AC Machines

Lecture Notes By: Engr. Faheemullah Shaikh

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction

† The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831. However, Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments and thus receive credit for the discovery. † Faraday's experiments including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring, thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer. † The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil, invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland in 1836. He was one of the first researchers to realize that the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding, the larger the increase in EMF. † In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of alternating current and the secondary windings could be connected to several "electric candles" (arc lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as transformers

along with generators and other equipment. practical transformer designs did not appear until the 1880s. † Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron core called a "secondary generator" in London in 1882. † Russian engineer Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky developed the first threephase transformer in 1889.Transformer (History Continued) † In 1878. then sold the idea to the Westinghouse company in the United States. . Their systems used alternating current exclusively. and included those comprising both arc and incandescent lamps. Italy in 1884. and by 1883 had installed over fifty systems in AustriaHungary. where it was adopted for an electric lighting system. Efficient. They also exhibited the invention in Turin. the Ganz Company in Hungary began manufacturing equipment for electric lighting.

.Transformer The Ideal Transformer A lossless device with an input winding and an output winding.

. Phase angles are not affected.Transformer The transformer has Np turns of wire on its primary side and Ns turns of wire on its secondary sides. The relationship between primary and secondary current is: Np ip (t) = Ns is (t) i p (t ) 1 = i s (t ) a Note that since both type of relations gives a constant ratio. The relationship between the primary and secondary voltage is as follows: v p (t ) vs (t ) = Np Ns =a where a is the turns ratio of the transformer. hence the transformer only changes value of the magnitude of current and voltage.

. Voltage polarities are the same wrt the dots on each side of the core. the secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding.Transformer The dot convention in schematic diagram for transformers has the following relationship: • If the primary voltage is +ve at the dotted end of the winding wrt the undotted end. then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also. • If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding.

θs = θ Pout = Vp a (aI )cosθ p Pout = Vp Ip cos θ = Pin The same idea can be applied for reactive power Q and apparent power S. The power supplied by the transformer secondary circuit to its loads is given by: Pout = Vs Is cos θs Where θs = the angle between the secondary voltage and the secondary current.Transformer Power in an Ideal Transformer The power supplied to the transformer by the primary circuit: Pin = Vp Ip cos θp Where θp = the angle between the primary voltage and the primary current. The primary and secondary windings of an ideal transformer have the SAME power factor – because voltage and current angles are unaffected θp . Output power = Input power .

Hence there is a need to actually look into losses and calculation of real single phase transformers. N λ = ∑ φi i =1 . and the output is open circuit.Transformer Theory of Operation of Real Single-Phase Transformers † Ideal transformers may never exist due to the fact that there are losses associated to the operation of transformers. e ind = dλ dt where λ is the flux linkage in the coil across which the voltage is being induced. † Assume that there is a transformer with its primary windings connected to a varying single phase voltage supply. based upon Faraday’s law. flux will be generated in the primary coils. † Right after we activate the power supply. The flux linkage λ is the sum of the flux passing through each turn in the coil added over all the turns of the coil.

But in reality. there may be a higher flux level due to combination of other flux from other turns of the primary winding. Hence the most suitable approach is to actually average the flux level as: φ = λ N Hence Faraday’s law may be rewritten as: eind dφ =N dt .Transformer † This relation is true provided on the assumption that the flux induced at each turn is at the same magnitude and direction. at certain positions. the flux value at each turn may vary due to the position of the coil it self.

1 NP ∫v P ( t ) dt . where. we can determine the average flux level based upon the number of turns. This generated flux will travel to the secondary side hence inducing potential across the secondary terminal. φ = This relation means that the average flux at the primary winding is proportional to the voltage level at the primary side divided by the number of turns at the primary winding.Transformer The voltage ratio across Transformer Based upon Faraday’s Law. looking at the primary side of the transformer.

Taking into account the leakage flux. This leak is termed as flux leakage.Transformer † For an ideal transformer. hence the overall picture of flux flow may be seen as below: Primary Side: † † φ P = φ M + φ LP φ P = total average primary flux φM = flux component linking both primary and secondary coils φLP = primary leakage flux . However. we assume that 100% of flux would travel to the secondary windings. in reality. there are similar division of flux. the flux that reaches the secondary side is termed as mutual flux. there are flux which does not reach the secondary coil. Looking at the secondary side. in this case the flux leaks out of the transformer core into the surrounding.

dφP dφM dφLP vP (t ) = N P dt = NP dt + NP dt Or this equation may be rewritten into: vP (t ) = eP (t ) + eLP (t ) The same may be written for the secondary voltage. The primary voltage due to the mutual flux is given by dφ M eP (t ) = N P dt And the same goes for the secondary (just replace ‘P’ with ‘S’) . Hence. similar division applies.Transformer For the secondary side. looking back at Faraday’s Law.

we have eP (t ) dφM eS (t ) = = NP dt NS Therefore. eP (t ) N P = =a eS (t ) N S .Transformer From these two relationships (primary and secondary voltage).

there will still be current flow in the primary windings. Magnetization current. 2. We know that the relation between current and flux is proportional since. The current components may be divided into 2 components: 1. Core-loss current. ih+e – current required to compensate hysteresis and eddy current losses. iM – current required to produce flux in the core.Transformer Magnetization Current in a Real transformer Although the output of the transformer is open circuit. F = Ni = φ R φR ∴i = N .

therefore the current should also be a perfect sinusoidal. If the values of current required to produce a given flux are compared to the flux in the core at different times. Hence at this point. this is not true since the transformer will reach to a state of near saturation at the top of the flux cycle. in theory. more current is required to produce a certain amount of flux. Unfortunately. it is possible to construct a sketch of the magnetization current in the winding on the core. This is shown below: .Transformer Therefore. if the flux produce in core is sinusoidal.


it again is dependent upon hysteresis and eddy current flow. the high frequency components will be extreme as such that harmonic problems will occur. core-loss current is at a maximum hence it is in phase with the voltage applied at the primary windings. † The current lags the voltage at 90o † At saturation. hence we can also say that the core-loss current is greater as the alternating flux goes past the 0 Wb. . Core-loss current is non-linear due to the non-linearity effects of hysteresis. Therefore the core-loss current has the following characteristics: † † When flux is at 0Wb.Transformer Hence we can say that current in a transformer has the following characteristics: † It is not sinusoidal but a combination of high frequency oscillation on top of the fundamental frequency due to magnetic saturation. Since Eddy current is dependent upon the rate of change of flux. Looking at the core-loss current.

we can say that the total current flow into the primary windings is known as the excitation iex = im + ih + e current. .Transformer Now since that the transformer is not connected to any load.

while a current flowing into the undotted end of a winding produces a negative magneto motive force.Transformer Current Ratio on a Transformer and the Dot Convention Now. A current flowing into the dotted end of a winding produces a positive magneto motive force. The dots help determine the polarity of the voltages and currents in the core without having to examine physically the windings. a load is connected to the secondary of the transformer. .

secondary current is approx Fnet = NPiP . current must flow into one dotted end and out of the other dotted end. NPiP ≈ NSiS The relationship between primary and as long as the core is unsaturated. so Fnet = NPiP .Transformer In the figure above.NSiS = R Where R is the reluctance of the core. iP N S 1 = = iS N P a In order for the magneto motive force to be nearly zero. .NSiS ≈ 0 Thus.NSiS This net magneto motive force must produce the net flux in the core. the net magneto motive force is Fnet = NPiP .

† The resistance of windings in an ideal transformer is zero.Transformer As a conclusion. † The magnetization curve of an ideal transformer is similar to a step function and the net mmf is zero. † Flux in an ideal transformer stays in the core and hence leakage flux is zero. . the major differences between an ideal and real transformer are as follows: † An ideal transformer’s core does not have any hysteresis and eddy current losses.

Transformer The equivalent circuit of a transformer Taking into account real transformer. † Eddy current Losses – resistive heating losses in the core of the transformer. † Hysteresis Losses – these are associated with the rearrangement of the magnetic domains in the core during each half-cycle. They are proportional to the square of the voltage applied to the transformer. They then produced self-inductance in the primary and secondary coils. there are several losses that has to be taken into account in order to accurately model the transformer. non-linear function of the voltage applied to the transformer. † Leakage flux – The fluxes which escape core and pass through only one of the transformer windings are leakage fluxes. They are complex. namely: † Copper (I2R) Losses – Resistive heating losses in the primary and secondary windings of the transformer. .

the leakage flux in the primary and secondary windings produces a voltage given by dφLP eLP (t ) = N P dt dφ LS eLS (t ) = N S dt .Transformer The exact equivalent circuit of a real transformer The Exact equivalent circuit will take into account all the major imperfections in real transformer. Leakage flux As explained before. Copper loss They are modelled by placing a resistor RP in the primary circuit and a resistor RS in the secondary circuit.

The following may represent this proportionality: φ LS = ( PN S ) i S φ LS = ( PN S )iS Where P = permeance of flux path NP = number of turns on primary coils NS = number of turns on secondary coils Thus di d 2 ( PN S ) i S = N S P S dt dt di S d 2 e LS ( t ) = N S ( PN S ) i S = N S P dt dt e LS ( t ) = N S . therefore we can assume that leakage flux is also proportional to current flow in the primary and secondary windings.Transformer Since flux is directly proportional to current flow.

Then diS eLS (t ) = LS dt diS eLS (t ) = LS dt Where LP = NP2 P is the self-inductance of the primary coil and LS = NS2 P is the self-inductance of the secondary coil. . Therefore the leakage element may be modelled as an inductance connected together in series with the primary and secondary circuit respectively.Transformer The constants in these equations can be lumped together.

. The core loss current ih+e is a current proportional to the voltage applied to the core that is in phase with the applied voltage – modeled as a resistance RC across the primary voltage source.Transformer Core excitation effects magnetization current and hysteresis & eddy current losses The magnetization current im is a current proportional (in the unsaturated region) to the voltage applied to the core and lagging the applied voltage by 90° .modeled as reactance Xm across the primary voltage source.

Transformer .

this transformer equivalent has to be simplified by referring the impedances in the secondary back to the primary or vice versa. .Transformer Based upon the equivalent circuit. in order for mathematical calculation.

. It is not unusual to have an exciting current of approximately 10% on very small transformers (under 1 KVA). Another way to look at it is that exciting current is the transformer's "idling" current. exciting current could be as low as a half of one percent. Exciting current varies as a percent of the transformer's nameplate rating depending upon the transformer size. Exciting current is actually made up of two components: no load losses (normally expressed in watts) and reactive power (normally expresses in KVAR).Transformer Excitation Current Exciting current is the amount of amperage a transformer draws under a no load condition. On larger transformers.

as stated before. there may be a substantial surge of current through the primary winding called inrush current. although transformer inrush is caused by a different phenomenon. We know that the rate of change of instantaneous flux in a transformer core is proportional to the instantaneous voltage drop across the primary winding. (Discuss Later). and the flux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. Since flux (Φ) is proportional to the magnetomotive force (mmf) in the core. these two waveforms are phase-shifted by 90o. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the flux waveform. In a continuously-operating transformer. and both will be lagging the voltage waveform by 90o: . Or. and the mmf is proportional to winding current. This is analogous to the inrush current exhibited by an electric motor that is started up by sudden connection to a power source.Transformer Inrush Current When a transformer is initially connected to a source of AC voltage. the current waveform will be in-phase with the flux waveform.

. a magnetic flux of rapidly increasing value must be generated. In order for the transformer to create an opposing voltage drop to balance against this applied source voltage.Transformer Let us suppose that the primary winding of a transformer is suddenly connected to an AC voltage source at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at its positive peak value.

there is no "surge" or "inrush" or current in this scenario. but actually no more rapidly than under normal conditions: Both core flux and coil current start from zero and build up to the same peak values experienced during continuous operation. .Transformer The result is that winding current increases rapidly. Thus.

and on upward to their positive peaks as the voltage descends to a level of zero: . As the voltage builds to its positive peak. the flux and current waveforms build to their maximum positive rates-of-change. this is the point in time where both flux and winding current are at their negative peaks. During continuous operation (when the transformer has been powered for quite some time). let us consider what happens if the transformer's connection to the AC voltage source occurs at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at zero.Transformer Alternatively. experiencing zero rate-of-change (dΦ/dt = 0 and di/dt = 0).

not from a previously negative (magnetized) condition as we would normally have in a transformer that's been powered for awhile. in a transformer that has been sitting idle. When the magnetic flux increases in response to a rising voltage. both magnetic flux and winding current should start at zero. between continuous-mode operation and the sudden starting condition assumed in this scenario: during continuous operation. however.Transformer A significant difference exists. the flux and current levels were at their negative peaks when voltage was at its zero point. in a transformer that's just "starting. it will increase from zero upwards." the flux will reach approximately twice its normal peak magnitude as it "integrates" the area under the voltage waveform's first half-cycle: . Thus. however.

which creates the mmf to cause flux in the core. This means that winding current. disproportionate amounts of mmf are needed to generate magnetic flux. will disproportionately rise to a value easily exceeding twice its normal peak: . and so the core will almost certainly saturate during this first halfcycle of voltage. the magnetizing current would rise to approximately twice its normal peak value as well.Transformer In an ideal transformer. generating the necessary mmf to create this higherthan-normal flux. During saturation. However. most transformers aren't designed with enough of a margin between normal flux peaks and the saturation limits to avoid saturating in a condition like this.

If the transformer happens to have some residual magnetism in its core at the moment of connection to the source. the inrush could be even more severe. so as to tolerate current surges such as this without opening the circuit. the magnitude of the inrush current strongly depends on the exact time that electrical connection to the source is made. transformer overcurrent protection devices are usually of the "slow-acting" variety. . Because of this. As you can see.Transformer This is the mechanism causing inrush current in a transformer's primary winding when connected to an AC voltage source.

Transformer Autotransformer Auto-Transformer is a transformer with only one winding. the primary and secondary windings are not electrically isolated from each other. That means. the primary and the secondary of autotransformer are physically connected. other In other words. The theory is almost the same as two winding transformer .

Transformer Multiple Tap Autotransformer Multiple Tap Autotransformer with load .

Transformer Step-down Autotransformer Step-down Autotransformer .

Transformer a IH V2 IL b I2 I1 V1 c VH VL Two – winding Transformer Connection as an Auto-Transformer .

IH = I2 . . Voltage Rating V L = V1 V H = V1 + V 2 2.Transformer 1. Autotrans Turns-Ratio . I L = I H + I1 at high voltage side at low voltage side VH a = VL . Current Rating a IH V2 IL VL b I2 I1 V1 c VH I1 = VA TW V1 VA TW I2 = V2 ∴ I Rated I Rated I Rated autotrans 3.

Transformer 4. Pin = Plosses + Pout ⎛ Pin − Plosses ⎞ Pout ⎟ η= × 100% = ⎜ × 100% ⎜ ⎟ Pin Pin ⎝ ⎠ η =⎜ ⎜1 − ⎝ ⎛ Plosses ⎞ ⎟ × 100% ⎟ Pin ⎠ . Efficiency VH I H VAH = kVA 1000 V I VAL = L L kVA 1000 Given . ∴ Pout = p. f × kVAautotrans Know that . Plosses and power factor . kVA Rating 5.

Example: A single phase, 100kVA, 2000/200V two-winding transformer is connected as an autotransformer as shown in Figure such that 2000V is obtained at secondary. The portion ab is the 200V winding, and the portion bc is the 2000V winding. Compute the kVA rating as an autotransformer. Also calculate the efficiency for a given losses of 2800W at 0.866 lagging power factor.
a IH V2 IL b I2 I1 V1 c Figure VH


VA TW 100 × 10 3 = = 50 A I1 = 2000 V1 VA TW 100 × 10 3 I2 = = = 500 A V2 200 ∴ I Rated

Given , Plosses = 2800 W and p . f = 0 . 866 , ∴ Pout = 0 . 866 × (1100 × 10 3 ) = 952 . 6 kW Pin = Plosses + Pout = 952 . 6 × 10 3 + 2800 = 955 . 4 kW ⎛ 952 . 6 × 10 3 η =⎜ ⎜ 955 . 4 × 10 3 ⎝ = 99 . 71 % ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ × 100 % ⎠


I H = I 2 = 500 A I L = I H + I 1 = 500 + 50 = 550 A

V L = V1 = 2000 V V H = V1 + V 2 = 2000 + 200 = 2200 V


( 2200 )( 500 ) VH IH = = 1100 kVA 1000 1000 VLIL ( 2000 )( 550 ) = = 1100 kVA 1000 1000


Transformer Taps & Voltage Regulation
Distribution Transformers have a series taps in windings which permit small changes in turn ratio of transformer after leaving factory A typical distribution transformer has four taps in addition to nominal setting, each has a 2.5% of full load voltage with the adjacent tap This provides possibility for voltage adjustment below or above nominal setting by 5% Example: A 500 kVA, 13200/480 V distribution transformer has 4, 2.5 % taps on primary winding. What are voltage ratios? Five possible voltage ratings are: +5% tap 13860/480 V +2.5% tap 13530/480 V Nominal rating 13200/480 V -2.5% tap 12870/480 V -5% tap 12540/480 V

when high line impedance exist between generators & particular load. while normal loads should be supplied by an essentially constant voltage One solution is using special transformer called: “tap changing under load transformer” A voltage regulator is a tap changing under load transformer with built-in voltage sensing circuitry that automatically changes taps to preserve system voltage constant . i.e.Transformer Taps on transformer permit transformer to be adjusted in field to accommodate variations in tap voltages While this tap can not be changed when power is applied to transformer Some times voltage varies widely with load.

however a special transformer called: ”auto-transformer” can be used.e.Transformer some occasions it is desirable to change voltage level only by a small amount i. SE: series . Diagram of a step-up auto-transformer shown in figure below: C: common.8 kV. This may be due to small increase in voltage drop that occur in a power system with long lines.2 to 13. may need to increase voltage from 110 to 120 V or from 13. In such cases it is very expensive to hire a two full winding transformer.

Transformer A step-down auto-transformer : IH=ISE IL=ISE+IC In step-up autotransformer: VC / VSE = NC / NSE (1) NC IC = NSE ISE (2) voltages in coils are related to terminal voltages as follows: VL=VC (3) VH=VC+VSE (4) current in coils are related to terminal currents: IL=IC+ISE (5) IH=ISE (6) .

VL= (NSE+NC)/NC .Transformer Voltage & Current Relations in Autotransformer VH=VC+VSE Since VC/VSE=NC/NSE Î VH=VC+ NSE/NC . since ISE=IHÎ IL= (NSE / NC)IH +IH = (NSE + NC)/NC . VL VL / VH = NC / (NSE+NC) Current relations: IL=IC+ISE employing Eq. IH ÎIL / IH = (NSE + NC)/NC (8) (7) . VC Noting that: VL=VC Î VH=VL+ NSE/NC .(2) Î IC=(NSE / NC)ISE IL= (NSE / NC)ISE + ISE.

it can handle much more power than its original rating .Transformer Apparent Power Rating Advantage of Autotransformer Note : not all power transferring from primary to secondary in autotransformer pass through windings Therefore if a conventional transformer be reconnected as an autotransformer. The input apparent power to the step-up autotransformer is : And the output apparent power is: And : Apparent power of transformer windings: Sin=VLIL Sout=VH IH Sin=Sout=SIO SW= VCIC=VSE ISE .

the greater advantage. while SW is the apparent power actually traveling through the transformer's windings (the rest passes from primary to secondary without being coupled through windings) Note that smaller the series winding .Transformer This apparent power can be reformulated: SW= VCIC=VL(IL-IH) =VLIL-VLIH employing Eq. SIO is the apparent power entering the primary and leaving the secondary of the transformer. .(8) Î SW= VLIL-VLIL NC/(NSE+NC) =VLIL [(NSE+NC)-NC /(NSE+NC)=SIO NSE /(NSE+NC) SIO / SW = (NSE+NC) / NSE (9) This equation describes the apparent power rating advantage of an autotransformer over a conventional transformer.

. an autotransformer for power applications is typically lighter and less costly than a two-winding transformer. if the "neutral" side of the input is not at ground voltage. it requires both fewer windings and a smaller core. This is an important safety consideration when deciding to use an autotransformer in a given application. the "neutral" side of the output will also be not grounded.Transformer Limitations A failure of the insulation or the windings of an autotransformer can result in full input voltage applied to the output. Furthermore the input and output are not isolated. thus.beyond that range a two-winding transformer is usually more economical. up to a voltage ratio of about 3:1 .

autotransformers operate varying magnetic fields and so cannot be used directly on DC. on time- . Like multiple-winding transformer. to absorb some harmonic currents. A zig-zig transformer provides a path for current that is common to all three phases (so-called "zero sequence" current). A special form of autotransformer called a "zig zag" is used to provide grounding (earthing) on three-phase systems that otherwise have no connection to ground (earth).Transformer In three phase power transmission applications. A large three-phase autotransformer may have a "buried" delta winding. autotransformers have the limitations of not suppressing harmonics currents and as acting as another source of ground fault currents. not connected to the outside of the tank.

Another application is in industry to adapt machinery built (for example) for 480 V supplies to operate on a 600 V supply. .Transformer Applications Autotransformers are frequently used in power applications to interconnect systems operating at different voltage classes. and for impedance matching such as between a low-impedance microphone and a high-impedance amplifier input. tapped autotransformers are used to adapt speakers to constant-voltage audio distribution systems. On long rural power distribution lines. The variable ratio of the autotransformer compensates for the voltage drop along the line. so that customers at the far end of the line receive the same average voltage as those closer to the source. special autotransformers with automatic tapchanging equipment are inserted as voltage regulators. In audio applications. for example 138 kV to 66 kV for transmission.

therefore efficiency is higher than in the two winding transformer. since the secondary winding is part of the primary current. .Transformer Advantages of Auto-transformer • It effects a saving in winding material (copper or aluminum). lower exciting current. • Lower copper loss. • Lower leakage reactances. • Variable output voltage can be obtained.

) a. for this autotransformer connection. . respectively.Transformer Problem: The 2400:240-V 50-kVA transformer is connected as an autotransformer. in which ab is the 240-V winding and bc is the 2400-V winding. b. (It is assumed that the 240-V winding has enough insulation to withstand a voltage of 2640 V to ground.and low-voltage sides. as shown in Fig. Compute the voltage ratings of the high. Compute the KVA rating as an autotransformer.

When Vbc = 2400 V.Transformer a. Since the 2400-V winding bc is connected to the low-voltage circuit. VL = 2400 V. a voltage Vab = 240 V in phase with Vbc will be induced in winding ab (leakage-impedance voltage drops being neglected). The voltage of the high-voltage side therefore is VH = Vab + Vbc = 2640 V .

the rated current of the 240-V winding is 50.Transformer b.000/240 = 208 A. in this connection. the autotransformer has an equivalent turns ratio of 2640/2400. Since the highvoltage lead of the autotransformer is connected to the 240-V winding. the rated current at the high-voltage side of the autotransformer is equal to the rated current of the 240-V winding or 208 A. From the rating of 50 kVA as a normal twowinding transformer. Thus the rated current at the low-voltage winding (the 2400-V winding in this connection) must be . The kVA rating as an autotransformer therefore is Note that.

this seems rather unsettling since the 2400-V winding of the transformer has a rated current of 50 kVA/2400 V = 20. Further puzzling is that fact that this transformer.8 A. . all that the transformer has to do is to boost a current of 208 A through a potential rise of 240 V. Note that the windings carry only their rated currents in spite of higher rating of the transformer.Transformer At first. This fact is perhaps best illustrated by Fig. is capable of handling 550 kVA as an autotransformer. The higher rating as an autotransformer is a consequence of the fact that not all the 550 kVA has to be transformed by electromagnetic induction. whose rating as a normal two-winding transformer is 50 kVA. b which shows the currents in the autotransformer under rated conditions. corresponding to a power transformation capacity of 50 kVA. In fact.

It must be capable of handling 2000 kVA.Transformer Problem: An autotransformer is used to connect a 13. what would its ratings be? (a) The transformer is connected Y-Y. (a) What must the NSE / Nc turns ratio be to accomplish this connection? (b) How much apparent power must the windings of each autotransformer handle? (c) If one of the autotransformers were reconnected as an ordinary transformer.2-kV distribution line to a 13. so the primary and secondary phase voltages are the line voltages divided by 3 .8-kV distribution line. The turns ratio of each autotransformer is given by: . connected Y-Y with their neutrals solidly grounded. There are three phases.

Therefore.2 / 3 = 7621V. the windings in each autotransformer must handle (c) The voltages across each phase of the autotransformer are 13. . The voltage across the common winding (N C ) is 7621 kV. Since 1/3 of the total power is associated with each phase.Transformer (b) The power advantage of this autotransformer is So 1/22 of the power goes through the windings. a single phase of the autotransformer connected as an ordinary transformer would be rated at 7621/346 V and 30.3 kVA.8 / 3 = 7967 V and 13. and the voltage across the series winding (N SE) is 7967 kV – 7621 kV = 346 V.

(b) Find the kilovolt ampere rating of the transformer in the configuration. Consider the transformer to be ideal. the common winding must be the smaller of the two windings. (c) Find the maximum primary and secondary currents under these conditions. SOLUTION (a) For this configuration. (a) Sketch the transformer connection that will do the required job. and assume that all insulation can handle 600 V. The transformer connection is shown below: . and NSE = 4 Nc = .Transformer Problem: A 5000-VA 480/120-V conventional transformer is to be used to supply power from a 600-V source to a 120-V load.

Transformer (b) The kVA rating of the autotransformer can be found from the equation (c) The maximum primary current for this configuration will be and the maximum secondary current is .

Transformer Practice Problems A 450-kVA. If it is connected as a 7.8 percent when supplying a rated load of unity power factor. . rated kVA.43-kV autotransformer.97-kV transformer has an efficiency of 97.97:8. and efficiency when supplying a unity-power-factor load. calculate its rated terminal currents. 460-V:7.

Transformer (Three-Phase) .

As they rotate through the magnetic field they generate power which is then sent out on three (3) lines as in three-phase power. we have focused primarily upon single-phase transformers. Three-Phase transformers must have (3) coils or windings connected in the proper sequence in order to match the incoming power and therefore transform the power company voltage to the level of voltage we need and maintain the proper phasing or polarity. only (1) primary and (1)secondary winding is required to accomplish the voltage transformation Basically. the power company generators produce electricity by rotating (3) coils or windings through a magnetic field within the generator . Singlephase meaning. Three Phase Power Systems Up to this now.Transformer (Three-Phase) Single Phase vs. (2) power lines as an input source. These coils or windings are spaced 120 degrees apart. . therefore.

weighs less. or in some systems . power transfer is constant into a linear and balanced load. Three-phase power allows heavy duty industrial equipment to operate more smoothly and efficiently. When single-phase electricity is needed. First. Three-phase power can be transmitted over long distances with smaller conductor size. all three wires can carry the same current. Secondly. Three phase transformers is a common and popular method for electric power transmission. . There are many benefits to three phase power like it occupies less floor space for same ratings. costs about 15% less. By the use of three conductors a three-phase system can provide 173% more power than the two conductors of a single-phase system.Transformer (Three-Phase) Three phase electricity powers large industrial loads more efficiently than singlephase electricity. It is available between any two phases of a three-phase system. between one of the phases and ground.

A three phase bank consists of three single phase transformers.Transformer (Three-Phase) Three phase transformers can be constructed in two different ways i. . Three windings wrapped around a common core. 2.e. :1.

the winding connection options are the same) These transformers are put into an enclosure which is then filled with dielectric oil. Three Phase Transformer Connections: There are only 4 possible transformer combinations: Delta to Delta -: industrial application Delta to Wye -: most common. which can deteriorate the winding insulation. commercial and industrial Wye to Delta -: high voltage transmissions Wye to Wye -: rare. It also used to help provide cooling and to prevent the formation of moisture. a nonconductor of electricity. it provides electrical insulation between the windings and the case. Since it is a dielectric. . causes harmonics and balancing problems. (Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate transformer.Transformer (Three-Phase) Construction A three phase transformer is constructed by winding three single phase transformers on a single core.

A delta-wye transformer has its primary winding connected in delta and its secondary winding connected in a wye. The reasons for choosing a Y or ∆ configuration for transformer winding connections are the same as for any other three-phase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages. the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load). while ∆ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open. A wye-delta transformer has its primary winding connected in a wye and its secondary winding connected in a delta.Transformer (Three-Phase) Three phase transformers are connected in delta or wye configurations. . Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a three-phase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings).

∆-∆ connection schemes are preferred because of the inherent reliability of the ∆ configuration. VLP = VΦP VLS = VΦS .Transformer (Three-Phase) 1. Delta to Delta When there is no need for a neutral conductor in the secondary power system. a N S2 V φP + - a’ N P1 V LP N S3 N S1 V φS V LS b’ + b c c’ This connection is economical for large low voltage transformers in which insulation problem isn’t so urgent because it increases number/phase.

B2. A3 may be wired either “∆” or “Y”.Wye to Delta (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “-” or all the “+” winding points together. (∆) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to -). as may outputs B1. Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one three-phase system to another. . A2. Inputs A1.Transformer (Three-Phase) 2. B3.

Ya ∆ b a’ NP 1 NS NP 2 2 b b’ V φP N P1 N S1 V φS a’ Vφ VL P P NS NS 1 3 b’ V LP a N P2 N S2 c’ NP 3 Vφ S VL S c’ c c N P3 N S3 VLP = 3VΦP VLS = VΦS .∆ connection is commonly used in stepping down from a high voltage to a medium or low voltage.Transformer (Three-Phase) The Y. One reason is that a neutral is thereby provided for grounding on the high-voltage side. a procedure which can be shown to be desirable in many cases.

Transformer (Three-Phase) The voltage ratio of each phase V V Φ P Φ S = a The line voltage ratio V LP 3V Φ P = = V Ls V ΦS V LP 3V 3a a = V LP 3 V LS V a = = LS LP 3 LS V V = V Φ P LS .

Transformer (Three-Phase) Y-∆. since they consumed in circulating current on the ∆ side. They are in phase with each other).e. (i. transformers can not be connected in parallel unless they have proper phase sequence. This connection has no problem with 3rd harmonic components in its voltages. . The secondary voltage is shifted 30° relative to the primary voltage. Because of the phase shift.

Transformer (Three-Phase) 3. and the same phase shift as the Y-∆ . Delta to Wye V φS VLP = VΦP VLS = 3VΦS + V LP V φP a’ V LS - VLP V a 3VLP = ΦP = ⇒a= VLS VLS 3VΦs 3 a = V LP 3 V LP = V LS V LS = 3 VΦP VΦS b’ c’ This connection has the same advantages.

No difficulty is experienced from unbalanced loading as was in caes of wye .Transformer (Three-Phase) V LP VΦP = = a V LS VΦS This transformer has no phase shift associated with it because ratio of transformation is exactly same in primary as in secondary and hence no problems with unbalanced loads or harmonics. .wye connection.

However there is a phase shift of 30 degrees between the phase voltages and line voltages on the primary and secondary sides. Because the number/phase and amount of insulation required is minimum. Wye to Wye This connection is most economical for small and medium scale voltage transformation. Ratio of line voltages on the primary and secondary side is the same as the transformation ratio of each transformer. .Transformer (Three-Phase) 4.

1. However. and these components add up. The result is a very large third harmonic component of the voltage on the top of fundamental voltage . If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced. then the voltages on the phases of the transformer can become severely unbalanced.Transformer (Three-Phase) 3 V φ P V LP = V LS 3 V φ S The Y-Y connection has two very serious = a problems. These are always third harmonic components in a transformer because of nonlinearity of the core. the third harmonic components of each cycle of the fundamental frequency. Third harmonic components of the each of the three phases will be in phase with each other. Third harmonic voltages can be large. 2.

Harmonics are created by these “switching loads” (also called “nonlinear loads.Transformer Harmonics Harmonics are voltage and current frequencies riding on top of the normal sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms.. such as computers.” because current does not vary smoothly with voltage as it does with simple resistive and reactive loads): Each time the current is switched on and off.S. 60 Hz in U. a current pulse is created. . Usually these harmonic frequencies are in multiples of the fundamental frequency.and Canada and 40Hz in Japan. The most common source of harmonic distortion is electronic equipment using switch-mode power supplies. which is 50 hertz (Hz) in the Pakistan. and highefficiency electronic light ballasts. adjustable-speed drives.

collectively referred to as total harmonic distortion (THD). This voltage distortion typically results from distortion in the current reacting with system impedance. perform no useful work and can be a significant nuisance. the third harmonic is 180 Hz—or 3 x 60 Hz—and the fifth harmonic is 300 Hz (5 x 60 Hz). Harmonic waveforms are characterized by their amplitude and harmonic number. . capacitance. (Impedance is a measure of the total opposition—resistance.Transformer The resulting pulsed waveform is made up of a spectrum of harmonic frequencies. The third harmonic (and multiples of it) is the largest problem in circuits with single-phase loads such as computers and fax machines. In the U. and Canada. including the 50 Hz fundamental and multiples of it.) The higher-frequency waveforms.S. and inductance— to the flow of an alternating current. Figure shows how the 60-Hz alternating current (AC) voltage waveform changes when harmonics are added.

Transformer .

and transformers ‰Premature failure of transformers and uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) ‰Reduced power factor ‰Reduced system capacity (because harmonics create additional heat. panels. transformers and other distribution equipment cannot carry full rated load) . but the greater the power drawn by these modern devices or other nonlinear loads. The harmonics do not always cause problems.Transformer The Problem with Harmonics Any distribution circuit serving modern electronic devices will contain some degree of harmonic frequencies. Potential problems (or symptoms of problems) attributed to harmonics include: ‰Flickering lights ‰Very high neutral currents ‰Overheated phase conductors. the greater the level of voltage distortion.

starting at the outlet and moving upstream: ‰Measure the peak and root mean square (RMS) voltage ‰Inspect distribution panels.Transformer Identifying the Problem Without obvious symptoms such as nuisance breaker trips or overheated transformers. how do you determine whether harmonic current or voltages are a cause for concern? Here are several suggestions for simple. . ‰Measure phase and neutral currents at the transformer secondary with clamp-on current probes. inexpensive measurements that a facility manager or staff electrician could take. ‰Compare transformer temperature and loading with nameplate temperature rise and capacity ratings.

Transformer Solutions to Harmonics Problems The best way to deal with harmonics problems is through prevention: choosing equipment and installation practices that minimize the level of harmonics in any one circuit or portion of a facility. If the problems cannot be solved by these simple measures. Many power quality problems. even within existing facilities. moving a few loads between branch circuits. the problems can often be solved with simple solutions such as fixing poor or nonexistent grounding on individual equipment or the facility as a whole. including those resulting from harmonics. or adding additional circuits to help isolate the sensitive equipment from what is causing the harmonic distortion. However. occur when new equipment is haphazardly added to older systems. . there are two basic choices: to reinforce the distribution system to withstand the harmonics or to install devices to attenuate or remove the harmonics.

Transformer .

Transformer Parallel Operation of Transformer .

2. The phase rotation/phase sequence should be same. The vector diagrams and the phase displacement should be the same. The polarity should be the same. 3. 1. The percentage impedance should be equal.Transformer The essential requirement for the parallel operation of two or more transformers are the following. . The voltage ratios should be same. 5. 4.

Transformer Polarity should be the same The term polarity in parallel operation of transformers refers to a phase relationship b/w two or more units. It can be applied to indicate the directional relationship of primary and secondary terminal voltages of a single unit. Correct Connection Wrong Connection . Any to single phase transformers have the same polarity when their instantaneous terminal voltages are in phase.

for the same primary . . As percentage impedance cannot be exactly equal. the secondary voltage would be different. Percentage impedance should be equal If the percentage impedance are different. If the voltage ratios aren’t identical. it is preferable to operate transformers of the same ratings in parallel. the load sharing will not be proportional to VA ratings.Transformer Voltage ratios should be same. Thus the different secondary voltages would result circulating current within the secondary circuits and heating of the transformers even on no load.

. because mismatching phase angles can result in circulating current and other system disturbances. it may be necessary to connect a three-wire system to a four-wire system.Vector group A Vector group is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method of categorizing the primary and secondary winding configurations of threephase transformers. Because of this. For example. in a three-phase power system. This limits the types of transformers that can be connected between two systems. transformers are manufactured with a variety of winding configurations to meet these requirements. Within a poly phase system power transformer it indicates the windings configurations and the difference in phase angle between them. Different combinations of winding connections will result in different phase angles between the voltages on the windings. The phase windings of a poly phase transformer can be connected together internally in different configurations. depending on what characteristics are needed from the transformer. or vice versa.

followed by one or two digits.Vector group Symbol designation The vector group provides a simple way of indicating how the internal connections of a particular transformer are arranged. the vector group is indicated by a code consisting of two or three letters. so the windings form a triangular configuration with the terminals on the points of the triangle. . The central point may or may not be connected outside of the transformer. Each phase terminal connects to two windings. In the system adopted by the IEC. also called a mesh winding. Y: Wye winding. The letters indicate the winding configuration as follows: D: Delta winding. and the other end of each winding connects to the other two at a central point. Each phase terminal connects to one end of a winding. so that the configuration resembles a capital letter Y. also called a star winding.

Basically similar to a star winding.V Letter D represents star connected H. and must be connected externally.V Letter d represents star connected L.V Phase displacement 180 = 0 Letter y represents star connected L. or interconnected star winding. Zigzag-wound transformers have special characteristics and are not commonly used where these characteristics are not needed. Phase displacement zero = 0 Letter Y represents star connected H. III: Independent windings.V Phase displacement 30 lag = 0 Phase displacement 30 lead= 0 .Vector group Z: Zigzag winding. each letter stands for one set of windings. In the IEC vector group code. followed by medium or low voltage windings designated with a lowercase letter. The HV winding is designated with a capital letter. but the windings are arranged so that the three legs are "bent" when the phase diagram is drawn. The three windings are not interconnected inside the transformer at all.

The number is in units of 30 degrees. For example.Vector group The digits following the letter codes indicate the difference in phase angle between the windings. The 11 indicates the LV winding leads the HV by 30 degrees. . a transformer with a vector group of Dy1 has a deltaconnected HV winding and a wye-connected LV winding. The point of confusion is in how to use this notation in a step-up transformer. is not written as 'dY11'. the notation is HV-LV in sequence. a step-up transformer with a delta-connected primary. For example. The phase angle of the LV winding lags the HV by 30 degrees. Transformers built to ANSI standards usually do not have the vector group shown on their nameplate and instead a vector diagram is given to show the relationship between the primary and other windings. and star-connected secondary. but 'Yd11'. with HV winding is taken as a reference. As the IEC60076-1 standard has stated.

F . compares output no-load Voltage with its Full Load Voltage: V.L . V in per unit: V.R. = P . pu V S . pu − V S .R. N .L .=0 .= (V P / a ) − V F . L .F . − V S .L . FL × 100 % For Ideal Transformer V.R. = V S . pu . V S . FL . × 100 % At no load VS= VP / a thus :V.Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency Output Voltage of Transformer Varies with Load Due to Voltage Drop on Series Impedance of Transformer Equivalent Model Full Load Regulation Parameter.L .R. × 100 % V F .

Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency THE TRANSFORMER PHASOR DIAGRAM To determine the voltage regulation of a transformer: The voltage drops should be determined In below a Transformer equivalent circuit referred to the secondary side shown: .

Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency Since current which flow in magnetizing branch is small can be ignored Assuming secondary phasor voltage as reference VS with an angle of 0◦ Writing the KVL equation: VP = V S + R eq I S + jX a eq IS From this equation the phasor diagram can be shown: At lagging power factor: .

Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency
If power factor is unity, VS is lower than VP so V.R. > 0 V.R. is smaller for lagging P.F. With a leading P.F., VS is larger VP Î V.R.<0 P.F. =1 Î

P.F. leading Î

Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency
Table Summarize possible Value for V.R. vs Load P.F.:

Lagging P.F. Unity P.F. Leading P.F.

VP/ a > VS VP / a < VS VS > VP/ a

V.R. > 0 V.R. <0 (smaller) V.R. < 0

Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency
Transformer Efficiency (as applied to motors, generators and motors)


Pout x100 % Pin

Pout η = x 100 % Pout + Ploss

Losses in Transformer: 1- Copper I²R losses 2- Core Hysteresis losses 3- Core Eddy current losses Transformer efficiency may be determined as follows:


V S I S cos θ x100 % PCu + Pcore + V S I S cos θ


. Generators and Transformers with very different sizes and nominal values.Per-Unit System † In power systems there are so many different elements such as Motors. per unit system is used. † To be able to compare the performances of a big and a small element.

† Per unit quantities are calculated as: Actual Value Per Unit Value = Base Value . current and impedance are often expressed in per unit or percent of specified values.Per Unit System † Power system quantities such as voltage.

Per Unit System Per Unit Values S pu = S S base I pu = I I base Vpu = V Vbase Z pu = Z Z base Conversion of Per Unit Values Z pu = Z Z base Sbase = 2 Z Vbase Z = Z base Z pu 2 Vbase = Z pu S base .

Per Unit System † Usually. . the nominal apparent power (S) and nominal voltage (V) are taken as the base values for power (Sbase) and voltage (Vbase). † The base values for the current (Ibase) and impedance (Zbase) can be calculated based on the first two base values.

Per Unit System
Vbase I base Z base Sbase Sbase = Vbase Vbase V base = = I base Sbase

Per Unit System

Z actual Z% = × 100% Z base
† The percent impedance † e.g. in a synchronous generator with 13.8 kV as its nominal voltage, instead of saying the voltage is 12.42 kV, we say the voltage is 0.9 p.u.

Transformer Voltage Base

Vb 2

⎛ V2 =⎜ ⎜V ⎝ 1

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ •V b1 ⎠

XC and XL for lines. cables. and other electrical equipment typically phase values. „ It is convenient to work in terms of base VA (base volt-amperes) .Per Unit in 3φ Circuit † Simplified: „ Concerns about using phase or line voltages are removed in the per-unit system „ Actual values of R.

Per Unit in 3φ Circuit • Usually. the 3-phase SB or MVAB and line-to-line VB or kVB are selected • IB and ZB dependent on SB and VB SB = IB = 3V B I B SB . 3V B VB = 3I B Z B 2 V B / 3 (V B ) ZB = = IB SB .

† Impedance of transmission line in ohmic value † When pieces of equipment with various different ratings are connected to a system. it is necessary to convert their impedances to a per unit value expressed on the same base. are generally in terms of percent/per unit based on their own ratings. .Change of Base † The impedance of individual generators & transformer.

Change of Base Z old pu be the per unit impedance on the power base S ⎛ S old ZΩ B ⎜ = = old ⎜ V old ZB ⎝ B ⎞ ⎟• ZΩ ⎟ ⎠ old B old & voltage base VB Z old pu ( ) 2 1 new be the new per unit impedance on the new power base S new Z pu B new & new voltage base VB Z new pu ⎛ S new ZΩ B = new = ⎜ ⎜ V new ZB ⎝ B ( ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ • ZΩ ⎟ ⎠ 2 .

Z new pu new ⎛ SB old = Z pu ⎜ ⎜ S old ⎝ B ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .Change of Base From (1) and (2). the relationship between the old and the new per unit value Z new pu =Z old pu ⎛S ⎜ ⎜S ⎝ new B old B ⎞⎛ V ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎜ V ⎠⎝ old B new B ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 If the voltage base are the same.

„ Give a clear idea of relative magnitudes of various quantities such as voltage. current. .Advantages † Transformer equivalent circuit can be simplified by properly specifying base quantities. „ Avoid possibility of making serious calculation error when referring quantities from one side of transformer to the other. power and impedance.

. „ Manufacturers usually specify the impedances of machines and transformers in per-unit or percent in nameplate rating.Advantages † Per-unit impedances of electrical equipment of similar type usually lie within a narrow numerical range when the equipment ratings are used as base values.

† Ideal for the computerized analysis and simulation of complex power system problems.Advantages † The circuit laws are valid in per unit systems. and the power and voltage equation are simplified since the factor √3 and 3 are eliminates in the per-unit systems. .

Procedure for Per Unit Analysis † Pick S Base for the system. . † Draw impedance diagram and solve for p. † Calculate Z Base for different zones.u.u. † Convert back to actual quantities if needed. † Express all quantities in p. quantities. † Pick VBase according to line-to-line voltage.

S Base and VBase † Specify voltage base in the ratio of zone line to line voltage. S B .How to Choose Base Values ? † Divide circuit into zones by transformers. . † Specify two base values out of I B . Z B .VB . for example.

How to Choose Base Values ? V1 : V2 Source Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 V2 : V3 V3 : V4 I Base1 = SBase VBase1 VBase1 ZBase1 = VBase1 I Base1 VBase2 VBase3 VBase4 .

u. Ig 5 MVA 13.u.2kV ~ Z line = 10 + j100Ω 10 MVA Z load = 300Ω 138 Y .69 ∆ kV X l1 = 0.2 ∆ – 132 Y kV Vg = 13. Find I g I t -line I load Vload and Pload .1p.Example † Given a one line diagram.08p. X l 2 = 0.

X l 2 = 0 .Step 1.69 ∆ kV Z load = 300 Ω 13. S B = 10MVA Zone 1 VB1 = 13.8k SB 3Φ SB 2 3V l-l B2 10M = 1904Ω SB 3Φ SB 3 10M = 476Ω 10M = = 41.2 ∆ – 132 Y kV X l 1 = 0 .u.4 3 ⋅13. 2 kV ~ Ig 5 MVA Z line = 10 + j100 Ω 10 MVA 138 Y . 2.67 3 ⋅ 69k .84 3 ⋅138k 3V l-l B3 = 10 M = 83. and 3: Base Values V g = 13 .8k ) = 10M = 19.04Ω 10M = = 418. 08 p. 1p.u.8kV Z B1 = I B1 = VBl1−l 2 Zone 2 VB2 = 138kV Z B2 = I B2 = l VBl− 2 2 2 ( 138k ) = Zone 3 VB3 = 69kV Z B3 = I B3 = l VBl− 3 2 2 ( 69k ) = SB 3Φ SB 1 3V l-l B1 2 ( 13.

p.p.u. = Zline 10 + j100Ω = 5.u.63 Z B3 476Ω Vg.u. = old old Z p.u. = = 0.u. = Vg VB1 = 13.25×10−3 (1 + j10) = Z B2 1904 .183 19.p.913∠0° 13.u.04Ω 2 new B ( ) Zload.2kV = 0.Step 4: All in Per Unit Quantities X l 2 = 0.2k ) 5M X l1. = Zload 300Ω = = 0.1× (13.08p. + - Z new p.p.u.8kV Zline. ZB Z 0.

p. 0.35∠ − 26.p. = * S load.Step 5: One Phase Diagram & Solve X l1. = Vload.p.p.p.p.p.u.913∠0° Z load.u.4° Z total.p.u.25 ×10 −3 (1 + j10) X l 2 = 0.63 I load. = 0. 0.u.p. Z load.4° Vg.u.96∠0° = 1.35∠ − 26. = Vload.p.4° . = 0. I load.08 + - Vg.u.183 Z line. = I t -line.u.4° = I load.u.p.u.148 I g. = 0.8505∠ − 26.p.u. = 0.u.u.u.u.p. = 1. = 5.p.u. = 1. p.709∠26. = I load.p.u.

p.08p.p.p.1p. p. p.2 ∆ – 132 Y kV Z line = 10 + j100Ω 10 MVA Z load = 300Ω 138 Y .2kV ~ Ig 5 MVA 13.u. S B .u.u.u.u.u.p.u.Step 6: Convert back to actual quantities Vg = 13.4° Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 I g = I g.p.u. = 1.35∠ − 26.VB3 S load = S load.u. = I load.p. = I t -line. X l 2 = 0. I g.u.69 ∆ kV X l1 = 0. I B1 I t -line = I t -line. I B3 Vload = Vload. I B2 I load = I load.

† Helps to spot data errors „ p. . is more uniform compare to actual impedance value of different sizes of equipment. † Helps to detect abnormality in the system „ Operator at control center can spot over/under voltage/current rating easily.Advantage of per unit calculation † Simplify calculation by eliminating transformers.u.



: Lagging P.F.F.. Unity P.R.F.R. vs Load P. > 0 V.R. a simplified method is introduced Simplified Voltage Regulation Calculation For lagging loads: the vertical components related to voltage drop on Req & Xeq partially cancel each other Îangle of VP/a very small . Leading P.F.Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency Table Summarize possible Value for V. VP/ a > VS VP / a < VS VS > VP/ a V.F.R. <0 (smaller) V. < 0 Since transformer usually operate at lagging P.

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