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Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

R–1

Exponent Laws

540 ...................................................................................

R–2

Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions 542 ...........................

R–3

Factoring Polynomial Expressions 544 .......................................................

R–4

Working with Rational Expressions

545

R–5

Slope and Rate of Change of a Linear Function 549 ..................................

R–6

The Zeros of Linear and Quadratic Functions 551 ....................................

R–7

Exponential Functions

.......................................................................

553

R–8

Transformations of Functions 554 .............................................................

R–9

Families of Functions

557 ..........................................................................

R–10

Trigonometric Ratios and Special Angles

559

R–11

Graphing

y sin x

and

y cos x

562

R–12

Transformations of Trigonometric Functions

564 ......................................

R–13

Solving Trigonometric Equations in Degrees

567

R–14

Proving Trigonometric Identities

570

Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

539

R–1

Exponent Laws

Rule Word Description Algebraic Description Example Multiplication If the bases are the same, a m a
Rule
Word Description
Algebraic Description
Example
Multiplication
If the bases are the same,
a m a n a m n
10 7 10 5 10 12
add the exponents.
Division
If the bases are the same,
a m
10 100 10 95 10 5
a m n
, a 0
subtract the exponents.
a n
Power of a
Keep the base, and
( a m ) n
a mn
(2 x ) 2
2 2x
Power
multiply the exponents.
Power of a
Raise each factor to the
( ab ) n a n b n
(2x 5 ) 3 2 3 ( x 5 ) 3
Product
exponent.
8x 15
Power of a
Raise the numerator and
n
a
a
x 2
a
b n
b 0
a x
b 2
Quotient
the denominator to the
n ,
b
b
3
9
exponent separately.
0
Zero Exponent
A power with zero as
a
1,
if
a 0
17 0 1
0
the exponent equals 1,
Exception: 0 is undefined.
except when zero is also
the base.
Negative
A power with a negative
1
1
1
10 4
a
n a 1
,
a 0
Exponents
exponent equals the
4
a b n
a n
10
10 000
power with the reciprocal
a
b
x
16
a
b b n a
b n ,
a, b 0
base and a positive
a
a
b 4 a 2
x 0
2
x b 4
exponent.
x 4 ,
1
Rational
The denominator
1
1
a n
n a
1000 3 25 2
3 1000 25
Exponents
determines the root.
10 5
with
15
Numerator 1
Rational
The denominator
m
6
a
n
Q
n aR m or
32
5
Q 5 32R 6
Exponents
determines the root and
with
the numerator indicates
2 6
m
n
a
n
a m
Numerator
the exponent applied to
64
not 1
the root.
EXAMPLE
Simplify. Express your answers using positive exponents.
2
A2 3x y BA2 x 4y B
a)
b)
64
3
c)
Ax 2 y 3 B 2
Axy 2 B 4
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  • 540 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Solution

a)

A2 3x y BA2 x 4y B 2 3x y x 4y 2 2x 5y

b)

64

2

3

1

64

2

3

1

3 64R 2

Q

1

4

2

1

16

c)

Ax 2 y 3 B 2

Axy 2 B 4

x 4 y 6

x 4 y 8

x 8 y 14

Practising

1. Simplify. Express your answers using positive exponents.

y

4

  • a) y 7

e)

x 2 y 7

b)

A y 3 B 5

f)

Ax 2 yB 2 Axy 3 B 4

c)

( x 2) 4 ( x 2)

d)

a 9

a 3

g)

8

0

h)

A2 0 2B 0

i)

4

1

j)

4 5

k)

l)

a

10 b 1

1

a 4

3

b 2

2.

a)

Evaluate. Express your answers in fraction form.

27

1

3

b)

225

3

2

c)

100

0.5

m)

Aa 3 bc 0 B 2

n)

a

x 2 y 5

x 2 y

3 b 4

o)

( y 1) 3 ( y 2) 4

( y 1) 5 ( y 2)

d)

1

64 3 16

3

2

R-1 Exponent Laws: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

541

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R–2

Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions

To convert a polynomial expression from factored form to expanded form, use the

distributive property:

a ( b c ) ab ac

Some patterns occur frequently and are worth memorizing.

Square of a Sum

Square of a Difference

Difference of Squares

( a b ) 2

( a b ) 2

( a b )( a b )

( a

b )( a b )

( a

b )( a b )

a 2 ab ab b 2

a 2 2ab b 2

a 2 2ab b 2

a 2 b 2

EXAMPLE 1

Expand and simplify ( x 5)(3x 2 4x 5).

Solution ( x 5)(3x 2 4x 5) 3x 3 4x 2 5x 15x 2
Solution
( x 5)(3x 2 4x 5)
3x 3 4x 2 5x 15x 2

3x 3 11x 2 15x 25

EXAMPLE 2

Use the distributive property to

multiply each term in the binomial

by each term in the trinomial.

 

There are

simplified.

expanded form.

.

2 3 6 terms in the

expanded form, before it is

Collect like terms to simplify the

20x 25

Expand and simplify

2( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)

Solution

2( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd. R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions To convert a
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd. R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions To convert a

3 2( x 2) 4 3 ( x 1)( x 3) 4

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd. R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions To convert a

(2x 4)( x 2 3x x 3)

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd. R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions To convert a

(2x 4)( x 2 4x 3)

2x

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd. R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions To convert a

3 8x 2 6x 4x 2

16x 12

2x 3 4x 2 10x 12

Since multiplication is

associative, you can multiply the

expressions in any order you like.

Use the distributive property to

multiply. Drawing arrows will

help you to keep track of the

multiplications.

  • 542 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

EXAMPLE 3

Expand and simplify (2x 3) 2 (3x 2)(3x 2).

Solution

(2x 3) 2 (3x 2)(3x 2)

(2x )

2

2(2x )(3) (3) 2

3 (3x )

2

(2)

2

4

4x 2 12x 9 9x 2 4

5x 2 12x 13

Use the patterns for ( a b )

  • 2 and ( a b )( a b ).

Practising

1. Expand and simplify.

a)

3x A5x 2 3x 4B

b)

(2x 7) 2

c)

d)

3( x 4) 2 (2 x )(2 x )

6

a x

1

3

b a x

1

2

b

e)

f)

5x (2x 4) 2

3

2x ( x 1) 4 2

2. Write in simplified expanded form.

  • a) 5( x 1)( x 1)( x 2)

  • b) 2( x 2 x 3)( x 7)

  • c) 4( x 2) 3

  • d) ( x 5)( x 2)( x 5)( x 2)

  • e) (3x 4) 2 (2x 3)

  • f) ( x 3) 4

R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

543

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R–3

Factoring Polynomial Expressions

 

Type

 

Example

 

Comment

 

Common Factoring

 

10x 4 8x 3 6x 5

 

Each term has a common

ab ac a ( b c )

2x 3 (5x 4 3x 2 )

factor of 2x 3 .

 

Factor out the largest common

 

factor of each term.

 

Factoring Trinomials

 

x 2 4x 21

 

( 21) 7( 3) and

ax

2

bx c, when

a 1

( x 7)( x 3)

4 7 ( 3)

 

Write the trinomial as the

 

product of two binomials.

Determine two numbers

whose sum is b and whose

product is c.

 

Factoring Trinomials

 

3x 2 4x 4

 

Multiply 3( 4) 12.

ax

2

bx c, when

a 1

3x 2 2x 6x 4

Find two numbers whose

Look for a common factor. If

(3x 2 2x ) (6x 4)

product is

12

and

none exists, use decomposition

and write the trinomial as the

x (3x 2) 2(3x 2)

whose sum is 4. In this

(3x 2)( x 2)

case, the numbers are 6

product of two binomials.

Check:

and

2.

Using these

Check by expanding and

simplifying.

(3x )( x ) (3x )(2)

( 2)(2)

( 2)( x )

3x 2 6x 2x 4

numbers, decompose the

x-term. Group the terms,

and factor out the

3x 2 4x 4

common factors.

 

Factoring a Difference of

2x 2 18

 

Common factor first,

Squares

 

2( x 2 9)

when possible.

 

x 2 y 2 ( x y )( x y )

2( x 3)( x 3)

 

This is a special case of

 

factoring trinomials, when

b 5 0.

 

Practising

 
 

1. Factor.

 
  • 2. Factor.

  • a) 6x 2 5x

 
  • a) 6y 2 y 2

 
  • b) 28x 14xy

  • b) 12x 2 x 1

 
  • c) x 2 x 6

  • c) 5a 2 7a 6

  • d) 3y 2 18y 24

  • e) x 2 64

  • f) x 4 81

  • d) 12x 2 18x 12

    • 3. Expand to show that ( x y )( x 2 xy y 2 ) is the factored form of x 3 y 3 .

  • 544 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–4

Working with Rational Expressions

A rational expression is an algebraic expression that can be written as the quotient

of two polynomials. A rational expression is undefined if the denominator is zero,

so we write restrictions on the variables to avoid this.

Simplifying Rational Expressions

A rational expression can be simplified by factoring the numerator and the

denominator, and then dividing out the common factors.

EXAMPLE 1

Simplify and state restrictions.

21m 3 n 2

  • a) b)

6mn 4

x 2 1

c)

4x 6

 

x 2 4x 3

9 6x

Solution

21m 3 n 2

  • a) b)

6mn 4

x 2 1

 

Factor the numerator

x 2 4x 3

and the denominator

1

3mn 2 (7m 2 ) 3mn 2 (2n 2 )
3mn 2 (7m 2 )
3mn 2 (2n 2 )
 

( x 1)( x 1)

 

to find the largest

( x 1)( x 3)

possible common factor

 

1

to divide out.

1

( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 3)
( x 1) ( x 1)
( x 1) ( x 3)
 

7m 2

2n 2

1

 
  • x Write restrictions on

1

m 0, n 0

  • x the variables to prevent

3

x

1, 3

 

the denominator from

equalling zero.

4x 6
c)

9 6x

opposites

2(2x 3)

 

3(3 2x )

When factors are opposites, factor out

1 from one of the factors to make the

2(3 2x ) 1 3(3 2x ) 1
2(3 2x ) 1
3(3 2x ) 1

factors identical.

 

2

3

x 3

2

R–4 Working with Rational Expressions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

545

Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

To multiply or divide rational expressions, factor the numerators and the denominators

(where possible), and then look for common factors that can be divided out.

EXAMPLE 2

x 2 9 4x 20 Simplify . 2x 6 x 2 6x 9 Solution x 2
x 2 9
4x 20
Simplify
.
2x 6
x 2 6x 9
Solution
x 2 9
4x 20
Factor each polynomial.
2x 6
x 2 6x 9
( x 3)( x 3)
4( x 5)
2( x 3)
( x 3)( x 3)
1
1
2
( x 3) ( x 3)
4 ( x 5)
Divide out the common
2 ( x 3)
( x 3) ( x 3)
factors to reduce the
1
1
1
expression to lowest terms.
2( x 5)
Write restrictions to
x 3
prevent the denominator
x 3, 3
from equalling zero, which
would result in undefined
values.
EXAMPLE 3
4x 2 4x 1
2x 2 9x 5
Simplify
.
x 3
x 5
Solution
4x 2 4x 1
2x 2 9x 5
x 3
x 5
Change the division into
multiplication by the
4x 2 4x 1
x 5
reciprocal.
x 3
2x 2 9x 5
(2x 1)(2x 1)
x
5
Factor.
x
3
(2x 1)( x 5)
1
1
Divide out the identical
(2x 1)(2x 1)
x
5
factors.
x
3
(2x 1) ( x 5)
1
1
2x 1
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

x 3

 

1

x 3, 5,

2

  • 546 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Write restrictions to avoid

undefined values.

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

To add or subtract rational expressions, you must have a common denominator.

To ensure that you will use the lowest common denominator, factor the numerators

and the denominators first. This will keep the expressions as simple as possible.

EXAMPLE 4

3x 6 x 2 8x 15 Simplify . x 2 4 7x 21 Solution 3x 6
3x 6
x 2 8x 15
Simplify
.
x 2 4
7x 21
Solution
3x 6
x 2 8x 15
x 2 4
7x 21
3( x 2)
( x 3)( x 5)
( x 2)( x 2)
7( x 3)
1
1
3( x 2)
( x 3) ( x 5)
( x 2) ( x 2)
7( x 3)
1
1
3
x 5
x 2
7
3
7
x
2
a
b
a x
5 b
a
x 2 b a 7
7
x
2
21
x 2 7x 10
7( x 2)
7( x 2)
21
( x 2 7x 10)
7( x 2)
21
x 2 7x 10
7( x 2)
x 2 7x 11
7( x 2)

b

x 2, 2, 3

Factor the numerators and

the denominators.

If possible, divide out like

factors (but only within

each rational expression).

The lowest common

denominator is 7( x 2).

Multiply the numerator

and denominator of each

rational expression to create

an equivalent expression

with the desired common

denominator.

Simplify the numerator.

Write restrictions to avoid

undefined values.

R–4 Working with Rational Expressions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

547

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Practising

  • 1. State the restrictions (if any) on each rational expression.

5

x

  • 17 d)

x 2

a)

b) c) x 5 2ab 3h 2 6h c) e) 4b h 2 4h 4 x
b)
c)
x
5
2ab
3h 2 6h
c)
e)
4b
h 2 4h 4
x 2 5x
b 3 a 2 b
d)
f)
x
2 4x 5
b 2 2ab a 2
6x
2y 2
8y
3x
2ab
6ac
5bc
10b
( x 1) 2
x 2 2x 1
x
2 2x 3
x 2 4x 3
x
7
2x 14
10
25
x
2 5x 6
x 2 4x 5
x 5
x 2 1
x 2 4
x 2 3x 2
3m 2 7m 6
9m 6
9m 2 4
6m 2 3m
2m 2 5m 3
4m 2 4m 1
4
2
5x
3x
5
2
x
1
x
1
2x 1
5
3
x 2
6x
3x
x
2 5x 6
x 2 x 12
x
3
x
1
x
4
x
2
x 1
x 2
x
2 2x 3
x 2 4x 5
2
4x 2 11x 1
x 3
,
x 3.
x 3
  • 2. Simplify, and state restrictions. Write your answers using positive exponents.
    a)
    b)

x 2 3x 2

x 2 5x 6

t 3 t 2

t t 3

  • 3. Simplify, and state restrictions.
    a)
    b)
    c)
    d)
    e)
    f)

  • 4. Simplify, and state restrictions.
    a)
    b)
    c)
    d)
    e)
    f)

  • 5. Show that 4x 1

3x

x 2 36

  • 548 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–5

Slope and Rate of Change of a Linear Function

The slope of a line is a ratio that compares the change in the dependent variable, y,

with the change in the independent variable, x.

Slope m

rise

change in y

y

y 2 y 1

run

change in x

x

x 2 x 1

The equation of a linear relation can be written in the form

y mx b, where m is

the slope and b is the y-intercept.

Values of the Slope

• The slope of a line that rises to the right is positive.

• The slope of a line that drops to the right is negative.

• The slope of a horizontal line is zero. The equation of the line can be written in

the form y b.

• The slope of a vertical line is undefined. The equation of the line can be written in

the form x a.

Equations of Straight Lines

point-slope equation of a line: y y 1 m ( x x 1 )

general form of the equation of a line: Ax By C 0

• slope-intercept equation of a line: y mx b

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Two lines, with slopes

m

1

 

and

m

2

,

are

• parallel if and only if

m 1 m 2

• perpendicular if and only if

m 1 m 2 1;

that is, if their slopes are negative

reciprocals: m 2

1

m

 

1

EXAMPLE

Find the slope and equation of a line that passes through points (5, 6) and (15, 2).

Explain how the slope is a rate of change.

 

Solution

The slope is m

y 2 y 1

 

2 6

 

4

2

 

x 2 x 1

 

15 5

 

10

5

.

Substituting

m

  • 5 2 and

( x

1

, y

1

) (5, 6)

into y y

  • 1 m ( x x

1

),

 

2

y 6

5

 

2

y

x

2 6

 

5

2

y

5

x

8

( x 5)

The slope of the line is

2

5

,

and the equation is y

2

5

x 8.

R–5 Slope and Rate of Change of a Linear Function: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

549

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

The slope is a rate of change because y will decrease by 2 units for each 5 unit

increase in x.

y 10 8 run = 5 6 rise = –2 4 2 x 0 5 10
y
10
8
run = 5
6
rise = –2
4
2
x
0
5
10

Practising

  • 1. Determine the slope of a line that passes through

  • 3. Suppose that you buy a plant. The height of the

each pair of points.

plant t weeks after you buy it is h ( t ) 26

1.2t,

  • a) and

(1, 5)

( 4, 9)

where h is the height in centimetres. What is the

  • b) and (7, 4)

( 1, 4)

slope of the height function, and what does the

  • c) and

(5, 2)

(5, 4)

slope mean in the context of this situation?

 
  • d) and

( 3, 5)

( 2,

9)

  • 4. Determine the slope and y-intercept of each line.

  • 2. Describe the graph of

  • a) 3x 5y 10 0

b)

Ax By C 0

a)

x 3

b)

y 6

  • 550 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–6

The Zeros of Linear and Quadratic Functions

The Zero of a Linear Function

A linear function of the form

y mx b

has one zero (x-intercept), unless the

line is horizontal. (A horizontal line has no x-intercepts, unless it lies on the x-axis.

Then every point on the line is an x-intercept.)

Factoring out the slope will give the x-intercept.

EXAMPLE 1

What is the x-intercept of y 2x 6?

Solution

y 2x 6

Factor out the slope.

y 2( x 3)

 

Solving for the zero, let y 0.

The x-intercept is 3, since substituting

0

2( x 3)

x 3 results in a y value of zero.

3

x

(Hence the name “zero of the function”

for an x-intercept.)

y 2 x 0 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 – 4 –6 –8
y
2
x
0
–6
–4 –2 –2
2
4
6
– 4
–6
–8

The Zeros of a Quadratic Function

A quadratic function can have two zeros, one zero, or no zeros.

The zeros of a quadratic function are also found by factoring the equation. When

factoring is not possible, the quadratic formula can be used. The discriminant can

be used to determine the number of zeros.

Quadratic Formula

 

Discriminant

 

The zeros of the function

If

b 2 4ac 0,

there are two zeros.

y ax 2 bx c are

 

If

b 2 4ac 0,

there is one zero.

 

b b 2 4ac

If b

2 4ac 0,

there are no zeros.

x

2a

.

 

R–6 The Zeros of Linear and Quadratic Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

551

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

EXAMPLE 2

Determine the zeros of each function.

a)

f ( x ) 2x

2 x 6

 

b)

g ( x ) x

2

x 2

 

Solution

 
  • a) Factoring gives

y 6 4 2 x 0 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 – 4 –6
y
6
4
2
x
0
–6 –4 –2 –2
2
4
6
– 4
–6

f ( x ) 2x 2 x 6

f ( x ) (2x 3)( x 2)

 

Solving for the zeros, let f ( x ) 0.

 
  • 0 (2x 3)( x 2)

  • 0 or

2x 3

0 x 2

 

3

x

or

x 2

2

  • b) To solve for the zeros, let g ( x ) 0.

y 8 6 4 2 x 0 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 – 4
y
8
6
4
2
x
0
–6 –4 –2 –2
2
4
6
– 4
  • 0 x 2 x 2

Using the quadratic formula gives

 

b b 2 4ac

 
  • x

2a

( 1) ( 1) 2 4(1)(2)

 
  • x 2(1)

  • x

1 7
1 7

2

The graph of g is entirely above

the x-axis. Therefore, the function

has no zeros.

Since the square root of

7

is not a real

number, the function g has no zeros.

Practising

  • 1. What are the zeros of each function?

  • 3. Determine the zeros of each quadratic function.

  • a) y 3( x 4)

a)

f ( x ) x

2 x 42

c)

g ( x ) x

2

3x 1

  • b) y 2( x 3)( x 7)

b)

y 16x

2 8x 1

d)

y 3x

2

5x 4

  • c) y 4( x 9) 2

  • 4. The zeros of a quadratic function are

2

and 2, and

  • d) y 2x 2 x 15

the y-intercept is 8. Write the equation of the function.

  • 2. Determine the zero of each linear function.

  • 5. Use the discriminant to determine the number of

a)

y

1

3

x 2

  • b) line with y-intercept 3 and slope

zeros for each quadratic function.

a)

y 16x 2 40x 25

  • 1 2 y 16x 2 40x 23

b)

  • 552 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–7

Exponential Functions

The exponential function f ( x ) b x has the following characteristics: • The base
The exponential function
f ( x )
b x
has the following characteristics:
The base is restricted to
0 b 1
or
b 1.
The domain is
{ x R },
and the range is
{ y R y 0}.
• The x-axis is a horizontal asymptote.
• The y-intercept is 1.
If
b 1,
the graph increases (is a growth function).
• If
0 b 1,
the graph decreases (is a decay function).
EXAMPLE
Sketch the graph of each exponential function.
a)
y 2 x
b)
f ( x ) a 1
3 b x
Solution
a)
y
x
x
y 2
y
b)
1
x
y a
b x
10
10
1
3
23
8
8
8
22
9
6
6
21
3
1
4
22
4
0
1
4
2
2
1
x
x
1
1
21
3
0
0
–3
–2
1
2
3
–3
–2
1
2
3
2
–1 –2
–1 –2
1
0
1
2
9
1
2
2
4
1
3
8
Note that
y 2 x
is a growth curve and y A
B x
is a decay curve.
3
Practising
1.
Sketch the graph of each exponential function.
4.
The function
T 20 76(0.92) t
models the
a)
f ( x ) 3 x
c)
f ( x ) a 1
temperature, in °C, of a cup of coffee t minutes
2 b x
after it is poured.
b)
f ( x ) 10 x
d)
f ( x ) (1.5) x
a)
What is the initial temperature of the coffee?
1
2.
Compare the graphs of
y A
B x
and
y 3 x .
How are
b)
What is the temperature after 10 min?
3
they related?
c)
What is the temperature after 60 min?
d)
Determine the equation of the horizontal
3.
For the function
f ( x ) 4 x ,
state the domain, range,
asymptote. What does it represent?
intercepts, and equation of the asymptote.
e)
What is the significance of the number 76

in the equation?

R–7 Exponential Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

553

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–8

Transformations of Functions

You can graph functions of the form

y af ( k ( x d )) c

by applying the

appropriate transformations to key points on the parent function y f ( x ).

Stretches/compressions and reflections (based on a and k) must be applied before

translations (based on c and d ).

The value of a determines whether there is a vertical stretch or compression and

whether there is a reflection in the x-axis. The y-coordinate of each point is

multiplied by a.

 

If

a

1,

the graph of

If

0

a 1,

 

1

multiplied by

k .

If

k 1,

the graph of

If

0

k 1,

y f ( x )

is stretched vertically by the factor

a .

Z a Z .

the graph is compressed vertically by the factor

• If a is negative, the graph is also reflected in the x-axis.

The value of k determines whether there is a horizontal stretch or compression and

1

.

whether there is a reflection in the y-axis. The x-coordinate of each point is

y f ( x )

is compressed horizontally by the factor

  • 1 k

k

.

the graph is stretched horizontally by the factor

• If k is negative, the graph is also reflected in the y-axis.

The value of c determines the vertical translation. This value is added to the

y-coordinate of each point.

If

  • c the graph is translated c units up.

0,

• If

  • c the graph is translated c units down.

0,

The value of d determines the horizontal translation. This value is added to the

x-coordinate of each point.

• If d 0,

the graph is translated d units to the right.

• If d 0, the graph is translated d units to the left.

EXAMPLE 1

What transformations to the parent function

y f ( x )

would you perform to

create the graph of

y 2f (3( x 4)) 5?

of each point on the parent function?

What happens to the coordinates

Solution

Comparing the transformed function with the general form

y af ( k ( x d )) c, we have a 2, k 3, d 4, and c 5.

  • 554 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

• Since a 2,

there is a vertical stretch by a factor of 2 and also a reflection in

the x-axis. The y-coordinate of each point is multiplied by 2.

• Since

k 3,

there is a horizontal compression by a factor of

1

3

.

The

x-coordinate of each point is multiplied by

1

  • 3 .

• Since

c 5,

there is a vertical translation 5 units down. The value

5

is

added to the y-coordinate of each point.

• Since d 4,

there is a horizontal translation 4 units to the right. The value 4 is

added to the x-coordinate of each point.

EXAMPLE 2

Graph the function y

3

2

2

1

2 (x 3)

1

by applying of the appropriate

transformations to the parent function y 2x.

Solution

Table of values for

y 2 x

 

x

y

 
 

1

22

4

 

1

21

2

0

1

1

2

2

4

Table of values for

y

  • 3 2 2

2

x

x

y

 
 

3

4

8

 

3

2

4

 

3

0

2

2

3

4

6

Graph of y 2 x y 6 4 2 x 0 –4 –2 –2 2 4
Graph of y 2 x
y
6
4
2
x
0
–4 –2 –2
2
4
6

We start with points on the parent

function y 2 x .

  • 1 Graph of y

  • 2 3 2

  • 1 Apply any stretches/compressions

  • 2 x

and reflections next.

Since

a 3

2

,

there is a vertical

stretch. Each y-coordinate is

multiplied by

3

2

.

 

1

Since

k

2

there is a horizontal

stretch and also a reflection in the

y-axis. Each x-coordinate is

multiplied by 2.

 
y 6 4 2 x 0 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6
y
6
4
2
x
0
–4 –2 –2
2
4
6

R–8 Transformations of Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

555

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Table of values for

y

  • 3 2 1 (x 3)

  • 2 2

1

 

x

y

 

3

 

7

1

 

8

 

3

 

5

  • 1
    4

 

1

 

3

2

 

2

 

1

4

1

7

3 1 2 (x 3) Graph of y 2 2 y 6 4 2 0 –4
3
1
2 (x 3)
Graph of y
2
2
y
6
4
2
0
–4 –2 –2
2
4
6

1

Apply any translations last.

Since

c 1,

there is a translation

up. The value 1 is added to each

y-coordinate.

 

Since

d 3,

there is a translation to

the right. The value 3 is added to

each x-coordinate.

Notice that the horizontal asymptote

is shifted up to y 1.

Practising

  • 1. Describe the transformations that you would apply to the graph of y f ( x ) following functions.

  • a) y 3f ( x ) 2

  • b) 1

y f a 2 ( x 3)b

  • c) y f (2x ) 7

to graph each of the

  • d) y 3f (2( x 1)) 2

  • e) y f ( x ) 4

1

  • f) y 5 f ( x ) 3

  • 2. The point (2, 5) is on the graph of

y f ( x ).

State

the coordinates of the image of this point under each

of the following transformations.

 

y f (3x )

  • a) c)

y f ( x 4)

 

b)

y 2f ( x )

d)

y f ( x ) 7

  • 3. Given the function

f ( x ) x 2 ,

state the equation of

the transformed function under a vertical stretch of

factor 3, a reflection in the x-axis, a horizontal

translation 3 units to the right, and a vertical

translation 2 units up.

  • 4. Consider the function f ( x ) x 3 .

    • a) Make a table of values for f using x { 2, 1, 0, 1, 2}.

    • b) Describe the transformations to f that result in the function g ( x )

1

2 ( x 4) 3 5.

  • c) Determine the five points on the graph of g that are the images of the five points in your table of values for f in part a).

  • 5. Consider the functions

Y 1 x
Y 1 x

and

Y 2

What transformations to

Y

1

result in

Y 2

?

4 x.

  • 556 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–9

Families of Functions

Families of Linear Functions

Consider the equation

y mx 3.

It represents a straight line with y-intercept

3 and slope m. Different values of the parameter m will result in lines with different

slopes. Together, these lines make up a family of lines with the same y-intercept.

y 6 4 2 0 –4 –2 –2 2 4
y
6
4
2
0
–4 –2 –2
2
4

Families of Quadratic Functions

The equation

y a ( x 1)( x 3)

represents a family of quadratic functions.

Each member of the family has zeros at 1 and 3. Their differences are determined

by the value of the vertical stretch factor a.

EXAMPLE 1

y 6 4 2 x 0 2 4 6 –2 –2 – 4 –6
y
6
4
2
x
0
2
4
6
–2 –2
– 4
–6
What member of the family of quadratic functions with the vertex (3, 1) passes through point
What member of the family of quadratic functions with the vertex
(3, 1)
passes
through point (5, 5)?
Solution
The graph shows several members of the family of
y
quadratic functions with the vertex (3, 1).
6
4
This family has an equation of the form
2
f ( x ) a ( x 3) 2 1.
x
0
Substitute point (5, 5) into the equation, and solve for a.
2
4
6
–2 –2
5
a (5 3) 2 1
– 4
5
a (2) 2 1
–6
6
4a

a

  • 6 3

  • 4 2

The equation is f ( x )

3

2 ( x 3) 2 1.

R–9 Families of Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

557

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

Practising

  • 1. Determine the general equation of the family

a)

of straight lines with slope 3, but varying

b)

y-intercepts.

Find the equation of the member of this family

that passes through point (4, 7).

  • 2. Determine the equation of the family of

a)

quadratic functions with zeros at 2 and 4.

b)

What is the equation of the member of this

family with y-intercept 4?

  • 3. A family of exponential functions has equation y
    a)

2 (kx)

.

At what point do all the members of this family

meet?

  • b) Why does the parameter k vary in the graphs

of this family?

  • c) k

Show that

  • 3 4 results in a curve that passes

through point (4, 8).

  • 4. Determine the equation of the quadratic function that has vertex ( 2, 5)

and passes through (1, 8).

  • 5. Determine the equation of the quadratic function that has x-intercepts 5 and (7, 40).

1, and passes through

  • 6. Determine the equation of the quadratic function

f ( x ) ax

2 6x 7

if f (2) 3.

  • 558 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge

Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.

R–10

Trigonometric Ratios and Special Angles

Right-Triangle Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios

The trigonometric ratios for an acute angle can be defined using a right triangle, as

shown below.

 

opposite

sin u

hypotenuse

adjacent

cos u

hypotenuse

opposite

tan u

adjacent

triangles:

hypotenuse csc u opposite hypotenuse hypotenuse u sec u opposite adjacent adjacent cot u opposite
hypotenuse
csc u
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
u
sec u
opposite
adjacent
adjacent
cot u
opposite

opposite

The Pythagorean theorem is often useful for solving problems that involve right

(adjacent) 2 (opposite) 2 (hypotenuse) 2

The right-triangle definitions given above cannot be used for an angle that is not

acute, so we need to broaden the definitions.

Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios for Any Angle

An angle in standard position has its vertex at the origin and rotates counterclockwise

from the positive x-axis to its terminal arm. If point (