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Hello. Sure, here it is. 2. Could you tell me your full name please? My full name is X. I am also called by my nick name Y. 3. What shall I call you? You could call me X. 4. How are you? I am well thank you, and yourself? 5. How old are you? I am 22 years old. In other words, I was born in 1980.On the eighth of March1980, to be exact. 6a. Does your name have any special meaning? Yes, my name does have some special meaning. My family name means peace, and my first name means strong one. My nick name was given to me by one of my high school teachers, and it does not have any special meaning really. 6b. Does your name have any special meaning? I presume you are referring to my Muslim name. Yes, the English equivalent of my family name would be something like peace, and in the case of my first name it would be strong one. My nick name was randomly chosen by one of my high school teachers, and it really doesn’t have any special meaning. 7a. Is your name important to you? No. I don’t think it can do anything for me. I believe a person has to work out his own life. I am planning to do this as well as I can. 7b. Is your name important to you? Not really. I am part of the new generation who do not attach too much significance to our names. Names were important to the older generation as they of the opinion that it will determine your destiny to some extent. However, I personally believe that I myself will determine my destiny irrespective of what my name is. I will do this by acquiring good qualifications and by working hard. Hometown 8. How long have you lived in your hometown? I come from xxx. My parents have been living here for the past thirty years or so. I grew up here and I attended a well-known school called School number 163.We live in a respectable area with many shops, restaurants, and a variety of other businesses. The people in our building are generally friendly and quite, which makes it a pleasure to live there. 9a. where do you live? I live with my parents here in xxx at the moment. To be more exact, we live in an apartment building in one of the northern suburbs of the city. I have my own room and enjoy the privacy that it brings, but I am looking forward to the day that I can have my own apartment. Allow me to explain: they are good parents, and I love them very much, but I would like to be more independent soon. 9b. where do you live? Well, that is not so easy to answer. Please allow me to explain. During the week I live in a dormitory at the university, but over weekends I live with my parents in a village about one hour by car from xxx. So I really do not know which of the two to call my home at the moment.
That is to say that it is very hot and humid. as it is better known as one of the most important financial capitals of the world. many farmers have orchards. For example one would find all kinds of vegetables in the fields of this region.10. what are the main crops in your region? In our region many crops are grown. New York. and peaches. 12. and peaches. the people have not become materialistic to the same extent as the inhabitants of Hong Kong. For example. they aren't any different from the inhabitants in any other large city. family-orientated workers who are not very wealthy. That is to say that it is very hot and humid. and feel free. Secondly. Secondly. pears. It consists of a large park. For example. Here in my hometown we have cold winters and hot summers. 14b. 13b. other animals and even pandas in their natural environment. It has about three million inhabitants. For example one would find all kinds of vegetables in the fields of this region. In other words. Java Square. My hometown is an industrial city. 11. In addition. In addition. Maybe Hong Kong is an exception. 14a. what is the difference between your hometown and Hong Kong? The main difference between my hometown and Hong Kong is the climate. and in Hong Kong there are many tycoons. I believe that my hometown has not been westernized to the same extent as a city like Hong Kong. millionaires. In addition it also is the site of an emperors tomb from the Dynasty. I would like to tell you about Government Square. Here they grow many kinds of fruit like apples. For example. That is to say. Lastly. here are many heavy industries manufacturing anything from aircraft and automobiles to machine tools. which you will find around the city. wolves. For example. Although cities like Toronto. or to be more exact. If I had to choose one place. Can you tell me something about the character of the people in your hometown? Well. it houses an important government building. there they have a tropical climate. This is still remembered by many of the elderly folks to this day. In addition. Lastly. it is the largest square. Here in my hometown we have cold winters and hot summers. and the spectacular TV Tower. Firstly. and wealthy people. here we have many factory workers. they all are bustling with industrial and cultural activities. Firstly. Another example that I could mention is the Imperial Palace that be longed to the last dynasty. For example. which is the highest architectural attraction in my country. there are many other sites that are worthwhile visiting. For example. 15. and machine tool manufacturers. Here they grow many kinds of fruit like apples. What are the main places of interest in your hometown? Why? Sure. In summer it is a popular place to visit and see tigers. It is better known as an industrial city. in my hometown you would still find many good old-fashioned (traditional) people who have strong principles and values about many aspects of life. In addition. What I mean is that it is a large open space where one can see the sky clearly. What is the difference between your hometown and other cities (such as Hong Kong)? The main difference between my hometown and Hong Kong is the climate. I would like to mention the Park. 13a. the xxx invaded the city and committed many atrocities (that is to say many crimes) during the occupation. To the northeast of the city there is the famous Mountains and the zoological park and botanical gardens. bears. with many gardens and a lake. are larger than my hometown. pears. I guess you could call it the City Hall. here we also have many wholesome families as well as our share of criminal elements in the society. What places in your hometown do you like best? There are many places that I like. many farmers have orchards. what are the main crops in your region? In our region many crops are grown. For example. whereas Hong Kong is more a financial center. In winter we often go skiing there. It has many heavy industries such as automobile. XXX is in the northeast part of my country. it is rich in history. Can you tell me something about your hometown? Yes. I could mention the Great River. Secondly. there they have a tropical climate. . certainly. it is important to note that it is not known for its agriculture. Government (City Hall)Square with the Great Theater alongside it.
Allow me to explain my personal view by shortly mentioning the following points: I believe that the xxx University is the best University in the country. I feel that I have achieved something. I study in the mornings and afternoons. and then take the evenings off to relax with my family or friends. I always start promptly at eight in the evenings. Firstly. 23. For example. and spend more and more of their money on holidays. Language is all about communication. Are you a student or do you have a job? I have a job. Wednesday afternoons we are off. What are your job prospects? I am planning to become a Hotel Manager. Do you think your present subjects are relevant? Yes. Describe your study habits? I have well established study habits. and evenings. Allow me to explain myself by shortly mentioning the following points: Firstly. and the study for another two hours. it has the highest percentage of students passing their courses of all the universities in my country. I guess the speaking part. What I mean to say is that the people who we are going to work for one day have had the opportunity to tell the university what they think we should be taught. What is your major? As I have been studying on a full-time basis at an English Language School. Are you a student or do you have a job? I am a student at the moment. So when I am able to communicate with someone in English. 21. Please allow me to explain. I particularly like our free talk sessions with the foreign teachers. namely English for Academic Purposes called EAP.Present Situation (student) 16a. In addition. 16b. What kind of job would you prefer after graduation? I would like to become a medical doctor. afternoons. I follow this habit from Mondays to Fridays. 19. but also have mastered a very necessary tool for my future career. For example. What do you like most about your studies? Well. especially in the business world. What I mean to say is that all hotels and resorts have the same objectives irrespective of where they are situated. Please allow me to explain. and listening by means of cassettes. practical speaking. Firstly. we often use case studies in class. Which is the best university in your country? That’s an interesting question. our lecturers and some advisors from the relevant industries have set up our study material. Their aim is to ensure that their guests have a good time and return again. It gives me the opportunity to question them about their countries and cultures. 17. people are becoming more affluent. . 20. I am working in a workshop of a large manufacturing plant at the moment. I would like to assist the elderly that do not have the financial means to afford private hospitals. I am studying English on a full-time basis at a Language School here . I graduated from high school two years ago. We have a number of foreign teachers who assist us in the correct pronunciation and grammar of the language. I have to assist my artisan in getting his jobs done. 22. We do reading and writing. For example. For example. What I mean to say is that when I am able to communicate well in English I will not only be able to go and study abroad and improve my qualifications. but over the weekends I put in more hours. have a ten-minute break. I have the responsibility to see that are the tools are in good order. Please allow me to explain. and that the workshop is always kept clean and tidy. English is the language of the future. I study for two hours. and went to work immediately. What I mean is that the professor gives us examples from real life to examine and report on. We have classes in the mornings. For example. and are allowed to go swimming at a nearby hotel. we have only one subject. I believe that after graduating I will be able to find a good job anywhere in the world. I would like to render a service in the community to which I will eventually belong. I believe that the hotel industry will be growing greatly in future. I am an assistant to one of the automotive electricians in the workshop. For instance. Secondly. 18.
many people benefit from our work. Secondly. I realize that one should show some loyalty to your present employer. would you change jobs? Although I am very happy in my present job. and all I had to do was get good grades. We are a normal Indian family. That would be a positive development. 30. I have a Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering. What I mean to say is that after we have completed a road. and could tell us exactly what we would come across there. Secondly. Allow me to explain myself by shortly mentioning the following points: Firstly they were carefree days. I would like to mention that I am in the designing department. 24b. Do you have a degree? If so. and my mother has a brother. Do you have a degree? If so. Is your job important to you? That’s a broad question. It is the largest university in my country and has about twenty thousand students. I had many friends in school. we specialize in the building of railway bridges. some o my best friends today were people that I met in school. and many cousins. For example. 27. To be more precise. Allow me to explain myself by shortly mentioning the following points: Firstly. when my company builds a new road. but there has to be a balance between looking after one’s own interests and those of your present employer.Present Situation (employee) 24a. Are their possible changes that could affect your job in any way? I don’t think so. the only possible change that would affect me is if I should receive a promotion. Lastly. I am the only child. For instance. Lastly. My grandparentspassed away when I was still very young. well-equipped laboratories. . I graduated in 2001from xxx University. but should be on the lookout for opportunities to advance in your career. and then decide what type of bridge will be suitable. when and where did you graduate? Yes. we had a large library. Allow me to explain by shortly mentioning the following points: Firstly. so I did not have the privilege of knowing them. 26. That is to say one should never be complacent. so I am worried at all. What I mean to say is that I had no or very few worries. I graduated in 2001 from the Medical Training College. My parents provided in my day-to-day needs. In addition. Do you still remember your school days? Of course! Those were some of the best times in my life. Family (general) 31. I would not hesitate for one moment if I could obtain a promotion by changing jobs. so I don’t have any brothers or sisters. hospital staff. andme. 28. I am an Engineer. Describe your job in detail. If you could. What impressed you most when you were at university / college? I was most impressed by the knowledge and skills of my lecturers. my mother. 25. they had experience in the working environment. I was impressed by the facilities. For example. I personally get a lot of job satisfaction. and so on are all trained there. when and where did you graduate? No. my job is important to me because by doing it I can serve my community and my country. We have to look at the site for a new bridge. It consists of my father. Furthermore. I have a good relationship with my colleagues and my boss. 29. For example.so I have a number of uncles and aunts. The company that I am working for is large and strong. Secondly. My father was one of four children. we have to make recommendations to the railway company of all the alternatives. Secondly. I work for a large construction company. I believe one should always be ambitious. I am proud to drive on the road with my family and explain to them what was involved during the building of the road. It is a well-known College giving excellent training to future nurses another medical staff. For example. I have a Diploma in Nursing. and give them some idea of the costs. ambulance drivers. and sporting facilities at our disposal. Could you tell me something about your family? Certainly.
For example. but my father and I will do some cookingfrom time to time. Our population had been growing to rapidly and something drastic had tobe done. Allow me to explain my personal views by shortlymentioning the following points: Firstly. I got married about three years ago. We are planning to start with a family as soonas we have our own apartment. 33. 36. Lastly. What does your husband do? My husband is a civil servant. so we don’t haveany serious worries. as we believe that heis going to become a strong man one day. . I could say that my mother does most of theshopping. but because of the one-child policy that will not be possible. Family (married person) 37.32. Allow me to explain my personal views by shortlymentioning the following points: Firstly. 35. 34. A secondreason that I could mention is that parents worry about what will happen to themafter they had retired. I have a good husband /wife. I would like to mention that mymother does not like my fathers smoking habit and therefore refuses to buycigarettes. but my father and I will do some shopping from time to time. He loves his work. they themselves never had the opportunity to study. As a matter of fact we both agree that we have a lot to bethankful for. so that my father has to do that kind of shopping himself. For example. I believe my parents will be veryproud if I were to achieve a degree at a university abroad. I believe that fathers all over the worldwant someone to carry their name into the future.We had known each other for many years before we got married. Who does most of the cooking in your family? My mother does most of the cooking. They areopening up a new supermarket in our area soon. I am their only child. We are looking for a job for her. often on a Friday night none of us feel likecooking. I think we have to have the policy inChina. Myparents allow me to buy my own clothes. Until then my husband / wife and I are workingas hard as possible to improve our positions in the companies that we areemployed by. For example. Who does most of the shopping in your family? As far as this topic is concerned. What is your child’s name? Does it have any meaning? My child’s name is David Lee. and is receiving a good salary. and then we visit one of the local restaurants. For example. sometimes my mother will be out the whole daydoing voluntary work in our community. How does your family feel about you going abroad? They are very happy about me going abroad. She has placed her name on a waiting list. Are you married? And if so. They feel that when they have a son he would be able toprovide for them in future. in many westerncountries it is customary for a boy to receive his grandfather’s name. The second aspect I could tell you about regarding this topic isthat we often eat out. we do not keep any secrets from one another. I knew that he snores loudly when heturns onto his back when sleeping. I believe the policy will give China a chance to move aheadin the world. and then my father and I will do thecooking for her. I don’t have any children yet. 39. What does your wife do? My wife is a housewife at the moment. 38. I am married. when did you get married? Yes. To put it in another way you could say thatwe are best friends. Do you have any children? No. and we willbe hearing from the employment officer soon. He is responsible for keeping the patient records in themen’s wards. 41. What I mean to say is that as soon as the population growth hasstabilized. For example. 40. and we are hoping that she willbe able to find a job there. and have our favoritedish. so we did nothave to adjust too much. China will be able to make progress in the fight againstunemployment. Secondly. but it isnot easy. His nickname is superman. Why do people in your country traditionally want to have a son? That’s an interesting question. We would both like to have a son and a daughter. He works for the Department of Health at ahospital near our home. as she does not have any qualifications or experience. and we are very happy together. In addition. What do you think of the One-Child Policy in China? That’s a tough question. and theywould do anything in their power to allow me to have the opportunity.
For example. Allow me to explain my personal views by shortly mentioning the following points: First of all. I hope my child will grow up in aculture where the finer things in life are important. Secondly. 48. When the baby arrives at home.Allow me to explain by mentioning some of them briefly. together with a paint brush made by using some of the babies’ hair.have children. but I will still love him/her even if s/he has made a mistake. there are quite a few. after the baby is born. When they are absolutely sure that they are able toadapt to each others lifestyles. Did you have a honeymoon? And if so. they have to feedand clothe them. For example. 51. Firstly. the father will give his wife some flowers. 50.and gave me a good education. For example. I wonder if they will have work to do. that they will find a good spouse. I would love my child unconditionally. In the first place. For example. where did you go? Yes. Secondly. as we could sit on the beach in the evenings andwatch the moon rising over the sea. Are there any traditions around the birth of a baby in your region? Yes. For example. We only had to confirmthe date with them to ensure that it would suit them and our families. What type of culture do you want your child to grow up in? That’s a broad question. 45. What I mean is that I realize my child is not perfect.42. They knew we were going to get married. 44. I fear that my children will have avery hard life. For example. Secondly. I will not allow my child too many freedoms. theyhave to solve the problem by themselves. This. For example. young couples usually do nothave a lot of money. Allow me to explain myself/my personal views by shortlymentioning the following points: Firstly. I will never forget the time we spent there. things like music. In earlier times it was customary for the young man to get the permission from hisgirlfriend’s parents before they could get married. I believe they should beresponsible for their own finances. I believe couplesshould become independent as soon as possible. For example. For example. Allow me to explain myself/my personal views byshortly mentioning the following points: Firstly. young people feel that they first want to get know each other evenbetter by living together. it was very romantic. Family (children) 47. What Imean to say is that these days it is becoming more and more acceptable. What I mean to say is that I hope the circumstances in our homewill full of love and understanding. We went to Cuba for a week. Firstly. the parents will make prints of its hands and feet. should they have an argument. Did you and your spouse have to ask permission from your parents before you could get married? No. I believe they should bealone as soon as possible. For example. What kind of parent do you intend to be? That’s an interesting question. 46. What hopes or fears do you have concerning your children? That’s an interesting question. and live together in peace and love. will be kept as memorabilia. they would then most probably decide to getmarried. and ensure that they get a good education. Maybe I would be a bit more modern. I believethat later they have to look after their children. not really. Do you think couples should live with their parent or on their own? There are several reasons as for why I think couples should life on their own. I believe my parentswere unreasonably strict at times. If I could do the same for my child I would behappy. and find it difficult to make ends meet. Allow me to explainby mentioning some of them briefly.art. and stayed in asmall hotel next to the beach. but I willalso try to understand his/her needs. I would like to be known as a strictbut fair parent. I would try and keep a balance betweendiscipline and freedom. . Secondly. 43. What responsibilities should a couple take? There are several responsibilities that couples should take. we did have a honeymoon. For example. Secondly. not really. Is living together without getting married acceptable in your country? It depends to what extent the couple would adhere to earlier customs. and studying should be part of his life from the beginning. I believe my parents raised me well. they should learnhow to cope with the money at their disposal. and take photographs of the baby and her. I would like my child to grow up in aculture of love. 49. Ihope that they will be happy. Are you going to bring your children up differently from the way youwere brought up? Why? No.
as more and more women become the sole breadwinnersin families. as it will disturb thebalance between the number of men and women in my country in the years tocome.Family (woman) 52. Secondly. raise the kids. construction work has always been seen as a man’s job. tobe a housewife is a job just as any other. What do you usually do in your spare time? As a matter of fact. and love to look for exciting web sites that I have not knownbefore. For example. the soapoperas help me to relax. 54. . My favorite program is called Discovery. Lastly. itoften has items about nature. more housewives are better. one can learn a lot fromwatching TV. I surf on the Internet in my spare time. it is not science fiction but adocumentary on real life events and happenings. Inaddition. For example. by meansof web cams (video images from cameras set up at certain places) I am able towatch what wild animals are doing in many parts of the world. Do you often watch TV? What is your favorite program? Yes. and so lay the foundation of healthyrelationships. I would like to mention the following. women arenot seen as able to do certain jobs as well as men. many men still believe that awoman should stay at home. Do you think watching TV is a waste of time? No. In addition. while the documentaries are informative. I believe housewives should be paid a salary by the government. women arenot considered for certain high level positions. Ibelieve that TV has become the best source of information these days. I particularly like towatch the polar bears playing with their cubs. these days. 53b. For example. last week it explained how somebirds have adapted to survive in a desert. What are the causes of sex discrimination? That’s an interesting question. so I dont rally have time for anythingelse. but these days I simply do not have the time. It is only recently that woman have been filling the same positions in thework place. Thisis particularly the case in the rural communities. My studies are soimportant to me that I have given up all my other activities. I believe that discrimination against woman havedeep roots in societies all over the world. in government. For example. parents prefer to have aboy as opposed to a girl. Lastly. I do not think watching TV is a waste of time. Lastly. 53a. Secondly. For example. What are the causes of sex discrimination? One of the main reasons regarding this topic that I would like to highlight is thefact that men often determine the wages in the companies. Secondly. Iused to swim often. What are your spare time interests? Well. I have just bought myfirst computer. Throughout history women have not enjoyed the same status asmen. Preferences (spare time) 55a. and secondly. For example. For example. it is not a present dayphenomenon. Lastly. For instance. it had a programon the latest eclipse of the sun that occurred at the end of the year. like for example. Allow me to explain myself by shortly mentioningthe following points: Firstly. 57. are getting smaller salaries. Should housewives be paid a salary by the government? Why? Yes. For example. Secondly. I usedto love playing tennis. It is of course very time consuming. As to why it is myfavorite. 56. it is a fast and convenient way to find out about the latest news from allover the world. and be of service to her husband. 55b. Firstly. I often watch TV. as I believe it kept me fit without the danger of being injured. I believe that it will take much more time to eradicate thispractice. woman who are doingexactly the same job as men. For example. Is there any sex discrimination in your country? One of the aspects I could tell you about regarding this topic is that there is somediscrimination against woman in my country. it is a good way to relax. in many communities women are still regarded as inferior to men. This is an unhealthy situation. Firstly. I have very little spare time these days. In other words. Firstly. housewives canspend more time with their babies. I have to mention that it is an educational activity. they will have to be compensated as such irrespective of their sex. and one should be paid for what she isdoing.
. I have some friends whoI have known for many years. 60a. On theother hand. Do you prefer to be alone or to be with friends? I prefer to be with my friends. Reading to me is a way of studying. we often visit the nearest net bar for a number of reasons. 59. We find thespectacular crashes and explosions very exiting. On weekends I like to go out with my friends. we would challenge another group to play against us. For example. I can easilyspend a weekend watching TV and just relaxing. Please allow me to explain. I like to go out with them and enjoy their stimulating company. We often spend hours there at a time. and have famous actors like Arnold Schwarzenegger andTom Cruise playing in them. These movies are from HongKong or Hollywood. we like to watch a good action movie from time to time. Do you prefer to be alone or to be with friends? Sometimes I prefer to be alone. or just savour some fond memories. I oftenhave to check the meaning of unfamiliar words in my dictionary. so I have to do it alone. For example. What do you usually do with your friends? We usually go to the movies. So after work I like the company of other people. so we willlook in the newspaper where a new cartoon is being showed and go and watch it. For example. My friends and I like cartoons very much. over weekends. but I feel that it is one of the reasons why I have friends. 62b. Preferences (weekends and outings) 62a. and some whom I hate. I need friends to help me when I am in trouble. For example. Then we wouldbrowse around all the shops. 60b. For example. On weekends I like to stay at home. Sometimes we will sit in a restaurant and havesomething to drink while we watch the crowds of people go by. but I also have some best friends. I realize that some of the plotsare silly and overdramatic. What do you usually do with your friends? Firstly. we like to playbasketball. and we listen to our favorite music. For example. as one does nothave to think very hard to follow the stories. At work I spend mostof my time alone in my office. after a hard day at work I just wantto relax without anybody disturbing me. my friends know that I willalways be available should any one of them get into some trouble. I will do anything to help them when they need me. What do you usually do on weekdays and on weekends? On weekdays I go to school. we will go and visit new shopping malls in the city. Please allow me to explain. for example. I know the different characters well bynow.Preferences (friends) 58. What does friendship mean to you? One of the aspects I could tell you about regarding this topic is that friendship isvery important to me. For example. I like reading. Some of them are only casual friends like my friendsat work. Secondly. or justchat the whole evening. On the other hand. should befriends.to play computer games or to surf on the net. Those are the times that I might meditateon the meaning of life for example. I like the soapoperas like Meteor Garden and so on. What do you usually do on weekdays and on weekends? On weekdays I go to school. Ioften invite some of my friends over. Husbands and wives. I believe that friendship should be the basisfor many of our relationships. I have a lot of friends. Sometimes we chat to youngpeople abroad. Do you have a lot of friends? Yes. 61a. 60. and theywould not mind me saying so. Do you prefer to be alone or to be with friends? I prefer to be alone. but it is good relaxing entertainment. which takes a lotof my time. 61b. some whom I love. sometimes I want to be with my friends. For example. In addition.and I know they would do the same for me. I know thissound selfish. which is a slowprocess taking a lot of time.In addition.
63b. the Japanese cartoons that are common inChina. In addition. and the translationsensure that I don’t waste time looking up unfamiliar words. Firstly. Please allow me to explain. We go to one of the localstadiums where our favorite team will be playing. What do you usually do when you go out? I usually go shopping with my mother. thenews on TV is short and to the point.and generally having a good time.which in turn will broaden your views on important matters. but focuses on the people of the country. and thats all I want to know. I believe cartoons are aspecial form of art. 66b. Please allow me to explain. when you read you acquire new knowledge. For example. I have read a book about the life of Michael Jordan. so we love to goshopping. It describes the history from the very first days. Do you like reading? Yes. It seems that I often loose my identity in such a large crowd. I am sorry. It is called TheCovenant. 64b. Often we don’t actually buy anything. net bars are a great place for social gatherings. For example. I do not have the patience. Please allow me to explain. What kinds of books do you like best? I like novels. I love the excitement andsuspense. In addition I also likereading Crazy English. Describe a book that you have read recently. which wasbased on racial discrimination and had become known to the world as apartheid. Preferences (reading) 64a. US ladiesusually need a lot of clothes to make us look beautiful. For example. I also like to read Japanese cartoons. 66a. Maybe the books I have tried werenot interesting enough. 65b. Do you like reading? No I dont like reading. but just browse around looking atall the clothes and comparing prices and quality. he looks at the political situation over the past fifty years. I never read a newspaper. 63c. There we meet other youngsters and just hang around talking. For example. The topics are interesting and short. What do you usually do when you go out? One of the aspects I could tell you about regarding this topic is that I usually go towatch a football game with some of my friends. Describe a book that you have read recently. I like reading very much. up to the present. and gocrazy about the smallest of things. I have never been able to read a book from start to finish. I watch TV if I want to know what is happening inChina and the world. have excellent illustrations. I have recently read a book about the history of South Africa. 67a. I believe that allof us should read a lot. The most common oneknown all over the world since ancient times is the so-called love triangle. many love stories have characterswho are involved in all sorts of conflicts amongst them. What do you usually do when you go out? I usually go to the nearest net bar with some of my friends. The reason for this is simple. . I like to read a storyline that isfull of intrigue and suspense. For example. but I haveforgotten the name of the book. Firstly. Do you often read the newspapers? No. For example. Firstly. Itcovers all aspects of the country. 65a. and was written by a famous American author called JamesMitchener. Newspapers take to much time to read.OUTINGS 63a. What kinds of books do you like best? I like cartoons. We spend manyhours playing games or surfing the net.
On the Internet I can do some research right away. Preferences (colors) 71a. In my country. to me. I guess I spendabout two hours every week on my hobby. for example. the hobby will teachyou some selfdiscipline and how to be very systematic. First of all. and this I cannot findin newspapers. a bride will wear something red on her wedding day. This symbolizes the energy and warmth to be found in thenation. I use the Internet these days if I want to know whats happening in regionand the world. Lastly. Vincent van Gogh is famousfor the yellow sunflowers in some of his paintings. when you collect stamps. Bad hobbies on the other hand may result in you acquiring badhabits. 69b. and you have to sort the stamps according tointernationally recognized systems. Secondly. you are able to meet new friends through your hobby. 71c. and it does not get dirty too easily. Allow me to explain myself/my personal views byshortly mentioning the following points: First of all. websites like CNN contain all the latest news onworld events. good hobbies are those ones that give you the opportunity todevelop a new skill. collecting stamps teaches you to besystematic. which we believe areone of the dominant characteristics of the country and its people. Do you often read the newspapers? No. What I mean to say is that you can get stampsfrom every country in the world. It also signifiesgood luck. For example. What color do you like? Why? I like red. Firstly. Please allow me toexplain. of a vibrant life.67b. you can wear yellow with almost anycolor. For instance. colors certainly have a lot of meaning in my country. 71b. TV and computer games will result in you neglecting your studies.and you will not be bored easily. Secondly. you haveto tend to your collection regularly. Do you have a hobby? Yes. For instance. My hobby is stamp collecting. Why have you chosen this hobby? That’s an interesting question. Ithink that yellow has a specific meaning to our people. What color do you like most? Why? Yellow is my favorite color. yellow symbolizes the sun.For example. yellow is abright color as apposed to dull colors like brown and gray.in the hope that it will bring her and her bridegroom some luck in future. Red is symbolic. In addition. Many artists areknown to use yellow in their paintings. Allow me to explain the reasons by shortly mentioning the following points:Firstly. Many countries have yellow intheir national flags. and youcan discuss your collections together for many hours. Lastly. I often would like to know the history behind astory. and so gain a broader perspective on the subject at hand. and the stamps often say something about thatcountry and its people. 72. Do colors have some symbolic meaning in your country? Yes. we believethat it symbolizes . What Imean to say is that it reminds me of energy and warmth. For example. it’s a very interesting hobby. 70. it is significant that the national flag of my country has a redbackground. For example. That is to say. the stamps from other countries often say something about thatcountry and its people. What are good hobbies? And what are bad hobbies? In my opinion. brownand gray usually make me feel depressed. Please allow me to explain. so a bride would wear some red on her wedding day. For example. I regularly spend time working on my collection. What color do you like? Why? If I had to describe my favorite color. For example. For example. I have been collecting stamps for the past twoyears now. 69a. you have a common interest with someone else. That is to say. you are able to learn more about the world. as I donot have time during the week. red is associated with lifeand good luck. I would choose yellow. Preferences (hobbies) 68. for two years I have chosen stamp collecting to be myonly hobby. For example. This is mainly over weekends. I would like to mention thatyellow is a practical color. Why have you chosen this hobby? First of all. That is to say. For example. Secondly. South Africa has a broad yellow band in their newly designed flag. I like to read about stories in depth.
They only tell you about the positive aspects of their product. President Clinton went to watch oneof his movies with him. Another example would be thethriller with my favorite actor Anthony Hopkins in the lead role called Silence of the lambs. I like to go to the shops and see what they have to offer. For example. 74b. however. He is handsome. My favorite movie star is Jackie Cheng. Secondly. and very funny. What kinds of movies do you like best? I like comedies. I hate shopping. I believe that the theater is boring. It had me on the edge of my seat for most of the time. usually after you have bought the product. I cannot see howthat can be as exciting as a good movie. it also signifies the obscene. Firstly. Do you like / enjoy shopping? Yes. Robbie Williams in Mrs. but would never mention the disadvantages. Preferences (shopping and movies) 73a. I usually go with some friends towatch the latest action movies or comedies. shopping is the mostbasic activity in a capitalistic society. The U. which in turn is the primarysource of life. 74a. Doubtfire is considered one of themost extraordinary performances ever by an actor. comedies are great fun. Do you often go to the cinema? Yes. shooting. you would not easily find murders. . Do you think music is important? Yes. Healways has a smile on his face. it is too expensive for me. First of all. For instance. here a blue movie wouldbe called a yellow movie. Lastly. Secondly. What I mean to say is that Ihave a good laugh while watching. in films there are a wide range of genres ranging from comedy and drama. I think that white has a special meaning to us. I go to the cinema as often as possible. Do you often go to the theater? No. For example. I go to the cinema as often as possible. We have a great time. which has been described asthe most expensive film ever made. They lure you into their shops and malls by advertising their goods on TVand in the newspapers. comedies seldom contain violentscenes. in times of sadness and mourning. I cannot imagine what my life wouldbe like without music. 76.the energy radiated by the sun. Please allow me to explain. I love shopping. Do you like / enjoy shopping? No. I love to find out about any new products on the marketand how they can possibly make my life easier. to horror and science fiction. This you have to find outfor yourself. I usually buy clothes for myself. Please allow me to explain. we use white to expressour feelings. I believe music plays an important part in people’slives. Secondly. I prefer togo to the cinema. Please allow me to explain. Do you often go to the cinema? Yes. I have never been to the theater. For example. 75. we can use it to sooth our minds after a hard day at work. The extent to which the producers attendedto the details of the original ship was astounding. and never seems to be worried about thesituations that he finds himself in.S. Firstly. comedies often contain excellent acting by famousstars. MUSIC 78. 77. Lastly. I do the shopping of all our household needs. Who is your favorite movie star? Describe him / her. Firstly. andso on in a comedy. I like music very much.To be more specific. as apposed to black in most of the western cultures. Firstly. like for example when our favorite star is playing a lead role in the movie. or it can provide us with the rhythm to dance to. 73b. That is to say. Firstly. I believe that films are a wonderfulform of art. as apposed toblue in the most of the western cultures. I browse aroundand compare the prices before a buy something. For example. recently I have seen the drama Titanic. What I mean to say is that somebody has aproduct which they would like you to buy from them whether you really need it or not. fighting. What I mean tosay is that the actors are on the same stage the whole time. In addition.
favorite personality2. 82. On weekends. I can travel to any city. favorite game3. usually has a good rhythm. 80. Could you tell me your full name please?3. and we would listen to our favoriteCDs for a few hours at a time. How long do you listen to music everyday? Oh. We did not have the opportunity to sleep on the train. What kind of music do you enjoy most? I like pop music very much. passion in life24.79. Does your name have any special meaning?5. Is your name important to you? Hometown or birth place 1. 83. pop music is simple tounderstand. For example. as it takes only six hours to get there. I believe that traveling is always educational. Allow me to explain. 1. Iwould invite my best friend over to my place. Are you satisfied with your job?9. your mother10. I don’t likeit when we go and visit my grandparents in the country. Allow me to explain. husband22. ideal life4. They live on a farm anddon’t even have a computer for me to play on. For example. movie8. city5. I wish I were able to travel more. Where do you live?3. TRAVELING 81. Can you tell me something about your hometown?4. and I am ableto sleep on the train. I guess I listen to music for about half an hour every day. Can you tell me some history of your hometown? Personal background and information 1. That is to say. Could you tell me a typical day of yours?7. novel20. What do you do for living?6. Can you tell me some famous landscapes or scenic spots in your hometown?5. What shall I call you?4. For example. best moment in life14. How do you usually travel? I like to travel by train. I have nottraveled to a foreign country yet. We went tosee my grandmother who has been ill lately. biggest achievement15. What kind of job do you prefer in the future? . What kind of job do you prefer after graduation?4. I like to visit the cities where thereare movies to watch and nightclubs to visit. however. I like it because it is not difficult to understand. Firstly. tv play7. First of all. best traveling experience Suggested questions for stage 1Warm-up 1. What is your major?5. I like traveling. book19. Lastly. wife21. Secondly. leader 17. Do you like traveling? Yes. For instance. I listen to music much more. child9. Where have you traveled lately? I traveled to xxx last month. unforgettable incident16. Why do so many people change their names?6. advantages and disadvantages of shopping18. when I travel by train I amable to see more of my country. your father11. I enjoyed the trip as I have not beento xxx before. favorite uncle12. pop music is lively. traveling on a train is a social event as well. Lastly. What do you like most about your study?3. the trains in my country areconvenient and comfortable. Firstly.and suits me at my age. In addition. listen when I get home from school. For example. andwhy they are traveling. 84. Are you a student or do you have a job?2. Could you show me your identification card please?2. What do you like most about your job?10. Where do you come from?2. let me think a bit. What I mean to say is that us youngsters like to listen tomusic that fits in with the way we feel Secondly. it is suitable for us to dance on. What kind of places do you like to visit? I like to visit places where there is a lot of entertainment. best teacher25. Iwould. How do you get your job?8. What Imean to say is that the people that you meet along the way are usuallyinteresting. or in the evenings beforeI go to bed. for example. favorite aunt13. My parents and I traveled there by train. For example. and ithelps me to relax after I have been studying hard for some time. your dream life23. country6. one can chat to the other passengers about where they are going.
Why do many foreign countries develop faster than China?7. What are the differences between adults and children in terms of making friends?2. You should say. Friends Do you have many friends? Are they casual acquaintances or close friends?Do you prefer to stay with your family or with your friends?Do you prefer one or two close friends or many friends?Can you talk about your best friend?How to make friends?What do you usually do with your friends?Is the time you spend with your friends as much as that you spend with your family?3. What is your opinion on efficiency?9. How will technology develop in the future?5. What do you think of the privacy of a well-known person?6. What are you planning to do in the next ten years?4. What do you usually do in your spare time?2. Why does the China’s West develop faster than China’s East?8. What kind of people can become famous in China?4. Where would Chinese go when they eat out?7. What will the friendship become like when getting old? 3. Describing a friend in your school time/ you like most. Do you often talk about singers with your friends? What do you often talk about? 2. What do you thin k of efficiency? Category 3: Describing places (2 test items) 1. Do you want to become famous?2. Do you like to work alone or with a partner?2. Transportation Can you say something about the transportation in your hometown?What is the common means of transport in your country?Do traffic jams often occur in your hometown or in the city where you live?How to solve the problem?What changes in transportation have taken place in the past several years in your country? 5. Describe a well-known person. How to become a well-known person in China?3. What do you think of the relationship between a well-know person and advertising?7. What is the first thing you will do when you arrive at the new place? 1. Why is it difficult for adults to make friends?6. What are the impacts of electrical equipment on human’s life in the past ten years?2.Discussion:1. Do you like English? Why or why not?9. What are good hobbies and bad hobbies? Why? Future plan 1. What do you think are the most important factors when making friends?4. Describe a restaurant or a cafe. Do you like reading?7.Where it is?What it looks like?What kind of services is provided?What kind of food you like there/ What kind of food is famous?Why you like it?Discussion:1. What are you planning to do in the next five years?3.What is it ?What you do with it/ How to use it?How long you have had it?How important it is to you?Discussion:1. You should say. Building Can you tell me an interesting building in your hometown?Can you tell me an interesting building in Guangzhou? Category 1: Describing things (1 test item) 1. You should say. What do you think of the advantages and disadvantages of fast food?5. Who is he/she?When did you work/study together?What do you often do together?Why do you like to work with him/her?/ What can you learn from him/her?Why is he/she particular?Discussion:1. MusicDo you like music?What are the benefits of listening to music?What kind of music do you like best? Why do you like this kind of music? 4. What do you think of the importance of English?10. Will you cook for your friends when they visit you?3. Why is fast food so popular?6. Describing a piece of equipment you often use at home or at work.Hobby or inclination 1. You should say. Do you like cooking?2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being famous?5. Do you prefer to stay alone or with your friends?3. Can adults make friends with children?3. What are the possible factors that cause the break-up of friendship?5. Traveling Do you like traveling?Do you like travel alone or with your friends?Have you traveled to other places? Where are they?What do you usually do when you first arrive in a new place?What are the benefits of traveling?Why do so many people like traveling nowadays? 2. What are the advantages of studying by yourself?10. What do you usually do when you go out?5. What changes . What do you usually do with your friends? 6. Do you like group work or group learning?8. What are the differences of the life in the past and at the present?3. You should say. What are the advantages and disadvantages of computer and internet? Category 2: Describing people (3 test items) 1. Would you be influenced by the well-known persons in TV commercials?8. Who cooks in a Chinese family?4. What kind of books do you like best?8. What do you usually do on weekends and weekdays?4. What do you think of teamwork and team spirit?3. Why do you take the IELTS test?2. What role does technological develop ment play in people’s life?4. Describing a person whom you like to work or study with. Do you have a mobile phone? What are its advantages?6.Who he/she is?What makes him/her famous?Why you admire him/her? Discussion:1. What kind of people are good to work with?4. Who he/she is?When did you became friends?Why do you like him/her or why doyou think that he/she is important to you? How he/she influences you.
What you did there. Describing an interesting hobby. What is the difference as regards celebration in different part of the country? 2. Will bad weather mould or change people’s personality?3. What should we do to protect the environment?4.Why you like them most. Have you noticed the changes?5.Discussion:1. Why do children like pictorials?7. Why is it easier for children to learn playing a musical instru ment?3. Describe a traditional festival in China. You should say. What do you think of creative writing?8. You should say. What is the difference between diary and letter?4. .When is it celebrated?How to celebrate? / what you usually do on that day. What it is. Do you like other books?2. Where you went.Discussion:1.Discussion:1. You should say. You should say. Describing one of your favorite books. What changes in terms of spending festivals and holidays have taken place in the past decade?5.When did you get it?Why you like it. How does weather influence people’s personalities in your country? 3. Where you would go. Describing a kind of music. What is the difference in the past and at the present as regards communications?5. What kind of books do Chinese people like?3.Whether you like music. Do you often keep diaries?3.Who sent it to you?What it is about?Whether it is important to you? Why?Discussion:1. Discuss the impact of western music on the world music? Category 5: Describing celebration and leisure time (4 test items)1. What books are popular in China?2. Describing a letter. How would the tourist industry develop in the future?3.What kind of books you like. What food is popular?9. How long do you listen to music everyday?2. What is the difference in the past and at the present as regards travelling?2. What kind books do children like? Why do they like reading?3. How would the tourist industry develop in the future?3. Do you think it is necessary to observe the traditional customs?4. You should say. What kind of books do Chinese women like?2.What services are provided?How you like it.What you are going to do. You should say. What other measures can you think of to protect the environment?5.What kind of books you like most. What kind of books do Chinese children like?3. Why do people usually do in their spare time? Category 6: Additional test items (4 test items) 1. What should the government do to protect the environment?3. Describing an interesting trip you have taken. What should the government do to attract tourists?4. What should the people do to attract tourists? 4.What it is.Whom you went with. Why is holiday so important to modern people?3. What do you think of the role 50 years later?7.How you felt at that time.Discussion:1. Why or why not?What kind of music you like bestWhat role music plays in people’s life. What is the difference between fresh food and canned food?10. What are the advantages of reading books?6. What is the relationship between weather and culture?4. Where it is located.Discussion:1.What is your favorite book?What it is about.What it looks like. Do you think it will cost too much time to do them?3. Talking about learning English. What is the difference between reading and watching TV?4.What you think it perfect. What should the people do to attract tourists? 3.What effect have books brought on you?Discussion:1.What it is. listening to music or keeping a pet are interesting hobbies?2. What is the role of letter 50 years ago and at the present?6. What are the benefits of learning to play musical instruments?4. What’s the difference between the old and the young as regards environmental protection? 2. How should we educate children to protect environment?6. Describing a kind of book you like. What is the concept of holiday in China?2. What is the relationship between reading and computer?5. Describing a perfect trip/ holiday.What it is?How long it has existed. Are the people interested in gathering the weather information in your place?7./ What it happens?What we can do to solve it. What is the difference between men and women when choosing what to read?2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of family food? 2. What causes environmental problems?2.Why you like it.When you went there.What they are about. You should say. What should you do in a bad weather?2.What you like and what you don’t like. Describing an interesting building.What effect it has brought to people’s life.Discussion:1.Discussion:What role do old buildings and new buildings play in modern society?What changes have taken place in architecture in the past two decades?Do you think it necessary to protect old buildings? Category 4: Describing media and communication (4 test items) 1.Discussion:1. You should say. What should the government do to attract tourists?4. You should say.would take place in terms of Chinese eating habits?8. What is the difference between letter and e-mail?2.How long you spend on it. watching TV. You should say:When you received it. What role does computer play in our society?10. The climate has changed these 50 years.Discussion:1. What changes have been brought by the computer? What is professors’ attitude?4. What is the difference in the past and at the present as regards traveling?2. You should say.When began to do it.How often you do it. What changes do you predict in the following years?6. You should say.When did it happen?Where you were.When would you go?Whom you would go with. Do you like hobbies requiring teamwork?4. Describing a kind of extreme weather. Do you think that surfing the Internet. What kind of books do you recommend to others?3.Why you like it. What can we do to solve the problem of food shortage?11. Describe an environmental problem. Would post office disappear 50 years later?9.
Describe a subject taught in your school? 1) Who teaches it?2) How is it taught?3) What do you learn from the class? Follow-up :Is there any difference between the traditional and modern educational systems?What are the pros and cons of the current educational system in your country?Do you think it is necessary to give comment or criticism to teachers? 6. Do you think that English is the most important language in the world?3. How do journalists entertain their customers?6. What skills can you learn in school?4.Whether the news is national or international?How you get news (via newspaper. What is the important invention before the age of computer? 1) What is the invention?2) Why do you think it is very important?3) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the invention? Follow-up :What is the significant impact of modern inventions on life?Which skills do you want to study in the future?Do you think it’s necessary to develop modern invention in the countryside? . What do you think of the importance of privacy?5. Describe a party 1) What is the party?2) Why was the party held?3) Who attended the party?4) What did you do for that party? Follow-up: What’s the difference between serious party and friendly party?Why are some people late for parties intentionally?Why do some people like party while others hate it?What would you do if the guests feel bored?Will there be more and more people to attend parties? 5. What is the most popular skill that people want to learn?7. Describing a skill you want to learn. Do you think that age is the most important factor of learning English? Why?6. Can English take the place of Chinese in China?4. You should say. The important historic place 1) What is the place?2) Where is it located?3) Why do you think it is important? Follow-up: What do you think of the historic place in the future?Will the government increase or decrease the safety guard?What are the changes to the local people and economy?What is the impact on the historic place by tourists? 4. You should say.Why you think it is important. How will translation and interpretation develop in the future? 4. Follow-up: How to take good photo?When do people use camera?How can the new technology put cinema’s skill advanced? 3. What role do media play in people’s life?7.Discussion:1. What do you think of the role of family for children to learn skills?6. What kind of school would you send your children to? Why?8.How you are going to learn it. Internet. What skill do you think the university has provided for your job?3. What difficulties would a foreigner have when he learns your native language?7. What kind of skills have your parents learned?5. What other languages are taught in China?5. When would be most suitable for children to learn English?9. What it is.What role it will play in you future life. Describe your favorite photograph 1) Where was the photo taken?2) Who took the photo?3) What can be seen from the photo?4) Explain why it is the favorite photograph for you. Whether you get news everyday. TV.Discussion:1. Describing the way of getting news. Do you think it necessary to control the news coverage?10. Describe a museum 1) How often do you visit the museum?2) Which type of museum is popular in your country?3) Why do you want to visit the museum? Follow-up: What do you think of the importance of museums in history?How do you think of the heritage of a country?Compare the museums nowadays and in the past 2. How do Chinese people gather information?8. Do you think the information on the Internet believable or not?2. What problems would Chinese people have when communicating with foreigners?8.When and where you began studying English. How do reporters gather information?4. radio or other people?)How do most Chinese people thin k about the importance of getting update news everyday. What problems do you have when studying English?2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of different media?9. What is the most effective way of getting news?3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of school education and family education? IELTS Speaking: Real Test Topics Part 2 Topic Card1.What are the advantages of learning English?Discussion:1.What is the most interesting thing in an English class?What is the most effective way of learning English?What difficulties you have when learning English. What do you think of the traditional skills?2. What kind of news do you think should be controlled? 5.
Describe your favourite movie 1) What’s the name of the film?2) What’s the theme of the film?3) Why do you like it? Follow-up :Describe a type pf movie you like. etc?What is the effect of tourists on the place? 17. Advertisement .What’s the difference between Chinese and American movies?What do you think of the violent films (Hollywood films)?Why movies need computer techniques? Any example of movie using computer techniquesWhich parts of cinema are the most important and how to improve it? 9. Describe a foreign country you have never been to 1) Where is the country?2) When will you go there?3) Why would you like to go there? Follow-up :Say something about the tourism development in China.7. facility. Describe a children’s game (sports not suggested) 1) How is it played?2) What can you learn from the game?3) What impact does it bring on your growth? Follow-up :What do you think of the benefits of children’s games?Nowadays children have less and less time for game. Describe your favourite animal 1) What kind of animal is it?2) Describe it briefly3) Why do you like the animal? Follow-up: What do you need to do to take care of it?What’s the future trend of the animal?How do you think of the poaching of some precious animals such as pandas? 16. Describe a happy event in your life? 1) When did it happen?2) Where did it happen?3) What was it? Follow-up: Tell me how you organize your study time?What do you think is important in achieving happiness?How do Chinese celebrate some happy events?What do the camera and video play in celebrating? 12.What is the importance of travel and tourism industry?What do you think the function of tourist guides? 8. Describe one of the shopping centers you often go to 1) Where is the shopping center?2) How often do you go to the center?3) Why do you often go to it and its characteristics? Follow-up: Will smaller shops survive in the current business system?What are the characteristics of shopping malls and smaller shops and their difference?What is the trend of future shopping centers?Talk about Internet shopping 15. Describe a historical place 1) What is the place?2) Where is it located?3) What is the historical meaning of the place? Follow-up: What do you think of the future trend of historic places?Will government strengthen its protection toward historic places? What are the changes brought about by the historic place in local economy. Describe a newspaper or magazine 1) What’s your habit for reading?2) What are the benefits of reading?3) What's the main difference between newspaper and magazine? Follow-up :What do you think the important qualities for a news reporter?What’s the function of a report to the society?What kinds of books/newspapers/magazines do Chinese adolescents read? 10. Describe a thing which is important to you 1) Who gave it to you?2) What is the thing?3) What does the thing mean to you? Follow-up: What are the changes of city between now and past?Does money represent happiness and why?How do you regard as the things people want to earn? 13. people. what do you think about it?What do you think the difference between games nowadays and in the past?What’s the negative aspect of games? 11. services and the effecton environment. Describe one of your neighbours 1) When did you become neighbours?2) Do you often meet?3) State whether your neighbour is a good one Follow-up: What is the difference between neighbours and friends?Why do people like to watch TV serials in their houses? How do you think of the relationship in the city?How to improve the neighbourhood? 14.
newspaper or Internet? 20.television. will people lose their ability to write letters? 19. which do you think will play a main role in present giving. Describe your holidays 1) Where do you go for the holidays and how long do them last?2) Who do you go with?3) Talk about any interesting thins happening during your holidays Follow-up: What do the Chinese people mostly do in their leisure time? What's the difference between holidays today and 5 years ago and the reasons for the change? Do you think people will spend more ti me on leisure or working in the future? . Describe the best present you have received 1) Who sent it to you?2) When did you receive it?3) Detailed information about the present Follow-up: Do you think that present giving will play an important role in Chinese daily life? Why?Do you think that the brand name is very important for sales?In terms of the media. Describe an important letter 1) When did you receive the letter?2) From whom did you receive the letter?3) Explain the reasons why it is important Follow-up: What is the significance of handwriting?Does your country have handwriting lesson now?Compare the handwriting now and pastWith the popularity of computers and Internet.1) What are the forms of advertisement?2) What are the functions of advertisement?3) What is the effect of advertisement to people? Follow-up: Do you feel bored and disgusted about advertisement?What do you think are the criteria of assessing a good piece of advertisement?What will happen if unauthoritative advertisements prevail in the market? 18.
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