You are on page 1of 26

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Nhng kin thc c bn v cc c tnh


H quang in l trng hp c bit ca phng in trong cht kh. Catod (-) e+ Trong vng khng gian gia hai in cc xy ra 2 qu trnh: Qu trnh ion ha e+ ion ha
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Anod (+)

Qu trnh kh ion ha e+ kh ion


2

Page 1

S ion ha v kh ion ha trong cht kh


ion ha kh ion

Qu trnh ion ha cht kh Qu trnh kh ion trong cht kh Ion ha t do S kt hp S pht x quang S trung ha S t pht x electron S khuych tn cc phn t S pht x electron nhit mang in Ion ha do va p Ion ha do nhit mt thi im bt k, trong iu kin xc lp, lun tn ti s cn bng ng gia hai qu trnh trn. mt cc phn t mang in l khng i dng in xc lp n nh.
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

S ion ha
Ion ha t do Trong khng gian lun c cc phn t mang in, sinh ra do tc ng ca cc tia v tr, ca s phng x t nhin v ca tia mt tri... Trong iu kin bnh thng, mt ca cc phn t ny rt nh, khng ng k. S pht x quang Cc tia nh sng chiu ln mt vi loi vt liu lm tch cc electron t do ra khng gian xung quanh. S t pht x electron do in trng Khi in trng bn ngoi t ln cc in cc, cc electron t do trong cc in cc nhn c ng nng, khi ng nng ln, mt vi electron t do c th vt qua gii hn mn chn in th ca in cc v bay ra khng gian xung quanh s t pht x electron in cc, ch xy ra khi in trng bn ngoi mnh (> 3.107 V/m).
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Page 2

S ion ha
S pht x electron nhit Khi kim loi (cht rn) b t nng ti nhit cao s tch cc electron c ng nng ln ( vt qua mn chn in th ca kim loi) ra khi chng. Khi nhit tng, cng pht x loi ny cng tng ln.

Ion ha do nhit Chuyn ng nhit hn lon ca cc phn t trong cht kh ph thuc vo nhit , khi chng va chm vi nhau s trao i nng lng s ion ha: qu trnh ion ha nhit. Cng ion ha nhit tng ln khi nhit tng v ngc li.

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

S ion ha
Ion ha do va p Di tc ng ca in trng, cc in t t do trong cht kh s chuyn ng gia tc ngc chiu in trng ng nng tng khi va p vo cc phn t trung ha cc ht mang in. Cng ion ha do va p ph thuc vo cc yu t: - Nhit cht kh, lin quan n ion ha do nhit - ln ca in trng - p sut cht kh ng cong Paschen

V: bn in ca khng kh d: khong cch gia 2 in cc p: p sut

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Page 3

S kh ion ha
S kt hp Cc phn t tri du ht nhau khi chng va chm nhau, in tch ca chng b trung ha lm gim s lng cc phn t mang in trong cht kh. S trung ha Khi cc in cc mang in th, cc phn t mang in trong cht kh khng ngng b ht vo in cc sinh ra dng in chy trong cht kh. in cc, cc phn t mang in trao (cc electron, cc ion m) v nhn (cc ion dng) in tch ca mnh v tr thnh cc phn t trung ha. S khuych tn cc phn t mang in Cc phn t ca cht kh lan truyn t ni c mt cao sang ni c mt thp hin tng khuch tn cc ht mang in.
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

c tnh ca s phng in trong cht kh


I

U Ty thuc vo gi tr ca in p t trn in cc (U) v dng phng in (I) trong cht kh ta c: - s phng in duy tr (OB) - phng in chc thng (BC) - phng in lnh (CD) - phng in h quang (DE)

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Page 4

c tnh ca s phng in h quang


Phng in h quang pht sinh khi tha 2 in kin: U>Uo, I>Io Uo, Io ph thuc vo vt liu in cc. Vt liu Platine Vng Bc Volfram ng Than
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Io

Uo

Uo, V 17 15 12 17 12,3 18-22

Io, A 0,9 0,38 0,4 0,9 0,43 0,03


9

c tnh ca s phng in h quang


Cc tnh cht c bn ca phng in h quang: Gia hai in cc hnh thnh lung sng chi la v bn vng, c th phn bit cc ranh gii r rng. Xut hin vt sng catod v anod. Mt dng in h quang rt ln t 100 n 1000 A/mm2. Nhit h quang rt cao, t 5000 n 10.000oK.

Ngun sn sinh ra cc phn t mang in trong cht kh ch yu l do: s t pht x electron do in trng, s ion ha do nhit s ion ha do va p.

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

10

Page 5

c tnh ca s phng in h quang


UC UA

Vt cathode v anode lc, la rt nh khong 1m UC, UA =10 n 20 V ph thuc phn ln vo vt liu in cc, khng ph thuc vo chiu di h quang. Nhit rt cao, nht l cathode, c th lm cho kim loi b nng chy, ch yu l do s va p gia cathode v khi ion dng di chuyn v in cc ny.

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

11

c tnh ca s phng in h quang


Uhqlhq.Ehq

Thn h quang lhqlhq Uhqlhq.Ehq

lhq

in trng Ehq khng ph thuc vo chiu di m ch ph thuc vo qu trnh ion ha v kh ion ha trong cht kh. qu trnh ion ha

Ehq

Ehq=10-20 V/cm: trng hp h quang chy n nh trong mi trng khng kh tnh (still air) v dng in h quang t 0,1 kA n 20 kA. Ehq=50-100 V/cm: trng hp h quang chy trong bung dp h quang (ty thuc vo tc di chuyn ca h quang, p sut trong bung dp)
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

12

Page 6

in p h quang
lhq lhq

i Ehqlhq

Uh in p h quang

E EC Ehq EA

U h = U a + U c + Ehq lhq U h = U ac + Ehq lhq


U a U c 10 20 V
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

U ac 20 40 V
13

in p h quang

U h = U ac + Ehq lhq
i vi cc kh c in h p: lhq nh, Ehq nh iu kin chy v dp tt h quang c xc nh ch yu bi cc hin tng xy ra vng cn cc in cc. Thng gi l h quang ngn.

i vi cc kh c in trung p hoc cao p: Ehqlhq ln iu kin chy v dp tt h quang c xc nh ch yu bi cc hin tng xy ra trn thn h quang. Thng gi l h quang di.

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

14

Page 7

c tnh volt - ampere


h

uh

c tnh volt - ampere ca h quang Uh = f(Ih)


Uh

Cc c im: - Tn ti gii hn h quang bt chy: Uc Uc=20-50V - ng c tnh khng ng nht chiu tng v gim dng in Ih do qun tnh nhit trong qu trnh chy h quang: Ut<Uc

Uc Ut

Ih

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

15

c tnh volt - ampere


Uh l2>l1 khi khong cch cc in cc cng ln th c tnh volt - ampere cng nm cao hn. c tnh volt - ampere s nm cao hn khi ? - gim cng ion ha - tng cng kh ion ha l2 l1
Ih Uh

Ih
Uh

li

bng cch: . tng cng lm mt h quang . tng p sut vng chy h quang . gim p sut vng chy h quang . thay i mi trng kh
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

SF6 khng kh
Ih
16

Page 8

c tnh volt - ampere

Tng s in cc n
U h = nU ac + Ehq lhq
Uh

nUac n Ih

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

17

H quang in mt chiu
Phng trnh cn bng in p
di U = iR + L + uh dt
h

uh

Khi h quang chy n nh, dng in i khng thay i

di =0 dt

i= I

I c xc nh t phng trnh:

U iR = uh (i) = irh
ng c tnh ti
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

ng c tnh h quang
18

Page 9

H quang in mt chiu

U iR = uh (i) = irh
ng c tnh ti (U iR) v ng c tnh h quang uh ct nhau ti 2 im A v B im chy n nh bn vng ca h quang in DC? im A l im chy n nh khng bn vng ca h quang in DC. im B l im chy n nh bn vng ca h quang in DC.
Uh U

di = U iR uh > 0 dt

U-Ri

+
B I

Inm

uh(i) Ih

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

19

H quang in mt chiu
u

H quang b dp tt khi:

di <0 dt

Ngha l ng c tnh h quang uh nm trn v khng ct ng c tnh ti (U iR) Khi ng c tnh h quang uh tip xc vi ng c tnh ti (U iR): ch ti hn.

U-Ri

uh(i)

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

20

Page 10

Dp tt h quang in mt chiu
Dp tt h quang in bng cch: R: R=Rth = tgth
u U
h

uh

U-Ri U-Rthi th Ith uh(i) i

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

21

Dp tt h quang in mt chiu
Dp tt h quang in bng cch: U: U=Uth
u U Uth
h

uh

U-Ri Uth-Ri uh(i) i

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

22

Page 11

Dp tt h quang in mt chiu
Dp tt h quang in bng cch:
u U
h

uh

lhq=lth Ehq: lm mt h quang nUac


U-Ri uh(i) uh(i) i

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

23

Nng lng ca h quang DC khi ngt mch

U = ih R + uh + L
thq

dih dt
thq

uh

Ui
0

thq

dt =

R
0

2 ih

dt +

u
0

ih dt + Lih dih
I

thq: thi gian h quang chy I: dng in trong mch trc khi ngt Nng lng ca h quang DC khi ngt mch
thq

Whq =

1 uh ih dt = L I 2 + 2

thq

(U R i
0

hq )ihq

dt

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

24

Page 12

Nng lng ca h quang DC khi ngt mch


thq thq

Whq =

1 uh ih dt = L I 2 + 2

(U R i
0

hq )ihq

dt

Nng lng ca h quang khi ngt mch bao gm hai thnh phn: - Thnh phn th nht, (L I2), nng lng in t d tr trong mch in, - Thnh phn th hai l nng lng nhn c t ngun. cc iu kin khc khng thay i, thnh phn ny cng ln khi thq cng ln. V d: nu uhq = 500 V, ihq = 10 000 A, thq=2 ms tnh Whq Phq = 5 MW v Whq = 10 kJ ln ca nng lng ca h quang khi ngt mch: 1, 10, 100 kJ.
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

25

Mt s bin php bo v tip im trong cc r le cng sut nh

Mt phn dng h quang i qua nhnh shunt hoc nng lng t trng c tiu tn bt qua in tr R hoc phng in.
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

26

Page 13

V d 1

Hy xc nh chiu di ti hn ca h quang in sao cho n b dp tt khi ngt mt mch in c in tr R v in p ngun l UDC= 300 V. Biu thc volt-ampre ca h quang:

uh =

1000 ih

[u]=V, [i]=A, [l]=cm

Gii cho: R=2 R=0,2 R=0,02 R=0,002


BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

27

V d 1

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

28

Page 14

H quang in xoay chiu Dng in v in p h quang

Trong mi chu k: dng in h quang trong mch khng ngng thay i v ln v chiu s dng c tnh ng phn tch h quang in AC

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

29

Dng in v in p h quang

uh, ihq khng sin ih qua tr s khng 2 ln trong mt chu k


BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

c tnh volt - ampere ng

30

Page 15

Qu trnh phc hi bn in trong khng gian gia cc in cc khi ih qua 0

Trong khong thi gian chy h quang khi u tng, qu trnh ion ha rt mnh, mt cc ht mang in cao. Anod (+) + e+ ee + + eCatod (-)

cui na chu k, dng in h quang gim, mt cc ht mang in gim. Anod (+) eeBMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

+ e-

+ +

Catod (-)

31

Qu trnh phc hi bn in trong khng gian gia cc in cc khi ih qua 0

Anod (+)

ee-

+ e-

+ +

Catod (-)

na chu k tip theo, khi dng in i chiu, cc tnh trn in cc thay i.

Catod (-)

+ + +

eee-

Anod (+)

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

32

Page 16

Qu trnh phc hi bn in trong khng gian gia cc in cc khi ih qua 0


Catod (-) + + + eeeUb Anod (+) Ub0
kb

Ngay ti thi im dng in i chiu: - cc electron nh chy nhanh v anode mi, - cc ion dng nng chuyn ng chm v cathode mi, xung quanh cathode mi c bao bc mt khi in tch hu nh ch l cc ion dng, vng khng gian cn cathode hu nh tr thnh cch in, xut hin mt in p bn in ban u Ub0 trong vng khng gian gia hai in cc ngay lc dng in o chiu v gi tr ny s tng theo thi gian: Ub = Ubo + kbt
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

dc kb ph thuc vo cng qu trnh ion ha/kh ion ha.

33

Qu trnh phc hi in p gia cc in cc


Ngay ti thi im dng in i chiu:

ng thi vi qu trnh phc hi bn in trong vng khng gian gia hai in ih=0 cc, xy ra qu trnh phc hi in p gia hai in cc do s cng bc ca in p ngun, gi l in p phc hi Ufh.

Ufh

Ub

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

34

Page 17

2 qu trnh xy ra trong vng khng gian gia cc in cc khi ih qua 0


Ufh

ih=0 Ub Ngha l ti thi im dng in i chiu, xy ra ng thi 2 qu trnh trong vng khng gian gia hai in cc: qu trnh phc hi bn in, Ub. qu trnh phc hi in p do s cng bc ca in p ngun, gi l in p phc hi, Ufh.
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

Ub

Ub0 t

Ufh

35

iu kin chy h quang AC


ih=0

Ufh

Ub H quang in AC chy n nh in p phc hi Ufh ln chc thng bn in trong vng khng gian gia hai in cc Ub.
U fh > Ubd
t

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

36

Page 18

iu kin chy h quang AC mch thun tr


in p phc hi Ufh=U~ khi 0<t<t1 bn in phc hi Ub = Ubo + kbt
Ufh=U~
Ub Ub0

H quang in AC bt u chy tr li na chu k tip theo khi:

U fh = U bd

t = t1

Ie in p phc hi ln chc thng bn in trong vng khng gian gia hai in cc ti thi im t=t1
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

37

iu kin chy h quang AC mch tr - khng


in p phc hi sau khi dng in i qua tr s 0 (Ufh)
U b Ufh

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

38

Page 19

Tnh in p phc hi
S mch in tng ng:
R L ihq U~ Ct rhq

Ct: in dung tng ng gia 2 u cc ngt R, L: in tr v in cm mch in

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

39

Tnh in p phc hi

Ti thi im t=0, ihq qua tr s 0: h quang b dp tt, do rhq


R L
Ufh Ub

Ct

t=0

E? V qu trnh qu phc hi in p gia hai u in cc xy ra trong mt khong thi gian rt ngn (tnh bng s) so vi mt na chu k ca in p ngun (T/2=10ms) nn gii bi ton qu ta xem in p ngun khi c gi tr khng i: : gc lch pha gia U~ v I E = 2U sin U: gi tr hiu dng ca U~
BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

40

Page 20

Tnh in p phc hi

Gii mch qu :

Ufh

U fh = E(1 e pt cos wo t)
p=
wo =

R : h s suy gim 2L
1

2U sin

LCtd 2 To = : chu k dao ng ring wo

: tn s gc dao ng ring
To 2

wot

U fh max = U fh

T t= o 2

T p o 2U sin (1 + e 2

) 2 2U sin 2 2U

Gi tr ti a ca in p phc hi khng ln hn hai ln bin in p ngun.


BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

41

iu kin chy h quang AC mch tr - khng

U fh = E(1 e pt cos wo t)
Ub = Ubo + kbt Ufh ph thuc: - thng s ca mch ngt: L, R, Ct - gc lch pha dng, p Uob, kb ph thuc: - vt liu tip im (in cc) - dng in ngt - phng php dp h quang

Ub Ufh

Ubo
2U sin

To 2

ot

H quang in AC chy n nh khi Ub(t) ct Ufh(t)


BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

42

Page 21

iu kin dp tt h quang in AC
H quang in AC c th dp tt theo hai nguyn l: 1. Li dng hin tng dng in h quang xoay chiu qua tr s 0 hai ln trong mt chu k: Khi dng in i qua tr s 0, ta tng cng qu trnh phc hi bn in sao cho n khng b chc thng bi in p phc hi gia hai u in cc dng in h quang khng th pht sinh tr li trong bn k k tip h quang b dp tt

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

43

iu kin dp tt h quang in AC

Ub = Ubo + kbt Tng cng qu trnh phc hi bn in bng cch: Ub0 - Dng nhiu ch ngt - Dng bung dp h quang c nhiu tm ngn bng kim loi - Gim nhit h quang - Tng p sut kh - Dng mi trng chn khng - Dng mi trng kh SF6

kb

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

44

Page 22

iu kin dp tt h quang in AC
2. Phng php?

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

45

V d 2: dp tt h quang in bng bung dp vi cc tm ngn bng kim loi

Tnh s tm ngn n dp tt h quang in xoay chiu bng phng php cng bc, bit in p ngun in ln nht l 240V, f=50Hz. Cho L = 3 cm, e = 1mm, UAC = 22 V, Ehq =75V/cm (ng vi dng in ngt 10kA, vt liu tip im gm bc v kt cu bung dp cho trc).

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

46

Page 23

V d 2: dp tt h quang in bng bung dp vi cc tm ngn bng kim loi

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

47

Dp tt h quang in bng bung dp vi cc tm ngn bng kim loi - ACB

arcing horn temporary contacts Ag based main contacts upper terminal

arc chute

Blow closed technology

pole shaft activated by the O-CO mechanism

rotating axis

insulating pole cage lower terminal current transformer connected to electronic trip unit

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

48

Page 24

Dp tt h quang in bng bung dp vi cc tm ngn bng kim loi - MCCB

upper connection

arc chute ablative part moving contact enclosure bar

magnetic circuit connection trip unit

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

49

V d 3: la chn CB cho mch in DC

max. Isc - ch c cc dng b nh s c A hng s c B s c C max. Isc - c hai cc b nh hng khng nh hng

Trng hp xu nht S c A V tr lp thit b ngt bo v Cc cc ngt bo v c u ni tip vi in cc dng

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

50

Page 25

V d 3: la chn CB cho mch in DC


DC Breaking capacity
CB type rating (A) breaker C32H-DC C60N C60H NC100H 10 - 40 6 - 63 6 - 63 10 - 100 15 (1P) 20 (1P) 20 (1P) DC Breaking capacity (kA) - L/R<0.015s <60V 125V 10 (1P) 20 (2P) 25 (2P) 30 (2P) 125V 20 (2P) 30 (3P) 40 (3P) 40 (3P) 250V 10 (2P) 40 (4P) 50 (4P) 20 (4P) Magnetic up-rating coef. special DC 1.38 1.38 1.42

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

51

V d 3: la chn CB cho mch in DC

BMTBD-LT KCD-nxcuong

52

Page 26