑ xi ci 1 3 ................................................Search Main Menu a⎞ ⎛ ⎜ P + 2 ⎟(V − b) = RT .............................................................. 2-4 3 i ⎛ mij A0 = ∑ ∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 a 1 3 = ∑ xi a i 1 3 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ x i x j A0i 3 A0 j 2 ... 2-3 B0 = ∑ x i B0i ......................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................... 2-4 ⎟ ⎠ ............................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .................. 2-4 i ⎛ mij D0 = ∑ ∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 d 1 3 = ∑ xi d i 1 3 4 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ x i x j D0i 2 D0 j 2 ............................................doc] ) ... 2-5 V − b T V (V + b ) Z= 1 A2 ⎛ h ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ............... 2-4 ⎟ ⎠ .................................................................................................................... 2-4 i P= RT a − 0..................................................................................................................................................Part I...................................................................................................... 2-4 3 i ⎛ m1 j C 0 = ∑ ∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 α 1 3 = ∑ x iα i 1 = ∑ xi χ i 1 3 3 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ x i x j C 0i 2 C 0 j 2 ........................................... 2-4 i b 1 3 = ∑ x i bi 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-4 i χ 1 2 2 .......................5 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2-4 ⎟ ⎠ ......................34 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................................................................................... 2-2 v ⎠ ⎝ RT ⎛ c ⎞ ⎟V ⎜1 − 2 V ⎝ VT 3 ⎠ P = + A0 ⎛ a ⎞ ⎛ b⎞ B 0 ⎜1 − ⎟ − ⎜1 − ⎟ ......................... 2-5 B ⎝1+ h ⎠ 1− h P= a (T ) RT − ............................................................... 2-2 V2 ⎝ V⎠ ⎝ V⎠ C D E ⎞ cρ 3 d⎞ d⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ P = RTρ + ⎜ B0 RT − A − 02 + 30 − 04 ⎟ ρ 2 + ⎜ bRT − a − ⎟ ρ 3 + ⎜ a + ⎟ αρ 6 + 2 1 + χρ 2 exp − χρ 2 T⎠ T⎠ T T T ⎠ T ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ( ) ( ..........................................................................................

.................0 = ⎜ B0 RT − 2 A0 − 20 + 30 − 40 ⎟ ρ + 0...............................................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ..............Part I......................................................................................................................2-8 Tc 376..........................2-11 834 Tr = 540 = 1................2-6 P= a (T ) RT ............2-8 cc ZRT 0...............................855 (82............2-8 670.................................................855 (10.........7 (18........................................................... 5 exp χρ γρ exp χρ ⎢3⎜⎜ ⎥ ⎟ T ⎢⎣ ⎝ χρ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎠ ( ) ( ) ( ) ........................................2-9 ′ pPc = ′ pPc pTc ..2-6 − V − b V (V + b ) + b(V − b ) 4C 5D 6E ⎞ 4d ⎞ 2 7d ⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ H T ...............................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......2-8 cu..........................2-9 pTc + B(1 − B ) ε Pr = 2014 = 2......059 gram .............2-11 432 ′ pTc = 432 − 31 = 401 ..........2-11 240 − 17 = 223 .................................................................................................73)(560 ) ZRT ρ= PM W 69 (18...................................................7 Pr = P 1014......2α ⎜ 6a + T ⎠ T ⎠ T T T ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎤ cρ 2 ⎡ ⎛ 1 − exp − χρ 2 ⎞ 2 2 2 ⎟ + − − + − 0 .......2-6 Tr = T ..........................................................................................52 ........................7 = = 1............................................................7 lbs .....................................2-5 a ij = (1 − k ij )(a i a j ) ...........................48 .............................................................5⎜ 2bRT − 3a − ⎟ρ ⎟ ρ + 0..................................................................2-7 Tc Pr = P ............................................................................................057 )(305) ′ pTc = pTc − ε ......................... P − H T ........................................................................... ft 0..................9 Pc ρ= PM W 1014............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-11 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...........35 (366) .........................................................44 ...................................................................4) = = 3.............................................................................................................................................................25 .......2-6 PV = ZRT ..............Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .2-7 Pc Tr = T 560 = = 1................................4 ) = = 0.................................................................Search ( Main Menu ) Z 3 − Z 2 + Z A − B − B 2 − AB = 0 ................................

..........00 ) at Tr = 0...........................700 ......... 2-20 ∆H = ∆E + ∆PV for a substance...................................................... 2-22 T ∆S = ∆H ..................................................................................................... 2-11 401 300 = 1......................................................................................................................................................................doc] .......69 ....................................................................... 2-22 = dT T∆V Cp = Cv + R for a mole of a compound ............................................................... 2-11 ⎝ 432 + 6 ⎠ 223 ⎞ ⎛ 5750 ⎜ ⎟ = 5270 ........................................................................................................................................ 2-22 April 2004: A ......64 ....................36 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............................................................................................................................................................................................62 ........7 ω= − 1............................................................ 2-12 7 Tc − 1............36 ............................................................................. 2-18 i =3 ρ= ∑x M i i ∑ (xiVi ) − xm C ................................. 2-12 ( ω = − log Pr 0 + 1............................................................................................ 2-11 ⎝ 240 + 3................00 ...............................TS ..........................................................69 ............ 2-12 Pc 3 log 14................................................................................ 2-22 T F = H .........................00 TB n V = xc1Vc1 + xc 2Vc 2 + ∑ xciVc1 ................................................................................................................................................................. 2-12 770 13890 = 2.................. 2-12 Z = Z 0 + ω Z ′ ........................................................... 2-12 0................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-20 dP ∆H .................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................Search Main Menu ⎛ 401 ⎞ ′ pPc = 834 ⎜ ⎟ = 770 .......... 2-11 223 SourGas Pr = 2014 = 2...........................................................................................................Part I........................................................................................28 ⎠ SourGas Tr = 540 = 1............... 2-22 dS = dQ ...............35 ........ 2-12 5212 SourGas Z = 0..................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .............

...................................3-6 f(P.....2-24 ⎝ RTC ⎠⎥⎦ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ⎟ ..........[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .........................................................................2-24 P ⎝ ∂T ⎠ P ⎝ ∂P ⎠ T ⎡⎛ H 0 − H ⎞ 0 0 ⎟⎟ + ϖ H − H = RTC ⎢⎜⎜ ⎢⎣⎝ RTC ⎠ 1 ⎛ H 0 − H ⎞⎤ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ....................................4-2 Pi = Pt y i .........4-2 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ......................................doc] April 2004: A .......................................................2-33 Rate of Shear Stress k at high pressure k at atmospheric pressure σ 0...2-24 ⎝ ∂P ⎠ T ⎝ ∂T ⎠ P RT 2 ⎛ ∂Z ⎞ ⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ =− ⎜ ⎟ ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-28 ⎝ ∂P ⎠ H µ =⎜ H ideal = ∑ xi H i .......................................................................................... + x n bn µ= ) 2 ...............................2-36 M dP ∆H ................................................3-1 = dT T∆V f(P............2-36 P (d1 − dV ) ...........................................................................................................................2-23 ⎛ ∂H ⎞ ⎛ ∂V ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ =V −T ⎜ ⎟ ................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I................................................................................................4-1 xi Pi = PVPi xi ...........................................................................................................................Search Main Menu ∆F 0 = RT ln K ..............................T.............X) = 0 ................................................................2-29 i Hr = H ideal .....................................................................................3-7 Ki = yi ..........Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..................25 = from 16....................................................2-29 Z ( Z = 1 − x1 b1 + x 2 b2 + ..............................................................................................................................29 ...............................................................4-2 y i Pt = PVPi xi ...........................T..V.......................37 (366) ....................................................................................................................................................................2-23 ∆F 0 P − R = ∆H 0 P − R − T∆S 0 P − R ....................................................................................................................V) = 0.................................2-29 Shearing Stress ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................... 4-3 f i l = xi f li ......................................... 4-2 = xi Pt RT dlnf = VdP ............[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ....... x1 .......................................................................................................x n − 2 ) ..........................................x n − 2 ) ...................................... x 2 ................................................................................................................. 4-7 PK = φ IV (T ) ....... x 2 ....................................................................................................... 4-11 Pi yi Vi (δ i − δ ) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-3 P ln f 1 = vdP ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ T ) ............................................. PK ) ...... 4-3 xi f vi Ki = y i χ iL f li = ........ 4-3 f i v = f i l .......................................................................................................................... 4-7 PK = φ " (T .............................38 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .........................doc] ................. 4-11 RT 2 ln χ i = April 2004: A ...........................................................Search Main Menu y i PVPi = ........................................................................ x1 ............................................................................................................................................................. T ................................................................... x1 .................................................................................... 4-6 K = φ ' (P................................... 4-7 K = φ " (P............................................................ 4-11 P φi = fi f = iP ..................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .................................................................... 4-2 xi Pt Ki = y i PVPi ................................................................... 4-3 xi χ iV f vi K = φ (P......................... 4-3 Ki = yi f = li .............................................Part I........................ 4-3 P RT ∫0 f i v = y i f vi ................... 4-7 K = φ V (P...................................................................... 4-11 φi f i = γ i xi f i PureL ................................. 4-7 Ki = γ i vio ..................................................... 4-11 vio = f i PureL .................... T ................... x 2 ............................x n ) .........................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................5 ..........................................................4-14 i b 1 3 = ∑ xi bi 1 ...............doc] April 2004: A .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ......................4-13 1− h B ⎝1+ h ⎠ h= BP ..............4-14 ⎠ i 3 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...........................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................................................4-14 ( ) ( ) B0 = ∑ x i B0i ........................................................................................................6) ...........................................4-13 B B ⎝ A B⎠ ⎝ Z ⎠ P= RT aT − .....................................................................................................................................................5 .......4-13 z ln φi = (Z − 1) Bi A 2 ⎛ 2 Ai Bi ⎞ ⎛ BP ⎞ − ln ( A − BP ) − − ⎟ ln⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟ ................................................................4-12 TR RT a − 0.............................................................................................4-13 V − b v(v + b ) P= RT a(T ) ........................................................................................................................................4-14 3 i ⎛ mij A0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 a 1 3 = ∑ xi a i 1 3 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j A0i 3 A0 j 2 ................................................4-12 Vi log υ i0 = log(υ i ) + ω log (υ i ) ...Search δ= Main Menu ∆E 0..........................................................4-12 TR log(υ i ) = A0 + C 3 + DTR − 0.....................................Part I..........................................4-13 − v − b v(v + b ) + b(v − b ) C D E ⎞ cρ 3 d⎞ d⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎛ P = RTρ + ⎜ B0 RT − A − 02 + 30 − 04 ⎟ ρ 2 + ⎜ bRT − a − ⎟ ρ 3 + ⎜ a + ⎟ αρ 6 + 2 1 + χρ 2 exp − χρ 2 T⎠ T⎠ T T T ⎠ T ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ..........................................................................4-14 ⎠ 3 ...................................................25(PR − 0.................................................4-12 v − b T V (V + b ) A2 ⎛ h ⎞ 1 z= − ⎜ ⎟ .....................................4-14 ⎛ m1 j C 0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j C 0i 2 C 0 j 2 .........................................................4-12 0 1 ( 0 log (υ i ) = A + BTR + 1 P= ) A1 + A2TR + A3TR2 + A4TR3 + A5 + A6TR + A7TR2 PR + ( A8 + A9TR ) PR2 − log PR .....39 (366) .....................................................................................................

................................................................. 4-20 z i F = y iV + xi L .Search 1 α 3 = ∑ x iα i 1 = ∑ xi χ i 1 Main Menu ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ....................................... 4-18 n ∑y i =1 i = 1........ 4-14 i ⎛ mij D0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 d 1 3 = ∑ xi d i 1 3 4 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j D0i 2 D0 j 2 ..................................................................... 4-15 2∑ y i aij abi bi V ⎛V + b ⎞ ln φi = ln + − i 1................... 4-20 y i = K i xi .................................................................................................................Part I.................................................................................................................................... 4-14 i ⎛ mij E 0 = ∑∑ ⎜⎜ i j ⎝ 2 5 ⎞ 1 1 ⎟⎟ xi x j E 0i 2 E 0 j 2 ........................................................................................................................40 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................. 4-15 ⎠ f i v = f i l ....................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ........................................................................................... 4-18 F = V + L ........................ 4-18 Kx = 1.................0 ....................0 ................................... 4-20 zF = x(VK + L ) ....................5 2 V −b V −b RT b ⎝ V ⎠ RT b n ∑y i = 1............................................................................doc] ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4-20 zF = KxV + xL ........... 4-15 ⎣ ⎦ xi = yi .................................................5 ln ⎜ ⎟+ 1....... 4-17 i =1 n ∑x i =1 b ⎤ ⎡ V +b ⎢ln V − V + b ⎥ − ln z ............... 4-20 April 2004: A ..........................0 ....................................................0.............. 4-14 ⎠ ............................................... 4-17 i = 1........................................................................................................................................................................... 4-14 3 i 1 χ 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4-17 Ki y i = K i xi ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-14 2 i c 1 3 = ∑ xi ci 1 3 ........................

..........................................................................................6-2 Rate of Shearing Strain F dv =µ A dy Re = or =µ dγ .........................................................5-10 xs Y ∑ K = 1.....................................................................................................doc] April 2004: A .................................0 ..Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...........................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5-15 100 M − MW µ= ShearingStress ...................................................................................................4-20 i n n ∑ zF = L ....................................................................................................................6-5 ⎠ ⎛ v2 ⎜⎜ VdP + ∆ ∫1 ⎝ 2gc 2 ⎞ ⎟⎟ + ∆z + lw ..............................41 (366) .........................................................6-3 dt (Diameter of Pipe )(Velocity of fluid )(Density of fluid ) D v ρ = ........................................................................Part I...............................................................................6-5 2gc 2g c ⎛ v2 ∆u + ∆⎜⎜ ⎝ 2gc ⎞ ⎟⎟ + ∆z + PV = q + w .....................5-10 d= KW ...............................5-3 Pi = HXi ...........................................................................................................Search Main Menu zF L x= .............................................5-7 K v−s = y ............6-5 ⎠ Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..........................................................4-20 V K +1 L n ∑ x = 1.......................0 ...................................................................6-4 2gc u2 + v 22 v2 + z 2 + P2V2 = u1 + 1 + z1 + P1V1 + q + w .....................................................................4-21 V K +1 L x=∑ i =1 i =1 Wmixture = YHCWHC + YH 2 S WH 2 S + YCO2 WCO2 .................................................6-3 µ Vis cos ity of fluid ′ Aν 2 fρ F= ............................................................................................................................................

.... 6-6 Dg c lw = ∆P lw = ρ = 2 f ′Lv 2 ...... 6-6 F ′dL ρπD 2 dL lw = = 4 4F ′ ................................................................ 6-6 4 in lb ft 2 .................................................Part I......................................................................................................................................... 6-5 ⎠ ρπDLv 2 ρπD 2 dL 4 ............ 6-6 ............................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ......................................... 6-15 ⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎝ V2 ⎠ k= CP ........................................ 6-6 Dg c Now let f = 4 f ' ∆P = ∆P = ∆P = f = Main Menu fmρLv 2 2g c D ρ fm Lv 2 144 D (2 g c ) f'= fm .......................................................................................................... 6-6 ρπD 2 2 f ′Lv 2 ....................................... 6-15 k ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ......................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .... 6-16 2g c April 2004: A ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................42 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............................................................................................... 6-15 CV P2 V1 = ................................................................................................................................................ 6-7 fW 2 L .........................................................................................................................................Search ⎛ v2 + ∆⎜⎜ ρ ⎝ 2g c ∆P F′ = f ′ ⎞ ⎟⎟ + ∆z = lw .................................................................................................................................... 6-15 P1 V2 P1V1 = U 2 − U 1 + v 22 − v12 + P2V2 ................................................................................................................ 6-10 5715 ρ D 5 64 .............................................. 6-10 Re Pvk = Constant .................. 6-6 2g c ...............................................................................................................doc] ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............6-19 2g c D Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .............................................................................................................................................................................6-16 CV = R .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-18 zc R ..6-16 k −1 v 22 − v12 = P1V1 − P2V2 + CV (T1 − T2 ) ......6-19 2gc fv 2 dl dR = ..........................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .....6-16 = 2gc k −1 k k ⎛ρ ⎞ P2 ⎛ V1 ⎞ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ...........6-17 ⎥ ⎥⎦ A2 v2 .......................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..........6-17 V2 ⎛ 2kg c ⎞ ⎛ P1 ⎞ ⎛ P2 W =A ⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ k − 1 ⎠ ⎝ V1 ⎠ ⎝ P1 2 ⎞ k ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎝ P1 ⎠ k −1 k ...................................................................6-16 PV = RT.............................................................................................................................................................................................43 (366) ..................................6-16 2gc k −1 k −1 v 22 − v12 k (P1V1 − P2V2 ) ..........................................................................................................6-18 =⎜ P1 ⎜⎝ k + 1 ⎟⎠ vc = 2g c k (P1V1 ) = k +1 vc = kg c Tc VdP + kPc ρc ...............................................................doc] April 2004: A ..................................................6-16 2gc v 22 − v12 PV PV = P1V1 − P2V2 + 1 1 − 2 2 ..................................................6-17 1 Pc ⎛ 2 ⎞ k −1 ⎟ ..............................................................................................................................................................................................Part I...........6-17 P1 ⎝ V2 ⎠ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠ ⎡ v 22 − v12 ⎛ k ⎞ ⎛ P1 ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ P2 =⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 1 − ⎜⎜ 2gc ⎝ k − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠ ⎢ ⎝ P1 ⎢⎣ W= ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ k −1 k ⎤ ⎥ ................Search Main Menu CV (T2 − T1 ) = U 2 − U 1 .............................................................................................6-18 M ( ) d v2 + dR = 0 .............................................................................................................................

......... 6-22 1 Tb ⎡ P12 − P22 ⎤ 2 2............... 6-23 f ⎛T Q = KE ⎜⎜ b ⎝ Pb ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ α ⎛ P12 − P22 ⎜⎜ ⎝ Ta LZ a β ⎞ Dχ ⎟⎟ ...........................................................................................................................................Part I...........................Search VdP + Main Menu vdV fv 2 dl + = 0 .............................................................. 6-19 g cV1 ⎣ v1 D ⎦ 2 1 2 2 v fl >> 2 ln 2 D v1 ...................................................................................... 6-24 1 2 ...................................................................... 6-23 ν ⎠ S β α ⎧⎪ ⎛Q⎞ 2 P1 = ⎨ P2 + K ⎜ ⎟ ⎝E⎠ ⎪⎩ ⎫⎪ ⎛ Pb ⎞ S ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ T LZ ⎬ a a ν ⎪⎭ ⎝ Tb ⎠ D α ⎧⎪ ⎛Q⎞ P2 = ⎨ P12 − K ⎜ ⎟ ⎝E⎠ ⎪⎩ ⎛ Pb ⎜⎜ ⎝ Tb April 2004: A .....................032 d 1 3 ...................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ....................................... 6-19 v D v2 v12 P1 ⎡ v2 fl ⎤ P −P = ⎢2ln + ⎥ ..................................... 6-22 ⎥ d Pb ⎣ STLZ a ⎦ 1 T ⎡ P 2 − P22 ⎤ 2 2..doc] ................................................................................................................44 (366) χ β ⎫⎪ ⎞ Sχ ⎟⎟ T LZ a a⎬ ν ⎪⎭ ⎠ D 1 2 ..................................... 6-19 g c D1 P1V1 P12 ⎡ flv12 ⎤ P1 − P2 = P1 ⎢ 1 − 1 − ⎥ .......................................................................... 6-24 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..................................................................................................................................667 Q = 0..................................................................... 6-20 Ps ⎣ fLSTZ a ⎦ f = 0................................................................................................................................................ 6-19 P12 − P22 flv12 = .... 6-19 gc 2gc D 2 g cVdP 2dv fdl + + = 0 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 ⎢ ...........................0037 b ⎢ 1 ..... 6-20 g c DP1V1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ( ) 1 Ts ⎡ P12 − P22 d 5 ⎤ 2 Q=K ⎢ ⎥ ............................73 ............... 6-22 ⎥ d Pb ⎣ STLZ a ⎦ 1 = θ (Re) 0..667 Q = 433.....................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...

....................................8 φGTT = 1190 x 0.................................6-30 L0...................6-29 2 ∆PTP = ∆PGφGTT ......................5 .....................6-24 ⎠ 1 .........8 − 0...............................000336 f f ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ...........................................................75 = ..........................................................................................................6-26 = ρ ⎜⎝ 100 M d5 ⎠ ∆Ptotal = ∆Ptwo phase flow + ∆Pelevation change + ∆Pacceleration change ...............................................................6-30 φGTT = (4...........................................................................................315 x 0............................................................8 ⎛ ρ g ⎟=⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝G⎠ ⎜ ρ ⎝ l ⎠ 1........6-31 0................8 ⎛ ρg ⎜⎜ ⎝ ρl ⎞ ⎟⎟ .............................................................................................6-28 ⎡⎛ ρ g ⎞ ⎛ ρ L ⎞⎤ ⎟⎟ ⎜ λ = ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎣⎢⎝ 0..........................................2 ...........1 φGTT = 27...............................................6 .............6-30 ⎛ ∆Pliquid x2 = ⎜ ⎜ ∆P gas ⎝ ⎛ µl ⎜ ⎜µ ⎝ g ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ µl ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎠⎝ µg ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0..................................................343−0.......................................................6-25 5 d ⎝ ⎠ W 2 ⎛ 62530 x 10 2 f ⎞ ∆P ⎜ ⎟⎟ ........6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝G⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞1............................................45 (366) .........................................3125d )( X )0....................815 L0.........................................075 ⎠ ⎝ 62...........855 ..6-31 ⎛L⎞ x = 1.......6-28 3 ...........................................................................6-31 ⎠ Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...............................................................3 ⎠⎦⎥ 2 73 ⎡ ⎛ 62......................................17 φGTT = 15400 x ......................................................................2 ≈ 1............................6-29 φGTT 14..................................3 ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢u L ⎜ Ψ= χ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ρ L ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 1 2 ....................................................................................doc] April 2004: A .....Search ⎛Q⎞ D = K⎜ ⎟ ⎝E⎠ α ⎛ Pb ⎜⎜ ⎝ Tb ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ β ⎛ Ta LZ a ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎝ P1 − P2 ln P1 ∆z S = A Ta Z a P2 W2 e ∆P100 = Main Menu χ ⎞ S ⎟⎟ ...................021d .Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .........6-25 ⎛ 0.....................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............6-30 L0....................................................................Part I................................................2 x 0.................................................................................................6-30 L0.........

.................. 6-45 0............ 80 ⎠ ⎝ 1138 psi...5 psi ....800 ) = 21............5 8 2............. 6-41 ( ) = ∆Pf + ∆Z + ρ M .............................................4606 0............7 ..........................................................................doc] .............17 R ⎛ 520 ⎞ 60 x 10 = 435..8 ⎠ 0..................................................................5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0...............075 ⎠ ⎝ 62.............. 6-46 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..................................................3 psi ..........32 R (12)0.....5 d 2..77 )⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14....................................................6 ft ⎛1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝T ⎠ 0...............87 E ⎜⎜ 0 ⎝ P0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 1.........................3 ⎠⎦ April 2004: A ...............12)(500) = 18.........................65 ⎠ 6 1.........................................87 (0........... 6-45 0......................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ..........Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..................0781 ⎛ 1215 2 − P22 ⎜⎜ 10 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0........................3 ft (8) (1100) 2 ∆PH = ρ L Fe ∑ h 144 = ................ 6-42 U= U= 31...........5394 ⎛1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝G⎠ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1215 2 − P22 ⎜⎜ L ⎝ 0.........................1 ....5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.....................6 U = = 6.................46 (366) 1 2 ⎡⎛ 7.........................10 ⎞ ⎛ 44 ⎞⎤ = ⎢⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎜ ⎣⎝ 0........... 6-45 sec (10) (1100) 44 (0............5394 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 530 ⎠ 0.....................................5394 1.................. 6-43 Pd 2 31194 (60 )(0.......................................................................3 ⎠⎦ 1 2 = 8......... 6-44 144 U 21....... 6-42 ρ M = ρ L E L + ρ G (1 − E L ) . 6-46 ⎡⎛ ρ ⎞ ⎛ ρ ⎞⎤ λ = ⎢⎜ G ⎟ ⎜ L ⎟⎥ ⎣⎝ 0.........075 ⎠ ⎝ 62.................... 6-45 .......................................65 ⎠ 0..................................................25 .........................6182 ...........................18)(500 ) = = 27....................................6182 ................32 ⎛T Q = 435...........65 ⎠ ∆PH 31194 (60 )(0... 6-45 2 144 13............................078 6 U= ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ = 13...................................078 ⎛ P12 − P22 ⎜⎜ L ⎝ ⎛ 520 ⎞ 60 x 10 = 435..Search ∆PH = ∑h F e ρL 144 (∆P )increment Main Menu ..........86)⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14............ 6-45 0................Part I..................3 = = 9........................5394 ⎛1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝Z ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 530 ⎠ 0... Lλ Ψ .................................87 (0............................................ 6-46 G 2 ∆Ptwo phase = φ GTT ∆PG ..............5 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2.......................................................80 ) 0..................6182 P2 = ⎟ 10 ⎜ 0 ......32 2...........194 Z Q in ft/sec.........4606 0....... 6-45 G λ vs............... 6-44 sec 44 (0...............65 ⎠ 0.4606 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.......................................

..00152 ...56 ...................6-46 73 ⎡ ⎛ 62..................................................................................6-57 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .............3 ..6 ) = (0.....................................................................6-46 χ = 22 dynes cm........................................................ ⎛ π 10 ⎞ ⎟⎟ 24 ⎜⎜ ⎝ 4 144 ⎠ G= G λ = 226000 = 28000 .......................6-47 100 foot of pipe 2 g c ρ (∆P ) ⎛A 1 − ⎜⎜ 0 ⎝ A1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 .....................3 ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢u L ⎜ Ψ= χ ⎢ ⎜⎝ ρ L ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 3 .....1)(3......8 ⎛ 13200 ⎞ ⎛ 7.....96 x 10 6 hr .....................16)(1......3 ⎞ Ψ= ⎟ ⎢0...........................................7 )(144 ) = 13200 .....................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ........6-46 Gas Flow ⎛⎜ lb day ⎝ day ⎠ 384 lb 2.......................69 )(29) = 2...............6-46 = 226000 2 sq................10 ⎞ 1...9 (24 ) 13200 (8....6) = 0...............Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .......................................6-47 78..........................96 x 10 6 lb .............................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ................................................................6-49 Q = C hw Pf .........................1 2 73 ⎡ ⎛ 62.6-50 QTWE = QMP ⎜⎜ ⎝ 1 + RTL S ⎠ NPSH = P1 – VP + H1 – H2 .....................................2 ∆PG ∆Ptwo phase = 0................F......................6-50 ⎛ 1 + R HL E ⎞ ⎟⎟ ..........................................2 ) = 0............................6-49 Qh = C ′ hw .......6-47 226000 1...... u L = 0...............6-46 8.........................Search Main Menu 2 ⎞⎟ = 60 x 10 (0..........................6-47 ........................Part I.....058) (0................................................................................. ft...........6-47 12 (60)(350)(0........................................3) = 1.................5 ⎜ 22 ⎢⎣ ⎝ 44 ⎠ L= = 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ 1 3 = 3.....................................................................................8 x2 = ⎜ ⎟ (1.....................................................................................24 ....................................................................47 (366) .......................................2 (1...24 psi W = C 0 A0 ∆PTP = 0........................................................................................6-47 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 226000 ⎠ ⎝ 44 ⎠ φ2 = ∆PTP = 1 .......................................................5 ..........................................................

....................3TC Z C 3............................................ 7-6 0..................................................................................................................................................................................48 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ....................6 ............................................................................................. 2 = ⎛M ⎞ µ ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠ N A = (N A + N B ) 0.......... 7-8 April 2004: A ...........................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ...................................................................... 7-5 RT dZ JB = − DBA dPB ........................ 7-2 J A = − DAB dC A ............. 7-8 P RT dZ N A = J A = − N B = − J B .........................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ........ 7-4 dZ J B = − DBA dCB .................. 2 ε k = 65............ 2 = 1 (σ 1 + σ 2 ) ..................59 x 10 −7 (Ψ2 M 2 ) 0.................................................................................................. 7-2 Ln+1 + Vn−1 = Vn + Ln .......................................................................................................7402 1......................... 7-5 RT dZ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟ + 0..... 2 ) Ω D 0.............................................6 ..................................................................................................................................................5 ................... 7-7 PA DAB dPA − ....................Part I.................Search Main Menu CP = K ........doc] .......... 7-4 dZ CA = PA RT CB = and PB ........................................................................................................... 7-6 2 ε1..5 1..................................................................................333 ( MVC ) ............................................2 zC σ 1.......................................................................................................... 7-6 1............................................................ 7-6 σ = 0...................................................... 6-58 CV YC3 = KxC3 ............................ 2 ⎡⎛ ε ⎞ ⎛ ε ⎞⎤ = ⎢⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ k ⎣⎝ k ⎠ ⎝ k ⎠⎦ 0...................................................................................04381T ⎜⎜ M 1 M 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ = 2 p (σ 1............................................................................ 7-4 RT JA = − DAB dPA .........5 D1..........5T D1.................................................................................................. 7-5 .................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-8 Z NA = DP ⎛⎜ PB2 ⎞⎟ ln ..........................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .......................................7-11 N A = K L ( X AG − X A ) ..............................................................................7-8 RTZ 1 NA = DAB C A1 − C A2 ............................................................................................................................................7-8 dZ dZ DAB = DBA = D ....................................................................................................................................................................................................7-12 = + K L kL m kg Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .............................................................................................................................................................7-10 RTZ ( ) N A = k L X A* − X A ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-11 * XA − XA kg N A = K g (YA − YAL ) .....................................................................................................................................7-8 ( ) ( ) NA = D PA − PA2 .......................7-10 Z YA − YA* k = − L ......................7-12 = + K g kg kL 1 1 1 ....................................................................................................................7-9 RTZ ⎝ PB log mean ⎟⎠ 1 ( PB log mean = ) PB2 − PB1 ....................................................................Part I.........................7-9 RTZ ⎜⎝ PB log mean ⎟⎠ NA = ⎞ D ⎛ P ⎜⎜ ⎟ PA − PA2 ...................................................................................................................................7-11 1 1 m .Search Main Menu dPA dP = − B ...................................doc] April 2004: A ...................................................................................................................7-10 kg = DAB ...................................7-10 kL = DAB ...........................................49 (366) .........................7-9 RTZ ⎜⎝ PB1 ⎟⎠ NA = DP ⎛ PB2 − PB1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ .........................................7-9 PB2 ln PB1 N A = k g (YA − YA* ) .[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .........................

................... 7-24 32............ 7-23 0................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-27 PT y a = xa VPa ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 ρ V (ρ L − ρ V ) 2 p 2 versus 0.......................... 7-14 Kn ρ L − ρV .................... 7-29 R= L ....................................................................................................................................... 7-20 h = 2 (h w + how ) + hv + h D .................................................................... 7-27 yA = PPa .........................................................2 ⎛ Lp ⎜ ⎜G ⎝ p ⎞ ⎛ ρV ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ρ ⎠⎝ L ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 1 ⎛ρ ⎞ G µ F p ⎜⎜ W ⎟⎟ ⎝ ρ L ⎠ ...................................... 7-29 V = L + D = D (R + 1) ........................................................................................................................... 7-29 Vn +1 + Ln −1 = Vn + Ln ......................... 7-29 Vn +1 ( y n +1 ) + Ln −1 ( x n −1 ) = Vn y n + Ln x n .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7-29 y n +1 + x n −1 = y n + x n ...................................................................................Part I............................................ 7-30 D (R + 1) D (R + 1) April 2004: A ...............................................................................................................................................................1 L PPa = x a VPa ................................................... 7-12 Kg m KL N A A = k g a (Y A − Y A* )V0 = k L a (X A* − X A )V0 = K g a (Y AG − Y AL )V0 = K L a ( X AG − X AL )V0 ....Search Main Menu 1 1 = ................................. 7-30 V V y n +1 = L D xn + x D ............................... 7-13 α= Kl .................. 7-30 y n +1 = L D x n + x D ........................................50 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............................................................................ 7-27 F = D + W...................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ........................doc] ............................................................... 7-30 D V y n +1 = L x n + D x D ......Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ........ 7-19 ρV v=K Gmax = C ρ V (ρ L − ρ V ) ................................................. 7-27 PT y a = K a x a ........................................................................................................................................................................................................

...........7-36 D z F − xw = ...........7-32 q −1 q −1 q = 0 .................................................7-37 = W HD − HF D z F − xw H F − H W = = ..........................................................................................................................................................7-33 F = D + W .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I.................................7-38 = Feed WD Distillate F W .....................................................7-30 R +1 R +1 L L .....................................................................................................................................................................................7-37 Distillate W F ......7-31 q −1 y= z qx − F ..............................................................................................................................................................7-32 q −1 0 H L = C PL (t L − t 0 ) M av + DS .........51 (366) ....................................................................................................................................7-37 W yD − zF HD − HF z − xw y − zF 1 = D = F slope H D − H F H F − H W with a common po int T .....................................................................7-32 q −1 q 1 = ∞ = .........7-36 W yD − zF F H F = D H D + W H W ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ......................................................................................................................................................................7-36 D H F − HW ...............................................7-38 = Feed WD Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ........[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .................7-36 F z F = D y D + W x w .......................7-31 = V L −W q= L − L HV − H F = ....7-37 = Bottoms FD Bottoms F D ..........................................................................................................................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ..............................................................................................Search y n +1 = Main Menu x R x n + D ..................................................................................................7-31 F HV − H L q ..............................................................................................................

........................................................................................................ 7-45 HV − H L S − S min R − Rmin = f .............................. 7-45 α1 − θ α 2 − θ αn −θ α x α 1 x1D α 2 x 2 D + + KK + n nD = Rmin + 1 ................................................. 7-38 QW = qr W BTU lb of W ... 7-45 α1 − θ α 2 − θ αn −θ = HV − H F .................................................................................................. 7-38 F H F + q r = D H D + W H W + q c ........................................................................ 7-38 Vn H n = Ln +1 H n +1 + DhD + q c .................................. 7-39 = D H D − h0 SM = α LK ( X LKD )( X HKW ) ( X LKW )( X HKD ) ........................... 7-38 QD = qc D BTU lb of D .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-49 0.................................................................Search Main Menu F z F = D x D + W x w ...........6 = 1...................................... 7-39 Vn +1 L H D − 0 h0 = h0 + QD ......................................................................................................................................... 7-49 Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .....................doc] ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-45 α x α 1 x1F α 2 x 2 F + + KK + n nF = 1 − q .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-38 F H F = D (hD + QD ) + W (hB − QW ) ........................... 7-39 L0 h0 + QD − H D ........................ 7-39 Vn H n − Ln +1 H n +1 = D (hD + QD ) = ∆ D ...................................................74 ................................................................... 7-47 S +1 R +1 α LK = KC 3 ...................................................................................... 7-39 D D Vn +1 = L0 + D ..............92 SM = α LK ( X LKD )( X HKW ) ( X LKW )( X HKD ) April 2004: A ..................................................52 (366) ................................Part I........................... 7-38 F H F = ∆ D + ∆ W ....................... 7-49 KiC 4 α LK = 1..............................................................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .........Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .................................................................................

.............7-55 Li y i = K i xi ......................206 log 10 ⎢⎜ ⎟⎜⎜ HK log 10 ⎜⎜ ⎢⎣⎝ D ⎠⎝ Z LK ⎝ Plates below feed ⎠ ⎞⎛ X LKW ⎟⎟⎜⎜ ⎠⎝ X HLD ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ...7-53 L0 ( X i − X i −1 ) = Vn +1 (Yi +1 − Yi ) .......................................................3 .................................................................7-55 Vi xi = X i L0 ......................................7-50 ⎥⎦ n * (number of theoretical trays ) E (overall efficiency ) = ..................................................................................................................................................................................7-56 Yi = K i L0 Vi X i ...............................................................7 ) = 925 (0..............7-56 Li Vn +1 Yi −1 = K i −1 L0 Vi X i −1 ................................................................................................................................................doc] April 2004: A ..............................................................................................................7-56 or Ai = or Ai −1 = KV K i Vi K i −1 Vi −1 Yi +1 + Ai −1 Yi −1 .........5)(0....................................................................................................................3) Main Menu so SM = 12......................................7-53 Y = moles solute moles inert carrier gas and X = moles solute moles inert solvent in liquid ............................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 .............................................................................53 (366) .........................................7-56 L + Ai Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .7-50 n (number of actual trays ) Pv = Pvp x ..........................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...5)(6..........Part I.......................................................7-49 ⎡⎛ W ⎞⎛ Z ⎛ Plates above feed ⎞ ⎟⎟ = 0..........................................................................7-55 Yi −1 = K i −1 xi −1 ...............................................................................................................7-52 Pv = m′ x ............7-56 Li L+ K i Vi Yi +1 + Yi = Let Yi = A= Li Li −1 L ............................................Search (1....7-56 Li −1 Vn +1 Li −1 Yi −1 K i −1 Vi −1 .............................................................................................................74)SM = (20...7-54 yi = Yi (Vn +1 ) ........................................................................................................................

................................... 8-7 Q = WC P (T1 − T2 ) = W (H 1 − H 2 ) .............................................................................. 7-59 Vi +1 Vn +1 Li = L0 + Vi +1 − V1 ................. 7-59 n 1 Vi V n = 1 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .................................................. 8-8 ln T1 − t 2 T2 − t1 April 2004: A .................................................................................................. 8-2 4 ⎡ ⎛ T1 ⎞ 4 ⎛ T2 ⎞ ⎤ Q12 = 0....................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 . 7-57 = m +1 X m +1 − X 0 S −1 Vi = V1 n +1− i ..........................................................................................................25 − 0.............................06 x 10 7 A1 ε 1T1 − α12T2 ... 7-56 = n +1 Yn +1 − Y0 A −1 Yn +1 − Y1 ....................................................................5 ..........................................................................................................54 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ............Search Absorption % = Main Menu Yn +1 − Y1 A n +1 − A0 .................................................................... 8-1 x dQ = hAdt .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Part I..................................................................................................................................................................... 7-59 Tn − Ti Vn +1 − Vi +1 = .................................................................doc] ....................... 8-1 dx K A(t1 − t 2 ) ................................... 7-59 Ae = wi = α ( pi ) ....... 7-62 n Rate = driving force .................. 8-3 4 4 Q = UA∆T ............ 8-2 dQ = σε dA T 4 ................................................................................................................ 8-3 ⎟ − α12 ⎜ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎝ 100 ⎠ [ ] Q12 = 2....................................................................................................................................................................... 8-1 resistance dQ = KA Q= dt ............................................................................... 8-8 ∆TLMT = (T1 − t 2 ) − (T2 − t1 ) ........173 A1 ⎢ε 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ .......................... 7-59 Tn − T0 Vn +1 − V1 An ( A1 + 1) + 0.................................................... 7-57 Yn +1 − Y0 X m +1 − X 1 S m +1 − S .................................................

...................................8-9 ∆THOT END ln ∆TCOLD END ∆TM = F∆TLMT .8-10 −0................................................................................................................................................925 K ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ............8-12 r 2TUBE SIDE NEW CONDITION = f (r1)TUBE SIDE STANDARD CONDITION ...............8-10 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ K ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ µ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0...............................................36 ⎜⎜ e s K ⎝ µ As = 0.................................4 .............................8-16 1 ⎛ gρ 2 ⎞ 3 h = 0............................27 d (x f K f ) dt ⎛ K1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ K2 ⎠ 0.[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...........doc] April 2004: A .Part I.................................8-16 ⎝ µΓ ⎠ Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .......67 ⎛ C P1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ CP2 ⎠ 0..............2 ⎛ D02 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ D01 ⎠ 0........................................................33 ⎛ G1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ G2 ⎠ 0...........................Search ∆TLMT = Main Menu ∆THOT END − ∆TCOLD END .........55 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.....................................................................14 ...................................................................................8 1 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ 3 ⎛ µ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ K ⎠ ⎝ µW 3 ⎛ µ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0...........................................8-15 dt dt Q = UA∆T .......................................14 ..............................................................................................8-9 1 1 1 D0 = + + R ........8-11 PT (144) h D ⎛C µ ⎞ j= 0 0⎜ P ⎟ K ⎝ K ⎠ −1 3 ⎛ µ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µW ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ −0.........................................................................................................................................8-13 = φd − φr ............................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..................8-13 ........................................................................................14 ..............................................8-13 ⎛µ ⎞ f = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ µ1 ⎠ 0.67 ⎛ K1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ K2 ⎠ 0.................8-10 U 0 h0 hi Di ⎛DG⎞ hi Di = 0.......8 ⎛ G1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ G2 ⎠ 0...............8-15 dRf d (x f K f ) = .........................6 ⎛ D02 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ D01 ⎠ 0.........8-11 ID (C ′ B ) .....................................27 ⎛µ ⎞ f = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ µ1 ⎠ 0.............................................................................................................................................................027⎜⎜ i ⎟⎟ K ⎝ µ ⎠ ⎛ h D ⎞⎛ C µ ⎞ j ≡ ⎜ i ⎟⎜ P ⎟ ⎝ K ⎠⎝ K ⎠ −1 ⎛DG h0 De = 0.........................55 (366) ...............33 ⎛ C P1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ CP2 ⎠ 0..........................................14 .....

........................................................................................................................................................................ 9-1 April 2004: A ................................ 8-28 H 2S + 3 O2 + SO2 + H 2O ...................................6 ⎛ PL χ ⎞ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ p ⎠ 1 −0..............................28 hcc = (Gmax )0..................................................................................... 8-21 QRc = 7.......................................................................................76 K ⎜⎜ ⎝ µΓ ⎠ Γ= W d nπ 12 ......................................................................................................................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...................................................................................................Search Main Menu 1 ⎛ gρ12 ⎞ 3 ⎟⎟ ................................................. 8-20 0.......................1378 ⎜⎜ r m ⎟⎟ K a (12) ⎝ 12 µ ⎠ 0.............doc] .......................... 9-1 2 SO2 + 2 H 2 S + 3S + 2 H 2O ....................4 Q = UA ....... 8-20 QRr = σαAcp F (Tg4 − Tt 4 ) ................................................................ 8-28 Q = W (H 1 − H 2 ) ...................................... 8-19 m ⎝ A ⎠ max ⎛ DG ⎞ h = 4...............................56 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ................................... 8-17 4 nr L ⎛ ρ − ρV ⎛Q⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 143 ρV λ ⎜⎜ L ⎝ A ⎠ max ⎝ ρV (t S − tb )max = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 0.................... 8-22 2.................................02⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ CPG ⎝ µ ⎠ −0.............. 8-17 2nL Γ= W .........................................................................296 Fr ....................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ........................................................................................................................... 8-16 h = 0...........................................................3 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ K ⎠ ⎛d G ⎞ h dr = 0....................................6 ..................6 d 0.................. 8-21 QRc = hrc ART (Tg − Tt ) ...........................................................................Part I....................................................................................................................................................................14(T f ) 0.............................................425 ⎛ CP µ ⎞ 3 ⎛ S ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Ka ⎠ ⎝ l ⎠ Σ L .............................718 −0... 8-22 (T1 − t ) − (T2 − t ) ...... 8-17 Γ= W ............................0αAcp (Tg − Tt ) .............. 8-19 1 ⎛Q⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ....... 8-28 ln T1 − t T2 − t Q = WC P (T1 − T2 ) ...................................

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-2 k1 [C ][D] ......................................................................9-1 A + B ⇒ C + D .......9-2 ∆F = − RT ln K equilibrium .....................................................9-6 A → R + S .............................................Part I......................................................................................................................................9-3 ⎝ 450 C ⎠ dc ...........................................................Search Main Menu A + B ⇔ C + D .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-6 dt r = kC Aa C Bb ..............................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ............................................................................9-1 Rate (forward) = k1 [A] [B ] ..................................................................................................................................................................................................9-8 C A = w − x ..........................................................................................9-8 C B = y − x .........................................................................9-7 C A0 ln C A = − kt + ln C A0 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-7 CA0 C 0 A −∫ CA − ln CA = kt ..............................................................................................................9-2 k1 [ A][B ] = k 2 [C ][D ] ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-7 − dC A = kC A .....9-7 dt t dC A = k ∫ dt ....................................................................................9-8 1 y (w − x ) ln = kt .................9-9 w − y w( y − x ) − rA dv = moles of A reacting x volume of fluid in segment considered .........................................................................................9-1 C + D ⇒ A + B .............................9-2 = K equilibrium = k2 [A][B] NaCl + AgNO3 → AgCl ↓ + NaNO3 ..........................9-6 aA + bB → products .......................57 (366) .......9-8 A + B → 2 P .........................................9-3 SO2 + 1 O2 2 Rate = ⎛ VO ⎞ → ⎜ 2 0 5 ⎟ → SO3 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-2 Rate (reverse) = k 2 [C ] [D ] .................................................................................9-11 (time )(volume of reacting fluid ) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology ...............................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .....doc] April 2004: A ...

............................................................................................................................... 9-11 FA0 dX A = (− rA )dv ...................................................................Search Main Menu FA = (FA + dFA ) + (− rA )dv ... 9-11 FA = FA0 (1 − X A ) .............................................................................................................................................................Part I University of Calgary Printed: 26 April 2004 ..............................................................................................................doc] .............................................................................................................................. 9-13 April 2004: A ...................................................................................................................................................... 9-12 − rA H 2 S + 3 O2 → H 2O + SO2 .................................................................[Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology .............................................................................................. 9-13 e ∆H = −21 to − 35 kcal ............................................................. 9-11 dFA = d (FA0 (1 − X A )) = − FA0 dX A .. 9-13 2 ∆H = −124 to 138 kcal .....58 (366) Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology . 9-12 − rA dX A ...................................................................................................... 9-12 VR dv ∫F 0 A0 VR = FA0 W = FA0 =∫ X Af X A0 X Af ∫ X A0 X Af ∫ X A0 dX A .........Part I.................................................................................................................................... 9-12 − rA dX A ...... 9-13 2 H 2 S + SO2 → 2 H 2O + 3 S e .....................................

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