Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
R–1 
Exponent Laws 540 ................................................................................... 

R–2 
Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions 542 ........................... 

R–3 
Factoring Polynomial Expressions 544 ....................................................... 

R–4 
Working with Rational Expressions 
545 

R–5 
Slope and Rate of Change of a Linear Function 549 .................................. 

R–6 
The Zeros of Linear and Quadratic Functions 551 .................................... 

R–7 
Exponential Functions 
....................................................................... 
553 
R–8 
Transformations of Functions 554 ............................................................. 

R–9 
Families of Functions 
557 .......................................................................... 

R–10 
Trigonometric Ratios and Special Angles 
559 

R–11 
Graphing y sin x and 
y cos x 
562 
R–12 
Transformations of Trigonometric Functions 564 ...................................... 

R–13 
Solving Trigonometric Equations in Degrees 
567 

R–14 
Proving Trigonometric Identities 
570 
Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
539
540 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Solution
a)
_{A}_{2} 3x y _{B}_{A}_{2} x 4y _{B} _{2} 3x y x 4y _{2} 2x 5y
_{}
_{}
b)
64
2
^{}
3
1
64
^{2}
3
1
^{3} 64R ^{2}
Q
1
4
^{2}
1
16
c)
Ax ^{2} y ^{3} B ^{2}
Axy ^{2} B ^{} ^{4}
_{x} 4 _{y} 6
_{x} 4 _{y} 8
_{} _{x} 8 _{y} 14
Practising
1. Simplify. Express your answers using positive exponents.
y
4
a) y ^{7}
e)
x ^{2} y ^{7}
b)
A y ^{3} B ^{5}
f)
Ax ^{2} yB ^{2} Axy ^{3} B ^{4}
c)
( x 2) ^{4} ( x 2)
d)
a ^{9}
a ^{3}
g)
8
^{0}
h)
_{A}_{2} ^{0} 2B ^{0}
i)
_{4}
1
j)
4 ^{} ^{5}
k)
l)
a
10 ^{b} 1
1
a ^{4}
3
b 2
2.
a)
Evaluate. Express your answers in fraction form.
27 ^{}
1
3
b)
225
3
2
c)
100
^{0}^{.}^{5}
m)
_{A}_{a} 3 _{b}_{c} 0 _{B} 2
n)
a
_{x} 2 _{y} 5
x ^{} ^{2} y
3 b 4
o)
( y 1) ^{3} ( y 2) ^{4}
( y 1) ^{5} ( y 2)
d)
1
64 ^{3} 16
3
2
R1 Exponent Laws: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
541
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
To convert a polynomial expression from factored form to expanded form, use the
distributive property:
a ( b c ) ab ac
Some patterns occur frequently and are worth memorizing.
Square of a Sum 
Square of a Difference 
Difference of Squares 

( a b ) ^{2} 
( a b ) ^{2} 
( a b )( a b ) 

( a 
b )( a b ) 
( a 
b )( a b ) 
a ^{2} ab ab b ^{2} 
a ^{2} 2ab b ^{2} 
a ^{2} 2ab b ^{2} 
a ^{2} b ^{2} 

EXAMPLE 1 
Expand and simplify ( x 5)(3x ^{2} 4x 5).
3x ^{3} 11x ^{2} 15x 25
EXAMPLE 2
Use the distributive property to
multiply each term in the binomial
by each term in the trinomial.
There are 

simplified. 

expanded form. 

. 
2 3 6 terms in the
expanded form, before it is
Collect like terms to simplify the
20x 25
Expand and simplify
2( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)
Solution
2( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)
3 2( x 2) 4 3 ( x 1)( x 3) 4
(2x 4)( x ^{2} 3x x 3)
(2x 4)( x ^{2} 4x 3)
2x
^{3} 8x ^{2} 6x 4x ^{2}
16x 12
2x ^{3} 4x ^{2} 10x 12
Since multiplication is
associative, you can multiply the
expressions in any order you like.
Use the distributive property to
multiply. Drawing arrows will
help you to keep track of the
multiplications.
542 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
EXAMPLE 3
Expand and simplify (2x 3) ^{2} (3x 2)(3x 2).
Solution
(2x 3) ^{2} (3x 2)(3x 2)
(2x )
^{2}
2(2x )(3) (3) ^{2}
3 (3x )
2
(2)
2
4
4x ^{2} 12x 9 9x ^{2} 4
5x ^{2} 12x 13
Use the patterns for ( a b )
2 and ( a b )( a b ).
Practising
1. Expand and simplify.
a)
3x _{A}_{5}_{x} ^{2} 3x 4B
b)
(2x 7) ^{2}
c)
d)
3( x 4) ^{2} (2 x )(2 x )
6
a x
1
_{3}
b a x
1
2
^{b}
e)
f)
5x (2x 4) ^{2}
3
2x ( x 1) 4 ^{2}
2. Write in simplified expanded form.
a) 5( x 1)( x 1)( x 2)
b) 2( x ^{2} x 3)( x 7)
c) 4( x 2) ^{3}
d) ( x 5)( x 2)( x 5)( x 2)
e) (3x 4) ^{2} (2x 3)
f) ( x 3) ^{4}
R–2 Expanding and Simplifying Polynomial Expressions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
543
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Type 
Example 
Comment 

Common Factoring 
10x ^{4} 8x ^{3} 6x ^{5} 
Each term has a common 

ab ac a ( b c ) 
2x ^{3} (5x 4 3x ^{2} ) 
factor of 2x ^{3} . 

Factor out the largest common 

factor of each term. 

Factoring Trinomials 
x ^{2} 4x 21 
( 21) 7( 3) and 

ax 
^{2} 
bx c, when 
a 1 
( x 7)( x 3) 
4 7 ( 3) 

Write the trinomial as the 

product of two binomials. 

Determine two numbers 

whose sum is b and whose 

product is c. 

Factoring Trinomials 
3x ^{2} 4x 4 
Multiply 3( 4) 12. 

ax 
^{2} 
bx c, when 
a 1 
3x ^{2} 2x 6x 4 
Find two numbers whose 

Look for a common factor. If 
(3x ^{2} 2x ) (6x 4) 
product is 
12 
and 

none exists, use decomposition and write the trinomial as the 
x (3x 2) 2(3x 2) 
whose sum is 4. In this 

(3x 2)( x 2) 
case, the numbers are 6 

product of two binomials. 
Check: 
and 
2. Using these 

Check by expanding and simplifying. 
(3x )( x ) (3x )(2) ( 2)(2) ( 2)( x ) 3x ^{2} 6x 2x 4 
numbers, decompose the xterm. Group the terms, and factor out the 

3x ^{2} 4x 4 
common factors. 

Factoring a Difference of 
2x ^{2} 18 
Common factor first, 

Squares 
2( x ^{2} 9) 
when possible. 

x ^{2} y ^{2} ( x y )( x y ) 
2( x 3)( x 3) 

This is a special case of 

factoring trinomials, when 

b 5 0. 

Practising 

1. Factor. 










d) 3y ^{2} 18y 24
e) x ^{2} 64
f) x ^{4} 81
d) 12x ^{2} 18x 12
3. Expand to show that ( x y )( x ^{2} xy y ^{2} ) is the factored form of x ^{3} y ^{3} .
544 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
A rational expression is an algebraic expression that can be written as the quotient
of two polynomials. A rational expression is undefined if the denominator is zero,
so we write restrictions on the variables to avoid this.
Simplifying Rational Expressions
A rational expression can be simplified by factoring the numerator and the
denominator, and then dividing out the common factors.
EXAMPLE 1
Simplify and state restrictions.
21m ^{3} n ^{2}
6mn ^{4} 
x ^{2} 1 
c) 
4x 6 

x ^{2} 4x 3 
9 6x 

Solution 

21m ^{3} n ^{2}
6mn ^{4} 
x ^{2} 1 
Factor the numerator 

x ^{2} 4x 3 
and the denominator 

1
3mn 2 (7m 2 )
3mn 2 (2n 2 )

( x 1)( x 1) 
to find the largest 


( x 1)( x 3) 
possible common factor 

1 
to divide out. 

1 
( x 1) ( x 1)
( x 1) ( x 3)


7m ^{2} 




2n ^{2} 
1 

1 

m 0, n 0 

3 

x 
1, 3 
the denominator from equalling zero. 

4x 6 9 6x 

opposites 2(2x 3) 



3(3 2x ) 
When factors are opposites, factor out 

1 from one of the factors to make the 

2(3 2x ) 1
3(3 2x ) 1

factors identical. 

2 



3 
x ^{3}
2
R–4 Working with Rational Expressions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
545
Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
To multiply or divide rational expressions, factor the numerators and the denominators
(where possible), and then look for common factors that can be divided out.
EXAMPLE 2
x 3
1 

x 3, 5, 
2 
546 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Write restrictions to avoid
undefined values.
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions
To add or subtract rational expressions, you must have a common denominator.
To ensure that you will use the lowest common denominator, factor the numerators
and the denominators first. This will keep the expressions as simple as possible.
EXAMPLE 4
b
x 2, 2, 3
Factor the numerators and
the denominators.
If possible, divide out like
factors (but only within
each rational expression).
The lowest common
denominator is 7( x 2).
Multiply the numerator
and denominator of each
rational expression to create
an equivalent expression
with the desired common
denominator.
Simplify the numerator.
Write restrictions to avoid
undefined values.
R–4 Working with Rational Expressions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
547
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Practising
1. State the restrictions (if any) on each rational expression.
5
x
17 d)
x 2
a)
2. Simplify, and state restrictions. Write your answers using positive exponents.
a)
b)
x ^{2} 3x 2
x ^{2} 5x 6
t ^{3} t ^{2}
t t ^{3}
3. Simplify, and state restrictions.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
4. Simplify, and state restrictions.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
5. Show that 4x 1
3x
x ^{2} 36
548 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
The slope of a line is a ratio that compares the change in the dependent variable, y,
with the change in the independent variable, x.
Slope m
rise
change in y
y
y 2 y 1
run
change in x
x
x _{2} x _{1}
The equation of a linear relation can be written in the form
y mx b, where m is
the slope and b is the yintercept.
Values of the Slope
• The slope of a line that rises to the right is positive.
• The slope of a line that drops to the right is negative.
• The slope of a horizontal line is zero. The equation of the line can be written in
the form y b.
• The slope of a vertical line is undefined. The equation of the line can be written in
the form x a.
Equations of Straight Lines
• 
pointslope equation of a line: y y _{1} m ( x x _{1} ) 
• 
general form of the equation of a line: Ax By C 0 
• slopeintercept equation of a line: y mx b
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Two lines, with slopes m 1 
and 
m 2 
, 
are 

• parallel if and only if 
m 1 m 2 

• perpendicular if and only if m _{1} m _{2} 1; 
that is, if their slopes are negative 

reciprocals: m _{2} 1 m 

1 

EXAMPLE 

Find the slope and equation of a line that passes through points (5, 6) and (15, 2). 

Explain how the slope is a rate of change. 

Solution 

The slope is m ^{y} 2 ^{y} 1 
2 6 
4 
2 





x _{2} x _{1} 
15 5 
10 
5 
^{.} 

Substituting 
m

( x 
1 , y 1 
) (5, 6) 
into y y 

1 
), 
2 

y 6 
5 

2 

y 
x 
2 6 

5 2 

y 
5 
x 
8 
( x 5)
The slope of the line is
2
5
,
and the equation is y
2
5
x 8.
R–5 Slope and Rate of Change of a Linear Function: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
549
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
The slope is a rate of change because y will decrease by 2 units for each 5 unit
increase in x.
Practising
1. Determine the slope of a line that passes through
3. Suppose that you buy a plant. The height of the
each pair of points. 
plant t weeks after you buy it is h ( t ) 26 
1.2t, 

(1, 5) ( 4, 9) 
where h is the height in centimetres. What is the 

( 1, 4) 
slope of the height function, and what does the 

(5, 2) (5, 4) 
slope mean in the context of this situation? 

( 3, 5) ( 2, 
9) 




b) Ax By C 0 
a)
x 3
b)
y 6
550 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
The Zero of a Linear Function
A linear function of the form
y mx b
has one zero (xintercept), unless the
line is horizontal. (A horizontal line has no xintercepts, unless it lies on the xaxis.
Then every point on the line is an xintercept.)
Factoring out the slope will give the xintercept.
EXAMPLE 1
What is the xintercept of y 2x 6?
Solution
y 2x 6
Factor out the slope.
y 2( x 3) 

Solving for the zero, let y 0. 
The xintercept is 3, since substituting 

0 
2( x 3) 
x 3 results in a y value of zero. 
3 
x 
(Hence the name “zero of the function” 
for an xintercept.)
The Zeros of a Quadratic Function
A quadratic function can have two zeros, one zero, or no zeros.
The zeros of a quadratic function are also found by factoring the equation. When
factoring is not possible, the quadratic formula can be used. The discriminant can
be used to determine the number of zeros.
Quadratic Formula 
Discriminant 

The zeros of the function 
If 
b ^{2} 4ac 0, 
there are two zeros. 

y ax ^{2} bx c are 
If 
b ^{2} 4ac 0, 
there is one zero. 

b b 2 4ac 
If b 
^{2} 4ac 0, 
there are no zeros. 

x 
2a 
^{.} 
R–6 The Zeros of Linear and Quadratic Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
551
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
EXAMPLE 2
Determine the zeros of each function.
a) 
f ( x ) 2x ^{2} x 6 
b) g ( x ) x 2 
x 2 

Solution 


y
6
4
2
x
0
–6 –4 –2 –2
2
4
6
– 4
–6


f ( x ) 2x ^{2} x 6 

f ( x ) (2x 3)( x 2) 

Solving for the zeros, let f ( x ) 0. 



2x 3 0 x 2 

3 

x

or x 2 

2 


y
8
6
4
2
x
0
–6 –4 –2 –2
2
4
6
– 4




Using the quadratic formula gives 

b b ^{2} 4ac 


2a 


( 1) ( 1) ^{2} 4(1)(2) 




1 7


2 
The graph of g is entirely above the xaxis. Therefore, the function has no zeros. 

Since the square root of 7 is not a real number, the function g has no zeros. 

Practising 





a) 
f ( x ) x ^{2} x 42 
c) 
g ( x ) x 
2 
3x 1 


b) 
y 16x ^{2} 8x 1 
d) 
y 3x 
2 
5x 4 


2 
and 2, and 


the yintercept is 8. Write the equation of the function. 
2. Determine the zero of each linear function.
5. Use the discriminant to determine the number of
a)
y
1
3
x 2
b) line with yintercept 3 and slope
zeros for each quadratic function.
a)
y 16x ^{2} 40x 25
1 2 y 16x ^{2} 40x 23
b)
552 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
in the equation?
R–7 Exponential Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
553
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
You can graph functions of the form
y af ( k ( x d )) c
by applying the
appropriate transformations to key points on the parent function y f ( x ).
Stretches/compressions and reflections (based on a and k) must be applied before
translations (based on c and d ).
The value of a determines whether there is a vertical stretch or compression and
whether there is a reflection in the xaxis. The ycoordinate of each point is
multiplied by a. 

• 
If 
a 1, 
the graph of 

• 
If 
0 
a 1, 

1 

multiplied by 
k ^{.} 

• 
If 
k 1, 
the graph of 

• 
If 
0 
k 1, 
y f ( x )
is stretched vertically by the factor
a .
Z a Z .
the graph is compressed vertically by the factor
• If a is negative, the graph is also reflected in the xaxis.
The value of k determines whether there is a horizontal stretch or compression and
1
.
whether there is a reflection in the yaxis. The xcoordinate of each point is
y f ( x )
is compressed horizontally by the factor
1 k
k
.
the graph is stretched horizontally by the factor
• If k is negative, the graph is also reflected in the yaxis.
The value of c determines the vertical translation. This value is added to the
ycoordinate of each point.
• 
If
0, 
• If 
0, 
The value of d determines the horizontal translation. This value is added to the
xcoordinate of each point.
• If d 0,
the graph is translated d units to the right.
• If d 0, the graph is translated d units to the left.
EXAMPLE 1
What transformations to the parent function
y f ( x )
would you perform to
create the graph of
y 2f (3( x 4)) 5?
of each point on the parent function?
What happens to the coordinates
Solution
Comparing the transformed function with the general form
y af ( k ( x d )) c, we have a 2, k 3, d 4, and c 5.
554 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
• Since a 2,
there is a vertical stretch by a factor of 2 and also a reflection in
the xaxis. The ycoordinate of each point is multiplied by 2.
• Since
k 3,
there is a horizontal compression by a factor of
1
3
.
The
xcoordinate of each point is multiplied by
1
3 .
• Since
c 5,
there is a vertical translation 5 units down. The value
5
is
added to the ycoordinate of each point.
• Since d 4,
there is a horizontal translation 4 units to the right. The value 4 is
added to the xcoordinate of each point.
EXAMPLE 2
Graph the function y
3
_{2}
2 ^{}
1
_{2} (x 3)
_{} _{1}
by applying of the appropriate
transformations to the parent function y 2x.
Solution
Table of values for 
y 2 ^{x} 

x 
y 

1 

22 
4 

1 

21 
2 

0 
1 

1 
2 

2 
4 

Table of values for 
y 

2 
x 

x 
y 

3 

4 
8 

3 

2 
4 

3 

0 
2 

2 
3 

4 
6 
We start with points on the parent
function y 2 ^{x} .
1 Graph of y
_{2} 3 2 ^{}
1 Apply any stretches/compressions
2 x
and reflections next.
Since 
a ^{3} 2 
, 
there is a vertical 

stretch. Each ycoordinate is 

multiplied by 
3 

2 
. 

1 

Since 
k 
2 
there is a horizontal 

stretch and also a reflection in the 

yaxis. Each xcoordinate is 

multiplied by 2. 
R–8 Transformations of Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
555
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Table of values for
y 

_{} _{1} 

x 
y 

3 

7 
1 

8 

3 

5 


1 

3 
2 

2 

1 
4 

1 
7 
_{} _{1}
Apply any translations last.
Since 
c 1, 
there is a translation 
up. The value 1 is added to each 

ycoordinate. 

Since 
d 3, 
there is a translation to 
the right. The value 3 is added to 

each xcoordinate. 
Notice that the horizontal asymptote
is shifted up to y 1.
Practising
1. Describe the transformations that you would apply to the graph of y f ( x ) following functions.

y f a _{2} ( x 3)b 

to graph each of the
d) y 3f (2( x 1)) 2
e) y f ( x ) 4
1
f) y _{5} f ( x ) 3

y f ( x ). 
State 

the coordinates of the image of this point under each 

of the following transformations. 

y f (3x )
y f ( x 4) 

b) 
y 2f ( x ) 
d) y f ( x ) 7 
3. Given the function
f ( x ) x ^{2} ,
state the equation of
the transformed function under a vertical stretch of
factor 3, a reflection in the xaxis, a horizontal
translation 3 units to the right, and a vertical
translation 2 units up.
4. Consider the function f ( x ) x ^{3} .
a) Make a table of values for f using x { 2, 1, 0, 1, 2}.
b) Describe the transformations to f that result in the function g ( x )
1
_{2} ( x 4) ^{3} 5.
c) Determine the five points on the graph of g that are the images of the five points in your table of values for f in part a).
5. Consider the functions
and
Y 2
What transformations to
Y
1
result in
Y 2
?
4 x.
556 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Families of Linear Functions
Consider the equation
y mx 3.
It represents a straight line with yintercept
3 and slope m. Different values of the parameter m will result in lines with different
slopes. Together, these lines make up a family of lines with the same yintercept.
Families of Quadratic Functions
The equation
y a ( x 1)( x 3)
represents a family of quadratic functions.
Each member of the family has zeros at 1 and 3. Their differences are determined
by the value of the vertical stretch factor a.
EXAMPLE 1
a
6 3
4 2
The equation is f ( x )
3
_{2} ( x 3) ^{2} 1.
R–9 Families of Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
557
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Practising
1. Determine the general equation of the family
a)
of straight lines with slope 3, but varying
b)
yintercepts.
Find the equation of the member of this family
that passes through point (4, 7).
2. Determine the equation of the family of
a)
quadratic functions with zeros at 2 and 4.
b)
What is the equation of the member of this
family with yintercept 4?
3. A family of exponential functions has equation _{y} _{}
a)
_{2} (kx)
.
At what point do all the members of this family
meet?
b) Why does the parameter k vary in the graphs
of this family? 

Show that 

through point (4, 8).
4. Determine the equation of the quadratic function that has vertex ( 2, 5)
and passes through (1, 8).
5. Determine the equation of the quadratic function that has xintercepts 5 and (7, 40).
1, and passes through
6. Determine the equation of the quadratic function
f ( x ) ax
^{2} 6x 7
if f (2) 3.
558 Advanced Functions: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge
Copyright © 2009 by Nelson Education Ltd.
RightTriangle Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios
The trigonometric ratios for an acute angle can be defined using a right triangle, as
shown below. 

opposite 

sin u 
hypotenuse 
adjacent 

cos u 
hypotenuse 
opposite 

tan u 
adjacent 
triangles: 
opposite
The Pythagorean theorem is often useful for solving problems that involve right
(adjacent) ^{2} (opposite) ^{2} (hypotenuse) ^{2}
The righttriangle definitions given above cannot be used for an angle that is not
acute, so we need to broaden the definitions.
Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios for Any Angle
An angle in standard position has its vertex at the origin and rotates counterclockwise
from the positive xaxis to its terminal arm. If point (
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