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Makato and the Cowrie Shell (A Thai Folktale) by Supanee Khanchanathiti


nce upon a time, there was a boy whose name was Makato. He was an orphan, for his

father and mother died when he was very young. He had no brothers, sisters, cousins or friends to take care of him, so he had to make a living for himself. He did every kind of work —carrying heavy things, clearing away the forest, or feeding pigs. He never idled. Although he was paid only small wages, he was satisfied. He knew that if he would not work, he would starve. Wherever he went, his employers praised him for being sensible, hardworking, good-tempered and cheerful. One fine evening after he had finished chopping up a big pile of wood, he sat down to rest and thought of all he would like to do in the future. He wanted to try his luck in far–off strange lands, for he longed for exciting adventures. ―What are you thinking about so deeply, my boy?‖ asked his employer. ―I would like to go on a journey for adventure,‖ said Makato, pointing to the northeast. ―I heard that the land is fertile and the people are kind. I wish I could see the land for myself.‖ His eyes sparked with excitement. ―The land you wish to go to is called Sukhothai,‖ said his employer. ―They say Pra Ruang of Sukhothai is a very kind–hearted king. You might be lucky if you could go there.‖ Sometime later, Makato decided to try his fortune. He left his village and set out in the wide world .He walked along cheerfully, enjoying new insights and talking to the people he met on the way. After a month‘s journey, he reached a village on the boundary of the Kingdom of Sukhothai. ―Please, can I have some water to drink?‖ Makato asked an old woman with a big water pot on her head. ―I‘m so thirsty.‖ ―Where did you come from? Why are you here alone? You look as if you‘ve come a long way,‖ said the old woman, pouring cold water from her pot into a small cup and handling it to Makato. ―Thank you so much,‖ said the boy. ―Who are your father and mother? Haven‘t you any family?‖ the old woman asked again. ―I come from the City of Mon over there,‖ replied Makato. ―Good heavens! Have you really come from Môn? How is it that you are travelling alone, such a young boy as you are?‖ ―I wanted to see Pra Ruang of Sukhothai,‖ replied Makato.‖They say he is a very kindhearted king.‖ ―You are a very determined boy!‖ said the woman.‖Come along with me .Who knows? You might see Pra Ruang someday.‖ Makato was glad to go with her. If he could work with this kind of woman, he would have a place to sleep, some food to eat and perhaps someday, he might be lucky enough to see the king. The old woman was one of the Pra Ruang Mahouts, which meant that she helped the mahout find the food for the elephant and clean out the elephants‘ sheds. He worked hard and well, and the mahout and his wife grew fond of him. One day, the sky was clear and the weather so fine, it seemed to Makato that it must be a lucky day. As he worked in the elephants‘ sheds, a tall young man in a splendid costume, followed by attendants, came in. It was Pra Ruang himself. Makato bowed low at once with his hands clasped together before him. His heart beat fast. ―Where did the boy come from?‖ the king asked the mahout, who was attending him. ―How old is he?‖ the king asked further. ―12 years old, your Majesty,‖ replied the mahout. ―A good-looking and hardworking boy,‖ said the king. ―Take good care of him.‖ As the king walked away, Makato saw a little cowrie shell lying on the ground .He ran to

pick up and held it to the king, but the king said with a smile, ―You may keep it.‖ ―How wonderful!‖ Makato thought, ―the king has given me a cowrie shell.‖ At the time, the people of Sukhothai used cowrie shells as money. Although one cowrie had little value, Makato wanted to make as much use of it as possible, for it was the king‘s gift. For a long time, he could not think of a way to use it so that it would earn money for him. One day, he passed by a stall in the market where the seeds of many different plants were sold. He looked along the stall and caught sight of a basket full of lettuce seed. Lettuces! He could grow small plants like that. He asked the joyful woman at the stall, ―Can I buy some lettuce seed?‖ ―Oh yes, my boy. How much do you want?‖ said the old woman. ―I have one cowrie shell!‖ said Makato. ―One cowrie shell!‖ said the woman, laughing.‖ That won‘t buy anything. I can‘t even measure that much.‖ ―Look!‖ said Makato eagerly. ―I will dip my finger into the pile of seeds. Then, I will take the seeds that stick to it. That must be right for one cowrie shell.‖ ―Well, why not?‖ said the amused woman at his suggestions. ―All right boy. Help yourself.‖ Makato paid the woman his one cowrie shell .Then, he dipped his finger into the pile of seeds. When he pulled his wet finger out, it was covered with seeds. He carefully scraped them of his finger into the palm of his hand and went away, happily clutching the seeds. Now that he had seeds, Makato broke the soil and sowed them at once. He watered the seed bed every day and soon, the young plants appeared. Day by day, he cleared more ground and planted more lettuce seedlings until the kitchen garden was covered with them. He was very proud of himself because he had done so well. ―I wish I could give the king some lettuces,‖ he thought. One day, the king passed by the elephants‘ sheds again. Makato waited for an opportunity, then knelt down and proudly presented his biggest lettuces to the king. ―Where did you get this?‖ the king asked, surprised. ―I grew them from the cowrie shell you gave me, Your Majesty,‖ answered Makato, beaming with a smile. ―How could you do that?‖ asked the puzzled king. Makato told the king the whole story. The king was impressed with his intelligence and industry, so much so that later on, he gave Makato a job in the palace. As the years passed, Makato grew tall and handsome. He mastered every grace and served the king well. He was so loyal that the king trusted him absolutely. He was promoted to higher positions until he was given a title of Kun Wang, which meant that he was the most important person in the king‘s court. He was also happily married to the beautiful young daughter of the king. After that, the king made him the ruler of the Mon. So it was that Makato, who had once been a poor orphan, became the king of that prosperous kingdom.

he sat down. he saw the feet of his brother and the sharp knife hanging by his side. She did not give him water to wash his hands with. He made a river flow between one brother and the other and filled it with crocodiles.‖ Ra heard his cry. He harvested the corn. the spirit of the god was within him. ―Behold. Since there was no one with him. and he took with him his bread. When their parents died. As he entered the door. Anpu killed his wife and cast her to the dogs. She showed him her arms and legs which he had painted black and blue and accused Bata of having beaten her up. thou who divines the evil from the good. He sharpened his knife and waited for Bata in the stable. and he drove the cattle into the field. Anpu was already married and had a house of his own. He did the plowing. frame a woman for Bata that he may not rema in alone. and Bata was the younger. Filled with great anger. so he took his little brother with him and treated him like his son. he returned to the house with vegetables. The younger brother found the wife combing her hair and said to her. the younger brother followed his oxen and worked all day in the fields. when Anpu and Bata were in the fields. Anpu became very angry. so Anpu sent Bata home to get some. they needed some corn. and every evening. One day.‖ At eventide. The brother sprang from him and Bata fled praying to the god Ra. poured ashes on his head and mourned for his younger brother. Bata came home as usual. loaded with herbs. his wife became very jealous and she wanted to destroy Bata. Do not delay.The Two Brothers Egyptian Folktale O nce there were two brothers. I shall go to the Valley of the Acacia. milk. and Bata loved her very much.‖ Bata answered. Bata asked his elder brother. ―Why did you beat up my wife and almost kill her. Anpu was met by his wife. ―Why do you seek to kill me? Am I not your brother and have you not always treated me as if you were my father? Has not your wife been as mother to me? Now since you want to kill me. built himself a house and met the Nine Gods who knew of his innocence and goodness. She did not light the fire for him. Anpu was the elder.‖ Anpu answered. he slew wild beasts for food. She pretended to be in great pain. and there was no one his equal in the whole land. He found his wife near the river washing off the black and blue dye with which she had painted herself. He laid all these before his elder brother. Behold. Anpu went home. . When the sun went down. ―My good Lord! Save me from death. Because Anpu loved his younger brother very much. he became an excellent worker. She was like a goddess. When the little brother grew to be a young man. She was indeed more beautiful than any other woman in the whole land. Have I told you that I have always looked upon her as my mother?‖ So. who was crying bitterly. She pretended that she was very sick. ―Get up and give me some corn that I may run to the field for my elder brother is in a hurry. Ra said to the god Khunumu. Bata reached the Valley of Acacia.‖So Khunumu made for Bata a wife to dwell with him. Then. ―I did not do such thing. Every morning. Anpu returned home earlier than his brother because Bata had much work to do in the fields. and wood. milk and wood.

no joking. madam. that. or so much cars and buses. People like us. and they put make-up on their face. Four of my sons working---one a businessman. and go to night clubs and take drugs and make love. Is no good at all. no end to the story. one a teacher in Primary school. and that is good thing for parents to be strict. Phui!! Some of them really make me mad. I see you surprise. on one day alone I make nearly one hundred and fifty dollars! Some of it for services. not so much taximen. and friend. No. Big family! Ha! Ha! No good. My father he was very strict. the cane. Do not want to study. stop. Some of tourists don‘t know where. I tell you this. . three children. they go to public lavatory or hotel and change into these clothes. Very sad like punishment from God. the European and American tourists. 7 Ah. you say? You know or not that young school girls. Madam. I go and wait outside Elroy Hotel or Tung Court or Orchid mansions. so I tell them and take them there. You agree with me madam? 6 Today. and she pull one out and say keep change as she has no time already. more than I get from other people who bargain and say don‘t want go by meter and wait even for ten cents change. Sure. Madam. 2 What is it you say. two daughters. not married yet---Very shy and her health not so good. and they walk up. got caning. you are a teacher. every month. and making love. got sports and games. smoking. I take them about in my taxi. six sons. less traffic. quite big family---eight children. Where got Family Planning in Singapore? People born many. fourth floor flat---and she open her purse to pay me. wearing latest fashion. ha. and I say! All American notes---ten dollar notes all. but a good. I know all their tricks. Madam! Very hard for father when daughter is no good and go against her parents. she is twenty plus. help the mother. Today. one still schooling. because naturally. but I know. and that‘s extra money. Their parents never know. Singapore not like this so crowded so busy. Must work hard if wants to success in Singapore. many children. madam? Yes. I was big enough to be married. this. ha. My father cane me. 4 Yes. we never do. but they act like big shots. I know! As taximan. madam.The Taximan’s Story by Catherine Lim V ery good. no education. stay at home. This way better. and sure enough. They tell their Mum got school meeting. pay. Madam. madam. one childs. young people not like us when we are young. madam. Madam. all my children big now. Ah. yes. been taxi man for twenty years now. young boys and girls become very useless. fifteen. Our government say stop. we must sweat to earn money for wife and children. In those days. one in National Service. Madam. they just pay. and this is how they make fun and also extra money. some of them don‘t care how much they spend on taxis. Last time more peaceful. What to do. Otherwise. Ah. enough. you believe or not when I tell you how much money they got? I say! Last night. 5 Luck for me. We obey. friend. They usual is wait in bowling alley or coffee house or hotel. two clerks. sixteen years old. much more money. and still. madam. But these young girls and their boyfriends don‘t bargain. and I prefer working this time. Long time ago. taxi fare double. will have plenty business. every year.m. Today is much better. madam. 3 Yes madam. It is like this: after the 1 a. Half hour should make it. no capital for business. madam? They are only school boys and school girls. I get more money from these young girls and their American and European boyfriends in my taxi. I know. Two children. madam. madam. If not. will take you there in plenty good time for your meeting. young people they are very trouble to their parents. and obedient girl. madam. but run away. less car jams. so not to worry. in Secondary Two. My other girl Oh. you see this young people over there. My eldest daughter. but they really come out and play the fool. Madam. Our parents say don‘t do this. can make a living. spending money. if I tell you. outside the coffee house? See what I mean. Madam. Last Saturday. I know them and their habits. and they make love in taxi so much they don‘t know if you go round and round and charge them b y meter! I tell you. So so. madam.

so on. and this girl is all dressed up and make-up. Madam? Yes. with other girls and some European outside a coffee---house but I think. so please to excuse her. Yes. then she do her studies and go to sleep. what trouble they are… What. when her father drive taxi all day to save money for her University. thank you. and you find out. and she says go to University. she is very smart and intelligent--no boasting. but I don‘t care. Must go off to Hotel Elroy. Oh. She study at home. and I ask her what she want to be after left school. oh madam. in her weak subject. madam. Then I drag her to my taxi and drive all the way hom e. None of my other children could go to University. madam. young people today. so I just tell the teacher that Lay Choo is sick. how can. and this is not like my daughter at all. madam.hoe you describe it. she my favorite child. and so on. in everything she do. Madam. it makes me so angry even now---one day. madam. Must go off. I tell you because I myself have a daughter---oh. and my heart is very. and I am so angry. and slap her and she scream. and very bold in her behavior. Lay Choo is in school. My wife and some neighbors they pull me away. you must not say. 8 . So I let her stay back in school and day after day she come home in evening. my heart is very “susah hati” and I say to myself. Today young people not to trust. Oh. madam? Oh. and I tell her mother always check. madam. cannot wait for you to finish your meeting. very--. 10 Wat is it. madam. yes. which is maths. driving along and hey! I see a girl looking like my Lay Choo. 9 The very next day she is there again I stop my taxi. Madam. And I see her report cards and her teacher write ―Good work‖ and ―Excellent‖ so on. and I think if they not pull me away. a daughter I love very much. and she say teacher want her to go back to school to do extra work. check.there plenty young people pick up. and help the mother. I rush up to this wicked daughter and I catch her by the shoulders and neck. and her friends---what sort of people they are. and thank you very much. I lock her up in her room for three days. how you feel in my place? Make herself so cheap. but sometime a little lazy. everything okay now. in her report cards. She cannot leave the house except to go to school. So very sorry. madam. madam her teachers write ―Good‖ and ―Excellent‖.But I will tell you this. and she is so good and study hard. so on. but this one. Then they all go inside the coffee-house. Then one day. extra coaching. madam. I sure to kill that girl. yes but you must go and ask her where and why and who. If you have a young daughter and she says Mummy I got meeting today in school and will not come home. madam. sorry. In a hurry. and at home I trash her stupid fool and I beat her and slap her till like hell. I in my taxi driving. I will watch that Lay Choo and see her monkey tricks. and I ashamed to tell her teacher. it cannot be Lay Choo. like young people in many years ago. Ah. Oh. please to excuse me. madam.

through the present. on a comparative basis. Whether they are from the neighboring village. and encourages mutual respect for other ways of life. encouraging a sense of identity and responsibility which helps individuals to feel part of one or different communities and to feel part of society at large. Cultural heritage does not end at monuments and collections of objects. and into our future. rituals. festive events.unesco. maintain and transmit it – without their such as oral traditions. groups or individuals that create. nobody else can decide for them that a given expression or practice is their heritage. social practices. skills and customs are passed on to the rest of the community. Intangible cultural heritage does not give rise to questions of whether or not certain practices are specific to a culture. have evolved in response to their environments and they contribute to giving us a sense of identity and continuity. It also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants. The importance of intangible cultural heritage is not the cultural manifestation itself but rather the wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted through it from one generation to the next. Intangible cultural heritage is:  Traditional. providing a link from our past. and is as important for developing States as for developed ones. from a city on the opposite side of the world. from generation to generation. partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO.php?lg=en&pg=00002 . It thrives on its basis in communities and depends on those whose knowledge of traditions. intangible cultural heritage is an important factor in maintaining cultural diversity in the face of growing globalization. for its exclusivity or its exceptional value.  Representative: intangible cultural heritage is not merely valued as a cultural good.What is Intangible Cultural Heritage? The term ‗cultural heritage‘ has changed content considerably in recent decades. The social and economic value of this transmission of knowledge is relevant for minority groups and for mainstream social groups within a State. they all are intangible cultural heritage: they have been passed from one generation to another. It contributes to social cohesion. or have been adapted by peoples who have migrated and settled in a different region. contemporary and living at the same time: intangible cultural heritage does not only represent inherited traditions from the past but also contemporary rural and urban practices in which diverse cultural groups take part. While fragile. An understanding of the intangible cultural heritage of different communities helps with intercultural dialogue. or to other communities.  Inclusive: we may share expressions of intangible cultural heritage that are similar to those practiced by others. knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts.  Community-based: intangible cultural heritage can only be heritage when it is recognized as such by the communities. performing arts. Source: http://www.

projects and activities on the national. celebrations. * — are components of a country's cultural heritage that are equally as important as physical cultural elements. In 2011. In 2011. five more programs were added to the list. Indonesia. like World Heritage Sites. Source: http://www. sub regional and/or international levels that the Committee considers to best reflect the principles and objectives of the Convention. held in Bali. The elements are abstract and must be learned. 19 new elements have been added to the list. there are 27 elements on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding . 4) Following the sixth session of the Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. the Committee inscribed 12 and in 2010 .The Intangible Heritage List 1) The List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding is composed of intangible heritage elements* that concerned communities and States Parties consider require urgent measures to keep them alive. in November 2011. 232 elements on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.4 elements. Inscriptions on this List help to mobilize international cooperation and assistance for stakeholders to undertake appropriate safeguarding measures. 2) The Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity is made up of those intangible heritage practices and expressions help demonstrate the diversity of this heritage and raise awareness about its importance. and oral traditions. The Committee incorporated 90 elements in 2008 (items formerly proclaimed Masterpieces) and inscribed 76 elements in 2009 and 47 elements in 2010. 3) The Register of Best Safeguarding Practices includes programs. It aims at ensuring exchange and cooperation at the international level for programs with proven success in safeguarding intangible cultural . handicrafts. In 2009. Three programs were selected for the Register in 2009 by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. performances. it inscribed additionally 11 elements. encompassing traditional knowledge which includes festivals. and 8 programs included in the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices.unesco. music. In 2011. It aims at ensuring better visibility of the intangible cultural heritage and raising awareness of its importance while encouraging dialogue that respects cultural diversity.

Poor Sang Buaya was not so lucky. There were many trees where Sang Kancil's lived along the river. they came and made a line across the river. "Aren't you afraid I will eat you?" Then he opened his big mouth very wide to scare Sang Kancil. He needed to trick Sang Buaya. Sang Kancil loved his new home on the other side of the river because he had a lot of tasty food to eat. Sang Kancil was a clever mouse deer. "Two. he always played a clever trick to escape. none of the other crocodiles ever talked to him again. bad crocodile. He needs to know how many of you will come. But first. Source: http://www. Please line up across the river. I have to count all of you. They were angry because he let Sang Kancil trick all of them. Sang Kancil wanted to taste the tasty-looking fruit because he was a little tired of eating leaves. and finally reached the other side of the river. In this story. In this story. Whenever he was in a bad situation. He shouted at Sang Kancil. One day when Sang Buaya was walking along the river. Soon. He didn't want to be caught and eaten by Sang Buaya.Outwitting a Crocodile (Kisah Sang Kancil dengan Buaya) A Traditional Malaysian Folktale Retold by Chok Yoon Foo from Malaysia S ang Kancil is a clever. is there?" All of the crocodiles looked at Sang Buaya angrily." Sang Buaya was excited and left to tell the other crocodiles about the feast with all the good food. he saw some delicious fruit on the trees on the other side of the river. There were always lots of leaves. counting each one. tricky mouse deer who is always finding himself in predicaments with animals that want to eat him or harm him. Then he said to Sang Buaya.htm . Then he stepped on the next one and said. Sang Kancil outwits a big. They were always waiting to catch Sang Kancil for dinner. the big bad crocodile. Sang Buaya. He tried to think of a way to cross the river. and he is inviting everyone."Thank you for helping me to cross the river to my new home. including you and all the other crocodiles. He asked Sang Kancil. but he had to be careful. who wanted to eat him.topics-mag. "Sang Buaya! Sang Buaya!" Sang Buaya slowly came out of the water and asked Sang Kancil why he was shouting his name. Sang Kancil stepped on Sang Buaya's head and counted one. "Promise not to eat me or I can't report to the king how many of you are coming." Sang Buaya was shocked and angry. but the king wants me to do something. Sang Kancil suddenly had an idea. a big. so he never had trouble finding food. He called out to the crocodile. I am afraid of you. Sang Kancil said. lived in the river with other so I can walk across your heads and count all of you. Sang Kancil said. "Of course. He spent his time running and jumping and looking into the river. He is having a big feast with lots of food. but he cleverly manages to escape each time. "You tricked us! There is no feast. bad crocodile. Sang Kancil outwitted Sang Buaya. After that." He stepped on each crocodile.‖ They promised not to eat him. sentence types. Heritage learners can expand their vocabulary by reading a variety of literary selections. describing the relevance of the selection for contemporary readers in general and for heritage learners in particular. Depending on the HL. Heritage literature helps students understand themselves. Students will then be able to analyze the key structural features of the language of the analyzing the characters’ and/or the author’s point(s) of view. and expressing their own ideas and emotions ( Lazar 1993: 19). · Reading comprehension. They illustrate heritage literature (HL) in use (a wide range of styles. registers.ucla. cultures. Student drawings or collages based on the text will help students visualize and remember the characters in the story. for example. · Spelling. find synonyms for key words. etc. reading. and cohesive devices. genres. values. analyzing the literary techniques/ language/style used by the author. students gain a deeper understanding. Such tasks include: describing the features of a literary genre and identifying them in the reading. "troublesome" words can be targeted in literary texts to help learners improve their orthography or eliminate the interference of English spelling. and they develop students’ ability to think critically by inferring meaning. and writing activities. they can serve as the basis for listening. making interpretations. Heritage literary texts can illustrate grammatical structures taught in class. can be taught or reviewed. · Oral and written literary assignments.Heritage Literature as a Teaching Tool Heritage literary passages are versatile tools for language study. Students can answer questions based on content. summarize paragraphs or the text as a whole. A multitude of literary tasks empower students to think and act critically and develop an appreciation of literature while developing language proficiency ( McKay 2001: 321-326). speaking. Source: http://www. Students identify the target structures in the passage and then practice them as they appear in that context or give examples related to their own lives (personalization). The understanding and appreciation of culture that results from the study of literature helps students develop a positive self-image and attitude toward their heritage language and culture. paraphrase sentences. and writing an argumentative essay about the literary passage. regionalisms. cultural connotations. they provide meaningful and memorable contexts for vocabulary expansion and grammar practice. and behaviors. In each text.asp?parentid=60803 . they learn about "the origin of traditional cultural values and beliefs" (Diamond & Moore 1995: 221). especially those characteristic of the written language. relating the text to the work it has been excerpted from. By reading folk tales and legends. · Vocabulary comprehension and expansion. heritage or non-heritage. If heritage literary works are compared to writings from the dominant culture or other. Literary characters can be matched to actions or facts related to them. their families. beliefs. He/She may also point out idiomatic expressions (to foster understanding of cultural commonalities and differences). and respect for other systems of traditions. placing the text/author within the heritage literary tradition. the instructor will highlight the lexical items related to the chapter's topic or theme. They can fill in missing words. and their communities better as members of a particular culture. · Cultural understanding and appreciation. literary words. and varieties). writing a literary analysis of the piece. A wide range of grammatical structures. · Grammar identification and practice. and the work to the personal/historical circumstances in which it was written. words/phrases coined by the author and adopted by the language.

Mawar explained to her that she and her brother had both eaten their portions. but it was no use. a widow. and fantasizes all day about eating the fish with her children for dinner. As she did so. and that he had taken the piece anyway. At noon. the eater of suicides. She heard the rock calling her. the voice of the rock drowned out everything else. Mak Minah goes home and starts to clean the fish. her daughter Mawar. she finds all three portions eaten. but after finishing his. but she asked them to leave her one of the pieces to eat when she comes home. and her young son. hearing the commotion of her mother storming out of the house. . As she heads out the door. She would work in both a field and as a fisherwoman to support her fairly young children as best as she could. When she came home. This is the way of the world: what we desire to touch has no desire to be touched by us. But I am your death and I have longed for you since you were born. Bulat. the rock split. She happily fries it before she goes to work in the fields and cuts it into three equal parts. She of course is really happy. wakes up Bulat and they try to chase her down. she catches a tembakul fish (local river fish).‖ She then snaps and runs to the rock. saying ―You never managed to eat your roe because as much as you desired it. it never desired to be eaten by you. right in front of it. very expensive and was a delicacy. and the other for herself. one for her young son. Mawar. and her two children. one that poor people like herself would very rarely be able to enjoy. and just long enough for her children to catch sight of her. Mak Minah left the funnel on the floor and fled deep into the rock.Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup (The Devouring Rock) A Famous Malay Folktale T his story is about Mak Minah. where she made a funnel and filled it with her breast milk for her young son. That night Mak Minah was kept awake by the calling of the batu belah batu bertangkup. one for her older daughter. Mak Minah would work hard at several jobs in a day. And now all I ask you is that you have the same longing for me. They called out after their mother. Fish roe back then was very. Bulat demanded the other portion and threw a horrible tantrum when she said no. Mak Minah was so devastated that she didn‘t say anything and just went to bed. and beckoned her to enter. One morning. Mak Minah spent the entire evening at the field thinking of eating the roe. and is even happier when she realizes that there is fish roe inside. Mak Minah tells her children that they may each have their portion. while fishing. Mak Minah stopped only once on her way to the rock.

This paragraph tells the reader the things they have to know about the movie. the year it was made (if you watched it on video).youtube. . Second Paragraph: Take Care of Business Near the beginning of the then your trailer should make people want to see it. explain that idea and talk about it a little bit. you should say something about the songs. too. you must go into depth about the movie. If the soundtrack was good. go into detail about something important that interested you about the movie. you have to tell the reader all the obligatory stuff--the title of the movie. it consists of five parts.How to Write a Movie Review There are numerous formats you can follow in writing a movie review. you should explain very simply what the movie is all about--not necessarily what happens. When you begin your movie review. Watch these video on YouTube about making a ―filmed‖ movie review. But you want to summarize the basic plot of the movie. the rating. make your own "trailer. In this particular format. C: http://www. or retell another big moment from the movie and explain why it is Do not explain why you liked it or did not like it. in one sentence or two. 3. Opening: Catch the Reader's Attention Think about how advertisements sell movies: "trailers" show you a few seconds of the movie to get you interested. If you think the "idea" behind a movie was really interesting. or about the director. In this paragraph. Use these URL: A: http://www. but they all have the same B: http://www. Fifth Paragraph: Evaluate the Movie Do you recommend it or not? Who will like it (kids or adults)? The most important thing here is that you must also explain why you are making your recommendation. talk about that. but that might work. One way to do this might be to write a sentence about each main character. Write more about one character who was really intriguing. Fourth Paragraph: A Key Moment or Idea In this paragraph. Third Paragraph: Character and Plot Summary What happens in the movie? You should not tell everything that happens--and especially not the ending. 4. 5. make the reader like or not like the movie by what you describe. Five Parts of a Movie Review 1. the studio. in more detail than you do in the paragraph above. Begin your review by retelling an incident or moment from the movie which you think captures the spirit of the movie as you understood it. Alternative: Begin your review with another kind of story or interesting fact--about one of the star actors. or about the making of the movie. but if you did not like it. If it was a musical. the director. the trailer should be something that shows why you did not like it. the main actors. You must justify your opinion--and that opinion should grow out of what you write in the rest of the review. Give at least two reasons why you liked or did not like the movie." If you liked the movie. if you can say it in one two sentences.

or YouTube. and have uniform laws. geographic region. B. (The vast majority of people do not want to intentionally create conflict or fail!). Our view of culture is affected by the subcultures we have at home. socio-economic experiences. while their grandchildren may be bicultural or mainstreamers (Aldridge et al. ethnic background and sexual orientation (Parrilla. 3. 3) culturally different individuals. gender identity. or migration – but the bottom line is that we all still interact with these commonalities based on our cultures. To view regions or nations as if they were monocultural is erroneous. and the tribal groups of Sarawak. 2. immigrants coming to the United States eventually have been . we may begin to share certain values and behaviors.. age. work. Probably. Some cultures are just more evolved than others. there are Malays. On Culture 1. Cultures exist because a group has found a way to make their lives better.Then combine what you have learned from the lecture and from these video when you are going to write a movie review. and holidays. 2) bicultural individuals. 2000). share a common culture. You may argue that culture is a set of values and behaviors that are learned and shared by a group of people who have common experiences and influences. In addition. but the French will always have French history and French pride. but this “national culture” is only one of the many cultures that affect us. go to the same schools. Families from the same culture share the same values. 3. For example. stupid. or pandemics like the flu. In reality. Until such time as we all speak the same language. No culture is inherently worse or better than any other. Tremendous historical. 2012). and cultural differences must be acknowledged (Banks & Banks. Lynch and Hanson (1998) reported at least four ways individuals and families from other countries “live out” their culture in the United States. These people may share the same nation. This notion is especially false for nondominant cultures living in the United States. People from the same nation or geographic region. geographic location. a continuum of cultural identity exists and the entire range often can be found within the same family. racial. 2012). Multiculturalism is divisive. school and organizations we are in. religious faith. In the long run. grandparents may maintain their original culture. or Hollywood. 19). but they cannot be considered as one ethnic group sharing a similar culture. we will continue to be unique (Parrilla. policies. Globalization is causing an inevitable homogenization of cultures. 2. Chinese. or those who speak the same language. On Multiculturalism 1. share the same history. or naïve (Parrilla. and 4) culturally marginal individuals” (p. 2012). language. some cultures may have values and behaviors that do not support success when their environment changes. It’s our inability to see things wholeheartedly from their perspective that may cause us to judge another culture as cruel. or Bollywood.. 2012). and it may inhibit students’ construction of the fact that many parts contribute to the whole (Aldridge et al. The environment we all live in may be changing (slowly or quickly) impacted by such things as the internet. Rather. Culture is based on nationality. but you cannot measure culture solely by one’s nationality. antiquated. most cultures are benevolent and have positive intentions behind any values they instill. These include “1) mainstr eamers. According to this myth. or 15 hour flights that connect Asia to Europe. and the Bolivians will always have Bolivian history and Bolivian pride. In Malaysia. East Indians. 1997). or outsourcing. A. This is also affected by particular life experiences.

They have a unique cultural heritage. a Muslim from Pakistan. Here are just two examples. Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” shows us the ambivalence the British felt towards empiricism. 4. ethical standpoints and can help an individual to present themselves as educated members of the society. This myth is pervasive in such societies. it’s possible to understand how contemporary western culture has developed into what it is today (Priyadarshini. New York. Literature allows us to understand the philosophical movements and ideas that permeated a particular culture at a particular time. On Literature 1. Multicultural education should examine intrapersonal cultural diversity as well as the interpersonal. there is no need to study other cultures. They have two elementary-age children who are being raised in Queens. Breitborde. Reading new words and phrases can increase anyone’s lexicon. eye opening experience. If this is not acknowledged and valued. 5. In predominantly monocultural or bicultural societies. but was born in Jamaica. children like Patrick could experience intrapsychic cultural conflict (Aldridge et al. The myth goes on to state that when ethnicity is turned into a defining characteristic. With an increasingly diverse society. children and families are multiethnic in nature. & Murphy. . By following the histories presented throughout English literature. Increasingly. The study of literature allows people to develop new ideas.. The children have never visited Ecuador or Pakistan. it promotes division rather than unity.assimilated and considered themselves to be Americans. Studying literature can help you understand different cultures or time periods. 2010). 2010). bicultural and monocultural areas especially need to learn about cultures to which they will be in close proximity in the immediate future (Greenfield & Cocking. 1999). As an example in English literature. 1994). Maria is an Evangelical Christian from Ecuador who married Mohammed. Literature is also crucial to learning stylistic and artistic conventions for communication and writing (Priyadarshini. These children are not stereotypical. 2012). His family later moved to Toronto and now lives in Miami. Patrick is of Chinese heritage. 2. This shallow reasoning denies the multiple diversities that always have existed and continue to exist throughout the United States (Swiniarski. C. Studying literature can be an enriching. Most people identify with only one culture.

As a good wife. ―You not faithful to me.‖ the man quickly replied ―Surati? How do you know?‖ Raden verified. ―Who is he?‖ asked Raden.‖ Surati pleaded. Tell me who he is. The man called her. He‘s very kind to me.‖ Rupaksa ―It is hard for me to believe it.‖ Surati was defenseless.‖ But Raden no longer trust her.‖ said the prince. Now I‗m alone. ―Excuse me. Its kingdom has a wise king who has a handsome and smart son named Raden Banterang. One day when Surati was in the street he met a man. I don‘t know where to go. This is the evidence. This is from a man who will help you kill me. I‘m a princess. I‘m from Klungkung. His brother revealed that it was Raden Banterang who killed their father. do you live around here?‖ ―No. Rupaksa gave his head dress to his sister Surati.‖ Surati begged. To respect her older brother. ―All right then. One day. He‘s protecting me. I don‘t. he asked Surati to join him. ―Raden Banterang is now my husband. Banyuwangi is known as Blambangan. Surati. Raden was hunting in a forest when he met a man that looked like a priest. If you find a head dress under her pillow then my words are correct. I just want to save you. Please help me. ―But he killed our father. lovely lady. ―Surati. not me. ―You come to the right person. I have to go now. Bali. I have no relatives here. Raden confronted Surati. He gave me his head dress and told me to put it under my pillow. He came to Blambangan to take revenge. I will never betray him. The rebels killed my father but I managed to escape. But please keep my head dress. the daughter of the king of Klungkung.‖ Rupaksa demanded.‖ the man said.‖ ―Thank you your holiness. It is Rupaksa who wants to kill you. She was all alone in the forest. He chased it and the deer ran deeper into the forest. I have a clear spiritual vision. His horse was so good and strong that he left his guards behind. Unfortunately. Surati refused to join. At this time. Search her room. ―You life is in danger. It is from a man who will help her kill you. He found the head dress under Surati‘s pillow. he immediately searched Surati‘s bedroom. put it under your pillow. Then.The Legend of Banyuwangi Adapted from an Indonesian Folktale A long time ago. So he asked her. Several days later.‖ She was surprised to see her brother Rupaksa. I‘m Prince Banterang from the kingdom of Blambangan. When I met Raden. He decided to penalize Surati by giving her a death . when Raden was in a forest he spotted a deer. My guards took me here but I got lost. Raden took Surati home. she cried. The man greeted him politely. He was very angry and upset. Raden prefers hunting that he often went to forest around Blambangan to hunt for animals. He never hurts me. When he reached the palace. My name is Surati. ―I am a priest. Someone has an evil intention on you. So I put it there to show my respect for him. He fell in love with her and then several months later he married her.‖ Rupaksa was disappointed with her sister. As he took a rest under a big banyan tree suddenly a beautiful girl appeared in front of him. ―It is my brother‘s head dress. he lost the deer. He suspected that the girl may not be human after all. he was here and not in Klungkung. I know that you want me dead. Surati put it under her pillow. I met him several days ago when you went hunting.‖ Raden uttered. I am going to protect you. It is my duty to serve him. Please come with me. ―Your wife Surati. Then he said something. The priest was right.

just throw my body into the river. he changed the name of his kingdom into Banyuwangi. Surati was innocent! Raden regretted what he had done. Surati spoke calmly.‖ Raden granted Surati‘s request.‖ Then as Raden stabbed her wife with a kris. . it means that I am innocent. let me say a few words. ―When I die. But if the water becomes clear and fragrant.‖ Surati pleaded. ―Before I die. Surati threw herself into the river. ―Please do. Banyu means water and Wangi means fragrance.sentence near the riverbank. From then on. it means that I am guilty. Amazingly the water became clear and fragrant. If water becomes dirty and smelly.

But are people born complete with all their senses capable of capturing all the secrets of this life—secrets that are held onto and kept hidden by nature? Would it be wrong if Kopag were suddenly to encounter extraordinary beauty in Srenggi? A beauty that he could see with his thoughts and feelings? Would that be wrong? The beauty of this young woman was extraordinary. this smell that made him feel so agitated? It wafted closer. The title "Ida Bagus" indicated that he was of the brahmana caste. His father was a highly respected man who held an important government position. "Is truth always manifested on earth in a homogeneous form?" Kopag had asked his servant Gubreg with a trembling voice. His mind conjured up images of sharp knives. Although." "Srenggi? Srenggi who?!" Kopag was trembling with trepidation now. "Who's there?" "It's me. so that people would recognize him and be able to distinguish him from others. Srenggi quickly stepped in to help. Their hands touched. He also owned dozens of painting and sculpture galleries. almost slicing open his own leg—and all because he'd detected a strange smell coming from the direction of the door. Usually he was treated as an object. an aroma of dry leaves and damp wood. his thoughts in a muddle! Kopag was aware. do I have to use their criteria?" "Their criteria? I'm not convinced that they're capable of genuinely seeing the beauty of life!" Kopag's voice was tense.The Century Carver by Oka Rusmini K opag dropped his sharp chiseling knife. of course. increasing Kopag's anxiety. Kopag was sure his judgment was right: this was the one. to appreciate the beauty that nature had entrusted to her. The indentations of her body and her face resembled those in a piece of timber. "What did you say your name was?" Kopag began to calm down a little. Even old Gubreg made no comment when Kopag praised the prettiness of this eighteen-year-old girl. She was timber of exquisite beauty. the highest caste in the Balinese social structure. And now God had sent her for him. For the first time Kopag felt able to enjoy life. He was able to provide an objective evaluation of the living creature known as man. intensely aware. It was odd that other people were unable to see her loveliness. He had the strange sensation of suddenly being submerged in the ocean. "Tell me who you are!" "I am the one who will serve all your needs—from this moment on. she was more beautiful than the most sacred pile of timber. was that really the voice of a woman? When Kopag went to pick up his cane." the voice quivered. The smell was coming closer and he was finding it hard to breathe. The voice seemed to be full of honesty. merely subject to the decisions of the people closest to him. He was the second son in the richest family in the compound. It was the voice of a woman. What was wrong with the criteria he had used to judge her beauty? As a boy. it was no cause for celebration to have been born blind. compassion and sincerity. where was it coming from. His hands were bereft. Kopag trembled as the smell exposed him to the reality of being a man. till the end of time. This time he felt that he had encountered a truth that was different from that developed by people who used their own truth as a personal yardstick. the woman he'd been seeking for centuries. "Srenggi. A woman. Odd." The voice sounded nervous. submitting to whatever was said by those around him. he needed his chiseling tools. . What was happening to him? Kopag cursed himself. Srenggi. Surely her beauty rivaled that of a tree trunk. life had imposed the label "Ida Bagus Madé" onto Kopag. "Even when I'm judging beauty. The woman's skin felt like bark. His eyes would never see a woman.

Srenggi's body was where life was created for this man who. so red. and his dreams as well. Kopag could smell the rancid stench of blood. ever since his first encounter with the aroma of the earth and life. It didn't bother him whether she was beautiful or not. or the plates and glasses were in the wrong place in the kitchen. Kopag had reinvented the idea of artistic endeavor." "Describe her to me. She was always making a fuss about something. Gubreg also talked about the beautiful skin of Ni Luh Putu Sari. For the moment. turned into a performance. resembled that of the daughters of the Balinese king. She became pregnant—and died giving birth to a baby boy. he said. The world he wanted. The life that Kopag so frequently cursed turned out to be quite democratic in fact. His sister-in-law's voice constantly rang in his ears. considering the circumstances of his birth. his brain. Kopag had sensed this the first time his sister-in-law greeted him. Even Gubreg. in short. Before long his debts began to mount. her body was one that all the men talked about. A member of the commoner sudra caste. One day. the faithful servant who had looked after Kopag since he was a child. so perfect. could feel only darkness as his language. Solitude fenced in by beauty—without the sound of his sister-in-law harping. after an absence of many months. For the first time. Kopag loved the wood that had introduced him to his world. now known as Jero Melati. To be honest. How could a woman that everyone said was so beautiful and elegant speak with such a foul mouth? Her screech was enough to blunt his chiseling knives. for Kopag's father. I want to know what she's like. Her name was Ni Luh Putu Sari but because she hadn't been born into the brahmana caste she had had to change her name to Jero Melati. Her bearing. an appalling one. he came home in a sickening state. People used to say that any woman was fair game for him. Tell me everything in detail. He didn't just carve wood. How miraculous it would be if life could be acted out. Kopag drew a deep breath. "What can that blind brother of yours do? Tell me? He's a bloody nuisance!" The young woman's voice always set his nerves on edge. "She really is extraordinarily beautiful. or his cane had got tangled up with the bougainvillea that that gasbag of a woman had just planted. she had married Kopag's brother and had thus become a member of their noble family. Being born blind was redemption of a kind. his life.Unfortunately he had a wandering eye. But what is the power of a woman? Especially since. He'd trodden on the plants in the side garden. And in those circumstances he forced his wife to have sex with him. Like a piece of timber with its captivating curves. Outsiders only knew her extraordinary physical beauty and her much-lauded skin. She knew he would impregnate her with the seed of an animal. He was an animal. she was the perfect example of a playactor. healthy or not. How could this incredibly crude and carping woman be the one all the men adored? In Kopag's view." . a smell that leaped from those lips that were apparently so sweet. She had been focused on joining a brahmana family. Gubreg. on account of her having married into a high caste family. In her absolute commitment to assuming the role of the wife of a brahmana. I'll trust your eyes. Her hands felt like those of a rotting corpse. Kopag often wondered whether human beings could ever share a genuinely objective set of views. nature had surrendered to his power. It gave him qualities that others could not possibly possess. He was thin and pale. any creature with a hole could be entered. she had to demonstrate to everyone in the village her right to join the family. commented on how lucky his brother was to have married the most beautiful girl in the village. She resisted. he carved his thoughts. He touched the dry wood that always accompanied him wherever he went. she had been educated to become a noblewoman who would respect her husband. Every time she opened her mouth. His wealth evaporated. just as Kopag had surrendered to the blindness that was his constant companion. from an early age. and I want to feel it too. He could transform a piece of dry wood into a work of art that attracted the elite of the art world.

See how he produces perfectly carved statues. What were these feelings struggling inside Kopag's body? Gubreg was afraid—afraid of answering the question about the true meaning of masculinity. Gubreg noticed how the powerful rays scattered and died away the moment they touched the sharp edge of each knife. a different perspective on the world. what is this feeling that overcomes me so often. Is she like this piece of banyan wood—cold. The Frenchman had given him a new sort of education. The old man was quick-tempered these days. It's extraordinary. On occasion. "About what. He looked deep into Kopag's eyes. the Frenchman Frans Kafkasau would pay him a visit. Ever since Kopag was a child. Gubreg. The knife's brilliance seemed to challenge that of the sun. Gubreg couldn't answer the question about what it means to be a man. Gubreg?" "Don't ask me weird things. Ida Bagus Madé Kopag had a very fine body. His karma has fallen to his own son. So mysterious. you haven't answered my question. He loved reading his Braille books. how it moves me? Gubreg. He still remembered Kopag's cry when he first touched those naked knives. master?" "About the beauty of a woman. including his rows of chiseling knives. Everyone makes their own judgment about it.The old man fell silent. don't you? Life has given him an extraordinary gift. In Kopag's hands the knife became cold. Kopag had always been as much a part of him as his own breath. It was hard. He's paying for the sins of his father. arrogant. "Gubreg. about Michelangelo Buanorotti who Frans said was a famous Renaissance sculptor. but still appealing? Can you see. A single sound uttered by the Frenchman was enough to make his stomach churn. God in Heaven! Master of the universe! Kopag had grown up. A woman…" . "Aren't you going to answer my question. I still believe that we can learn from such a life. Why don't you ask him?" Gubreg's voice was heavy with envy. a teacher would be brought in to teach him to read. It didn't take much to fire him up. My grandson is in possession of all the eyes of everyone on this earth. Kopag was already in his studio bright and early in the morning. "I need to talk to you. You see it. It was Gubreg who taught Kopag that all things have souls. A pain fluttered in his chest. is that what it feels like to be a man? Is that a sign of masculinity?" Kopag spoke slowly. Kopag would ask Gubreg all manner of questions. And Gubreg taught him how to bring out the best in the knives and savor the aroma of their sharpness. he had been seven years old at the time. The old man felt that something was missing inside him. Look after him well. Every since he'd gotten to know Frans. it's so beautiful. his grandfather alone had taught him how to work with wood. I can't explain things like Frans can. Too hard. to better acquaint him with life." Kopag's voice was laden with curiosity. Their sharpness. Sometimes he would read foreign books to Kopag. Kopag didn't need Gubreg any more." "I…I can't talk to you about the beauty of a woman. Think of him as your own son!" That had been Ida Bagus Rai's last instruction before he passed away. Gubreg. master. Gubreg. Since he'd been a small boy. and hungry. I tremble every time I touch these knives. with all the things he always brought with him. It made him so mad! Kopag no longer had any time to talk about things. He was tall and exceptionally skilled with his hands. Tell me what she's like. books he'd translated. Gubreg. And from time to time. My grandson will know darkness for all eternity." The sun's rays flashed off the edges of the chiseling knives. "The boy is blind. it was Gubreg who had taught him about the texture of wood. he was approaching his twenty-fifth birthday. He transferred everything he knew about carving to the body of the powerless little boy. When I watch his development I am constantly reminded of the things that my son did. The middle-aged Kafkasau got on Gubreg's nerves. Despite pondering it until almost midnight. "Gubreg.

Gubreg felt as if someone was boring holes into his body. Gubreg was not sick. to crave the body of another to feast upon. His legs would cramp every time her wet body emerged from the water. The balian explained that Gubreg had thrown rubbish on the river's edge. and its body. And on top of all that. And Gubreg knew that the water in his body needed an estuary. Gubreg was prepared to undergo the ceremony. He knew what was happening. He felt a deep and powerful love for Dayu Centaga. it was more like floodwater. A woman he had put on a pedestal. too. Dreams of the tree with its growing branches. Gubreg. Gubreg's body was encircled by smoke which restricted his breathing. So Gubreg could understand why Kopag was asking about beauty. The brahmana family sought out a balian for him. He was often given the task of escorting Dayu Centaga when she went to bathe in the Badung river. Wood and knives have given me . I feel the beauty of the women through my fingertips. a woman he greatly respected. a man who lived off the compassion of Dayu Centaga's family. the brahmana family took an offering to the river god. The old ritual healer cast her spells. I have my own dreams. She said it was so that evil spirits would leave the family be. she would always get Gubreg to scrub her back with a river stone. about those fragments of wood. That feeling suddenly reemerged in his own brain and his brittle bones began to connect him to his past once more. a scent that could not be erased by the borrowed time that he lived on. a dialogue. Until this day Gubreg could still sense her aroma on his body. you haven't answered my question yet. approaching his seventy-fifth birthday. In order to restore Gubreg's health. without the passion of a man. Gubreg realized that his hunger could no longer be contained. And Gubreg incurred the wrath of the river god. The balian went on to say that the river god had also wanted to get his hands on Dayu Centaga. he was nobody. she had been unharmed. The beauty of the women that I portray in wood reminded Frans of the passion of Martha Graham. Often he would wake up in the middle of the night. Frans and one of his friends once told me that my carvings of women were perfect. He did not resist when the balian bathed him at the edge of the river. Why does the wood always draw me into a discussion. when his body began to need.Gubreg's voice broke off. Without a wife. Gubreg. Nature had entrusted something awe-inspiring to him. Nobody knew that the healer's communications with the spirit world were false. Her body was like a snake. He understood. As a commoner male he knew that he could never possess the body of a brahmana woman. It was such an onerous thing. and no longer able to enjoy normal human diversions. until in the end its timbers find themselves in my hands. He was anxious. to think? It's a consuming curiosity that overwhelms my brain. they said. Gubreg could not talk about his male yearnings. He became pale. the current within him no longer resembled the flowing of a river. and even works its way into my dreams. "Gubreg. encourage me to debate. so unsettling. Every time he thought about the barriers between himself and Dayu Centaga. Her white feet made his brain explode. and my body. Gubreg was still faithful to the Griya family. Basically I'm curious. my hands. who used her whole body to bring into being the character she was playing. do you remember what Frans said?" "What in particular?" "He said that my wild manner of creating the human form from wood reminded him of Picasso's Guernica. Gubreg looked closely at Kopag's body as he finished his carving. cold. The river god happened to be resting at the time. encircling and squeezing his body. encased in a sarong. There wasn't a soul with whom he could talk about his anxiety. He could feel the changes in his body. wounded from a sort of misplaced hunger. He too was a man and had felt the stirrings of desire upon first encountering his own humanness. "Gubreg. Thanks to Gubreg's efforts. It was a love that rendered him rigid. At the time Gubreg was a disheveled fourteen-year-old. and he hadn't been possessed by an evil spirit. Over time Gubreg was wracked by extraordinary pain. He drew several breaths. Out of respect for the brahmana family." said Kopag slowly. breathing fast. To this day. Very surrealistic. He took several breaths.

different eyes. Rumor had it that she sold her own body. with a hump on her back. my Lord. Her body is a hollow in a piece of wood. And now all was calm within the family. Kopag was right. "I've been taking her to bed every night. But strangely. Gubreg did not respond. Her face was a pitiful sight. "Surely you can convince him that my sister is the right woman for him. Unfortunately. which was the most highly regarded in Bali. I was swallowed up and I . Unthinkable! But she was very beautiful. prepared his meals and fetched his chiseling knives for him? She wasn't a woman." The tone of her voice verged on a command. In fact Gubreg was willing to let the boy steal. the gallery had received funding support from Germany and France. "I've already chosen my wife. Kopag's carved statues were in great demand and drew a great deal of interest from both local and overseas collectors. Whereas." "You've already chosen someone?" "I have." "Who?" "My sister. page by page. cleaned his studio. The young man never attached any meaning to having money. Gubreg never knew what Kopag wanted. And this time nothing will change it!" "Who is it?" "Srenggi!" "My Lord…?" Gubreg felt as if he was suffocating. She was more like a horrible monster—lame. "We need to find a wife for the boy. stooped over. Jero Melati smiled when she heard Gubreg's words. Pacing the room. Five minutes passed with not a word. the extended family managed to recover from their debts. Jero Melati had stopped her nagging. Her skin is bark. Kopag's brother had even been able to open a big sculpture gallery." Kopag's voice was very serious indeed. He was trying to come to terms with the very private and very profound thing that Kopag was trying to convey. Gubreg. For the first time he sensed that this beautiful body was enveloped by an evil force. she couldn't tolerate being poor. Srenggi…? Were his old ears deceiving him? Wasn't Srenggi the woman who attended to all Kopag's needs. what is it you want? Don't be afraid." "And what did they say. Gubreg stared sharply at the woman. Gubreg did his best to figure out where the conversation was headed. I want to get married. He knew that Jero Melati's sister was a wild and wicked woman. the face remained as impassive as stone. on account of the rigorous selection process it subjected potential exhibits to. God in Heaven! What had possessed Kopag? Did he have no idea of the meaning of beauty? Gubreg took a deep breath and clutched his chest. "I hope you'll forgive me. Last month." she replied seriously." Gubreg said nothing. keen to see Kopag's face light up. but I've already discussed this with Jero and your brother. I've been thinking about it for a long time. Gubreg. I want to talk to you!" This time Kopag's voice was serious." Gubreg raised his head. In fact they've chosen a future wife for you. all that remained of her left one was the socket. The only thing that Gubreg had picked up on was that Kopag needed a woman. Thanks to Kopag. the secrets of the journey and pain he himself had endured as a man whose whole life had been dedicated to serving others. Her skin was rough." Gubreg's voice was very guarded. Kopag seemed distracted. And she had but one good eye. she was at liberty to spend Kopag's money however she pleased. she was not a good woman." "I am. You seem very distressed. if one makes a commitment to it. or not having it. Kopag had been taught to endeavor to understand life. She was driven by a desire for status. poverty. "My Lord. Do you know that when I fell into her body. has its own beauty. "How about he marries the girl I've picked out for him. "Gubreg." "They agree.

When she is naked. no knife can rival her sharpness. a chiseling knife in his bony chest. She is the one who honed this male body of mine.disappeared? She is the most beautiful ." Gubreg collapsed. even more beautiful than my timbers. Source: http://wordswithoutborders.

another kingdom rules the highlands in the north. and as kind-hearted and skilful like their mother. he succeeded his father‘s throne and governed the Lac-Viet tribe. The couple decided to divide their children. He married princess Long Nữ. The children grew up strong and smart like their father. the couple started to grow unhappy. has become the pride and bond of unity for all Vietnamese people call themselves ―the children of the Dragon and the Fairy‖ referring to Lạc Long Quân‘s lineage from the world of the Dragons and Âu Cơ‘s Fairy Clan from the highlands. So. Meanwhile. of whom fifty will live with Lạc Long Quân along the coasts. all Vietnamese should love. leaning its back on a range of high mountains while looking out facing the oceans from a long shoreline. However. They learned to build houses raised on bamboo stilts to keep themselves safe from wild animals. has a beautiful daughter named Âu Cơ. And indeed. as well as how to cook them in bamboo tubes. But his succession from his mother‘s underwater world developed in him a strong fascination for the ocean. Just as Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ promised to each other. Because of Long Nữ‘s origin. and the young man is often seen along the shorelines enjoying the waves and exploring the many sea creatures in sight. Âu Cơ will lead the other fifty to dwell with her in the highlands. Lạc Long Quân had extraordinary strength and supreme intelligence. They were taught well how to cultivate their lands and live nobly. he belongs to one origin. they made a promise that despite the distance and separation. then.html . also divided her areas for them to govern. Lạc Long Quân took fifty children to the coast and divided the areas for them to govern. Đế Lai. who took fifty children to the highlands. This legend. during the reign of King Kinh Dương Vương. Source: http://www. they must look after each other and always be there to lend a hand should one be in need. the "Dragon Lord of Lạc‖. He also trained them to plant and harvest rice. Lạc Long Quân always finds his heart longing for the coasts while Âu Cơ constantly yearns for the highlands. But soon after.vietnam.sovereign of the Động Đình Lake. The two kingdoms then celebrated their unity. Âu Cơ. their son was believed to be a descendant from the line of the Dragons. They were taught to live in the jungles and mountains. which soon hatched into one hundred beautiful children. Wanting to unite his northern tribe with Lạc Long Quân‘s kingdom. They were then blessed with one child. whichever part of the country one hails from. He taught them the skills of fishing and the art of tattoos to scare off sea creatures as they dive and hunt for food. breed animals and cultivate the soil to grow fruit trees for food. the daughter of Động Đình Vương . And a lavish feast was prepared as princess Âu Cơ was wed with Lạc Long Quân. he agreed to give his daughter‘s hand for marriage with the young man. Soon. the Xích Quỷ kingdom was an unknown stretch of a vast land on the far East. honor and protect one another. Therefore. a boy whom they called Sung Lam. popularly known in the kingdom as Lạc Long Quân. Âu Cơ gave birth to a pouch filled with one hundred eggs. Today. The children of Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ are believed to be the ancestors of Vietnam.Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ: The Legend of Ancient Vietnam T housands of years ago. Their king. Time went by.

what power do you have over the buffalo that makes him obey you so willingly?" the tiger asked the peasant. "Go ahead and tie me up. The only weapon he carries is a flimsy bamboo stick. Farmer. He strolled up to the palm tree. he planned on jumping on the man when he returns to untie him. take his magic box of wisdom. He would never have to hunt for food again. "I never keep my wisdom in a box. A young peasant was resting under a mango tree one fine afternoon. secured him tightly to the palm tree and left. "I have not been able to solve that puzzle myself. the tiger resolved to ask the peasant. Your horns are sharp enough to cut him and your hooves are mighty enough to trample him. But sly as the tiger was." he answered. Instead. when animals still had the power of speech. making them do as I say. If he could rule all animals like how the man ruled the buffalo. the water buffalo answered. While the buffalo grazed and the peasant is enjoying his meal. He and his water buffalo had plowed the rice field the whole morning and stopped for a while to have something to eat. Eager to have such powers. he set them on fire. and spend the rest of his days commanding the cows and dears and the delicious wild boars to come and be eaten as his meal. How is it possible that that Man." "I would do anything to see this amazing thing you call wisdom." Eager to see wisdom so badly. No matter how I ponder the situation." replied the peasant." replied the young peasant. he could just order the animals to come and then choose a suitable meal. and I am about to show you." But the young man said. Would you be kind enough to show it to me?" asked the tiger. Now I will teach you to stay away from my precious water buffalo. he would no longer need to hunt for food. Soon after. Then I would willingly go get the wisdom you want to see. the Buffalo and the Tiger: A Tale of Strength and Wisdom A long time ago. Whatever power he possesses. Mr. "I posses something that allows me to rule over all animals. the buffalo used to have sharp front teeth while the mighty tiger was a pure golden beast. I can never free myself from his mastery. "I will gladly stay and watch over your water buffalo while you are gone. I left it at home. a tiger came up to the buffalo." Calmly. it is here in my head all along.The Peasant. "Did you bring the wisdom for me to see?" "Oh yes. yet he rules you and you never run away. sharp vision or a keen sense of smell manages to lead you and make you work for him? You are ten times heavier and stronger. I can go back and fetch it for you." the tiger said. the tiger asked. The tiger roared in pain and raged as the ropes burned around his golden body. "I will tell you. I only know of one thing. held up his legs and said. It is called wisdom. "I have watched you everyday from the edge of the forest. and with a burning torch. As the air . "I noticed the quite curious spectacle of your toil. foolish tiger. a small and upright being who neither has great strength. He then. "Please tell me. I keep it in a gilded box carved with dragons and a golden phoenix to make sure it's well protected. I have great need of it in my daily work. demanding answers for something that had puzzled him for a long time now. the tiger agreed. mighty tiger. Eagerly. I will tie you to a tree so my mind will be free. Wisdom is too precious for me to carry around the fields." So the farmer passed ropes around his body. would eat his water buffalo. the tiger was willing to agree to anything. But if you want it so badly. Instead. mighty tiger. "I have heard your stomach rumble and I am greatly concerned over the possibility that you might eat my buffalo while I am gone. only he has knowledge of it. the farmer returned carrying bundles of straws behind his back. Delighted by the peasant's words. If you agree. "Unfortunately." He then piled the straws around the tiger.

the tiger realized that his strength could never defeat man who has wisdom he knew he could never have. hitting his mouth against a rock. Up to this day. the tiger has his stripes and the water buffalo never grew back his teeth. But most importantly. the tiger could no longer rid himself of the long black stripes that now circle his golden body. the beast finally managed to free himself.motherland-heritage. Source: http://www. He quickly leaped away from the flames and dashed into the jungle. Though his burns have healed after some The sight of this spectacle amused the buffalo so greatly that he laughed so hard and fell.filled with smell of the tiger's singed fur and as the fire burned through the ropes.html . This caused the buffalo to knock all his front teeth out.