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33

P O F
*OEJHFOPVT7PJDF
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T
heglobalindigenousmovemenIisalivewiIhromisingconIradic-
Iions.InverIingnaIionaldevelomenIsIandards,iIromisesuniIy
basedonluraliIy:diversiIywiIhouIassimilaIion.IIendorsesauIhenIiciIy
anJinvenIion,subsisIenceanJwealIh,IradiIionalknowledgeanJnew
Iechnologies,IerriIoryanJdiasora.
1
TheexciIemenIolindigenousrighIs
claimsdrawslromIhecreaIiveossibiliIiesolsuchjuxIaosiIions.
YeI,givenIhisheadybrew,iIiserhasnoIsurrisingIhaIscholars
havehadmixedreacIions.
2
SomeareexciIedbyIhesIruggleagainsI
discriminaIion,violence,andresourceIhelI.OIhersaresusiciousol
IhesuorIolneoliberalrelormersandIhemovemenIsinaIIenIion
Ioclass.SomenoIeconIinuiIieswiIhcolonialdiscoursesolraceand
culIural essence. OIhers celebraIe culIural reviIalizaIion. Meanwhile,
boIhboosIersandcriIicsIendIobaseIheirevaluaIionsononeolIwo
researchmodels:eiIhercasesIudies,wiIhIheirleIhoraoldisIinguishing
arIiculars,orgeneralizaIionsabouIindigeneiIyaIlarge.CollecIions
conIinueIosIringIogeIhercaseswiIhIheassumIionolcommonaliIy,
analysissearcheslorlundamenIalrincileswiIhouIaIIenIionIoIhe
hisIoriesIhaImakesuchrincilesmoreorlessrelevanI.BoIhmodels
reduceindigeneiIyIoasingularseIollogicsanddilemmas.WheIher
IheybaseIheircommenIaryonsinglecasesorongeneralizaIionsabouI
allindigeneiIy,mosIscholarlyreorIshaveshownliIIlecuriosiIyabouI
IhediversiIyolindigenousroblems,rheIorics,andcauses.Thoseol
uswhoenIerIheLeldIoundersIandhowIheobscureeIhnograhic
siIuaIionweknowbesILIsinIoglobalmobilizaIionsareolleredlew
cluesabouIdivergenIhisIoriesandconicIingclaims.Inresonse,Ihis
chaIerbeginsIheIaskollayingouIahisIoricallyconcreIehisIoryol
divergenIindigeneiIies.
34 Anna 1sing
My meIhod abandons neiIher lace-based arIiculariIy nor Ihe
links across laces. InsIead ol imagining links only as a rouIe Io
homogenizaIion, however, I highlighI Ihe lricIion IhaI creaIes boIh
griandgas,boIhmisundersIandingsandcommonground.InIhis
siriI,IbeginmysIorywiIhIhedynamicsolindigeneiIyinonelace,
Indonesia,anduseIhequesIionsraisedlromIhaIsiIuaIionIoguide
mywiderinquiry.
3
IndigeneiIy is noI a sell-evidenI caIegory in Indonesia. AlmosI
everyoneis"indigenous"inIhesenseolderivinglromoriginalsIocks,
IndonesiaisnoIawhiIeseIIlersIaIe.YeIacIivisIsandcommuniIyleaders
LghIinglorIherighIsolmarginalruralcommuniIieshaveincreasingly
usedIherheIoricolindigeneiIyIodrawaIIenIionIoIheircauses.In
boIh ciIies and villages Ihis rheIoric engenders debaIe, iI is dilLculI
Ioconsider"indigenousrighIs"wiIhouIrunninginIodisagreemenIs
abouI Ierms. This siIuaIion sIimulaIes me Io begin wiIh tall abouI
indigeneiIy,raIherIhanjumingimmediaIelyIoindigenousexerience.
IIalsoressesmeIoconsiderhowIhenaIionaloliIicalscenewiIhiIs
culIurallormsandiIsoIenIialalliancessIrucIuresindigenousclaims.
AsIIurnlromIndonesiaIoIraceindigenousrheIoricsmorewidely,I
IhusaIIendIohownaIions,andIhedialoguesbeIweennaIions,shae
indigenousvoices.InIheseIransnaIionaldialogues,owerlulIraveling
axesolindigenousconcernarelormed.
Ibegin,Ihen,wiIhIndonesia,beloreIurningIomygeneralIhesis.
TranxIatonQucxtonx
InIndonesia,IhehraseusedasanequivalenIlor"indigenouseoles"
is masyaralat aJat. However, Ihe ellecIive IranslaIion ol Ihe Irans-
naIional indigenous movemenI goes beyond Ihe roblem ol words.
ManyIndonesiansooseacIivisIaIIemIsIosingleouIcerIainrural
communiIiesasdeservingolsecialrighIs.NaIionalisminIndonesia
runs sIrong, and Ihe direcIive Io blend culIural communiIies inIo a
commonnaIion"lromIhemany,one"
4
issIillamongIhemorero-
gressiverogramsolIndonesiannaIionalism.InconIrasI,Ihedivision
olIhenaIioninIoeIhniccommuniIiesisseenasaheriIageolcolonial
"divideandrule"olicies.
II is hard Io deny IhaI Ihe searaIion ol culIural minoriIies and
majoriIies IhroughouI Asia and Alrica was, and conIinues Io be, a
colonial habiI. The use ol SouIheasI Asian mounIain eole by U.S.
imeriallorcesinIndochinaservesasanimorIanIreminderolIhe
colonialhisIoryolnurIuringloyalIribes.InIernaIionalidenIiLcaIion
lndigenousvoice 35
ol"indigenouseoles"inAsiaandAlricaconIinuesIolollowcolonial
linesolsearaIion,singlingouIminoriIieslorinIernaIionalroIecIion
because Ihey are willing Io oose Muslims, Chinese, and oIher
imagined enemies ol Ihe WesI. In Indonesia, Ihe hrase masyarakaI
adaI,"IradiIionalsocieIies,"derivesiIsunchlromcolonialrecedenI.
DuIchscholarselevaIedaJat,erhasbesIIranslaIedas"cusIom,"Io
Ihe sIaIus ol cusIomary law. The noIion ol adaI as law allowed Ihe
colonialargumenIIhaIIslamwasaloreignreligionIhaIshouldnoIbe
allowedIodeLnenaIivelile.AIIhesameIime,iIalsoinlormedIhose
DuIchmen who oosed colonial rograms IhaI IhreaIened Io low
over all naIive social lorms. DuIch colonial auIhoriIies seI u adaI
law courIs in only a lew laces, in Ierms ol ower and olicy, adaI
was ellecIive mainly as an Jea abouI naIive dillerence and, aI leasI
oIenIially,naIiverighIs.InIheearlyindeendenceeriod,naIionalisIs
develoedconIrasIingaIIiIudesIowardIheideaoladaI:SomerejecIed
iIasarchaic,oIhersembracediIasIhesiriIolIhenaIion.DuringIhe
New Order regime (1o8), adaI was known Ihrough governmenI
rograms Io deoliIicize rural ciIizens Ihrough Ioken recogniIion ol
harmlessculIurallorms.WhenIndonesianenvironmenIalandhuman
righIsacIivisIsolIhe180sand10sdecidedIoreviveIheconceIol
adaIasaIoollorIheemowermenIolruralcommuniIies,IheyhadIo
carryandIranslormIhiscomlexandconIradicIoryhisIory.
S
In 1, Ihe LrsI archielago-wide assembly ol masyarakaI adaI
was held in JakarIa. The alliance lormed lrom Ihis meeIing, Aliansi
MasyarakaIAdaINusanIara(AMAN),endorsesregionalcamaignsand
worksIoseeIndonesiaincludedininIernaIionalindigenousorganizing.
YeIIheemergenceolAMANhassharenedIndonesiandebaIesabouI
wheIher indigenous organizing is a good idea.
o
MosI governmenI
olLcialsargueIhaIIheinIernaIionalindigenousmovemenIisirrelev-
anIbecauseIhereareno"indigenouseoles"inIndonesia.TheyLnd
common cause wiIh urban rolessionals who worry abouI dividing
Ihe naIion and imagine modernizaIion as Ihe key lorce lor naIion-
building.Some,includingmainsIreamconservaIionisIs,describeadaI
as"invenIedIradiIion"wiIhouIsIabiliIyorlegiIimacy.Manyloreign
scholarsandinIernaIionaldonoragenciesooseIheideaolworkinglor
communalrighIs,whichIheyseeasdangerouslyexclusive.SuorIers
olliberalindividualismjoinIhem,asdoIhoseconcernedwiIheIhnic
violence.InrecenIyears,IndonesiahasbeenIornbyeIhnicandreligious
conicIs,manysonsoredsurreIiIiouslybyIhearmy.InKalimanIan,
lorexamle,"indigenous"DayaksclashedwiIhmigranIMaduresein
17, 2000, and 2001. II was hard Io deny IhaI Ihe mobilizaIion ol
3 Anna 1sing
DayakidenIiIyhadbeensuorIedbyinIernaIionallyconnecIedNGOs.
EewblamedinIernaIionalindigenousoliIicsdirecIlylorIheviolence,
buI new quesIions have been raised. Eor examle, Ihere is cause Io
worryabouIIheroleolIransnaIionalChrisIianchariIiesinromoIing
violenceIogeIherwiIhindigenousrighIs.WhereverChrisIianssuorI
minoriIyculIures,missionizaIionandhumanrighIsbecomehoelessly
inIerIwined,anIi-MuslimviolenceisanexecIableouIcome.Religious
rageneednoIbeconlusedwiIhrevoluIionaryarmedsIruggle.BuIiI
isworIhnoIingIhaIwhereIndonesiancommuniIieshaveIurnedIo
revoluIionaryIacIics,IheyhavequesIionedorrelusedIheindigenous
sloI.InAcehandWesIFaua,acIivisIswanInJepenJencenoIdeendenI
sovereignIy,IheyLndbeIIerrouIesIomakeIheirclaimsIhanindigenous
oliIics.
7
AllolIhisoinIsIoIheimossibiliIyolanIndonesianindigenous
oliIics IhaI can romoIe social jusIice, and, yeI, Ihose who jum
IoIhisconclusionomiIIhemajorreasonlorIndonesianindigenous
organizing. Those communiIies IhaI have laced Iheir hoes in Ihe
inIernaIionalindigenouslabeldosobecauseIheirlandandresources
areIhreaIenedbycororaIeandsIaIeexansion.Indeed,IhedesIrucIion
ol Ihe counIryside, wiIh iIs once vasI rainloresIs, bounIilul Lshing
waIers, and richly endowed legacies ol culIure and communiIy, is
IhemajorroblemconlronIingIndonesiaIoday.TheoliciesolIhe
NewOrderregime,whichoenedIhecounIrysideasa"lree"saceol
exloiIaIion,allowedcomlemenIaryordersolillegalandlegalresource
IhelIIoileaIoeachoIher.InKalimanIan,IhedesIrucIivelorceol
illegalandlegalloggingandminingIearsIhecounIrysideaarI,lew
bureaucraIs or communiIy leaders can Ihink ol much Io do exceI
clamorlorashareolIhesoils.TheclaimIhaIruralcommuniIiesmighI
haverghtsbasedinIheirIradiIionalculIuresisoneolIhelewinIer-
ruIionsoladeadlybusinessasusual.EvenilIhisclaimisulIimaIely
unsuccesslulinremakingnaIionalandinIernaIionalolicy,iIisworIh
ouraIIenIion.
AlLliaIion wiIh inIernaIional indigenous oliIics lor Ihis claim
lollows lrom a layered hisIory. Colonial adminisIraIion divided Ihe
archielagoinIo"inner"and"ouIer"zoneswiIhdenselyoulaIedJava
aIIhecenIerolconcernsabouIIhegovernanceolnaIiveeole.The
"ouIer"islandsolSumaIra,KalimanIan,Sulawesi,andEasIernIndonesia
were inIeresIing Io colonial auIhoriIies mainly lor enIrereneurial
develomenI,IhenaIiveeolewererelevanIonlyasexoIica.Colonially
subjugaIedJavabecameIhecenIerolIhenaIionalisIsIruggle,andIhe
sIoryolalliancebeIweenJavaneseeasanIsandnaIionalisIeliIesmade
lndigenousvoice 37
Ihe naIion seem ossible. In Ihe early years ol indeendence, non-
JavaneseeliIesbecameincreasinglyimorIanIIonaIion-building,and
alewouIerislandgrousgainedrominence.MosIruralcommuniIies
inIheouIerislands,however,werenaIionallyinvisible.Onlyduring
IheNewOrderregimewereIheouIerislandsIargeIedinoliciesol
increasinglymassiveresourceexloiIaIion.Theolicyolignoringnon-
Javanese rural communiIies laciliIaIed such resource IhelI. BuI Ihis
meanI IhaI rural roIesI lrom Ihe ouIer islands lound no channels
in naIional oliIics. Only Ihe lormaIion ol a social jusIiceorienIed
environmenIalmovemenIinIhelaIe170sand180sbroughIouIer-
islandruralcomlainIsIonaIionalaIIenIion.
DuringmucholIheNewOrderregime,socialroIesIwascensored,
andIheenvironmenIalmovemenIwasoneolIhelewsiIeslorublic
discussionoljusIice.InIhelaIe180sandearly10s,IhenaIional
environmenIal movemenI carried Ihe weighI ol many rogressive
hoes.EorIhemovemenIIoendorseIherighIsolnon-Javaneserural
communiIies was an exIraordinary oliIical innovaIion, iI broughI
eolewhohadbeenhisIoricallyexcludedinIoIhenaIionaloliIical
rocesslorIheLrsIIime.Ironically,alIerIhemuch-anIiciaIedlallolIhe
NewOrderregimein18,IhenaIionalenvironmenIalmovemenIlosI
visibiliIy,andinIernaIionalconservaIionisIs,wiIhIheirlaw-and-order
naIure roIecIion, gained rominence. In Ihis conIexI inIernaIional
alLliaIionshaveseemedmorecrucialIhaneverIoIndonesianacIivisIs.
TosayIhaImasyarakaIadaIare"indigenouseoles"launcheshoes
IhaIinIernaIionallegiIimacywillgivesomelorceIoIheircomlainIs
abouIlandandresourceIhelI.OneinuenIialJakarIaacIivisIexlained
IomeIhaIherJejntonolmasyarakaIadaI,Iheindigenouseolesol
Indonesia,wasruralcommuniIiesLghIingresourcecororaIions.
BoIhIhelorceandIheidiosyncracyolIhisdeLniIionraisesquesIions
abouI Ihe IransnaIional Leld in which "indigenous eoles" has
emerged.CanIndonesianacIivisIsellecIivelyallywiIhIransnaIional
indigenous eoles7 AlIer all, some indigenous eolessuch as
Ihose caughI u in Ihe U.S. Alaska NaIive Claims AcIare resource
cororaIions.OIhers,suchasIhosewhoconIrolGreenlandHomeRule,
mimicnaIion-sIaIesinIheirresourcemanagemenIlans.WiIhwhaI
sIrengIhandwhaIhesiIaIionsisglobalindigeneiIylinkedIosocial
jusIiceenvironmenIalism7
EindingmysellinIhemidsIoldebaIesabouIIndonesianindigenous
oliIics,IhaveIurnedIocomaraIivereadingsinindigeneiIyIoLnd
moreabouIIheLeld.YeIcomaraIiveexercisesaredangerous,IheyIemI
usIoassumeanimerialersecIive:IheviewlromglobalmanagemenI.
38 Anna 1sing
IhaveresenIedIhislongrologueIosuggesIanoIherreasonlorglobal
maing:IoconsiderhowagivenseIolemergenIIacIicsmighIIhrive
orlailinIransnaIionalencounIers.IlweareinvolvedinIheoliIics
olarIicularlaces,weneedsomesenseolhowIhelansweadvocaIe
arIiculaIewiIhoIhers.
GlobalindigenousoliIicsisexciIinganJchallengingbecauseoliIs
diversiIy.IIssIrengIhisiIsrelusalolregivenoliIicalcaIegoriesand
iIsrelusalIobackdownIodemandslorsIricIdeLniIions.AlmosIevery
inIernaIionalrojecIhasadheredIoIheideaIhaIindigenouseoles
will noI be redeLned. As a Cree sokeserson lor Ihe InIernaIional
WorkingGroulorIndigenousAllairsuIiI,"ToassumearighIIodeLne
indigenouseolesisIolurIherdenyourrighIolsell-deIerminaIion"
(Thornberry2002:o0).MosIconvenIionally,inIernaIionalindigenous
sokeseole oinI Io Ihe necessiIy lor sell-idenIiLcaIion. BuI sell-
idenIiLcaIionsomeIimesleadsIomorelayersolconIradicIion.Con-
sider CenIral America. QueIzil CasIaneda has roosed "We are not
indigenous!"asarallyingcrylorMayaeasanIsolIheYucaIan,who
reluseidenIiIyoliIics(2004).InElSalvador,BrandIFeIersonhasargued
IhaI eIhnic sell-idenIiIy exisIs in a violenI ga wiIhin seakabiliIy,
hisIorically only enemies have used Ihe Ierm nJo, and acIivisIs are
lrusIraIed by Ihe low levels ol inIeresI communiIies have shown lor
exliciIly"indigenous"rograms(FeIerson200S).
ConIradicIoryaIIiIudesabouIbeinglabeledindigenousleadIoIwo
quiIedillerenIanalyIicissues.EirsI,allcaIegoriesarousevariedreacIions
lor Ihe eole called Io Ihose caIegories. Feole whom oIhers label
woman, black, or liberal are equally divided and ambivalenI. Such
issues deserve an analysis ol Ihe comlex hisIories ol making and
claimingidenIiIies.ThisisimorIanIwork,buIiIisnoImyconcern
inIhischaIer.InsIead,IIrackvariaIionsinIheublicarIiculaIionol
indigeneiIyindillerenIlaces.IlollownoIIheambivalenceolordinary
eole buI Ihe claims ol Ihose who seI Ihe Ierms ol discussionlor
examle,acIivisIs,communiIyleaders,andublicinIellecIuals.Their
claimsbecomeinuenIialdiscursivelramesIoIheexIenIIheycangain
boIhalollowingandanaudience.TheselramesinlormwhaIonemighI
call"indigenousvoice."Byvoce,IamrelerringIoIhegenreconvenIions
wiIhwhichublicalLrmaIionsolidenIiIyarearIiculaIed.BecauseiIis
IhegenreconvenIion,noIIheseakerhimorhersell,IhaIhasower,
IoIallyunknowneolecanseakwiIhIhiskindolvoice,buIIheymusI
seakinawayanaudiencecanhear.AIreeIhaIlallsinanemIyloresI
hasnovoiceinIhissense,myrandomcomlainIssimilarlyhaveno
voice.OnlywhenILndawayIoseakIhaIarIiculaIesmycomlainIs
lndigenousvoice 3
inaubliclyrecognizablegenrecanIgainvoice.WhaIcanbeheard
changes.Novoicesclaimallaudiences.YeIiIseemsanalyIicallyuselul
Io searaIe diversiIy in Ihe ublic voice ol indigeneiIy lrom oIher
kindsolindigenousdiversiIy.TheresIolIhischaIerinvesIigaIesIhe
hisIorical condiIions in which a IransnaIional indigenous voice has
gainedmomenIum.
Thcxx:Croxx-NatonaILnRx1ntorm
TranxnatonaIFora
ThemeaningolIhehrase"indigenouseoles,"iniIslocalIranslaIions,
variesnaIionallyaswellasregionally.TheconIrasIsaresIriking,some
versions are conIradicIory, noI all become globally inuenIial. Eor
a arIicular version ol indigeneiIy Io become a IransnaIional model
requires linking across naIional conIexIs. This linking can amlily
indigenousclaimsinboIhIhelacesbeinglinkedand,IhusamliLed,
makeiIswayinIoIheworld.InoIhercases,IhelinkexisIsonlylrom
IheersecIiveolonenaIion,inIheoIhernaIion,nooneisevenaware
IhaIalinkwasmade.YeI,desiIeIhisasymmeIry,suchlinkingmay
allowIhelormaIionolaowerlulIravelingmodel.Travelingmodels
ol indigeneiIy have sread convenIions ol inIernaIional indigenous
oliIics. Because Ihey are noI readily adaIed Io every naIional and
regional conIexI, Ihey have also lormed nodes ol dissension. The
inalicabiliIyolowerlullrameslorIheindigenousoenssacesol
relusalandoloIenIialbreaksandalliances.
NaIionalvariaIioninIhemeaningol"indigenous"issIrucIuredby
IheexigenciesololicyandoliIics.NaIion-sIaIeolicieshaveevery-
wherecreaIedIhecondiIionslorindigenouslives.IlIhenaIion-sIaIe
moves eole inIo reservaIions, Ihen Ihe LghI musI conIinue lrom
IhereservaIion.IlIhenaIion-sIaIerequiresassimilaIion,IhendebaIes
will emerge lrom wiIhin Ihe aaraIus ol assimilaIion. The lorm ol
indigeneiIyinaarIicularlacecannoIbedivorcedlromIhesehisIories
olnaIionalclassiLcaIionandmanagemenI.EurIhermore,indigenous
roIesIsmusIseakIoanaIionalaudience.DesiIeIheimorIanceol
globalconnecIions,IhenaIionconIinuesIobeIhelocusololiIical
negoIiaIioninmosIlaces.TomakeaoliIicaldillerence,indigenous
leaders musI address Ihe naIion-sIaIe. They musI use culIural and
oliIicallramesIhaIarecomrehensiblewiIhinIhenaIion.Indonesians
recognize aJat wheIher Ihey agree or disagree wiIh iIs revival, New
ZealandersknowIheTreaIyolWaiIangiwheIherornoIIheysuorI
currenIinIerreIaIions.RecognizableleaIuresolIhenaIionaloliIical
40 Anna 1sing
andculIurallandscaearewoveninIoallindigenousdemands.Einally,
inIernaIionalloralorindigenousoliIicsreinlorcenaIionaldillerences
bymanagingreresenIaIionbynaIionaluniIs.TheUNmodelinwhich
every naIion has iIs sokeseole is relicaIed in many indigenous
workinggrous.InIhese,indigenousreresenIaIiveslearnIoimagine
IheirIransnaIionalsIaIusinrelaIionIoIheirnaIionalsIaIus.
RegionalvariaIionsinIhemeaningolindigenousareIiedIoconIing-
enIhisIoriesolsegregaIion,alliance,suression,mobilizaIion,leader-
shi,andoliIicalculIure.IIisimorIanInoIIoloseIrackolIhediversiIy
ol subnaIional regions. Regional conIrasIseasIern versus wesIern
GuaIemala, inner versus ouIer Indonesiamake all Ihe dillerence
lor allegiance Io a oliIics ol indigeneiIy. In Ihis chaIer, however,
I rivilege naIional variaIion because iI besI hels me exlore Irans-
naIionallyIravelingmodels.
FowerlulIransnaIionalmodelslorindigenousorganizingarelormed
in cross-naIional links. One rominenI examle is Ihe link beIween
indigenous grous in Canada and New Zealand IhaI lormed in Ihe
170s:EromIhislink,IsuggesI,IherheIoricolsovereignIycameIobea
keylaceIolIheinIernaIionalindigenousmovemenI.Thelinkdeveloed
lromIravelingsIaIemissionsaswellascomaraIivediscussionolIreaIies
andgovernance.TheideasabouIindigenoussovereignIyIhaIdeveloed
lrom Ihe link inlormed indigenous mobilizaIion in oIher BriIish
seIIlersIaIes,shaingolicydebaIesarIicularlyinAusIraliaandIhe
UniIedSIaIes.EromIhisclusIer,sovereignIyenIeredIheinIernaIional
indigenous agenda, where iI has conIinued Io inlorm almosI every
documenIonindigenousrighIsdesiIeIhelacIIhisrheIoricjusIdoes
noIworkinmosIoIherlaces.
Where Ihe CanadaNew Zealand link rovokes aIIenIion Io eIi-
Iions and IreaIies, a dillerenI American connecIion invokes miliIanI
sIruggle lor lurieIhnic auIonomy. The dialogue linking NorIh and
SouIhAmericaaround"IheIndianquesIion"hasbeenalongone,buI
one imorIanI enIry is cerIainly Ihe inversion ol nJgensmo in Ihe
laIe1o0s,asMexicanacIivisIsweresIimulaIedbyIheU.S.RedFower
movemenI.InsIeadolimagininganaIionaloliIicsolacculIuraIion,Ihey
organizedaroundindigenousculIuralrighIs,beginningIhediscussion
olamulIiculIuralandlurieIhnicnaIion.RedFoweracIivisIsinIhe
UniIedSIaIesdidnoIjoinMexicandiscussion,buIIhecross-naIional
linksIillollerediIlegiIimacyandlorce.Mexicanvoiceshavejoined
oIherLaIinAmericansIrugglesIoIranslormmestzajeandmodernizaIion
inIooliIicalauIonomyandculIuralsell-deIerminaIion.SuchnarraIives
invokeinclusionandIranslormaIionraIherIhansearaIionlromIhe
lndigenousvoice 41
naIion.Assuch,IheydrawdirecIlyonearliereasanIorganizing,wiIh
iIsnaIion-makinghisIory.TheyollerIransnaIionallyowerlulmodelsol
miliIancyandcooIaIionIoIransnaIionalindigenousconcerns.
SomeIimes nonindigenous acIivisIs make Ihe connecIions. The
BrazilianexerienceolenvironmenIalisIindigenousoliIicsIraveled
IoMalaysiaandIndonesiawiIhnorIhernacIivisIswhomovedlromIhe
camaignIosaveIheAmazonIoSouIheasIAsianrainloresIcamaigns
inIhe180s.ThealliancesbeIweenenvironmenIalisIsandindigenous
leaders only worked ouI well in Brazil aI arIicular hisIorical mom-
enIs:lorexamle,whenIheWorkersFarIyheledIodomesIicaIeIhe
sIruggle.BuIlorIheenvironmenIalisIsinvolved,Iheideaolalliance
wiIhrainloresIeolewasgoodIoIravel.NaIionalenvironmenIalisIs
in SouIheasI Asia icked u on Ihe Ihemeand a global rainloresI
camaignemerged.EromIhiscamaign,indigenouseolesaround
IheworldbecameeligiblelorIheroleolenvironmenIalsIeward.BuI,
olcourse,noIallindigenouseoleshavewanIedIhisrole,andsome
haveacIivelyloughIenvironmenIalism.
RheIoricsolsovereignIy,narraIivesollurieIhnicauIonomy,envir-
onmenIalsIewardshi:ThesearenoIIheonlydeLniIionallrameslor
indigenoussIruggle,buIIheyareamongIhemosIowerlul.Myargu-
menIabouIcross-naIionalconnecIionssuggesIsIhaIIheylormsemi-
auIonomousaxesolindigenousvoice,IheydonoIalwayscomlemenI
eachoIher.IamsureyoucanalreadyseewhyIhesearchloraconsisIenI
deLniIionalorhilosohicalbasislorindigenousorganizingwouldnoI
helmeexlainIhisconLguraIion.YeIdeLniIionalandhilosohical
consisIencyaredemandednoIonlybyskeIicaloliIiciansbuIalsoby
scholars.IsindigenousorganizingIhedawnolanewculIuralera,or,
alIernaIively,IheredicIableouIcomeolneoliberalrelormonaglobal
scale7NeiIheraroachallowsusIoconsiderIhemakingandunmaking
olindigenouslinks.ScholarsIendIorecognizeIheimorIanceolan
argumenIonlyIoIheexIenIIhaIiIollersaconsisIenIgenealogywiIhin
anidenIiLablehilosohicalIradiIion.IlwehaveIroubleareciaIing
conIingenI arIiculaIionseven alIer invoking AnIonio GramsciiI
is because we Ihink we have someIhing down only when iI reeaIs
oliIicalIruisms.YeIglobalconnecIionsarenoIjusIabouIreeIiIion.
ThelricIionaIIhehearIolglobalinIerchangeallowsnewlormsand
racIicesIocomeinIobeing,lorbeIIerorworse.TorecognizeIheIravels
olindigenousvoicedoesnoImeanIhaIindigenousmobilizaIionsare
good lor everyone. Even il we limiI ourselvesas I do hereIo Ihe
roclamaIionsoleagerorganizers,IheiroliIicalsuccessesaresoradic
and lrail. Their lrameworks may noI exciIe symaIheIic resonse,
42 Anna 1sing
and when Ihey do, Ihese may or may noI be hellul Io anyone. By
highlighIingIheconnecIions,andIherelore,Ioo,IhedisconnecIions,
I hoe Io show Ihe irregular and conIingenI develomenI ol Ihe
indigenouslramework.
occxThatTravcI
How have indigenous concerns gaIhered IransnaIional lorce7 Here I
elaboraIeandexlainIheIhreeaxesolconnecIionIinIroducedbriey
inIherevioussecIion.OnlyalIerwarddoIIurnIoIheworkIhaIIhese
axesolindigeneiIycannoIdo.
Therhetorcojsoveregnty.Two-rowwampumatthe
TrhunalojWatang
In Ihe laIe 1o0s, Canada was absorbed by Ihe drama ol Quebecois
naIionalismandIhesIruggleolErenchCanadianslorcivilrighIs.Liberals
wanIedIhelederalgovernmenIIoconLrmIheequaliIyolallCanadian
ciIizens under a single sIandard. II was in Ihis conIexI IhaI Frime
MinisIerFierreTrudeauissuedaWhiIeFaerin1orecommending
IhaI Indian sIaIus be abolished, making Indians Canadian ciIizens
wiIhouIenIiIlemenIs.HewasunrearedlorIheuroarIhaIlollowed.
IndiansdemandedIhaIIhegovernmenIresecIIheirIreaIyrighIsand
Ihe obligaIions ol Iheir secial sIaIus. "Red Faers" were issued in
reacIion, reminding everyone IhaI "equaliIy" in governmenI olicy
alwaysrivilegedwhiIeness.TheonslaughIolcriIicalreacIionlorced
Ihe governmenI Io renounce Ihe WhiIe Faer. The ensuing ga in
governmenIolicyreoenedabroadrangeolquesIionsabouIIhesIaIus
olCanadasindigenouseoles.
8
Trudeau reIurned lrom a Iri Io New Zealand in 170 Io address
IndianroIesIers,IhereheLrsIbroughIuIheNewZealandracIice
ol reserving lour arliamenIary seaIs lor indigenous Maori (Sanders
177:).NewZealand,likeAusIralia,lormedaneasymodelolroer
governance lor Canadians. In 171 and 172 olLcial missions lrom
CanadaweresenIIoNewZealandandAusIraliaseekingconsulIaIion
onindigenousgovernance.IncludedonIheLrsImissionwasGeorge
Manuel,IheresidenIolIheinuenIialNaIionalIndianBroIherhood
as well as oIher Canadian Indian leaders. Erom Ihese conIacIs, an
inIerIwinedsIoryabouI"indigenouseoles"beganIoarise.

InIer-
naIionaleIiIionlorsell-deIerminaIionandredresswasaIIhehearI
oliI.IndigenousleadersinCanadaandNewZealandrecalledarallel
lndigenousvoice 43
hisIories ol inIernaIional eIiIion: Maori delegaIions Iraveled Io
England Io meeI wiIh Ihe King or Queen in 1882, 1884, 114, and
124,chielslromBriIishColumbiawenIonsimilarIrisin10oand
10.ReresenIaIivesolIheIroquoisConlederacyIraveledIoGeneva
wiIh grievances lor Ihe League ol NaIions in Ihe 120s, so did Ihe
Maori.
10
ThishisIoryoleIiIioninlormedsubsequenIellorIsIolorman
inIernaIionalorganizaIionlorindigenousrighIs.In17S,IheNaIional
Indian BroIherhood hosIed Ihe lormaIive meeIing ol Ihe World
CouncilolIndigenousFeolesinForIAlberni,BriIishColumbia.This
lormaIivemomenIhasconIinuedIoinuencesubsequenIindigenous
mobilizaIion.
Indigenous leaders in Canada received arIicular suorI lrom
NewZealandMaorilorIheirconcernswiIhIreaIyrighIs,whichwere
emergingasIhecornersIoneolindigenousorganizinginNewZealand.
In1840,IheBriIishCrownandsomeLvehundredMaorichielssigned
IhehisIoricTreaIyolWaiIangi,whichallowedIheBriIishIomakeinIer-
naIionalclaimsoverNewZealand.AlIhoughIheIreaIydidnoIinlorm
subsequenIBriIisholicy,"IheromanIicmyIholIheIreaIyasasymbol
olIheuniIyandamiIyolIworaces"ersisIed(Howard2003:18418S).
AnannualcelebraIionolIheIreaIywaslargelyaFakeha(whiIe)evenI
aIleasIin171,whenanemergenIMaoriroIesImovemenIhonedin
onWaiIangiasasiIeolconIesI.In172,aFakehawriIerbroughIublic
aIIenIionIoIhelacIIhaIMaorichielsandBriIishreresenIaIivessigned
dillerenIIreaIiesinMaoriandEnglish,resecIively.WhereIheEnglish
versionsuorIedIheideaIhaIMaorihadceded"sovereignIy"IoIhe
Crown,IheMaoriversioncededonly"governorshi"(lawanatanga),
reIaining"cheilIainshi"(rangatratanga)overlandandroerIy.BoIh
versions gave Maori lull righIs ol BriIish ciIizenshi, buI Ihe Maori
versionmakesaMaoriBriIisharInershiinsovereignIyIhegoal.
11

ThisissueolIranslaIionseIIheIreaIycenIersIageinMaorisIruggles
lorlandrighIs,oliIicalauIonomy,andculIurallyaroriaIelorms
olgovernance.In17S,asymaIheIicLabourgovernmenIlormedIhe
TribunalolWaiIangiIoassessgovernmenIcomlianceIoIheIreaIy.
Much ol Ihe subsequenI success ol Maori land-righIs and oliIical-
auIonomyclaimsdeendsonIhisIribunalandiIsreorIs.TheIreaIy,
Ihen, remains key Io Maori asserIionsand Io Maori inuence in
Canadaandbeyond.
InCanada,camaignsIouseIreaIyrighIsandgovernmenIseIIlemenIs
IoobIainoliIicalurchasealsoheaIeduinIhe170sasindigenous
eolesIranslormedIhemselvesinIoEirsINaIions.TheCreeandInuiI
olnorIhernQuebecwonamajorseIIlemenIin17S,inIhesameyear,
44 Anna 1sing
IheDeneasserIednaIionhood.In17o,IheInuiI-conIrolledIerriIory
olNunuvuIwasroosed,by182,IheNaIionalIndianBroIherhood
hadbecomeIheAssemblyolEirsINaIions.TherheIoricolindigenous
sovereignIywaslurIherdeveloedinLghIsIouIindigenousrighIs
inIoIheCanadianconsIiIuIion.CanadianIndiansaealedlorhel
IoinIernaIionalsuorIers,eseciallyinLondon,IhuslurIheringIheir
leadershiinromoIingindigenoussovereignIyonaninIernaIional
level,wiIhaBriIishEmirescoe(Sanders18S).AIhome,oneolIhe
mosIouIsokenindigenousgrouswasIheIroquoisConlederacy.Those
IroquoiswhoalliedwiIhIheBriIishduringIheAmericanRevoluIion
weregivenIerriIoriesinwhaIbecameCanadaandIreaIedasasovereign
ower. The alliance was maIerialized in Ihe Gus-Wen-Qah or Two-
Row Wamum BelI, in which Iwo rows ol urle shells, divided by
Ihe whiIe sign ol eace, signily Ihe Iroquois and English each wiIh
IheirownsovereignaIh.Two-rowwamumbecameaniconlorIhe
sIrugglelorsell-deIerminaIioninCanada(JohnsIon2003|18o|).Like
IheTreaIyolWaiIangi,Iwo-rowwamumsokeIoIheossibiliIyol
deLning sovereignIy in culIurally aroriaIe Ierms. TogeIher, Ihey
olleraninuenIiallramelorIhinkingabouIinIernaIionalindigenous
mobilizing.
AlmosI lrom Ihe LrsI, indigenous eole lrom Ihe UniIed SIaIes,
AusIralia, and norIhern Euroe resonded Io Ihis axis ol mobiliza-
Iion. By 174, Ihe U.S. American Indian MovemenI had sonsored
IheInIernaIionalTreaIyCouncilIoseeklorUNrecogniIionolIribal
IreaIies (Sanders 2003: o8). As in Canada and New Zealand, NaIive
AmericansusedIhehisIoryolIreaIiesassymbolicoliIics:Eorexamle,
IheTrailolBrokenTreaIiesroIesImarchol172dramaIizedIndian
redicamenIs. The U.S. governmenI had relused Io deal wiIh NaIive
Americans Ihrough IreaIies since 1871. The rheIoric ol sovereignIy
aIIemIedIoreverseIhishisIory.
12
Meanwhile,AusIralianaborigines
had no IreaIies Io lall back on. YeI Iheir Iies Io oIher BriIish seIIler
sIaIesCanadaandNewZealandallowedIhemIoacIraIherasilIhey
did.The17oAboriginalLandRighIs(NorIhernTerriIory)AcIollered
an inIernaIionally inuenIial model ol building culIural values inIo
enIiIlemenIs:AboriginalsacredsiIesbecameIhebasisollandclaims
(Maddock11).TheinIernaIionalismolallIhiswaslurIherboosIed
byIheinvolvemenIolIhenorIhernEuroeanSami,whoconnecIedIhe
emergenIindigenousmovemenIIoScandanavian-basedinIernaIional
organizaIions,suchasIheInIernaIionalWorkingGrouonIndigenous
Allairs(IWGIA),andlromIhereIoIheUniIedNaIions.
13
Manyobservers
olIheglobalindigeneiIymovemenIbeginhere,wiIhIherheIoricol
lndigenousvoice 45
sovereignIy.IIisIhebasisolroIesIsIokeeIheleIIer"s"inindigenous
peoplesandIoremainLrmonIhelanguageolIheUNdralIdeclaraIion.
BuIiIisnoIIheonlylramingaxisolindigenousoliIics.
Ilurethncautonomy.AnInter-AmercanJalogue. ThesloganolIhe1o
NaIionalIndigenousCouncilolMexico"NeveragainwiIhouIus"
carriesusinIoanoIherindigenousoliIics:LaIinAmericansIruggleslor
lurieIhnicauIonomy.
14
"AuIonomyisnoIsecession,"declaredIhe14
NaIionalIndigenousConvenIion,"auIonomyisIheLrsIoorIuniIy
IhaIourindigenouspuehloswouldhaveIobecomeIrueMexicanslorIhe
LrsIIime."
1S
TheIermautonomyisusedinindigenousoliIicsaround
Iheworld.However,onlyinLaIinAmericaisiIaIermolsIruggle.
1o
MexicanindigenousmobilizaIionisbesIknownIhroughIhe14
urisingolIheEjerciIoZaaIisIadeLiberacionNacional(EZLN).The
EZLN and iIs oliIical successors have aealed noI lor sovereignIy
buI,raIher,lorIheremakingolaMexicannaIionalismIhaIcouldwork
lor,raIherIhanagainsI,IndiansandIheoor.TheEZLNcarriedIhe
MexicannaIionalagduringeacenegoIiaIions,indigenousnegoIiaIors
conLrmedwiIhouIromIingIhaIIheywere"100ercenIMexican"
(Brysk 2000: 81). By remaking Ihe naIion in a luralisIic lrame lor
Ihe cause ol social jusIice and culIural righIs, Ihe ZaaIisIas ollered
a charismaIic rendering ol an InIer-American sIory abouI oular
democracy. Drawing lrom souIhern "easanI" legacies and lrom
norIhern mulIiculIuralism, ZaaIisIas resoke indigeneiIy, reenergiz-
ing earlier LaIin American mobilizaIions, and indeed indigenous
camaignsaroundIheworld.
OnerelevanIgenealogyolIhisindigenousvoicebeginswiIhnJg-
ensmo and Ihe oliIics ol assimilaIion. In Mexico, indigenismo is
associaIedwiIhIhemakingolIhenaIionaloliIyIhroughmesIizaje,Ihe
Euroean-sonsoredculIuralulilIandracialmixingolIndiansIhrough
whichcivilizaIionwasIhoughIIoadvance.
17
ConIemoraryindigenous
oliIics in Mexico is a Ihorough rejecton ol indigenismo. InsIead ol
assimilaIion, indigenous Mexicans demand sell-deIerminaIion and
culIuralresecI.BuIindigenismoremainssalienI:IIbroughIIndians
ideologicallyinIonaIionaldevelomenI,evenasiIaIIemIedIoerase
Ihem.TheowerolconIemoraryindigenousclaimsIoenIernaIional
debaIes on democracy deends on Ihis secIral resence. (NorIh
American Indians claims, in conIrasI, have Irouble being heard in
naIion-sIaIeoliIics.)InMexico,indigenismoalsousheredinasIill-
relevanIcasIollayers,includingmobilizedeasanIcommuniIiesand
aliedanIhroologisIs.
4 Anna 1sing
AsanideologyolconquesI,indigenismohasdeendedonIraveland
dialogue,IoIrackiIsvariedlormsacrossLaIinAmericawouldbean
exciIingrojecIbuInoIonelorIhischaIer.InsIead,IconcenIraIeon
aliIIle-noIicedchaIeroliIsdevelomenI:dialoguewiIhU.S.Indian
oliIics.In140,indigenismowiIhalliIslaulIswasreviIalizedby
IheLrsIInIer-AmericanIndigenisICongress,heldinFIzcuaro,Mexico.
ImorIanIMexicanscholarsandoliIicalLguresaIIended,soIoodid
John Collier ol Ihe U.S. Bureau ol Indian Allairs.
18
Collier broughI
lundslromIheRockelellerEoundaIionlorIheenIerrise,whichaimed
IosreadBureausolIndianAllairsacrossLaIinAmerica.
1
Collieralso
came wiIh a new kind ol alied anIhroology inIended Io uhold
IheinIegriIyolnaIiveculIureswhileolleringIndiansIoolsIoinIegraIe
inIonaIionalsocieIy.
20
HecIorDazFolancoexlainshow,wiIhinIhe
InIer-American discussion, whaI seemed aI LrsI Io be a gesIure ol
resecIlorIndiansbecameyeIanoIherchargelorassimilaIion(17:
o870)."InIegraIionism"wasIhenewamalgamolculIuralrelaIivism
and develomenI lormed in Ihis dialogue. This model shaed Ihe
InIernaIional Labour OrganizaIions ConvenIion (ILO) 107 ol 1S7,
whichcallslorIhe"rogressiveinIegraIion|olindigenouseole|inIo
IhelileolIheirresecIivecounIries."
21
MarisoldelaCadenaaddsIhaI
"acculIuraIion"asascholarlyconceIsweInorIhaswellassouIhlrom
Ihis siIe and iIs relaIed discussions (200Sb). Meanwhile, indigenous
inIegraIion blossomed as naIional olicy in Mexico by conaIing
agendaslorsIaIeexansionIhrougheasanIdevelomenIandnaIion
makingIhroughIndianacculIuraIion.
InIhelaIe1o0s,agrouolradicalMexicaninIellecIualslaunched
aLercecriIiqueolindigenismoasacolonialdiscourse.
22
TheircriIique
wasdomesIicbuIalsoIransnaIional:IIconIinuedIheInIer-American
dialogue.OneelemenIwasIheirareciaIionolIhenorIhernersRed
FowermovemenI.
U.S.NaIiveAmericanorganizinginIhelaIe1o0sandearly170swas
widelyinuenIial.AsinIheZaaIisIarebellion,asecIacularsymbolic
oliIicswasdeloyed:IheoccuaIionolAlcaIrazIsland,IheIakeover
olIheBureauolIndianAllairs(SmiIhandWarrior1o).EurIhermore,
IheRedFowermovemenIcaughIaIIenIionaIhomeandabroadasa
IranslormaIionolIheBlackFowerandIheU.S.civilrighIsmovemenIs.
BlackAmericanswereasymbololsIrugglenoIonlyamongminoriIies
alloverIheworldbuIalsoamongosIcolonialnaIions,whosawanIi-
colonialenergiesexIendedinblackmovemenIs,andcommunisIs,who
sawIhedirIyouIcomeoladvancedcaiIalismrevealedlorallinblack
oression.TheRedFowermovemenIwasIheLrsIsuccesslulexercise
lndigenousvoice 47
inconnecIingIhisbroadsocialjusIiceblocIoindigenousmobilizaIion.
Demands lor civil righIs, culIural righIs, class sIruggle, and oliIical
lreedomwerebundledIogeIherinIheinIernaIionalreceIionolRed
Fower.InconIrasIIomanymorerecenIindigenousmobilizaIions,Ihird
world naIionalisIs were noI iIIed againsI indigenous acIivisIs, here
IheysIoodincommonranksagainsIinjusIice.
RedFowerdemandswereadvancedarIicularlybyurbaneducaIed
Indians,whocrossedIriballinesIoseakIoaU.S.naIionalaudience.
The laIer Iurn Io governmenI-Io-governmenI negoIiaIions in NaIive
American oliIics has obscured Ihe imorIance ol anIribal civil-
righIs-sIyle mobilizaIions. The inclusive reach ol such mobilizaIions
madeIhemaealinginareaswiIhouIIribalIreaIyrighIsandwhere
Ihe rheIoric ol sovereignIy seemed basically irrelevanI.
23
Indigenous
organizinginmanylaceswasLrsIsIimulaIedbydemandslorculIural
righIs,anendIodiscriminaIion,andoliIicalinclusion.CerIainly,Ihis
wasIhecaseinMexico.
InIhelaIe1o0s,asmallgrouolacIivisIMexicananIhroologisIs
usedRedFowerIoconIesIMexicanindigenismoandIurnindigenous
oliIicsinIoacriIiqueolculIuraloression.
24
InIhecurrenIclimaIe
olMexicansell-examinaIion,IheircriIiquewasinuenIial,IhecriIical
anIhroologisIswereaskedIojoinIheNaIionalIndigenousInsIiIuIe
(INI)andIorelormindigenousolicy.
2S
AccordingIoCourIneyJung,
IheolLcialresulIolIhisrelormdeoliIicizedruralcommuniIiesIhrough
iIslocusonculIuralrideandbilingualeducaIion,however,Iherelorm
hadunolLcialresulIsinsIimulaIingindigenoussell-idenIiLcaIion(in
ress).EirsI,iIemoweredclass-basedeasanIorganizing,ilsomeIimes
under an underinIerreIed indigenous label. The 174 Indigenous
CongressinSanCrisIobal,Chiaas,lorexamle,inauguraIedanera
olMarxisIclass-basedmobilizaIionjusIbecauseiIbroughIacIivisIs
IogeIher. Second, indigenous rheIoric lamiliarized acIivisIs wiIh
inIernaIionallyowerlulgenresIhaIbecameuselulinIheearly10s
wiIh Ihe loss ol oIency ol easanI idioms. When Mexico acceIed
sIrucIuraladjusImenIand,mosIdrasIically,rewroIeIheconsIiIuIion
IoexcludecommiImenIsIoeasanIs,IherheIoricoleasanIsIruggle
became inellecIive. FeasanI acIivisIs became indigenous acIivisIs Io
uIilizeIheinIernaIionalcacheIolindigenousoliIics.TheconaIion
olindigenousandeasanIdemandsallowedIheindigenoussIruggleIo
builddirecIlyonIheeasanIsIrugglewiIhouIhavingIousediscrediIed
keywords. EZLN miliIancy won wide suorI because iI broughI
IogeIherlamiliareasanIsocialjusIicedemandsandIhelanguageol
indigenousrighIs.
48 Anna 1sing
Mexican sIruggles lor indigenous auIonomy are disIincIive, and
yeI Ihey also arIake in a wider LaIin American conversaIion abouI
Ihe ossibiliIy ol democraIic relorm Ihrough indigenous auIonomy.
IndigenousorganizinglorluralisIinclusionisexIremelyvaried,even
inneighboringcounIries.FoliIicalscienIisIDonnaLeeVanCoII(2001)
conIrasIs"eIhnicauIonomyregimes"innineLaIinAmericancounIries:
SomewereuIinIolaceinnegoIiaIingeaceagreemenIs,alIerarmed
sIruggle,whereasoIhersaccomaniedconsIiIuIionalrelorm,somehad
IhesuorIolowerlulloreignordomesIicallies,whereasoIhersdid
noI,andsomeweremoresuccesslulIhanoIhersininsIiIuIingindigenous
righIs.WhaIIheyhaveincommon,however,isIhesIruggleIoexand
IheossibiliIiesolIhenaIion,noIwiIhdrawlromiI.
LnvronmentalstewarJshp.lromtheAmazonhasntothe
Malayarchpelago
WhaI ol loresI dwellers who have neiIher Ihe urchase ol naIional
inclusionnorIherecedenceolIreaIyrighIs7AnoIherindigenousaxis
hasbroughIanalIernaIiveseIolalliances:IheenvironmenIalmovemenI.
ThisaxisiserhasIhemosIdilLculIIoresenIbecausenon-naIive
acIivisIslayacenIralroleiniI.NorIhernacIivisIssIereoIyesolnaIives
as "close Io naIure" oen Ihe movemenI Io charges ol romanIicism
andcolonialdiscourse.ThedramaIizaIionolalliancemakesIheower
imbalance beIween whiIe environmenIalisIs and naIive sokesmen
arIicularlyaarenI.Inmanycases,desiIeinIernaIionalaIIenIion,
lew beneLIs have accrued Io indigenous communiIies.
2o
And such
mobilizaIionshaveonlyoccasionallycalledlorIhsolidariIywiIhoIher
vulnerableeole,suchasIhenonindigenousruraloor.
YeI Ihese occasional momenIs ol solidariIy are imorIanI: They
allowIheindigenousenvironmenIalallianceIocomeIolile.Thisis
becausesuchsolidariIyisroducedbyIhemediaIionolnaIionalLelI
andoosiIionmovemenIs,whichallowindigenouscauseslorjusI
a momenIIo seak wiIhin naIional oliIical culIures (Tsing n.d.).
EormarginaleoleswhohavebeenexcludedenIirelylromnaIional
arIiciaIion, Ihis is a signiLcanI momenI ol oliIical arIiculaIion.
The environmenIalindigenous axis Ihus ollers an oorIuniIy lor
"indigenous voice" lor Ihose communiIies wiIh neiIher IreaIies nor
legacies ol naIional inclusion. EurIhermore, alIhough criIics have
imaginedIhisallianceemerginglullyarmedlromimaginaIiveEuroean
loreheads,inlacI,iIrequiredahisIoryolmakinglinks,asinanyoIher
collaboraIion.
27
lndigenousvoice 4
One lace Io begin is Brazil, where inIernaIional environmenIal
acIivismhonedinonIhedesIrucIionolIheAmazonloresIinIhe170s.
MargareIKeckIellsIhesIory:BrazilwasroudolloresIdesIrucIion(and
IndianassimilaIion)inIhe170s:Brazilwasboomingandaleader
olIhedeveloingworld,iIwasIheheighIolIhe"economicmiracle."
AI Ihe UN conlerence on Ihe Human EnvironmenI in SIockholm,
BrazilianreresenIaIivesdismissedconcernlorIherainloresI:"Smoke
isasignolrogress"(Keck1Sa).InIhisconIexI,IhecombinaIionol
environmenIalandindigenousacIivismseemeddownrighIsubversive.
BrazilianenvironmenIalgrouswerewary,Ihegeneralswerealarmed
(HochsIeIler 17). The Brazilian LelI used Indians Io criIicize Ihe
miliIarygovernmenI,lurIherexcludingIhemlromnaIionalinuence
byidenIilyingIhemasunaIrioIic(Ramos18).BoIhindigenousand
environmenIalorganizaIionbecameknownasessenIiallyjoregn.This
onlyencouragednorIhernersinIheirdeIerminaIionIo"Ihinkglobally."
TheresulIanIimasselimiIedacIionIochargesandcounIercharges.
The imasse broke lor jusI a momenI when Ihe environmenIal
indigenousalliancehadanoorIuniIyIobecome"Brazilian."Ferhas
IhemosIimorIanIroducIwasnoIbeneLIslorindigenouscommuniIies
buI,raIher,abrielglimseolsolidariIybeIweenIndiansandIherural
oor.TheoliIicalmobilizaIionolrubberIaerswascrucial,IiedIo
BrazilsWorkersFarIyandIheIradiIionolclass-basedruralorganizing,
IheybroughIarecognizablyBrazilianIhemeIosIruggleslorrainloresI
roIecIion (Almeida 2002, Keck 1Sb). When Ihe miliIary regime
endedin18S,newkindsololiIicalarIiciaIionseemedossible,
IheemergenIalliancebeIweenindigenousleaders,ruralworkers,and
environmenIalisIs suddenly seemed a Brazlan mobilizaIion.
28
The
188murderolChicoMendesmovedboIhrogressiveBraziliansand
loreigners, lor a shorI momenI, Ihe naIionalglobal alliance seemed
oIenIandreadyIoIravel.KeckarguesIhaIIhesymbolicoIencyol
environmenIalindigenousalliancesdrewinarIlromIhelailureolIhe
develomenIalisInarraIive.ByIhelaIe180s,IheBrazilianeconomy
wasamess,IheTrans-Amazonhighwaywasimassable.BrazilsrheIoric
oldevelomenInolongerlorgedcross-naIionalalliances.InsIead,global
environmenIalindigenousalliancescouldlookIoBrazil(Keck1Sa,
1Sb).
2
II is undeniable IhaI someIhing "Iraveled" ouI lrom Ihe Brazilian
exerience, insiring relaIed mobilizaIions in oIher arIs ol Ihe
world.FerhasIhemosIimorIanIIhingIoIravelwasIhenorIhern
environmenIalisIsIhemselves,whowereencouragedbyinIernaIional
exciIemenIIolormallianceswiIh"loresIdwellers"acrossIheglobe.Such
50 Anna 1sing
IravelsmayhaveusedandabusedChicoMendesscommiImenIs.
30
SIill,
IhemovemenIsIimulaIedoliIicaleruIionsinwhichsokeseolelor
marginalizedindigenouseolebecameworIhyinIerlocuIors.
The oliIical comosiIe melding advocacy lor loresI dwellers and
endangeredrainloresIecologieswascemenIedbyIheIranslerolIhe
IransnaIional rainloresI camaign lrom Brazil Io Sarawak, Malaysia
(Keck 1Sb, Keck and Sikkink 18). A number ol acIivisIs worked
on boIh camaigns. EurIhermore, new IransnaIional organizaIions
linkingenvironmenIalroIecIionandindigenousrighIssrouIedlike
mushroomsalIerarain,andIhealicabiliIyolIheirundersIandings
IoboIhBrazilandSarawakwasaIIhehearIolIheirglobalaeal.
31
In
Sarawak,dilLculIyincasIingIheenvironmenIalindigenoussIruggleasa
MalaysansIrugglecausedIroubleonceagain(Brosius1).
32
Onlywhen
naIionalenvironmenIalisIsacrossSouIheasIAsiaIookuIhesIruggleas
IheirowndidIheenvironmenIalindigenousmovemenIcomeinIoiIs
sIrengIh.InThailand,Malaysia,IheFhiliines,andIndonesia,naIional
environmenIalisIsbroughIsocialjusIicesIrugglesinIoIherainloresIin
IheirdemandslorIhelandandresourcerighIsolindigenouseoles.
Through naIional mobilizaIions, indigenous reresenIaIives came Io
seakIoboIhnaIionalandinIernaIionalaudiences.AsinBrazil,Ihe
abiliIy ol naIional advocaIes Io make indigenous sIruggles seak Io
naIionaloliIicalculIuregaveIransnaIionalacIivismIracIion.
33
LaIin
American loresI dwellers beyond Brazil have also engaged in relaIed
sIruggleslorlandandresources,whichdrawlromIhissameaaraIus
olIransnaIionalsuorIwiIhinIheconIexIolnaIionalmobilizaIion
(e.g.,Sawyer2004).
OverlapanJconvergence
Every grou has iIs own sIory. BuI oliIically ellecIive Iales musI be
cralIedIoenIeremergenIchannelsolublicaIIenIion,suchasIhose
lormedinIhecross-naIionalaxesIhaveinIroduced.Thereisnoreason,
olcourse,lorseakersIolimiIIhemselvesIooneesIablishedaxis,and
IhereislenIyolroomlormaneuverwiIhinandacrossIheseaxes.The
sIoryolIheSamiolNorwayillusIraIesIhesimulIaneoususeolallIhree
axesincreaIingoneindigenousosiIion.
NorwegianSamihavehadalormaIiveroleincreaIinginIernaIional
indigenousoliIicsbecauseolIheirScandinavianaccessIoinIernaIional
oliIicallora.HenryMinde(2003)noIeshowSamiworkingwiIhoIher
NorwegianreresenIaIiveswerekeylayersinIhe180sushIorevise
ILOConvenIion107IhaIledIoIhedralIingolILOConvenIion1o.
lndigenousvoice 51
SamihavehadIoworkagainsIboIhlocalandglobalassessmenIsIhaI
IheyarenoIindigenous.NoIonlydidNorwegiansoriginallyrejecISami
claims Io indigeneiIy, ciIing a long hisIory ol assimilaIion, buI New
WorldIndiansalsoquesIionedIheirsIaIus,lorexamle,aIIheWorld
CouncilolIndigenousFeoles174rearaIorymeeIinginGuyana.
YeISamiclaimsIomembershiinIheWorldCouncilolIndigenous
Feoles (WCIF) drew lrom an earlier, muIually lormaIive hisIory ol
conIacIbeIweenCanadianIndiansandSami.GeorgeManuelvisiIed
NorwegianSamileadersin172onaIriIhaIheledManuelimagine
IhescoeandromiseolinIernaIionalindigeneiIy.CallingIhemselves
"WhiIeIndians,"SamijoinedIheinIernaIionalindigenismolCanada,
NewZealand,andAusIralia.
SamiwererimedlorIhisinvolvemenIbyagrowingsenseolSami
culIuralridedeveloedlromanoIheraxisolconnecIion:TheU.S.Red
FowermovemenI.InIhelaIe1o0s,comarisonsbeIweenSamiandU.S.
NaIiveAmericansourished.AowolbooksheledesIablishIhelrame:
aSwedishediIionolVineDeloriasCusterOeJjoryourSns(188|1o|)
in171,aNorwegianediIionolDeeBrownsBuryMyHeartatWounJeJ
Knee (171) by 174. The Red Fower movemenI insired a radical
Sami grou, C

SV, a Sami youIh culIure demanded Ihe reviIalizaIion


olSamiculIureandoliIics.AsinMexico,SamiridemixedMarxisI
miliIancyandlolkloricreIrenchmenIlorIhewellbeingolIhenaIion.
YeInoneolIhismighIhavemademucholadillerenceexceIlora
dramaIicenvironmenIalconicI.In178,IheNorwegianarliamenI
arovedlanslorIheAlIaKauIokeinodamandhydroelecIricrojecI
inIheregionolEinnmark.SamialliedwiIhenvironmenIalacIivisIsin
oosiIionIoIhedam.In17,SamisIagedahungersIrikeinlronI
olarliamenI,romIingarusholmediacoverage.OnearIicularly
ellecIivecarIoondeicIedNorwayasacrocodilewiIhoneeyecrying
lorIheworldsindigenouseole("FoorIndians,"IhecaIionsays),
whileiIsIailsweesawayiIsownindigenousSami(Minde2003:4
S). Sami involvemenI in inIernaIional indigenous oliIics broughI
Ihem inIernaIional suorI, in Iurn, Sami used Ihe environmenIal
conlronIaIionIoraiseIheirindigenoussIaIus.(TheSamireresenIaIive
aIa181WCIFmeeIingexlainedhissIanceinanaealIoBrazil:
"whenyoulookaIeveryIhingasawhole,AlIaseemslikealiIIlebranch
inIheBrazilianjungle"|Minde2003:8o|.)AIhome,environmenIalisIs
broughIIheconicIinsidenaIionaldebaIe.WhenIhesIaIemusIered
olicelorceagainsISamiroIesIersin181,"Norwegiansell-erceIion
as loremosI delender ol human righIs was hanging in Ihe balance"
(Minde2003:S).
52 Anna 1sing
The"AlIaallair"changedIheclimaIelorSamioliIics,oeningroads
lorSamioliIicalclaimsandenhancingSamiinvolvemenIinIheinIer-
naIionalindigenousarena.Samibecamesokeseolelorindigenous
righIsaIhomeandabroad.EacholIhechannelsolinIelligibiliIyand
acIionIhaveouIlinedaugmenIedIheirabiliIyIoimagineIhemselves
wiIhin indigenous oliIics. Indeed, Ihe imorIance ol Scandanavian
leadershi,lunding,andublicaIioninIheinIernaIionalindigenous
scenehasmainIainedanimorIanIresencelorSamiIhere.NoIevery
indigenousleadershi,however,hasmanagedIoadaIsoeasilyinIo
inIernaIionalconvenIions.
NodcxotOxxcnxon
FowerlullrameslorindigeneiIyarealsosaceslordisagreemenI.NoI
everyonecanLIinIoIheselrames.BecauseIhelramesollerdillerenI
enmiIiesandalliances,conIradicIionssurlace.ConsideringIheseirriIa-
IionsandIensionsullsuslromasIleaIsIowardemergenIalliances
anddivisions.
Toolttle,anJtoomuch,recognton
TherheIoricolsovereignIyhasmanyadvanIages,noIleasIamongIhem
iIsaealIoUNlrameworksolsell-deIerminaIion.Thisaealisalso
iIsmaininIernaIionaldrawback.BecauseIheyneedIhislanguagelor
IheirownsovereignIyclaims,mosInaIion-sIaIereresenIaIivesreluse
Io sIarI a discussion on Ihese Ierms. The UN dralI declaraIion Ihus
remainsadralI.
WiIhin a lew counIries, Ihe rheIoric ol sovereignIy has been el-
lecIive,buIIhisiniIsellcanbecauseloralarm.U.S.governmenI-Io-
governmenIrelaIionswiIhNaIiveIribesollersaceremonialcoverIo
disemowermenI.IIalsosIrucIuresconicIsiIIingrecognizedIribal
governmenIsagainsIoIherNaIiveAmericans.WiIhlimiIedenIiIlemenIs
available,recognizedIribesbecomealliesolIhelederalgovernmenIin
blocking Ihe asiraIions ol Ihe nonrecognized.
34
Urban Indians and
IndiansolmixedIribaloriginaresimilarlydisenlranchised.
SovereignIyiIsellisnoIunilormlyemowering.OlIenIhesovereign
naIionisdeLnedIhroughmaleconIroloverwomen,evenoosiIional
naIionalism aeals Ihrough aIriarchy. (Consider Ihe origin ol
Gandhis lamous saIyagraha: Indian men in SouIh Alrica demanded
IherighIIodelendIheirmarriageslromBriIishcoloniallaw|Mongia
2004|.)CourIssIrucIuremaleconIrolinIoNaIivesovereignIy.NaIive
scholar Renya Ramirez (in ress) has analyzed Santa Clara Iuehlo v.
lndigenousvoice 53
Martnez,akeysIoneolNaIiveAmericansovereignIyclaims.The178
SuremeCourIdecisionesIablishedIherighIolIribesIodeIermineIheir
membershiand,inarIicular,IoignorelederalsexdiscriminaIion
legislaIionbyexcludingwomenwhomarrymenlromanoIherIribe,as
wellasIheirchildren.TheironyolIhecaseisIhaISanIaClaraFueblowas
oncemaIrilineal,deIerminingolLcebyconnecIionsIhroughwomen,
onlylederalmaniulaIionesIablishedIhemaleline.ThisisIhecaseIo
whichIribesaeallorauIhoriIyasnaIions.
NaIiveAmericanclaimsarerarelymaIIersolnaIionalsecuriIyinIhe
UniIedSIaIes.BuIwheresecuriIydiscourseIargeIsindigenouseole,
IherheIoricolsovereignIygeIsverydangerous.IIIyAbrahamnoIesIhaI
IheBrazilianmiliIarycameIoimaginenaIionalsecuriIyIhrough"an
easI-wesIaxis,eneIraIinginIoIhedeIhsolIheunknown,unIamed
inIerior"(Abrahamn.d.:21).DeveloingIheAmazonbecameamiliIary
rioriIy,andIhe"inIernaIionalizaIionolIheAmazon"cameIoseem
IhenaIionsworsIIhreaI.WhereverindigeneiIybecomesenIangledwiIh
naIionalsecuriIy,IherheIoricolsovereignIydoesliIIlegood.
3S
Andil
lanIasyroducIioncanbesodangerous,imagineIoowhereU.S.miliIary
advenIuresasinNicaraguaandIndochinahavearmedindigenous
eoleIoundermineuncomlianIsIaIes.IndigenousnaIionalismrarely
sIandsaarIlromgeooliIics.
InmosIolAsiaandAlrica,IherheIoricolindigenoussovereignIyis
uselulaIbesIaserlormancearI.EromIheersecIiveolIhenaIion-
sIaIe,naIionalsovereignIyisIoorecenIandreciousIobehandingiI
aroundIosmallgrousandaIIhecommandolnorIhernimerialisIs.
Grous IhaI imagine a real chance aI indeendencelor examle,
TibeIansdonoIneedindigenousrheIoricIoadvanceIheircause.Eor
mosIoIherswhoclaimindigeneiIy,IherheIoricolsovereignIyisonly
uselul aI arIicularly oen momenIs, and Ihen mainly lor dramaIic
ellecI.Thus,IheIndonesianindigenousallianceAMANIookadvanIage
olosINewOrderregimelreedomIocoinIheslogan"IlIhesIaIedoes
noIrecognizeus,wewillnoIrecognizeIhesIaIe"(AMAN1:).The
sloganaealedIoinIernaIionalindigenousorganizaIions,buIiIwas
noIclearwhaIlormsolnonrecogniIionindigenousgrouscouldoller.
TherheIoricolsovereignIydoesnoIIravellarhere.AIIhesameIime,
however,askinglorinclusioninIhenaIion-sIaIeisnoIsoeasyeiIher.
WhosnanJwhosout
GrouswhohaveorganizedunderIheindigenousbannerhavedone
soinarIbecauseIheyhavebeenlelIouIolIhebeneLIsolnaIional
54 Anna 1sing
develomenI. Being lelI ouI iIsell mighI be cause lor solidariIyyeI
IherearedillerenIwaysolbeinglelIouI,andIhesedivideindigenous
ersecIives.EorgrouswiIhouIIreaIyrighIswiIhwhichIoroIesI,
muchcomesdownIoIhelayololiIicalcaIegories,asIhesebeckon
and reulse oIenIial allies. Chiaas miliIanIs may bring Ihe ower
oleasanIoliIicsIoindigenoussIruggles,buIFeruvianeasanIsleel
disemowered il Ihey imagine Ihemselves as indigenous. Marisol de
laCadena(2000)exlainsIhaIinhighlandFeruaneliIeIradiIionol
indigenousidenIiIyandashame-drivende-IndianizaIionolIheoor
have gone hand in hand. The only kind ol indigeneiIy IhaI seems
emowering Io mosI noneliIes is IhaI ol Ihe "indigenous mesIizo,"
anoxymoronicaringIhaIdeniesnarraIivesoloularassimilaIion
andeliIeuriIyalike.InIheuhillbaIIlelornaIionalinclusion,such
dillerencesmaIIer.
Such conIrasIs also asserI Ihemselves wiIhin naIion-sIaIesand,
indeed,wiIhincommuniIies.IndonesianadvocacylormasyarakaIadaI
reacheslorgrousneglecIedbynaIionaldevelomenIslargesse.YeI
develomenIdiscoursedrawsinmanyruraleole,howevercheaIed
and disadvanIaged, many rural leaders are haier wiIh dreams ol
rogressIhanwiIhculIuralsIruggle(Li2000).ThedisIincIionsacIivisIs
makebeIweenculIuralminoriIiesandordinarylarmerslallaarIonIhe
ground.MylriendsinIheMeraIusMounIainsolKalimanIanaredivided
abouI wheIher Io casI Iheir loI wiIh Ihe environmenIalindigenous
camaignonIheirbehallorwiIhIheaaraIusolnaIionaldevelomenI
and cororaIe ubliciIy (Tsing 200S). Il Ihey chose Ihe LrsI Ihey are
indigenous eoles, il Ihey chose Ihe second Ihey are jusI anoIher
IndonesianruralcommuniIy.FuIIhisway,iIisclearIhaIIhechoiceis
oneolallianceraIherIhaninIrinsicidenIiIy.YeIIhisreIurnsusIoIhe
naIion-sIaIe:ThecondiIionslorcollaboraIionhaveeveryIhingIodo
wiIhIhenaIionalconIoursolIhediscourseon"indigeneiIy."Thisis
arIicularlyevidenIwherenaIionaleliIesclaimindigeneiIy.
InIndonesia,asinMalaysiaandIndia,IheindigenouscanlookbackIo
IheanIicolonialrojecIandIhealliancebeIweeneliIesandeasanIsIhaI
creaIedIhenaIion-sIaIe.
3o
ThegovernmenIsolIhesecounIriesreluse
globalindigenousoliIicsinarIbecauseIheyholdIoIhisoIheruseol
IheIerm.ArgumenIslorindigenousrighIsareconlusedinsuchconIexIs
byIhelacIIhaIindigenouscanmeanverydillerenIIhings.
37
In Indonesia, Ihe Ierm prhum, "indigenous," relers Io Ihe naIive
majoriIy.IIsmajoroliIicalusehasbeenIolegiIimaIediscriminaIion
againsIChineseIndonesians,whocannoIberibumihowevermany
generaIionsIheirancesIorsmayhavebeenIhere.Fribumievokesanurban
lndigenousvoice 55
discourseolquoIaslorbusinessmenanduniversiIysIudenIs,iIreaches
IoIhecounIrysideonlyinIhoseareaswhereeasanIswerehisIorically
acIiveinlormingIhenaIion-sIaIe.OuIsideolJava,ruralcommuniIies
are rarely drawn inIo ribumi claims. Because Ihis IranslaIion ol
indigenousisIakenlornaIionalisIuses,IheenvironmenIalindigenous
movemenI looked elsewhere, seIIling on masyarakaI adaI because iI
olleredasearaIebuIsIillrecognizablegenealogy.
InIndia,indigeneiIyiniIsseveralmeaningshasevengreaIerreach.
IndigeneiIyisjusIasavailablelorHindunaIionalismasenvironmenIal
indigenousalliances.EurIhermore,IhelonginsIiIuIionalizaIionolIhe
IermaJvas("Iribe")inIndiacreaIesanoIherlegacyolboIhexclusion
andoIenIialreviIalizaIion.ThoseconsideredadivasinegoIiaIebeIween
IheleasuresolIenuousacceIanceinIoHinduoliIicsandculIure,wiIh
iIsnaIionalisIsIrengIhsanddangers,andIheossibiliIiesolalliance
wiIhwell-meaningbuIsIereoIyingenvironmenIalisIs(Baviskar2003,
Ihisvolume).
Naturalresourcetug-oj-war
Meanwhile,noIallindigenouseolessuorIenvironmenIalcauses,
someareinacIiveconicIwiIhconservaIion.TwokindsolconicIs
are rominenI. The LrsI iIs dillerenI kinds ol environmenIalisIs
againsI each oIher: NaIional develomenI conservaIionisIs roose
reserves IhaI dislace indigenous eole, whereas environmenIal
indigenousalliancesadvocaIecomanagemenI.
38
ThesecondiIsjusI
IhoseindigenouseolewhohavebeenmosIsuccesslulinachieving
sell-governmenI againsI environmenIal causes IhaI mighI inIerlere
wiIheconomicenrichmenI.InboIhcases,IheinabiliIyoleiIherIhe
indigenous righIs movemenI or Ihe environmenIal movemenI Io
dislaceIhehegemonyolrivaIeroerIyandcaiIalisIdevelomenI
is evidenI. BoIh environmenIalisIs and indigenous righIs acIivisIs
make demands lor land in Ihe incomleIely rivaIized zones where
governmenIssIillgiveIhingsaway.InIhisincreasinglynarrowsace,
IurlwarsareeasyIoinsIigaIe."Success"inboIhmovemenIsinvolves
lormingbureaucraciesandcororaIions,which,insearcholwealIhand
ower,converInaIureinIo"resources"IobecoveIedanddesIroyed.
Greenland Home Rule illusIraIes Ihe erils and ossibiliIies ol in-
digenous baIIles againsI environmenIal acIivism (CauLeld 17).
GreenlandisarIolDenmark,buIsince17localgovernmenIhasbeen
inIhehandsolaHomeRuleadminisIraIionimaginedasemowering
GreenlandnaIives.OneolIheLrsIacIionsolIhenewgovernmenIwas
5 Anna 1sing
Io Iake over managemenI ol hunIing and Lshing. Greenlanders had
beenseIollagainsIenvironmenIalisIsbeloreHomeRule:A170sanimal
righIscamaignculminaIedinIheEuroeanEconomicCommuniIys
183 ban on sealskin imorIs, which devasIaIed Greenlands seal
indusIry. The coming ol Home Rule allowed Greenlanders Io acI on
IheiranIagonism.ToroIesIEuroeaninIeresIinroIecIingwhales,
GreenlandersvoIedIoleaveIheEuroeanCommuniIyin182.In11,
GreenlandHomeRulereciiIaIedacrisisinIheInIernaIionalWhaling
Commission(IWC)byjoiningNorway,Iceland,andJaanIodemand
Ihereoeningolcommercialwhaling.WhenIhisiniIiaIivelailed,Home
Rule heled lorm Ihe NorIh AIlanIic Marine Mammal Commission,
ananIienvironmenIalisIalIernaIiveIoIheIWC.HomeRulehasalso
suorIedIheInuiICircumolarConlerence,anindigenousiniIiaIive
IhaIresseslorwhalingrighIs.ThroughiIsconnecIionIoDenmark,
HomeRulehasconIinuedaninvolvemenIwiIhIheIWC,whereiIlobbies
lorbiggerquoIas.RichardCauLeld(17:1o2)callsIhisorganizaIional
asserIivenessalormol"weaonsolIheweak,"buIiIlooksIomemore
like"weaonsolIhesIrong."ThesimilariIybeIweenGreenlandHome
RuleandnaIuralresourcebureaucraciesinIheinIernaIionalnaIion-sIaIe
sysIemhasallowedGreenlandnaIivesmuchIhesamesIraIegicroom
lormaneuverasoIherwhalingsIaIes.
ThehisIoryolwhalinginGreenlandiscloselyIiedIosIaIelormaIion.
BeIween128and1S8,DanishauIhoriIiescaughIwhalesonaBriIish-
builIvesselanddisIribuIedIhemeaIIoGreenlandsruralcommuniIies.
(Thecommerciallyvaluedblubberwas,olcourse,shiedIoDenmark.)
ThiscolonialrelaIionesIablishedIhecenIraliIyolwhalemeaIIosIaIe
noIionsolaboriginalsubsisIence.NowGreenlandreceivesquoIaslor
whalinglromIheIWCasaarIoliIsaboriginalsubsisIencehunIing
calculaIions.AsamemberolIheIWC,GreenlandHomeRulemusIacceI
IheorganizaIionsquoIas,buIasasell-governingenIiIyiIcandecide
howIoallocaIeIhem.LikeoIhergovernmenIs,HomeRulehasbeen
imressed inIo rivaIizaIion, Iranslorming governmenI-owned Irade
servicesinIolor-roLIcomaniesbyIheearly10s.Meanwhile,Home
RuledividesIhewhalequoIabeIweenLshingvesselbasedwhalingand
collecIivehunIwhaling.EishingvesselsrequirecaiIalandareexclusive
IoIhewealIhiesIlamilies,skill-basedcollecIivehunIingbeneLIsmany
moreeole.InIhemid-10s,collecIivehunIerswereolleredonly34
3oercenIolIhewhalingquoIainWesIGreenland.Everyoneelsewho
wanIedwhalemeaIhadIourchaseiIlromvesselowners.AlIhough
iI is clear IhaI whaling is imorIanI Io Greenlanders, Ihe resource
managemenIbureaucracyskewsiIlorcaiIalisIdevelomenI.IIishard
lndigenousvoice 57
noIIolendanearIoIhecriIicwhowroIe:"WearesecIaIorsIoIhe
develomenIolourownland.TwenIyeolehereinGreenlandlan
anddecidewhaIwillhaenIoS0,000eole"(CauLeld17:47).
3
OIherenvironmenIalindigenousconicIsareevenmoreconlusing.
FerhasIhemosIdisIurbingareconicIsbeIweenandwiIhinindigen-
ousgrous:ShouldNaIiveAmericanIribes,indelenseolsovereignIyand
wealIh,uIradioacIivewasIesonIheirreservaIions(Harriman1o)7
ShouldKayaoleadersbealaudedordeosedlormakingconIracIs
wiIhloggersandminers(Turner1)7WhenresourcecororaIions
seIuIheirown"indigenousrighIs"organizaIionsasoilcomanies
haveinEcuador,IhedizzyingconaIionbeIweenemowermenIand
desIrucIioniscomleIe(Sawyer2004).Meanwhile,inIheenvironmenIal
advocacyworld,asinIhearenaolindigenousrighIs,"success"conIinues
IobemeasuredbyIhedevelomenIolcaiIalismandsIaIelorms.As
long as caiIalisI resource use sIrucIures even Ihe mosI oosiIional
designsloreoleandnaIureinindigenouszones,IheenvironmenIal
indigenous alliance will lay a limiIed role as Ihe uIoian dream ol
losers.
SgcaRngGIobaII
IndigenouseolesgainvoiceIhroughcross-naIionalconnecIionsIhaI
emowerIheiraroachIonaIionaldilemmas.ScholarsolIenlookIo
indigenousoliIicsloranexamleolIhegrowingirrelevanceolnaIion-
sIaIes,buImyinvesIigaIionsuggesIsIheirconsIiIuIiverole.Indigenous
leadersconveycommuniIyersecIives,yeI,ilIheywanIexIralocalclouI,
IheirreresenIaIionsmusIresonaIeboIhnaIionallyandinIernaIionally.
Dillerences across cross-naIional lraming axes exand Ihe Ierrain ol
reresenIaIionalossibiliIies,norareIheselramessIable.ArgumenIs
wiIhin,across,andbeyondIheselramesenlivenindigenousoliIics,
shaing luIure IrajecIories. Recognizing Ihe diversiIy ol indigenous
challengesisacollecIiveIask,IhischaIerollersonebeginning.
In conIrasI Io EnlighIenmenI universals, inIernaIional indigenous
oliIicsoensaglobaloliIicsinwhichinconsisIencyandconIradicIion
becomeourgreaIesIasseIs.NoIIhaIanyoldIhingwilldo:Indigenous
oliIicsrequiresusIojudgebeIweenIherealandIhelake,emowermenI
and co-oIaIion, good and bad allies. The call Io immerse ourselves
in indigenous exerience is one sIarIing oinI lor such judgmenIs.
SIill,indigenousvicIoriesdeendonmismaIchinguniversalrighIsand
localculIurallegacies,exerIscienceandlace-basedknowledge,social
jusIice,andcommunalrecedence.
58 Anna 1sing
Thisis,olcourse,achallengesohugeiIishardIobeginlisIingwhaI
iIisuagainsI.ToaddinsulIIoinjury,scholarlyconvenIionsconIinue
IolagueevenIhemosIsymaIheIicchroniclers.IIishardIodescribe
IheinconsisIenIglobaliIycalledlorherewiIhinordinaryscholarlycon-
venIions,whicheiIherrivilegenaIions,eIhnicgrous,orcommuniIies
as uniIs or, alIernaIively, jum Io a IranscendenI and homogeneous
globalsace.InsIead,IhaveIriedIoshowIheoIenIialolIracinglinks
wiIhouIsubsumingIhemIouniversals.SuchlinksollerboIhIhegrp
IhaImakesindigenousoliIicsIravelandIherrtatonsIhaIlimiIIhaI
Iravel.Elsewhere,IhaveusedIheimageol"lricIion"Iobringgriand
irriIaIioninIoIhesamemeIahorandIosuggesIameIhodlorbringing
inconsisIenIglobalhisIoriesIoublicaIIenIion(Tsing200S).Here,my
hisIoricallragmenIsandglobalIalesuseIhismeIhodIobringouIboIh
IhecarryingowerandIhelimiIingseciLciIyolindigenousvoice.
Notcx
This chaIer emerged lrom discussions wiIh my indigeneiIy reading grou:
MarkAnderson,JeremyCambell,JamesClillord,andS.EbenKirksey.Iam
indebIedIoIhemlorinIroducingmeIoIheliIeraIureandideashere.Marisol
de la Cadena kindly conIinued my IuIoring in LaIin American sIudies, yeI
myrearaIionissIilllarlromadequaIe.CharlesHaleandHughRaleseach
ushed me a liIIle lurIher, I know IhaI I have noI succeeded in answering
IheircriIicisms.FarIicianIsinIheconlerence"IndigenousExerienceToday"
made uselul suggesIions. James Clillords "Indigenous ArIiculaIions" (2001)
guidedmysearch.TheaIIemIIowriIeabouIdisaraIeregionsolIheworldis
humbling.Allgasandgallsareolcoursemyown.
1. RonaldNiezen(200S:S34)describes"aradoxes"olIheindigenousmove-
menI: iIs newness versus iIs ancienI heriIage, deendence on Ihe oral and
lace-Io-lace as well as inIernaIional law and governance, subsisIence versus
high-Iech orienIaIions. Clillord (Ihis volume) discusses Ihe inIerlay ol Ier-
riIorialiIyanddiasorainconsIiIuIingindigenousidenIiIies.
2. Adam Kuers "The ReIurn ol Ihe NaIive" (2003) and Ihe discussion iI
raised inIroduce debaIes abouI Ihe indigenous movemenI. Eor more ol Ihe
issuesunderdiscussion,seeHale(2002),Li(2003),andRamos(2002).
lndigenousvoice 5
3. This chaIer concludes a Irilogy ol works on Ihe develomenI ol in-
digenous oliIics in and beyond Indonesia. In Ihe LrsI (2002), I charI Ihe
hisIory ol Ihe Indonesian Ierm lor "cusIom," aJat, which has been key Io
Ihe making ol Indonesian indigenous claims. In Ihe second (n.d.), I lollow
Ihe words nJgenety and aJat in and ouI ol Indonesian and IransnaIional
conversaIions.Here,IuseIndonesiandevelomenIsIoinsireaIransnaIional
analysisoldivergenIindigenousclaims.
4. TheIndonesianis"BhinnekaIunggalika."
S. EorahisIoryolIheconceIoladaIinIndonesia,seeTsing2002.
o. I discuss Ihe wider conIexI ol Indonesian indigenous organizing in
Tsing200S,seealsoLi2003.
7. IowemyundersIandingolIhisoinIIoS.EbenKirksey.InWesIFaua
indigenousoliIicsisassociaIedwiIhsIaIecooIaIion.
8. See Ferry 1o: 141S1, Cairns 2000, Eleras and EllioI 12, and
Weaver18S.
. Maori acIivisI Linda Tuhiwai SmiIh (conlerence communicaIion)
oinIs ouI IhaI individual Maori and Canadian Indians worked wiIh each
oIhers camaignsincluding her sisIer, who joined Ihe NaIional Indian
BroIherhood.
10. SeeSanders177andJohnsIon(2003|18o|:107).
11. SeeHoward(2003:18o14)andElerasandSoonley(1:S2S).
12. ClinebellandThomson(2003)exlainU.S.IreaIies.The17SIndian
Sell-DeIerminaIionandEducaIionAssisIanceAcIreealedIerminaIionolicy,
sIrengIhened sell-governmenI, and oened a new era ol Iribal sovereignIy
claims(Howard2003:o3).
13. TheIWGIAisbasedaIIheUniversiIyolCoenhagen.IdiscussIheSami
siIuaIioninmoredeIhaIIheendolIhissecIion.
14. Brysk(2000:8S)quoIesIheslogan.DiazFolanco(17)isakeysource
onLaIinAmericandialogues.
1S. ThisquoIecanbeloundinSIehen(2003:203).
1o. Elsewhere,IheIermdescribesrelaIionshisbeIweensIaIesandindigen-
ousgrous.(See,e.g.,ArIhur2001,Jull18.)InLaIinAmerican,iIsIreIches
Io mobilize oular suorI IhaI combines culIural ride and oliIical sell-
deIerminaIion.MexicanacIivisIanIhroologisIGilberIoLezyRivas(200S)
arguesIhaIIheconceIolauIonomyreachesouIequallyIoMarxisIlegacies
ol sIruggle and Io inIernaIional legal regimes ol recogniIion. "EurIhermore,
conIraryIoIheoinionsolIhesuorIersolIheUniIarianSIaIe,auIonomy
doesnoIlragmenInaIionaluniIy.IIisdiscriminaIionandracism...IhaIlead
IoIheSIaIelragmenIaIionandIoIheruIureolIhenaIionaluniIy....Through
iIs resisIance againsI neoliberalism, indigenous auIonomy is broadening iIs
boundariesandwideningIhem,IoevenincludeIhebuildingolanewkindol
0 Anna 1sing
naIion...IakingdemocracyawaylromIheolLcialrheIoric,andconverIingiI
inIoIheracIiceIhaIreachesandLllseachsaceinsocieIy,inIheeconomy,
in Ihe governmenI, even in Ihe social movemenIs and oosiIion arIies
Ihemselves"(200S).
17. Marisol de la Cadena (200Sa) oinIs ouI IhaI "mesIizaje" IhroughouI
LaIinAmericainvolvedsIandardsoleducaIion,rorieIy,andculIureaswell
asrace.
18. HecIor Daz Folanco describes Ihe Mexican delegaIion: "Among Ihe
membersolIheMexicandelegaIionIoIhiscongresswereIhemosIouIsIanding
scholarsonindigenousissues,severalolwhomwerealsooliIicalLgures....
WiIhIhemIherewasalsoagrouolyoungereole,manyolwhomwould
becomedisIinguishedindigenisIinIellecIuals"(17:78).
1. OnIhelunds,seedelaCadena200Sb,onIhebureaus,seeBrysk(2000:
12S).
20. DouglasSanders(2003|183|:o4)exlains:"AsJohnCollierlaIerargued
inIheUniIedSIaIesversionolindigenism,ahealIhyIndiancommuniIycould
adaI beIIer Ihan an unhealIhy one. Mexican indigenism and Ihe UniIed
SIaIes 'Indian new deal came IogeIher in 140 aI Ihe EirsI InIer-American
ConlerenceonIndianLile."
21. ThequoIaIionislromILOConvenIion107,ArIicle2.1,andcanbeseen
inThornberry(2002:433).
22. TheriseandlallolaliedanIhroologyinaddressingIheindigenous
quesIioninMexicoisconIexIualizedinWrighI188.
23. The Red Fower movemenI also insired urban indigenous eole in
Canada and New Zealand. I do noI include Ihose sIories here because Iheir
inIernaIionalleadershibecameknownloradvancingadillerenImodel.
24. TheserelormerswerealsoinuencedbyIhe171Barbadosconlerence
onindigenousrighIs(Junginress:ch.4),whichwasorganizedbyIheWorld
CouncilolChurchesandIheEIhnologyDearImenIolIheUniversiIyolBern,
SwiIzerland.LaIinAmericanisIsIendIoseeIhisconlerenceasIheoriginoinI
ol Ihe conIemorary inIernaIional indigenous movemenI (e.g., Brysk 2000:
8o),inconIrasI,IheAnglohoneclusIerismorelikelyIooinIIoIheWorld
CouncilolIndigenousFeoles,menIionedabove.
2S. Jung(inress:ch.4)wriIesIhaIFresidenILuisEcheverriawasIryingIo
recaIurelegiIimacyalIerIhe1o8sIudenImassacre.
2o. ThecriIicalliIeraIureonIheseIoicscomesinIolocusaroundarIicular
movemenI"hoIsoIs."Eorexamle,whenTheBodyShobeganIodeloy
Ihe Amazonian Kayao in Iheir adverIising camaigns, criIicism exloded.
See,lorexamle,Turner(1S),whosummarizescriIicismsbuIIemersIhem
wiIhIheKayaooinionIhaIIhealliancereresenIsanoorIuniIy,ilnoIa
erlecIone.
lndigenousvoice 1
27. AminoracademicindusIryhasgrownuIocriIicizeideasolindigenous
harmony wiIh naIure. Such criIicisms are righI in oinIing Io a hisIory ol
WesIernsIereoIyes,Iheylail,however,inIracingIhecollaboraIivehisIories
inwhichindigenoussokeseoleandIheirinIerlocuIorsengageandenlarge
Ihese sIereoIyes. Eor a uselul aIIemI Io address Ihis roblem, see Ramos
2003.
28. Hugh Rales (ersonal communicaIion, SeIember 200o) noIes Ihe
lormaIionolBrazilianNGOslromIhismomenIolcoaliIion.
2. ManycaveaIsareonorder,includingIhese:(1)Indigenousorganizing
againsI Ihe miliIary regime was an imorIanI recedenI lor environmenIal
mobilizaIion,(2)IhealliancebeIweenrubberIaersandIndianslasIedonly
ashorIIime,and(3)IhecurrenIrominenceolNGOshasrivaIizedIndian
dilemmas,roducing"anumbingolIheIndianmovemenIasaoliIicallorce"
(Ramos 2002: 2o). Chernela (200S) argues IhaI inIernaIional organizaIions
have damaged communiIy-based conservaIion in Ihe Amazon by requiring
comlianceIoinIernaIionallyimosedsIandards.
30. The deaIh ol Chico Mendes unleashed a sIorm ol conIroversy abouI
howbesIIoinIerreIMendessoliIics.WasiIaroriaIeIousehischarisma
IobuildenvironmenIalism,or,insIead,IolocusonsocialjusIicelorIheoor7
See,lorexamle,HechIandCockburn(18).
31. The Ierm jorest Jweller was inIroduced in SouIh American indigenous
oliIics and Iranslerred lrom Ihere Io SouIheasI Asiaand inIernaIional
indigenousrighIsdiscourse.
32. TheMahaIhirregimecalledenvironmenIalindigenousacIivism"eco-
imerialism"andinvokedIheindigenous"righIIodevelomenI"asareason
IodesIroyIherainloresI.
33. IreviewIheIndonesianhisIoryinTsing(200S:ch.o).SeealsoKeckand
Sikkink(18),Brosius(2003).
34. Miller (2003) wriIes abouI Ihis rocess lrom Ihe ersecIive ol U.S.
"invisibleindigenes."ThesIrucIureolrecogniIion,heargues,keesrecognized
IriballeadersonIhesideolIhelederalgovernmenI.Onage1o,lorexamle,
hedescribesTulalileadersolWashingIonsIaIewhoargueagainsIexIending
LshingrighIsIounrecognizedIndians.
3S. Hugh Rales (ersonal communicaIion, SeIember 200o) oinIs Io a
recenI resurgence ol lears ol Ihe inIernaIionalizaIion ol Ihe Amazon. This
Iime,anxieIiesabouIIhisIhreaIIoBraziliansovereignIycomelromboIhIhe
RighIandIheLelI.ConsiracyIheoriesolU.S.invasionandannexaIion,or
UNadminisIraIiveconIrol,haveemergedinIhisclimaIe.
3o. TheliIeraIureandolicynexusregarding"indigenousknowledge"isIhe
chielcross-natonalroducIolIhisoIherwisemainlynatonalseIoldiscourses.
Inseakingolindigenousknowledge,SouIhAsianosIcolonialIheorisIsjoin
2 Anna 1sing
handsbrieywiIhLaIinAmericancriIicsoldevelomenI(e.g.,Agrawal1S).
YeI Ihis nexus sIands in an awkward relaIionshi Io Ihe indigenous righIs
movemenImoregenerally.
37. BenedicIKingsbury(2003|18|)ollersauselulreviewoldeLniIional
dilemmaslorindigenousgrousinAsia,wheremosIgovernmenIsdenyIhe
relevanceolIheIerm.
38. Janice Alcorns (200S) review ol oliIical dillerences in Ihe World
WildlileEoundaIionollersauselulinIroducIionIosuchconicIs.
3. CauLeldidenIiLesIhecriIicasIhewriIerola10leIIerIoIheediIorol
Sermtsal.AllIheinlormaIioninIhisaragrahislromCauLeld(17).
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