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The Fountainhead is a 1943 novel by Ayn Rand. It was Rand's first major literary success and brought her fame and financial security. More than 6.5 million copies of the book have been sold worldwide. The Fountainhead' s protagonist, Howard Roark, is an individualistic young architect who chooses to struggle in obscurity rather than compromise his artistic and personal vision. The book follows his battle to practice what the public sees as modern architecture, which he believes to be superior, despite an establishment centered on traditionworship. How others in the novel relate to Roark demonstrates Rand's various archetypes of human character, all of which are variants between Roark, the author's ideal man of independent-mindedness and integrity, and what she described as the "second-handers." The complex relationships between Roark and the various kinds of individuals who assist or hinder his progress, or both, allow the novel to be at once a romantic drama and a philosophical work. Roark is Rand's embodiment of the human spirit, and his struggle represents the triumph of individualism over collectivism. The manuscript was rejected by twelve publishers before a young editor, Archibald Ogden, at the Bobbs-Merrill Company risked his job to get it published. Despite mixed reviews from the contemporary media, the book gained a following by word of mouth and became a bestseller. The novel was made into a Hollywood film in 1949. Rand wrote the screenplay, and Gary Cooper played Roark.
1 Background 2 Publication history 3 Plot summary 4 Characters 4.1 Peter Keating 4.2 Ellsworth Toohey 4.3 Gail Wynand 4.4 Howard Roark 4.5 Dominique Francon 5 Main themes 5.1 Individualism 5.2 Architecture 6 Reception and legacy 6.1 Contemporary reception 6.2 Responses to the Rape Scene 6.3 Cultural influence 7 Adaptations 7.1 Illustrated version 7.2 Film version 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 11.1 Publications 11.2 Foreign language translations 12 External links
Author Country Language Genre(s) Publisher
Early edition cover Ayn Rand United States English Philosophical novel Bobbs Merrill
Publication date 15 April 1943 Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback) 752 9780451191151
Rand began The Fountainhead (originally titled Second-Hand Lives) following the completion of her first novel, We the Living. While that earlier novel had been based partly on people and events from Rand's experiences, the new novel was to focus on the less-familiar world of architecture. Therefore, she did extensive research to develop plot and character ideas. This included reading numerous biographies and books about architecture, 
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She fights Roark and persuades his potential clients to hire Keating instead. Knopf signed a contract to publish the book. has fallen from fame due to the fickle demands of society and his own caustic personality. Dominique pays Keating a visit and makes him a one-time offer of her hand in marriage. Given full freedom to design it as he sees fit. Roark chooses to leave the school. Despite an effort by some professors to defend Roark and a subsequent offer to continue at Stanton from the dean. has graduated with high honors.L. and it had been translated into several languages. and quickly ingratiates himself with senior partner Guy Francon. which creates a public outcry. but their projects rarely receive recognition. whereas Keating's ability to flatter and please brings him quick success (despite his lack of originality) and earns him a partnership in the firm. Toohey manipulates Stoddard into suing Roark for general incompetence and fraud. However. sales "grew by word-of-mouth. Dominique turns her entire spirit over to Keating. Rather than indulge in traditional flirtation. she began to see more political meaning in the novel's ideas about individualism. who has retreated to her family's estate in the same town as the quarry. a popular but vacuous fellow student. At the trial. but when Rand was only a quarter done with manuscript by October 1940. temperamental and idealistic daughter Dominique.  Several other publishers rejected the book.Wikipedia. Ogden responded by wiring to the head office. liked the book. rejected the book after Rand insisted that they must provide more publicity for her new novel than they did for the first one. he encounters Dominique. including a new introduction by Rand. her boss there. and saying whatever he wants her to say. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM and working as an unpaid typist in the office of architect Ely Jacques Kahn. but he has trouble finding clients and eventually closes his office rather than compromise his ideals to win business from clients who want more conventional buildings. developing a popularity that asserted itself slowly on the best-seller lists. http://en. is an outspoken socialist. she eventually decided that Nietzsche's ideas were too different from her own. The Fountainhead was published in May 1943. the other said it was trash but would sell well. Knopf canceled her contract. Despite this. The quotes were not placed in the published novel. Roark briefly opens his own practice. she began doing freelance work as a script reader for movie studios. whose ideas had influenced her own intellectual development. That same year she also became actively involved in politics. Rand had difficulty finding a publisher for The Fountainhead. In 1993. A 25th anniversary edition was issued by New American Library in 1971. Ellsworth M. Toohey convinces a weak-minded businessman named Hopton Stoddard to hire Roark as the designer for a temple dedicated to the human spirit. Rand fired her agent and decided to handle submissions herself. Rand's intention was to write a novel that was less overtly political than We the Living. a yellow press-style newspaper. over two years after its initial publication. Macmillan Publishing. takes a job at the prestigious architectural firm of Francon & Heyer. every prominent architect in New York (including Keating) testifies that Roark's style is unorthodox and illegitimate.  Rand's agent began submitting the book to other publishers. then I am not the editor for you. hosting the dinners he wants. who once was architecture's modernist hero." His strong stand got a contract for Rand in December 1941. agreeing with him. who is covertly rising to power by shaping public opinion through his column and his circle of influential associates. but Stoddard wins the case and Roark loses his business again. a 50th anniversary edition from Bobbs-Merrill added an afterword by Rand's heir. and decides that since she cannot have the world she wants (in which men like him are recognized for what they are) she will live completely and entirely in the world she has. Bobbs-Merrill president D. Roark and Cameron create inspired work. Publication history Although she was a previously published novelist and had a successful Broadway play. and he leaves without Dominique even knowing his name. Keating has developed an interest in Francon's beautiful. When Rand finally found a publisher. he too moves to New York. Plot summary In the spring of 1922. There is an immediate attraction between them. His work serves as an inspiration for Roark. That evening. One said it was a great book that would never sell. Roark is notified that a client is ready for him to start on a new building. He put her in touch with the Bobbs-Merrill Company. As the first step. a disgraced architect whom Roark admires. Roark incorporates into it a naked statue of Dominique. Twelve other publishers had rejected the book. architecture student Howard Roark is expelled from the Stanton Institute of Technology for refusing to abide by its outdated traditions. first working as a volunteer in the presidential campaign of Wendell Willkie. "If this is not the book for you. Rand's work on The Fountainhead was repeatedly interrupted. Shortly after their encounter. Peter Keating. He takes a job at a Connecticut granite quarry owned by Francon. and she edited the final manuscript to remove other allusions to him. After leaving Cameron's employ. Leonard Peikoff. Archibald Ogden. the two engage in a battle of wills that culminates in a rough sexual encounter that Dominique describes later in the story as "rape". In 1937 she took a break from it to write a novella called Anthem. In 1938. but as Mimi Reisel Gladstein described it. Toohey.  As her royalties from earlier projects ran out. which had published We the Living. to avoid being "considered a 'one-theme' author". the novel was only one-third complete. and they are married that evening. While Roark is working in the quarry. Roark continues to attract a small but steady stream of clients who see the value in his work. Chambers. While Rand was working as a script reader for Paramount Pictures. Initial sales were slow. By 2008 the novel had sold over 6. author of a popular architecture column in the Banner . Meanwhile.The Fountainhead . Rand also initially planned to introduce each chapter with a quote from philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Richard Mealand. decided to reject the book. She also completed a stage adaptation of We the Living that ran briefly in early 1940. who works as a columnist for The New York Banner . Keating accepts. Dominique believes that greatness such as Roark's should never be offered to a public unable to appreciate it.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 2 of 9 . then attempting to form a group for conservative intellectuals. He goes to New York City to work for Henry Cameron. but two internal reviewers gave conflicting opinions about it. Ogden's boss.  As she developed the story. Cameron. Dominique defends Roark. A recently hired editor. Toohey sets out to destroy Roark through a smear campaign he spearheads.5 million copies in English."  It reached number six on The New York Times bestseller list in August 1945. which shuns him and praises Keating. and Rand's agent began to criticize the novel. offered to introduce her to his publishing contacts.wikipedia. breaking his engagement with Toohey's niece Catherine.
Wynand then buys Keating's silence and his divorce from Dominique. he finds that the Cortlandt design has been changed despite his agreement with Keating. he explicitly compares himself to Goethe's Mephisto. fully expressing his ideas and vision while Keating feels nothing in the inauguration of the Cosmo-Slotnick Building. so he asks for Roark's help in designing Cortlandt. Peter Keating Peter Keating is also an aspiring architect. http://en. The major characters exist as foils to Howard Roark who is Rand's image of the perfect man and. Keating's career (and his life in general) takes a sharp downward turn. so he enlists Roark to build a home for himself and Dominique. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM To win Keating a prestigious architecture commission offered by Gail Wynand. but. Over the course of the novel she must learn not to fear society and not to let its flaws undermine her integrity. but he rouses the courtroom with a speech about the value of ego and the need to remain true to oneself. which leads to his loss of the only thing he cherished right from his heart. who writes a popular art criticism column. is "the man who couldn't be. The Banner's circulation drops and the workers go on strike. to contrast Toohey. The entire country condemns Roark. His biggest threat is the strength of the individual spirit enshrined in Howard Roark. with all the prominent architects of America gathered to welcome him . is a quintessential example of his failure to stand up for his own convictions. Wynand is eventually faced with the choice of closing the paper or reversing his stance and agreeing to the union demands. which includes bullying and threatening to blackmail a sick old man and unintentionally causing his death. Keating's offer to elope with Catherine is his one chance to act on what he believes is his own desire. Roark feels wild exultation at seeing the Enright Building erected. to a lesser extent.. who helps him with some of his less inspired projects. and Roark. he only feels this way in hindsight. he initially refuses despite the fact that such an introduction would help his career. the newspaper publishes a denunciation of Roark over Wynand's signature. the owner and editor-in-chief of the Banner . Roark agrees to design it in exchange for complete anonymity and Keating's promise that it will be built exactly as designed. Wynand. Dominique arrives at that precise moment and offers to marry him for her own reasons.The Fountainhead . even Roark himself. Though she offers to introduce Keating to Toohey. and doesn't allow his morals to influence current decision making. He attends architecture school with Roark. the architectural establishment. and knows it". Keating celebrates the achievement of a partnership in Francon's office. who has finally grasped the nature of the "power" he thought he held. Toohey is an unabashed collectivist and Rand's personification of evil (when speaking freely.) The first and fourth sections are structured as two parallel and contrasting biographies . Keating knows that his most successful projects were aided by Roark. but Wynand keeps printing with Dominique's help. Wynand. Roark asks Dominique to distract the night watchman and dynamites the building to prevent the subversion of his vision. Keating realizes he is a failure. but doesn't know it". The home is built. Characters The novel is split into four sections: Keating. rather than pervert his ideas. which would help his career far more than a marriage with Catherine. Keating does possess some creative and intellectual abilities. indifferent to the opinions of others. and spends his time mainly on vicious office politics in order to sweep rival after rival out of his way. but Wynand finally finds the courage to follow his convictions and orders his newspapers to defend him. Keating is "a man who never could be. It is the only exception to his otherwise relentless and ruthless ambition. and Roark and Wynand become close friends. Peter Keating is "the man who couldn't be. Although Keating does have a conscience. who lives for himself and his own creativity. and doesn't know it". Roark). after which Wynand and Dominique are married. Roark goes to work in the rundown office of Henry Cameron in order to learn how to build . whose notion of success consists of flattery and manipulation.who becomes the foil for Roark. (Dominique Francon is presented as the perfect mistress for Roark. The one sincere thing in Keating's life is his love for Catherine Halsey. who sets out to destroy others through guilt and altruism. but to control others. At the trial. Dominique agrees to sleep with Wynand. Even by Roark's own admission. He falsely styles himself as representative of the will of the masses.while Roark goes off to work as a manual worker in a granite quarry. but is everything that Roark is not.wikipedia. in the spring of 1940. Toohey. which is what leads to his demise. entering the site to meet Roark atop the steel framework. The last scene follows Dominique (now Mrs. Rather than accept retirement. Keating goes to work in the big and prestigious office of Guy Francon. his mother.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 3 of 9 . But Wynand uses his superlative talent not to create for himself. His original inclination was to become an artist. Ellsworth Toohey. Roark seems doomed. consciously destroying greatness and valorizing the banal and trivial. a skyscraper that will testify to the supremacy of man: "Build it as a monument to that spirit which is yours. Roark is the man who was "as man should be". Ellsworth Toohey's niece. he lives solely off the support and condolence of others. who rises from the poverty of his youth to a position of power and riches. Ellsworth Toohey Ellsworth Monkton Toohey.a disciple rather than employee. who tempted Faust to destruction). decadent forces of Communism and Socialism. Toohey represents the stifling. Wynand subsequently discovers that every building he likes was designed by Roark.and could have been mine. When Roark returns from a long yacht trip with Wynand. he pleads with Toohey for his influence to get the commission for the much-sought-after Cortlandt housing project.of Roark (4th section) and of Keating (1st section): Roark is expelled from the Stanton Institute while Keating graduates as the star student.who was kept offstage in the previous sections . His willingness to build what others wish leads him to temporary success.. He gives in. although Wynand does not know about Roark's past relationship with Dominique. and his acceptance of the offer and betrayal of Catherine ends the potential of romance between them. Now washed up and out of the public eye. "a big bromide" whose only good parts were secretly designed by Roark." A brief epilogue eighteen months later. presented as the complete antithesis of Roark. Gail Wynand is the "man who could have been". The jury finds him not guilty and Roark wins Dominique. shuts down the Banner and asks Roark to design one last building for him. But. shows the Wynand Building well on its way to completion. but is stifled by his sycophantic pursuit of wealth over morals. He is subservient to the wills of others: Dominique Francon's father. but his opportunistic mother pushes him toward architecture where he might have greater material success. and it is Wynand . who is portrayed as absolute evil. His lack of personal integrity assists his rise to fame and fortune.Wikipedia. and oftentimes does genuinely feel bad after doing certain things he knows are immoral. in a more subtle and complicated way. is Roark's antagonist. From the third section on. His acceptance of Dominique's offer of marriage.
though Toohey's methods are much more subtle than those of the Soviet dictator. only forces" (Book II. through self-defeating behavior.) Men will not work for money. She eventually joins Roark romantically. Having seen Roark's buildings. By the end of the novel. She is a thorn in the flesh of her father and causes him much distress for her works criticizing the architectural profession's mediocrity. However. Toohey had already in early childhood developed a talent for subtly manipulating his parents and elementary school class-mates in order to gain power over them. Roark rails against convention. It no longer matters what might happen or what others think. but whose design was compromised by other architects brought in to negate his vision of the project. Furthermore. even when frankly describing the nightmare world which is his ultimate aim ("A world where the thought of each man will not be his own. She starts out punishing the world and herself for all the things about man which she despises. multi-party elections and a free press. It is widely believed that Rand modeled the character of Howard Roark after Frank Lloyd Wright. Indeed. and her intelligence. and transform it into an "institute for subnormal children". With a powerful speech condemning "second-handers" and declaring the superiority of prime movers. In that. Despite these parallels. Gail Wynand Gail Wynand is a powerful newspaper mogul who rose from a destitute childhood in the ghettoes of New York City to control the city's print media. He represents the triumph of individualism over the slow stagnation of collectivism. but an attempt to guess the thought of his neighbor (.and without having ever spoken to Roark. like a chess master.not judgment.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 4 of 9 . just by having seen Roark's buildings. Roark goes on to design many landmark buildings. not mitigated by others. I can see it in your buildings". She initially believes that greatness. the landmark Hearst Castle. Finally. but public polls") Toohey makes no mention of any overt dictatorship or coercive apparatus. loving. Hearst was also known as the father of the yellow journalism. insight and observations are above his. While Wynand shares many of the character qualities of Roark. Roark is an aspiring architect who firmly believes that a person must be a "prime mover" to achieve pure art.  The descriptions of the character also have much in common with her earlier writings influenced by the murderer William Edward Hickman. Toohey's mission is to destroy excellence and promote altruism as the ultimate social ideal.Wikipedia. Eventually. Hearst had his own dream house constructed in California. She begins thinking that the world did not deserve her sincerity and intellect. for the first time. however. Roark. no matter how good or bad the recognition may be. For example. but before she can do this. because the happiness she finds cannot be taken away from her. She lives her life for herself and no one else. a highly successful but creatively inhibited architect.who "never sees men. This is put forward in one of his most memorable quotes: "Don’t set out to raze all shrines—you’ll frighten men. These strengths are also what she initially lets stifle her growth and make her life miserable.is a master schemer and manipulator who. the use of the ideal of altruism to destroy personal integrity. Roark rises from an unknown architect who was kicked out of school for "drawing outside of the lines". with actual power held by Toohey-like "informal advisers"." Dominique is the daughter of Guy Francon. because the people around her did not measure up to her standards." Rand used her memory of the British democratic socialist Harold Laski to help her imagine what he would do in a given situation. As described in his biography. Rand describes Wynand as "a man who could have been.and even before Roark ever heard of Stoddard and his temple.  In the biography of Toohey. Dominique Francon Dominique Francon is the heroine of The Fountainhead. Rather. and he builds up a formidable power structure without resorting to an outright seizure of power or establishing a secret police apparatus.. it is mentioned that in his younger age he aspired to become a clergyman. Her new world. in your own way. can devise a gambit and predict many moves in advance. Bowing to none. described by Rand as "the woman for a man like Howard Roark. Having no true genius. The adult Toohey .. Lewis Mumford was also an initial inspiration." he knows exactly why he corrupts Peter Keating. She learns to love and create freely and passionately. Toohey already planned how he would attack the temple once built. Enshrine mediocrity. Howard Roark As the protagonist and hero in the book. and no longer cares whether the world is worthy of her expression. and the shrines are razed. such as Roark's. taking the businesses public in order to keep the newspapers from going under. she must learn to join him in his perspective and purpose. She has a new world now that is hers alone. which Wynand is known for in The Fountainhead. get it destroyed and Roark discredited. Rand states in her introduction that none of her characters were based upon real people. rather than the results of these successes.The Fountainhead . Mr. is doomed to fail and will be destroyed by the 'collectivist' masses around them. a flaw which eventually leads to his loss of the love and friendship he truly cherished not from mind but heart. the approval of their fellows . and living in which she finds happiness. but abandoned religion after discovering Socialism and considering that it better served his purposes. Ch. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM Aiming at a society that shall be "an average drawn upon zeroes. that in which she sets the standards by which all will live in regards to any http://en. It is only through Roark that her love of adversity and autonomy meets a worthy equal. Dominique Francon eventually learns not to let a flawed society and misled zeitgeist inhibit her creative and emotional expression and drive. Peter Keating is employed by her father. Toohey's early career parallels that of Joseph Stalin. you are a profoundly religious man. both real and fictional moguls sold out their empires. nor poison her hope in her own ideals. British socialist Harold Laski was one of Rand's primary inspirations for the character of Ellsworth Toohey. much like Wynand. the use of humor and tolerance to destroy all standards. Toohey's methods throughout the book suggest that such a regime might be able to retain the forms of democracy. 6) . Toohey has a good idea what kind of temple Roark would construct . and explains his methods to the ruined young man in a passage that is a pyrotechnical display of the fascist mind at its best and its worst. as opposed to councils or committees of individuals which lead to compromise and mediocrity and a "watering down" of a prime mover's completed vision.wikipedia. Roark prevails and is vindicated by the jury. He is eventually arrested and brought to trial for dynamiting a building he designed. who had also trained for the priesthood in his young age . Toohey is able to give his proxy Stoddard the arguments which would induce Roark to undertake the job: "It doesn't matter if you don't believe in God. Dominique no longer cares what anyone thinks or does. Toohey sets Hopton Stoddard to hire Roark for the construction of his temple . his success is dependent upon his ability to manipulate public opinion. but for prestige. it is the act of creating. the use of sacrifice to enslave." It has been speculated that Wynand is partially based on real-life newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst since Hearst himself started by taking over his father's newspaper and spread from there.
and writers have credited its importance in shaping their political philosophy. later. wrote of Roark as "an uncompromising individualist" and "one of the most inspiring characters in modern American literature. Dominique's terms as well as those with the same individualistic. Wright's design featured. the price he asked for doing so exceeded the studio's budget. She also commissioned Wright to create a summer home for her. a large fountain. Her new world. and." Yet. Rand. http://en. He follows and pays respect to old traditions. architect Bruce Goff. Nor does it deal with world affairs." Reception and legacy Contemporary reception The Fountainhead received extremely mixed reviews when it was released. and willingness to adapt.The Fountainhead . and she asked that Wright design the sets for the movie based on the novel.Wikipedia. appropriately. it "was one. She chose architecture for the analogy it offered to her ideas. The most that may be suggested is that some of the descriptions of Roark's buildings.. A common speculation is that Roark was inspired by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. in part. but it was never built. especially in the context of the ascent of Modern architecture.cantilevered over the edge of a cliff in a descriptive image reminiscent of Wright's famous Fallingwater in Pennsylvania. you will not be able to read this masterful book without thinking through some of the basic concepts of our time." Benjamin DeCasseres. As historian James Baker described it.  Nader Vossoughian has written that "The Fountainhead. it was Rand's work that "brought architecture into the public's focus for the first time.the first of Roark's designs to be built . although it was written during World War II.  Journalist John Chamberlain."  Apart from scenes such as Roark's courtroom defense of the American concept of individual rights.”  According to renowned architectural photographer Julius Shulman. Rand was a great admirer of Wright's architecture.. However. is a virtue. Peter Keating and Howard Roark are character foils. and that selfishness. Objectivism. the novel is also considered an important expression of Rand's entire philosophy. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM longer matters what might happen or what others think. including its political implications. That is.  There were other positive reviews. she avoided direct discussion of political issues. Lane and Paterson have been referred to as the founding mothers of the American libertarian movement with the publication of these works.  Rand's descriptions of Roark's buildings were inspired by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright.  The New York Times' review of the novel named Rand "a writer of great power" who writes "brilliantly.. resemble those of Wright: a notable example being the "Heller House" . and is shared on her terms alone. has shaped the public’s perception of the architectural profession more than perhaps any other text over this last half-century. a friend of Wright's. Architecture Rand dedicated The Fountainhead to her husband." Other negative reviews called the characters unsympathetic and Rand's style "offensively pedestrian. " The Fountainhead hardly mentions politics or economics. such as Fallingwater. Wright himself wrote to Rand highly praising the novel." Rand sent DeCasseres a letter thanking him for explaining the book's individualistic themes when many other reviewers did not. Frank O'Connor. credits these works with his final "conversion" from socialism to what he called "an older American philosophy" of libertarian and conservative ideas. and to architecture. He accommodates the changes suggested by others. founder of the San Francisco Institute of Architecture." and he believes that The Fountainhead was not only influential among 20th century architects. such as one that called it "a whale of a book" and another that said "anyone who is taken in by it deserves a stern lecture on paper-rationing.. objectivist and uncompromising ideals. current at the turn of the twentieth century. claimed that Roark's character was based on Wright. despite the many differences between them. Rand and her husband also visited Taliesen at Wright's invitation." and it stated that she had "written a hymn in praise of the individual. not in politics but in men's souls. mirroring Modern architecture's trajectory from dissatisfaction with earlier design trends to emphasizing individual creativity. However. a residence he designed in the 1930s. but Rand dismissed many of them as either not understanding her message or as being from unimportant publications. front and center in the life of every architect who was a modern architect. It is about one man against the system.wikipedia. Main themes Individualism Rand indicated that the primary theme of The Fountainhead was "individualism vs. It provided an appropriate vehicle to concretize her beliefs that the individual is of supreme value. and it does not permit other matters to intrude.  A number of negative reviews focused on the length of the novel.”  and noted architect Frederick Gibson has named the novel as his major inspiration. Architect Fred Stitt. He is uncompromising when changes are suggested. first. that in which she sets the standards by which all will live in regards to any association with Dominique. for example. a claim both Rand and Wright denied. beautifully and bitterly. The Fountainhead has been cited by numerous architects as an important inspiration for their work. even when the building's typology is a skyscraper. in the book Goff on Goff ."  The year 1943 also saw the publication of The God of the Machine by Isabel Paterson and The Discovery of Freedom by Rose Wilder Lane. Roark's individuality eulogizes modern architects as uncompromising and heroic. collectivism. a columnist for the New York Journal-American . mirroring the eclectic directions. has referred to Howard Roark as his “first architectural mentor. Keating practices in the historical eclectic and neo-classic mold. is worthy of her beautiful mind and heart because it belongs to her and no one else. because the happiness she finds cannot be taken away from her. the "fountainhead" of creativity. properly understood. despite the fact that it was born in the 1930s.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 5 of 9 . Roark searches for truth and honesty and expresses them in his work.
The 30-part series began on December 24. Against Our Will." complaining about its editing."  Comedian Dennis Miller has identified Howard Roark as his "favorite character in literature.  Adaptations Illustrated version In 1945. and Kent Smith as Peter Keating. it has received relatively little ongoing critical attention." and cites that reading The Fountainhead as an undergraduate was his first encounter with the philosophy. http://en. Although Rand wrote the screenplay. philosopher Douglas Den Uyl described The Fountainhead as relatively neglected compared to her later novel. Susan Brownmiller.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 6 of 9 . Journalist Nora Ephron has written that she had loved the novel when she was 18 but admits that she "missed the point." A Village Voice columnist has called it "blatantly tendentious" and described it as containing "heavy-breathing hero worship. Patricia Neal as Dominique Francon. Ephron writes that she decided upon re-reading that "it is better read when one is young enough to miss the point. she said that readers who have "a raised consciousness about the nature of rape" would disapprove of Rand's "romanticized rapes".  Both Bernstein and McElroy saw the interpretations of feminists such as Brownmiller as being based in a false understanding of sexuality. The film was directed by King Vidor.wikipedia. edited by Professor Robert Mayhew. illustrated version of the novel published for syndication in newspapers. Despite its popularity.  Barbara Grizzuti Harrison suggested women who enjoy such "masochistic fantasies" are "damaged" and have low self-esteem." which she suggested is largely subliminal sexual metaphor. In an essay specifically explaining this scene. Rand said." Defenders of the novel have agreed with this interpretation. who named his daughter "Dominique" for the heroine of The Fountainhead." However.Wikipedia. one cannot help thinking it is a very silly book.  Rand denied that what happened in the scene was actually rape. Individualist feminist Wendy McElroy said that while Dominique is "thoroughly taken". the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM Responses to the Rape Scene One of the most controversial elements of the book is the "rape scene" between Roark and Dominique. Film version Main article: The Fountainhead (film) In 1949."  In contrast. and said. Cultural influence The Fountainhead has continued to have strong sales throughout the last century into the current one. 1945. which was used with minimal alterations. such as philosopher Mark Kingwell." one having a "sub-Nietzschean assertiveness [that] excites somewhat eccentric youngsters to a new way of life. Andrew Bernstein wrote that although there is much "confusion" about it."  Allan Bloom has referred to the novel as being "hardly literature. who described The Fountainhead as "Rand's best work—which is not to say it is good. although analyses of both the literary and philosophical aspects of the novel by a dozen academics and scholars have been collected in Essays on Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead (2006). denounced what she called "Rand's philosophy of rape". and has been referenced in a variety of popular entertainments. acting and other elements. She called Rand "a traitor to her own sex". Feminist critics have attacked the scene as representative of an anti-feminist viewpoint in Rand's works that makes women subservient to men."  Wikipedia co-founder."  The book has a particular appeal to young people. television series and other novels. Assessing the novel's legacy for The Legal Studies Forum. Otherwise. Rand agreed. Rand was approached by King Features Syndicate about having a condensed. "our problem is to find those topics that arise clearly with The Fountainhead and yet do not force us to read it simply through the eyes of Atlas Shrugged . referring to it as "rape by engraved invitation" because Dominique wanted and "invited" the act. and who reports that the novel is a "favorite. although not as important as Rand fans imagine." Among critics who have addressed it. Susan Love Brown said the scene presents Rand's view of sex as "as an act of sadomasochism and of feminine subordination and passivity". some consider The Fountainhead to be Rand's best novel. and ran in over 35 newspapers. A true rape. were influenced by the novel. for portraying women as wanting "humiliation at the hands of a superior man"." the one to which he "returns. which were provided by Frank Godwin. including movies. Jimmy Wales. but also enjoyed the experience. Raymond Massey as Gail Wynand. would be "a dreadful crime. a New York City coffeehouse.  While Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein found elements to admire in Rand's female protagonists. [ citation needed] The name and motto of the Fountainhead Café. starring Gary Cooper as Howard Roark. Atlas Shrugged . provided that she could oversee the editing and approve the proposed illustrations of her characters. Warner Brothers released a film based on the book. there is nonetheless "clear indication that Dominique not only consented". there is always someone influenced by The Fountainhead. an appeal that led historian James Baker to describe it as "more important than its detractors think.The Fountainhead . she "disliked the movie from beginning to end. has described himself as “Objectivist to the core. in her 1975 work on sexual assault. he also writes that when he asks his students which books matter to them. a typical expression of the novel's continuing and often deeply personal impact on many readers can be seen in Oscar-winning actor Michael Caine. the descriptions in the novel provide "conclusive" evidence that "Dominique feels an overwhelming attraction to Roark" and "desires desperately to sleep with" him.
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