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# MBA-HHM (2013-2015) COURSE NAME: RESAERCH METHODOLOGY & APPLIED STATISTICS

## NAME OF THE FACULTY:

MR GIRISH PATHAK

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT:

SOFT ASSIGNMENT

DAY:

THURSDAY

DATE:

## 12TH SEPTEMBER 2013

PRN:

13040141097

1. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
1)MEAN QUESTION -FIND THE MEAN OF THE SET OF NUMBERS BELOW 3,4,-1,22,14,0,9,18,7,0,1 SOLUTION THE FIRST STEP IS TO COUNT HOW MANY NUMBERS THERE ARE IN THE SET, WHICH WE SHALL CALL N N=10 THE NEXT STEP IS TO ADD UP ALL THE NUMBERS IN THE SET SUM=3+4++-1+22+14+0+9+18+7+0+1 SUM=77 THE LAST STEP IS TO FIND THE ACTUAL MEAN BY DIVIDING THE SUM BY N MEAN=SUM/N MEAN=77/10 MEAN=7.7

## 2)MEDIAN FIND THE MEDIAN OF THE GIVEN DATA

SOLUTION AS IN THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLE, WE START OFF BY REARRANGING THE DATA IN ORDER FROM THE SMALLEST TO THE LARGEST.

NEXT WE INSPECT THE DATA TO FIND THE NUMBER THAT LIES IN THE EXACT MIDDLE.

WE CAN SEE FROM THE ABOVE THAT WE END UP WITH TWO NUMBERS (4 AND 5) IN THE MIDDLE. WE CAN SOLVE FOR THE MEDIAN BY FINDING THE MEAN OF THESE TWO NUMBERS AS FOLLOWS:

3)MODE FIND THE MODAL CLASS AND THE ACTUAL MODE OF THE DATA SET BELOW NUMBER FREQUENCY 1-3 4-6 7-9 10 - 12 13 - 15 16 - 18 19 - 21 22 - 24 25 - 27 28 - 30 SOLUTION MODAL CLASS = 10 - 12 7 6 4 2 2 8 1 2 3 2

WHERE L = 10 F1 = 9 F0 = 4 F2 = 2 H=3

THEREFORE,

2.PROBABILITY
A JAR CONTAINS 3 RED MARBLES, 7 GREEN MARBLES AND 10 WHITE MARBLES. IF A MARBLE IS DRAWN FROM THE JAR AT RANDOM, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT THIS MARBLE IS WHITE? SOLUTION : WE FIRST CONSTRUCT A TABLE OF FREQUENCIES THAT GIVES THE MARBLES COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS AS FOLLOWS COLOR FREQUENCY RED 3

GREEN 7 WHITE 10 WE NOW USE THE EMPIRICAL FORMULA OF THE PROBABILITY FREQUENCY FOR WHITE COLOR P(E)=
________________________________________________

## TOTAL FREQUENCIES IN THE ABOVE TABLE = 10 / 20 = 1 / 2

3.BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
AN ADVERTISEMENT FOR ANTACID CLAIMS A 40% END OF TREATMENT CLINICAL SUCCESS RATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF GASTRITIS. 8 GASTRITIS PATIENTS ARE GIVEN THE ANTACID AND LATER CHECKED TO SEE IF TREATMENT WAS SUCCESSFUL. LET US ASSUME THAT THE CLAIM IS CORRECT. FIND THE PROBABILITY THAT: 1) EXACT 3 PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY. 2) AT MOST 5 PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY. 3) LESS THAN 4 PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY. 4) AT LEAST 2 PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY. 5) MORE THAN 3 PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY. 6) BETWEEN 3 AND 5 (BOTH INCLUDED) PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY. 7) BETWEEN 3 AND 6 (BOTH EXCLUDED) PATIENTS ARE TREATED SUCCESSFULLY.

## ANSWER- . EXCEL SHEET WORK -

QUES2.xlsx

4.POISSONS DISTRIBUTION
THE PHARMACY OF A ORANGE CITY MULTY SPECIALITY HOSPITAL USES THE POISSON DISTRIBUTION TO MODEL THE NUMBER OF REQUISITIONS RECEIVED AT THE PHARMACY PER HOUR. SUPPOSE THE REQUISITIONS RECEIVED AT AN AVERAGE OF 6 PER HOUR. FIND THE PROBABILITY THAT: A. NO REQUISITIONS ARE RECEIVED IN AN HOUR. B. EXACTLY 5 REQUISITIONS ARE RECEIVED IN AN HOUR. C. AT LEAST 3 ARE RECEIVED IN AN HOUR. D. NO MORE THAN 3 REQUISITIONS ARE RECEIVED IN AN HOUR.

## ANSWER-. EXCEL WORK SHEET -

QUES3.xlsx

5.NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
QUESTION - THE LENGTH OF HUMAN PREGNANCIES FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH APPROXIMATES A NORMAL DISTRIBUTION WITH A MEAN OF 266 DAYS AND A STANDARD DEVIATION OF 16 DAYS. WHAT PROPORTION OF ALL PREGNANCIES WILL LAST BETWEEN 240 AND 270 DAYS (ROUGHLY BETWEEN 8 AND 9 MONTHS)? ANSWER NORMAL DISTRIBUTION . Z=240-266/16=-1.265 Z=270-266/16=0.25 U= 2.66 SIGMA=16 P(240 < X < 270) = P(-1.63 < Z < 0.25) P(-1.63 < Z < 0.25) = P(Z< 0.25) - P(Z < -1.63)

## P(-1.63 < Z < 0.25) = 0.5987 0.0516 =0.5471

6.CONFIDENCE INTERVAL
A HEALTHCARE COMPANY WANTS TO ESTIMATE THE AVERAGE LENGTH OF HEPATITIS B AWARENESS PROGRAMMES IN A YEAR. A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 25 PROGRAMMES GIVES A SAMPLE MEAN OF 14 MINS AND STANDARD DEVIATION IS 2.9 MINS. FIND OUT THE AVERAGE LENGTH OF A HEPATITIS B AWARENESS PROGRAM AT 95 % CONFIDENCE INTERVAL. ANS 5. GIVEN THAT MEAN = 14 MINUTES STANDARD DEVIATION = 2.9 MINUTES NOW WE KNOW THAT; UPPER LIMIT = +2S/N = 14+2*2.9/25 = 15.16 MINUTES. LOWER LIMIT= -2S/N =14-2*2.9/25 =12.84 MINUTES. CONCLUSION: WE ARE 95% CONFIDENT THAT THE AVERAGE LENGTH OF A HEPATITIS B AWARENESS PROGRAM WILL LIE BETWEEN 12.84 MINS 15.16 MINS.

## 7. BINOMIAL APPROXIMATION TO NORMAL (SINGLE POPULATION)

IN THE GALAXY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 40% OF RESEARCH PROJECTS ARE LABELED PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY. WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT OUT OF 110 RESEARCH PROJECTS RANDOMLY PICKED UP BY NEW RESEARCHER TO PERFORM FURTHER STUDY A. AT LEAST 47 WILL BE THOSE LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY. B. AT MOST 47 WILL BE T HOSE LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY. ANSWER - . N=110, P=0.4, Q=0.6, X=47 A. =N X P = 110X0.4 = 44 = NXPXQ = 110X0.4X0.6 = 2.517 Z = (X-) ------- = 47 44 --------------2.517 Z = 1.191

FROM STATISTICAL TABLE, AT Z = 1.191, PROBABILITY IS 0.3830 P(Z>1.191) = 0.5 0.3830 = 0.117 THIS MEANS WE CAN EXPECT AT LEAST 47 OUT OF 110 RESEARCH PROJECTS LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY HAVE A PROBABILITY OF 11.7% TO BE PICKED UP BY NEW RESEARCHER. B. P(Z<1.191) = 0.5+0.3830 = 0.8830 THIS MEANS WE CAN EXPECT AT LEAST 47 OUT OF 110 RESEARCH PROJECTS LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY HAVE A PROBABILITY OF 88.30% TO BE PICKED UP BY NEW RESEARCHER.

## 8 ONE WAY ANNOVA TEST

IN RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN HYDERABAD AN AUDIOLOGIST CONDUCTED A STUDY TO PREDICTS THAT THE STUDENTS WILL LEARN MORE EFFICIENTLY WITH A CONSTANT BACKGROUND SOUND AS OPPOSED TO AN UNPREDICTABLE SOUND OR NO SOUND AT ALL. HE RANDOMLY DIVIDES 24 STUDENTS IN 3 GROUPS OF 8. ALL STUDENTS STUDY A PASSAGE OF TEXT FOR 30 MINUTES. THOSE IN GROUP 1 STUDY WITH BACKGROUND SOUND AT A CONSTANT VOLUME. THOSE IN GROUP 2 STUDY WITH NOISE THAT CHANGES VOLUME PERIODICALLY. THOSE IN GROUP 3 STUDY WITH NO SOUND AT ALL. AFTER STUDYING, ALL STUDENTS TAKE A 10 POINT MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST OVER THE MATERIAL. ALPHA=0.01. TEST SCORES ARE AS FOLLOWS: GROUP TEST SCORES CONSTANT 7 4 6 8 6 6 2 9 SOUND RANDOM 5 5 3 4 4 7 2 2 SOUND NO SOUND 2 4 7 1 2 1 5 5 A HO: THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 3 STUDIES. H1: THERE IS SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 3 STUDIES.

QUES5.xlsx
CONCLUSION: P VALUE IS GREATER THAN ALPHA VALUE, SO HO IS NOT REJECTED. SO, THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 3 STUDIES. .

9. F TEST
A HOSPITAL CONDUCTED A TIME AND MOTION STUDY TO CALCULATE THE DISCHARGE TIME FOR THE INPATIENTS. IN A TEST OF, TWO GROUPS OF 25 MEMBERS EACH TOOK 35 MINUTES & 29 MINUTES RESPECTIVELY TO COMPLETE THE DISCHARGING FORMALITIES. THE HOSPITAL WANTS TO KNOW THAT THE VARIANCE OF TIME REQUIRED IN COMPLETING THE DISCHARGE PROCESS IS APPROX. EQUAL. CARRY OUT THE TEST USING = 0.1 ANSWER -

HO = VARIANCE OF TIME REQUIRED FOR COMPLETING THE DISCHARGE PROCESS IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER. H1 = VARIANCE OF TIME REQUIRED FOR COMPLETING THE DISCHARGE PROCESS IS SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER. NOW LET US COMPUTE TEST STATISTIC S1 = 35 MINS S2 = 29 MINS N1 = N2 = 25 FTEST = S12 / S22 = 1225 / 841 = 1.456 TO COMPUTE FC , = 0.1, /2 = 0.05 HERE N1 = N2 = 25 , THEREFORE DEGREE OF FREEDOM FOR BOTH GROUPS (DF) = 25 1 = 24 THEREFORE FROM STATISTICAL TABLES, FC WITH 24 DF IN NUMERATOR & 24 DF IN DENOMINATOR & /2= 0.05 IS 1.98 CONCLUSION: SINCE FTEST < FC , DO NOT REJECT HO HENCE VARIANCE OF TIME REQUIRED FOR COMPLETING THE DISCHARGE PROCESS IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER.

10 T TEST
YOU HAVE OBTAINED THE NUMBER OF YEARS OF EDUCATION FROM ONE RANDOM SAMPLE OF 38 CARDIOLOGISTS FROM STATE X AND THE NUMBER OF YEARS OF EDUCATION FROM A SECOND RANDOM SAMPLE OF 30 CARDIOLOGISTS FROM STATE Y. THE AVERAGE YEARS OF EDUCATION FOR THE SAMPLE FROM STATE X ARE 15 YEARS WITH A STANDARD DEVIATION OF 2 YEARS. THE AVERAGE YEARS OF EDUCATION FOR THE SAMPLE FROM STATE Y ARE 14 YEARS WITH A STANDARD DEVIATION OF 2.5 YEARS. IS THERE A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE EDUCATION LEVELS OF CARDIOLOGISTS IN STATE X AND STATE Y? ANSWER. HO: THERE IS NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN EDUCATION LEVEL OF CARDIOLOGISTS WORKING IN STATE X AND THE MEAN EDUCATION LEVEL OF CARDIOLOGISTS WORKING IN STATE Y. H1: THERE IS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN EDUCATION LEVEL OF CARDIOLOGISTS WORKING IN STATE X AND THE MEAN EDUCATION LEVEL OF CARDIOLOGISTS WORKING IN STATE Y. DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DF) = (N1+N2)-2 DF = 38+30-2=66 =0.5, TC= 1.997 STANDARD ERROR=

( ) ( )

( )

= 0.545

THEREFORE, TTEST = 1.834 SINCE, TTEST < TC , THEREFORE, DO NOT REJECT HO. CONCLUSION THERE IS NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN YEARS OF EDUCATION FOR CARDIOLOGISTS IN STATE X AND MEAN YEARS OF EDUCATION FOR CARDIOLOGISTS IN STATE Y.

## 11 DEPENDENT SAMPLE PAIRED T TEST

A STUDY INVESTIGATED WHETHER GARLIC LOWERS SERUM CHOLESTEROL LEVELS. FOURTEEN INDIVIDUALS WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED A DIET THAT INCLUDED EITHER GARLIC OR CORIANDER. AFTER TWO WEEKS ON THE INITIAL DIET, SERUM LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS LDL (MG/DL) WERE MEASURED. EACH SUBJECT WAS THEN CROSSEDOVER TO THE ALTERNATE DIET. AFTER TWO WEEKS ON THE SECOND DIET, LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS WERE WAS ONCE AGAIN RECORDED S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ANS. CORIANDER 4.61 6.42 5.40 4.54 3.98 3.82 5.01 4.34 3.80 4.56 5.35 3.89 2.25 4.24 GARLIC 3.84 5.57 5.85 4.80 3.68 2.96 4.41 3.72 3.49 3.84 5.26 3.73 1.84 4.14 DIFFERENCE 0.77 0.85 -0.45 -0.26 0.30 0.86 0.60 0.62 0.31 0.72 0.09 0.16 0.41 0.10

X1 = 4.444 MG/DL AND X2 = 4.081 MG/DL. ND= 14 TTEST =XD(T /2, XD = 0.363
N-1,)(SEXD)

SD = 0.4060

AT, 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL. FOR THE ILLUSTRATIVE DATA, N = 14, XD =0.363, SD= 0.4060, AND SE = 0.1085. THEREFORE, FOR 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL TCRITICAL = 2.16 AT (0.025,13) TTEST = 0.3629 0/ (0.4060/ 14) TTEST = 3.344 UPPER & LOWER LIMITS WILL BE, XD (T )(0.1085) = 0.3629 (2.16) (0.1085) = 0.3629 0.2344 = (0.1285, 0.597)

WE ARE 95% CONFIDENT THE TRUE MEAN DIFFERENCE LIES BETWEEN 0.1285 AND 0.597

## 12 .REGRESSION SIMPLE LINEAR

FIVE RANDOMLY SELECTED PATIENTS TOOK A BLOOD SUGAR TEST (IN FASTING CONDITION) FOR DIABETES MELLITUS TREATMENT BEFORE THEY BEGAN THEIR MEDICATION COURSE OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT. BASED ON THE GIVEN DATA ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS? WHAT LINEAR REGRESSION EQUATION BEST PREDICTS AFTER MEDICATION TEST RESULTS, BASED ON BLOOD SUGAR TEST RESULTS. IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF BLOOD SUGAR, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT HIS BLOOD SUGAR TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION? SOLUTION: PATIEN T 1 2 3 4 5 SUM MEAN XI 100 105 110 100 115 530 X=106 YI 90 95 100 80 90 455 Y=91 (XI - X) -6 -1 4 -6 9 (YI - Y) -1 4 9 -11 -1 (XI - X)2 36 1 16 36 81 170 (YI - Y)2 1 16 81 121 1 220 (XI - X)(YI Y) 6 -4 36 66 -9 95

XI THE TEST RESULTS BEFORE MEDICATION YI THE TEST RESULTS AFTER MEDICATION REGRESSION EQUATION - = B0 + B1X B1 = [ (XI - X)(YI - Y) ] / [ (XI - X)2] B1 = 95/170 = 0.558 B0 = Y - B1 * X B0 = 91 - (0.558)(106) = 28.672

THEREFORE, REGRESSION EQUATION IS: = 28.672 + 0.558X. IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF FASTING SUGAR, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT HIS BLOOD TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION? = 28.672 + 0.558X = 28.672 + 0.558 * 110 = 28.672 + 61.38 = 90.052 IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF FASTING SUGAR, WE WOULD EXPECT HIS BLOOD TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION AS 90.052MG/DL.

## 13 SAMPLE MEAN DISTRIBUTION

COMPARE THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ATHARVA ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTER IN 2010 TO THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA

CENTER IN 2011. A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 30 PATIENTS ADMITTED IN 2011 REVEALED THE FOLLOWING STATISTICS: MEAN AGE 19.5 YEARS, STANDARD DEVIATION 1 YEAR. THE DATABASE SHOWS THE MEAN AGE FOR 2010 PATIENTS WAS 18. ANS 13HO: THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTRE OF A HOSPITAL IN 2010 AND THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTRE OF A HOSPITAL IN 2011 H1: THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTRE OF A HOSPITAL IN 2010 AND THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTRE OF A HOSPITAL IN 2011. = .05 DEGREES OF FREEDOM = N-1 OR 29 TC = 2.045 STANDARD ERROR OF THE SAMPLE MEAN

BAR = 0.183

TTEST > TC, HENCE HO REJECTED. CONCLUSION: GIVEN THAT THE TEST STATISTIC (8.197) EXCEEDS THE CRITICAL VALUE (2.045), THE NULL HYPOTHESIS IS REJECTED IN FAVOR OF THE ALTERNATIVE. THERE IS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTER OF A HOSPITAL IN 2010 AND THE MEAN AGE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ACCIDENT AND TRAUMA CENTER OF A HOSPITAL IN 2011 (WHICH IS HIGHER).

## 14.BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION TO NORMAL SINGLE POPULATION

IN THE GALAXY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 40% OF RESEARCH PROJECTS ARE LABELED PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY. WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT OUT OF 110 RESEARCH PROJECTS RANDOMLY PICKED UP BY NEW RESEARCHER TO PERFORM FURTHER STUDY C. AT LEAST 47 WILL BE THOSE LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY. D. AT MOST 47 WILL BE THOSE LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY. ANS 6.

N=110, P=0.4, Q=0.6, X=47 C. =N X P = 110X0.4 = 44 = NXPXQ = 110X0.4X0.6 = 2.517 Z = (X-) ------- = 47 44 --------------2.517 Z = 1.191 FROM STATISTICAL TABLE, AT Z = 1.191, PROBABILITY IS 0.3830 P(Z>1.191) = 0.5 0.3830 = 0.117 THIS MEANS WE CAN EXPECT AT LEAST 47 OUT OF 110 RESEARCH PROJECTS LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY HAVE A PROBABILITY OF 11.7% TO BE PICKED UP BY NEW RESEARCHER. D. P(Z<1.191) = 0.5+0.3830 = 0.8830 THIS MEANS WE CAN EXPECT AT LEAST 47 OUT OF 110 RESEARCH PROJECTS LABELED AS PENDING FOR ANIMAL STUDY HAVE A PROBABILITY OF 88.30% TO BE PICKED UP BY NEW RESEARCHER.

## 15. ONE WAY ANNOVA TEST

IN RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN HYDERABAD AN AUDIOLOGIST CONDUCTED A STUDY TO PREDICTS THAT THE STUDENTS WILL LEARN MORE EFFICIENTLY WITH A CONSTANT BACKGROUND SOUND AS OPPOSED TO AN UNPREDICTABLE SOUND OR NO SOUND AT ALL. HE RANDOMLY DIVIDES 24 STUDENTS IN 3 GROUPS OF 8. ALL STUDENTS STUDY A PASSAGE OF TEXT FOR 30 MINUTES. THOSE IN GROUP 1 STUDY WITH BACKGROUND SOUND AT A CONSTANT VOLUME. THOSE IN GROUP 2 STUDY WITH NOISE THAT CHANGES VOLUME PERIODICALLY. THOSE IN GROUP 3 STUDY WITH NO SOUND AT ALL. AFTER STUDYING, ALL STUDENTS TAKE A 10 POINT MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST OVER THE MATERIAL. ALPHA=0.01. TEST SCORES ARE AS FOLLOWS: GROUP TEST SCORES CONSTANT 7 4 6 8 6 6 2 9 SOUND RANDOM 5 5 3 4 4 7 2 2 SOUND NO SOUND 2 4 7 1 2 1 5 5 ANS. 14 HO: THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 3 STUDIES. H1: THERE IS SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 3 STUDIES. CONCLUSION: P VALUE IS GREATER THAN ALPHA VALUE, SO HO IS NOT REJECTED. SO, THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 3 STUDIES.

QUES5.xlsx

## 16. POPULATION HYPOTHESIS TESTING Z TEST

FIVE RANDOMLY SELECTED PATIENTS TOOK A BLOOD SUGAR TEST (IN FASTING CONDITION) FOR DIABETES MELLITUS TREATMENT BEFORE THEY BEGAN THEIR MEDICATION COURSE OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT. BASED ON THE GIVEN DATA ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS? WHAT LINEAR REGRESSION EQUATION BEST PREDICTS AFTER MEDICATION TEST RESULTS, BASED ON BLOOD SUGAR TEST RESULTS. IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF BLOOD SUGAR, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT HIS BLOOD SUGAR TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION? SOLUTION: PATIEN T 1 2 3 4 5 SUM MEAN XI 100 105 110 100 115 530 X=106 YI 90 95 100 80 90 455 Y=91 (XI - X) -6 -1 4 -6 9 (YI - Y) -1 4 9 -11 -1 (XI - X)2 36 1 16 36 81 170 (YI - Y)2 1 16 81 121 1 220 (XI - X)(YI Y) 6 -4 36 66 -9 95

XI THE TEST RESULTS BEFORE MEDICATION YI THE TEST RESULTS AFTER MEDICATION REGRESSION EQUATION - = B0 + B1X B1 = [ (XI - X)(YI - Y) ] / [ (XI - X)2] B1 = 95/170 = 0.558 B0 = Y - B1 * X B0 = 91 - (0.558)(106) = 28.672

THEREFORE, REGRESSION EQUATION IS: = 28.672 + 0.558X. IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF FASTING SUGAR, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT HIS BLOOD TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION? = 28.672 + 0.558X = 28.672 + 0.558 * 110 = 28.672 + 61.38 = 90.052 IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF FASTING SUGAR, WE WOULD EXPECT HIS BLOOD TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION AS 90.052MG/DL.

17 SIMPLE REGRESSION
FIVE RANDOMLY SELECTED PATIENTS TOOK A BLOOD SUGAR TEST (IN FASTING CONDITION) FOR DIABETES MELLITUS TREATMENT BEFORE THEY BEGAN THEIR MEDICATION COURSE OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT. BASED ON THE GIVEN DATA ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS? WHAT LINEAR REGRESSION EQUATION BEST PREDICTS AFTER MEDICATION TEST RESULTS, BASED ON BLOOD SUGAR TEST RESULTS. IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF BLOOD SUGAR, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT HIS BLOOD SUGAR TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION? SOLUTION: PATIEN T 1 2 3 4 5 SUM MEAN XI 100 105 110 100 115 530 X=106 YI 90 95 100 80 90 455 Y=91 (XI - X) -6 -1 4 -6 9 (YI - Y) -1 4 9 -11 -1 (XI - X)2 36 1 16 36 81 170 (YI - Y)2 1 16 81 121 1 220 (XI - X)(YI Y) 6 -4 36 66 -9 95

XI THE TEST RESULTS BEFORE MEDICATION YI THE TEST RESULTS AFTER MEDICATION REGRESSION EQUATION - = B0 + B1X B1 = [ (XI - X)(YI - Y) ] / [ (XI - X)2] B1 = 95/170 = 0.558 B0 = Y - B1 * X B0 = 91 - (0.558)(106) = 28.672

THEREFORE, REGRESSION EQUATION IS: = 28.672 + 0.558X. IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF FASTING SUGAR, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT HIS BLOOD TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION? = 28.672 + 0.558X = 28.672 + 0.558 * 110 = 28.672 + 61.38 = 90.052 IF A PATIENT HAD 110MG/DL OF FASTING SUGAR, WE WOULD EXPECT HIS BLOOD TEST RESULT TO BE AFTER THE MEDICATION AS 90.052MG/DL.

THE END