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QUN L V BO V NGUN LI THU SN 1. Ngun li thu sn bao gm: - Thu sinh vt - H sinh thi 2.

Ngun li thu sn rng ngp mn Cn Gi bao gm nhng g? - H sinh thi: rng ngp mn - Thu sinh vt: tm, cua, c. 3. Chc nng nhim v ( nhng vic m QLBVNLTS phi lm) l g? - Thc hin qun l nh nc v NL & mi trng sng ca cc loi thu sn - Bo tn, bo v, phc hi - Quan trc (kim tra, kho st) rt quan trng - Xy dng, qun l c s d liu. 4. QLNLTS th ngi ta qun l da trn n v loi Lm g phn bit c loi? Da vo n v gen. 5. Vai tr cc nhm NLTS? - Lm thc phm - Gi tr c bit ( lm cnh, KH GD..) 6. NLTS lm thc phm quan trng c chia lm 4 nhm: - Nhuyn th ( 65000 loi) - Da gai ( 5300 loi) - Gip xc ( >30000 loi) - C ( 30000 loi) 7. C kinh t phi tho mn nhng yu cu no? - Gi tr kinh t - Sn lng 8. S lng loi c nc ngt: khong 700 loi 9. C kinh t nc ngt bn a: 44 loi 10. Cc loi c bn a: lc, sc rn, tr, r ng.. Cc loi c nhp ni: r phi, tr phi, trm, tri, chp. 11. Cc loi thu sn nc ngt khc ( ngoi c): - 12 loi VKXS ( gip xc) c gi tr kinh t: tm CX, cua ng, hn. - 15 loi VCXS ( lng c, b st) c gi tr kinh t: ch ng, ba ba 12. Hi sn l g? L nhng ngun li ngoi b bin. 13. C bin chia lm 2 loi: c ni, c y 14. NL c bin c khong 2030 loi vi 100 loi kinh t 15. a dng sinh hc sinh hc trn T c hng triu loi, D9VTS ch gp 1 phn nh. 16. a dng sinh hc bao gm nhng g? - a dng trong loi ( a dng di truyn hay kiu hnh). - a dng gia cc loi (a dng loi). - a dng gia cc h sinh thi. 17. a dng loi th hin s lng loi, cng nhiu loi cng a dng 18. a dng cc HST thu vc thuc v a dng sinh hc ( h thng sng, sui, h t nhin, h cha)

19. Mi a dng sinh hc & i sng kinh t: a dng sinh hc thuc v t nhin , nu kinh t pht trin qu nhanh s lm mt i tnh a dng sinh hc v ngc li mun a dng sinh hc th phi hi sinh i sng kinh t. 20. a dng loi thu sn VN: c bin c 2458 loi (2005), c ca sng 580 loi, c nc ngt 700 loi. 21. Theo FAO, NLTS c nghin cu da c trn 580 loi kinh t( ch yu la 2 c bin) & c xp vo cc nhm: - U : NL t c khai thc - M : NL khai thc va phi U,M cn nhiu kh nng pht trin sn lng - F: NL khai thc hon ( rt quan trng khai thc chnh) - O: NL khai thc qu mc cho php - D: NL b khai thc cn kit hon ton O,D cn kit - R: NL c ti tao li R hon ton cn kit 22. Sn lng khai thc ts VN tng u, sau 2 thp nin sn lng khai thc tng gp i, xp th 15 th gii, th 4 ASEAN. 23. Hin trng NLTSVN c xp vo cc mc F O R D U M cha? L do? - Khng th xc nh v thiu thng tin, d liu v NLTS, cha c nh gi, nhn nh chnh thc & cng b c tnh php l cao v NLTSVN. Hin nay, cc nh gi chung chung, cht lng d liu yu do c s chnh lch ln gia cc d liu thu nhp c. 24. Phng php QLNLTS da trn tip cn n loi ( tip cn c) l khng quan tm n mi trng cng nh h sinh thi. Hng mi l tip cn h sinh thi. - QL h sinh ti - QL ngh c - S khc nhau gia tip cn HST vi tip cn c tip cn HST c quan tm ti loi v mi trng, h sinh thi. 25. Nguyn l ca tip cn HST ( nguyn l chung l m bo s pht trin bn vng) - Hn ch tc ng - Duy tr bn vng cc mi tng tc - Kt hp li ch - QLNL - Cp nht khuyn co 26. So snh QL tng hp ti nguyn mi trng & qun l tng hp sinh vt c truyn? - Ging nhau: u l qun l ti nguyn - Khc nhau: QL tng hp ti nguyn mt QL tng hp sv c truyn Thi gian Di hn Ngn hn Ranh gii Ranh gii TN Ranh gii t to Chin lc n u i ph QL mi trng C Khng 27. c im ti nguyn nc VN l g? - K bn vng ( ni c nhiu nc, ni c t nc). 28. Ngun ti nc VN:

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VN c khong 830 t m3 nc mt + ma ri trong lnh th 37% + Ma ngoi lnh th chy vo 61% - Lng nc di t khong 60 t m3/ nm - Bnh qun u ngi: 10600 m3/ nm - Phn b nc mt & nc ngm rt khng u ( theo thi gian & khng gian, c nhiu ma l hn hn nghim trng). L do ti nguyn nc VN khng bn vng, chnh lch, khng ng u theo khng gian & thi gian, nhim, gia tng dn s, thin tai, bin i kh hu. H sinh thi l g? - H thng sinh vt & mi trng, c quan h tng tc - HST + Nc ngt + Nc l + Nc mn c im qun l sng sui VN: - VN c 2360 sng sui ( 710 km ) c: + Chia theo mt sng (5 cp ) +Chia theo phn nhnh sng (6 cp ) + Chia theo chiu di (3 cp ) + Chia theo din tch lu vc (3 cp ) - Sng sui VN gm 9 h thng sng ln & cc sng c lp Thnh phn loi c h t nhin km phong ph hn sng v h cha v ngun gc h t nhin l do con sng ct b bi lp 1 nhnh sng cht ( ph bin nht), cn h cha tha hng t thnh phn sng v c th nui. H cha c hi hay li? - Va c hi va c li tu theo trng hp, v tr. Phong ph loi: Bin>sng> ca sng Cc khi nim vng bin: - Vng nc ni thu: nm trong ng c s - Lnh hi: t ng c s tnh ra 12 hi l - Vng tip gip lnh hi: t ng c s tnh ra 24 hi l - Vng c quyn kinh t: t ng c s tnh ra 200 hi l - Thm lc a: bao gm y bin & lng t di bin bn ngoi lnh hi. su & dc y bin Vnh Bc B t dc, su thp - Vng bin min Trung dc & su ln - Vng bin ng Nam B su nh & dc y khng ln - Vng bin Ty Nam B t dc, su thp HST nhy cm l g? 3 HST nhy cm? - HST nhy cm l HST rt d b tn thng & kh b tn thng th kh phc hi li + HST c bin + HST san h + HST rng ngp mn -

38. Vai tr HST rng ngp mn: - Lm giu nng sut sinh hc - NLTS: ni tr ng, sinh sn, sinh trng v pht trin VTS - Bo v b bin, n nh kh hu, du lch 39. ngha ca vic kho st l g? - L to ra c s d liu QL qui hoch & thc hin pht trin bn vng NLTS - ngha ca c s d liu: nh gi QL qui hoch pht trin bn vng NLTS 40. kho st c hiu qu thit thc cn phi lm g? - Xc nh vn - Chn c mc tiu - Xc nh cc cu hi thng hi - Tin hnh thc hin - nh gi tho lun kt qu 41. at c kt qu nh mong i cn phi lm g? - Thng nht trong ni b - Thng nht vi nhng ngi khc c lin quan 42. 4 cch o c trong kho st NL. Khi tin hnh kho st thc t nn chn cch no? - o chiu di chun - o chiu di tng - o chiu di t nhin - o chiu di tng ti a 43. Cn trng lng c c nhng cch no? - Cn kh: khi m bng 0 - Cn t: sai s o lng khi nc trong c th c khc nhau. 44. Hn ch sai s trong o t cn nhiu ln Gim sai s ni suy tng ln s o t 45. Khi QLNL, s liu ly s l l bao nhiu s? - S l ly bao nhiu s th ph thuc vo phng php cn. 46. NLTS tim nng - Khai thc tho mn tnh thung mi - Sn phm c li nhun 47. Cc bc xc nh tim nng NLTS c mc ch, ngha g? - bit khi no nn dng li ng lc 48. Nhng s liu cn cho cng tc qun l nh gi NLTS: 4 nhm s liu: - Thnh phn loi, phn b sn lng - S liu sinh hc - S liu v mi trng - S liu v ti chnh kinh t. 49. Biu tng quan chiu di trng lng phn nh: sinh sn, sinh trng, tng trng, t l cht 50. 2 s liu sinh hc ph bin trong nghin cu NLTS: - CPUE ; L-W 51. W= a.Lb b l hng s c ngha biu th kiu tng trng b = 3 tng trng u , b > 3 tng chiu ngang nhiu , b < 3 tng chiu di nhiu

52. Cc bc xc nh tim nng NLTS: Tin kho st: (1) Cc loi c c khai thc? (2) t l nh bt (3) Loi nh c thch hp T l cao T l thp Dng li Tim nng th trng: (1) Mc chp nhn sn phm? (2) Th trng no cho sn phm? (3) Gi tr sn phm Tim nng cao Tim nng thp Dng li Hiu qu kinh t: (1) Chi ph nh bt? (2) Li nhun mang li? C li nhun Khng Dng li Tin hnh kho st: (1) Nng sut khai thc bn vng? (2) Mc khai thc thch hp? (3) Chin lc qun l? Cc m hnh trng lng: - T l F/C: F = Wc mi , C = Wc mi - T l Y/C: Y= W c trong nhm F t ti tui ln trung bnh ca nhm C - T l dao ng l tng ca: F/C : 3 6 ( con c b n c khi lng nhiu gp 3 6 ln c n n) Y/C : 1 3 (con c b n s = 1 3 ln con c n n cng 1 tui) Tr lng l g? Mc ch nh gi tr lng lm g? - Tr lng l s lng n c thc vng - Mc ch: nhm xc nh tr lng NL. Th no l n c? n c c ngha g i vi nh gi tr lng? - n c l tp hp cc c th ca 1 loi, c cng vng lu tr - ngha: gip c cho vic xc nh & nh gi tr lng Nghin cu qun n:
C con Sinh sn Qun n

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Nhim v chnh cu nghin cu qun n l xc nh cc thng s qun n ( tng trng, ti b sung, cht t nhin, cht do nh bt) Xc nh cc thng s trn nhm mc ch lm cho qun n ny pht trin, qun l nghin cu n c ny. 57. Cc kiu bin ng qun th : - Phn b & s lng qun th ( lun bin ng) - Tnh chn lc ca ng c ( do con ngi) - Cc mi quan h kch c ( ln hay nh) - S tng trng s sinh sn b sung - Mc cht ( cht t nhin & cht do nh bt) - Cc kiu vong i 58. Ti sao cc phn b n v qun th?

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- Gip c thun li trong giao phi - Pht trin kh nng xc nh v tr thc n - Pht trin kh nng bo v khi k th Cc kiu phn b trong qun th? ngha ? Yu t nh hng? - C 4 kiu phn b: kt cm, ng u, ngu nhin, khng u. - ngha: gip cho vic phn vng trong nghin cu nh bt hiu qu hn - iu kin sinh thi nh hng ti phn b. K 10 phng php c lng c qun th: - Sinh lng tuyt i - Sinh lng tng i - m mu i din - Thu mu theo tng - Din tch qut - nh du bt li - nh bt suy gim - Thng k qua quan st di nc - Thu m - Tnh lng trng ra Lm sao bit phn b trong qun th? - Lm theo qui m nh u tra th Thng s sinh lng tng i ph bin nht trong nghin cu thu sn l g? - Hiu s khai thc CPUE = sn lng (C) / n v khai thc (f) Cch thc hin sinh lng tuyt i? - Ly mu i din m, ri c tnh cho c qun th H s nh bt c phi hng s? ( sinh lng tuyt i khng l hng s) - Khng v kh nng nh bt ph thuc vo: + Thi im trong ngy + Thng nm & ma + su + Vng nh bt Phng php ly mu i in: - Ly mu i din X ca vng nh suy ra vng ln. Cho thu vc tng A: 5800 m3, c mt 14.5 con/m3 Cho thu vc tng B: 9800 m3, c mt 5.8 con/m3 p dng phng php thu mu phn tng theo qui tc Saville tnh t l thu mu l bao nhiu? Tnh t l gia tng A & B: = ; = 58 x 5 = 290 ( 300) 98 x 2 = 196 ( 200) =>

Thu 3 phn mu A Thu 2 phn mu B 67. Phng php thng k qua quan st di nc (UVC) l pp m qua quan st di nc, dung my quay phim hoc ln trc tip.

68. Phng php thu m: s dng my d c khi n di chuyn s pht ra sng m, d tm & bit c kch c, mt n c. 69. Lm th no pht trin NLTS? - Tng sinh sn b sung & sinh dng, gim cht do nh bt 70. Khai thc qu mc - Lng khai thc b gim i cng vi 1 n lc khai thc - Ngi khai thc phi cc hn & i xa hn b li sn lng b gim - C tui trung bnh b gim 71. Ngun li & mi trng thuc v nhng mc tiu phi duy tr hay pht trin? Ti sao? - Thuc mc tiu duy tr. V gia mi trng v kinh t phi chn 1 ci pht trin & 1 ci duy tr. Kinh t lun t mc tiu pht trin nng cao i sng con ngi ngun li & mi trng phi mc tiu duy tr. 72. Nguyn nhn lm gim NLTS: - Nguyn nhn gin tip: - + Mi trng b mt mt & tn ph - + p thu in - + Cht lng nc gim - + Loi ngoi lai - Nguyn nhn trc tip: - + Khai thc qu mc - + S can thip vo sinh thi ngh c - + HST nhy cm b tn ph - + Khi thc kiu sng - + Thch thc v c hi ca NTTS i vi khai thc ts. 73. Khoa hc thu sn l g? L nhng nghin cu phc v cho ngun li TS bng nhng phng php cho ra kt qu khoa hc ( c cng nhn) 74. Qun l thu sn l g? L 1 qu trnh iu chnh cc yu t sau: khoa hc, kinh t, chnh tr, vn ho- x hi ra 1 kt qu l qun l ngun li. + Khc nhau gia KHTS & QLTS l: - KHTS: nghin cu a ra kt qu KH - QLTS: dng cc kt qu KH, ng trn cc kt qu KH nhng khng s dng hon ton, cn nhc cc yu t a ra phng php gii quyt. 75. Sn lng bn vng ti a (MSY) l g? L sn lng ti a mi loi c th nh bt m khng lm nh hng ti sn lng ca loi trong tng lai. MSY l sn lng p nhng khng c trong thc t. 76. Hn ch ca mc tiu MSY: - Thng t hiu qu kinh t - Mc tiu n loi, cha tnh ti cc mi quan h gia cc loi. 77. Sn lng bn vng ti u (DSY) l g? L qun l ti u v mt sn lng nh bt, hiu qu kinh t, mc tiu nh bt & s bn vng ca HST.

78. S khc gia MSY & DSY? - MSY: thun tu v mt KH - DSY: cn phi hp cc iu chnh hp l. 79. Mc tiu QLTS: - Trnh ng trng sp - Gii hn nng lc & mc nh bt. 80. Lm sao a ra hn ngch khai thc? - Dng phng php KH a ra hn nghch 81. Nhng cch kim sot khai thc TS: 3 kha cnh kim sot - Cng c k thut - Gii hn u vo - Gii hn u ra 82. Cng c k thut: gii hn c, hn ngch khai thc, gii hn ma v, vng hn ch( ni tr n ca c con & c m), gii hn cng c ng c, th c, bo v n c, ci to mi trng. 83. Cng c qun l u vo (qun l u vo trc khi ngi ta khai thc) - Gii hn n lc khai thc - Gii hn ng c - Tin hnh ng ca + Thi gian, ma v (ma c ) + Vng + Kt hp 2 yu t thi gian & vng - Gii hn c mc li& h s thot c: c t nht phi sinh sn c 1 ln trc khi nh bt 84. Cng c qun l u ra (qun l u ra sau khi khai thc) Gii hn c - Th li c - Chia li hn ngch - X pht 85. QLNLTS: - Trc tip: + Gii hn cng c ng c + Gii hn ma v, vng + Hn ngch khai thc + Gii hn c c Gin tip: + Thu + Tr cp 86. Cc giai on QLNLTS M: - Trc 1850 ngun li di do - 1850 1900 : giai on khai thc - 1900 1935 : giai on bo v - 1935 1980 : khai thc & ql mi trng - 1980 nay : ql cng ng - + VN so vi M th thuc giai on no? - K thuc giai on no ht

87. QLTS = QL cng ng: QLTS da trn 90% QL cng ng ch c 10% l QL ngh c 88. Khu bo tn bin l g? L vng c ng ca bo v V TV & c gi tr v lch s - vn ho, thng gn vi rn san h (HST nhy cm) C th gii c 3858 khu bo tn bin Li ch ca khu bo tn bin: pht trin NL, bo v cc gi tr lch s, vn ho. 89. Hot ng khai thc c l tch cc hay tiu cc? Ph thuc vo mc ch khai thc, ql & s dng ngun li ts. 90. ng QLNLTS l g? L s chia s trch nhim & quyn hn ca chnh ph v nhng ngi s dng ngun li a phng QL ngh c & NLTS. u im: tnh dn ch cao hn. QLTS da vo cng ng: Nh nc tin hnh giao ht quyn cho cng ng ql S khc nhau gia ng qly v QLTS cng ng: - ng QL ch chia s 1 phn trch nhim& quyn hn, c tnh dn ch hn. Cn QL cng ng th chia s ton b. 91. Khi a ra 1 gii php th kha cnh no l quan trng nht? - Yu t kinh t 92. GIS c th ng dng nh th no trong qui hoch v qun l thu sn? - NLTS - Hot ng ts - Mi trng - Qui hoch & QL a nghnh 93. Ti nguyn trong nc / ts l g? L tt c nhng g nc, lin quan HST, phc v li ch con ngi 94. C mc li th no l ph hp? Ph hp cho c sinh sn c t nht 1 ln 95. Lit k 2 vn thi s lin quan n NLTS ?