Makato and the Cowrie Shell (A Thai Folktale) by Supanee Khanchanathiti


nce upon a time, there was a boy whose name was Makato. He was an orphan, for his

father and mother died when he was very young. He had no brothers, sisters, cousins or friends to take care of him, so he had to make a living for himself. He did every kind of work —carrying heavy things, clearing away the forest, or feeding pigs. He never idled. Although he was paid only small wages, he was satisfied. He knew that if he would not work, he would starve. Wherever he went, his employers praised him for being sensible, hardworking, good-tempered and cheerful. One fine evening after he had finished chopping up a big pile of wood, he sat down to rest and thought of all he would like to do in the future. He wanted to try his luck in far–off strange lands, for he longed for exciting adventures. ―What are you thinking about so deeply, my boy?‖ asked his employer. ―I would like to go on a journey for adventure,‖ said Makato, pointing to the northeast. ―I heard that the land is fertile and the people are kind. I wish I could see the land for myself.‖ His eyes sparked with excitement. ―The land you wish to go to is called Sukhothai,‖ said his employer. ―They say Pra Ruang of Sukhothai is a very kind–hearted king. You might be lucky if you could go there.‖ Sometime later, Makato decided to try his fortune. He left his village and set out in the wide world .He walked along cheerfully, enjoying new insights and talking to the people he met on the way. After a month‘s journey, he reached a village on the boundary of the Kingdom of Sukhothai. ―Please, can I have some water to drink?‖ Makato asked an old woman with a big water pot on her head. ―I‘m so thirsty.‖ ―Where did you come from? Why are you here alone? You look as if you‘ve come a long way,‖ said the old woman, pouring cold water from her pot into a small cup and handling it to Makato. ―Thank you so much,‖ said the boy. ―Who are your father and mother? Haven‘t you any family?‖ the old woman asked again. ―I come from the City of Mon over there,‖ replied Makato. ―Good heavens! Have you really come from Môn? How is it that you are travelling alone, such a young boy as you are?‖ ―I wanted to see Pra Ruang of Sukhothai,‖ replied Makato.‖They say he is a very kindhearted king.‖ ―You are a very determined boy!‖ said the woman.‖Come along with me .Who knows? You might see Pra Ruang someday.‖ Makato was glad to go with her. If he could work with this kind of woman, he would have a place to sleep, some food to eat and perhaps someday, he might be lucky enough to see the king. The old woman was one of the Pra Ruang Mahouts, which meant that she helped the mahout find the food for the elephant and clean out the elephants‘ sheds. He worked hard and well, and the mahout and his wife grew fond of him. One day, the sky was clear and the weather so fine, it seemed to Makato that it must be a lucky day. As he worked in the elephants‘ sheds, a tall young man in a splendid costume, followed by attendants, came in. It was Pra Ruang himself. Makato bowed low at once with his hands clasped together before him. His heart beat fast. ―Where did the boy come from?‖ the king asked the mahout, who was attending him. ―How old is he?‖ the king asked further. ―12 years old, your Majesty,‖ replied the mahout. ―A good-looking and hardworking boy,‖ said the king. ―Take good care of him.‖ As the king walked away, Makato saw a little cowrie shell lying on the ground .He ran to

pick up and held it to the king, but the king said with a smile, ―You may keep it.‖ ―How wonderful!‖ Makato thought, ―the king has given me a cowrie shell.‖ At the time, the people of Sukhothai used cowrie shells as money. Although one cowrie had little value, Makato wanted to make as much use of it as possible, for it was the king‘s gift. For a long time, he could not think of a way to use it so that it would earn money for him. One day, he passed by a stall in the market where the seeds of many different plants were sold. He looked along the stall and caught sight of a basket full of lettuce seed. Lettuces! He could grow small plants like that. He asked the joyful woman at the stall, ―Can I buy some lettuce seed?‖ ―Oh yes, my boy. How much do you want?‖ said the old woman. ―I have one cowrie shell!‖ said Makato. ―One cowrie shell!‖ said the woman, laughing.‖ That won‘t buy anything. I can‘t even measure that much.‖ ―Look!‖ said Makato eagerly. ―I will dip my finger into the pile of seeds. Then, I will take the seeds that stick to it. That must be right for one cowrie shell.‖ ―Well, why not?‖ said the amused woman at his suggestions. ―All right boy. Help yourself.‖ Makato paid the woman his one cowrie shell .Then, he dipped his finger into the pile of seeds. When he pulled his wet finger out, it was covered with seeds. He carefully scraped them of his finger into the palm of his hand and went away, happily clutching the seeds. Now that he had seeds, Makato broke the soil and sowed them at once. He watered the seed bed every day and soon, the young plants appeared. Day by day, he cleared more ground and planted more lettuce seedlings until the kitchen garden was covered with them. He was very proud of himself because he had done so well. ―I wish I could give the king some lettuces,‖ he thought. One day, the king passed by the elephants‘ sheds again. Makato waited for an opportunity, then knelt down and proudly presented his biggest lettuces to the king. ―Where did you get this?‖ the king asked, surprised. ―I grew them from the cowrie shell you gave me, Your Majesty,‖ answered Makato, beaming with a smile. ―How could you do that?‖ asked the puzzled king. Makato told the king the whole story. The king was impressed with his intelligence and industry, so much so that later on, he gave Makato a job in the palace. As the years passed, Makato grew tall and handsome. He mastered every grace and served the king well. He was so loyal that the king trusted him absolutely. He was promoted to higher positions until he was given a title of Kun Wang, which meant that he was the most important person in the king‘s court. He was also happily married to the beautiful young daughter of the king. After that, the king made him the ruler of the Mon. So it was that Makato, who had once been a poor orphan, became the king of that prosperous kingdom.

―Why do you seek to kill me? Am I not your brother and have you not always treated me as if you were my father? Has not your wife been as mother to me? Now since you want to kill me. he became an excellent worker. When the little brother grew to be a young man.‖ Anpu answered. Bata reached the Valley of Acacia. She did not light the fire for him. he slew wild beasts for food.The Two Brothers Egyptian Folktale O nce there were two brothers. He harvested the corn. Anpu killed his wife and cast her to the dogs. Since there was no one with him. Anpu returned home earlier than his brother because Bata had much work to do in the fields. and there was no one his equal in the whole land. so Anpu sent Bata home to get some. who was crying bitterly. She pretended to be in great pain. Anpu was already married and had a house of his own. I shall go to the Valley of the Acacia. so he took his little brother with him and treated him like his son. The brother sprang from him and Bata fled praying to the god Ra.‖ At eventide. Filled with great anger. and he took with him his bread. he returned to the house with vegetables. when Anpu and Bata were in the fields. and Bata was the younger. milk and wood. ―Behold. Bata asked his elder brother. As he entered the door. ―Get up and give me some corn that I may run to the field for my elder brother is in a hurry. he sat down. they needed some corn. He found his wife near the river washing off the black and blue dye with which she had painted herself. When their parents died. Every morning. and Bata loved her very much. She was like a goddess. Because Anpu loved his younger brother very much. and he drove the cattle into the field. and every evening. She showed him her arms and legs which he had painted black and blue and accused Bata of having beaten her up. Anpu was met by his wife.‖ Ra heard his cry. poured ashes on his head and mourned for his younger brother. Ra said to the god Khunumu. the spirit of the god was within him. Anpu went home. ―My good Lord! Save me from death. She was indeed more beautiful than any other woman in the whole land. She did not give him water to wash his hands with. Behold.‖So Khunumu made for Bata a wife to dwell with him. his wife became very jealous and she wanted to destroy Bata. he saw the feet of his brother and the sharp knife hanging by his side.‖ Bata answered. Bata came home as usual. loaded with herbs. The younger brother found the wife combing her hair and said to her. built himself a house and met the Nine Gods who knew of his innocence and goodness. . He sharpened his knife and waited for Bata in the stable. milk. He laid all these before his elder brother. Anpu became very angry. frame a woman for Bata that he may not rema in alone. She pretended that she was very sick. the younger brother followed his oxen and worked all day in the fields. ―I did not do such thing. Anpu was the elder. ―Why did you beat up my wife and almost kill her. Do not delay. He did the plowing. Have I told you that I have always looked upon her as my mother?‖ So. Then. He made a river flow between one brother and the other and filled it with crocodiles. One day. thou who divines the evil from the good. When the sun went down. and wood.

and that is good thing for parents to be strict. Ah. young people not like us when we are young. Long time ago. Madam! Very hard for father when daughter is no good and go against her parents. in Secondary Two. been taxi man for twenty years now. madam? They are only school boys and school girls. will take you there in plenty good time for your meeting. and that‘s extra money. I know. I know them and their habits. They tell their Mum got school meeting. friend. 2 What is it you say. 3 Yes madam. no joking. you say? You know or not that young school girls. Otherwise. Sure. No. 5 Luck for me. and she pull one out and say keep change as she has no time already. three children. one in National Service. quite big family---eight children. My other girl Oh. this. you believe or not when I tell you how much money they got? I say! Last night. I see you surprise. no end to the story. so not to worry. Madam. 7 Ah. because naturally. and this is how they make fun and also extra money. If not. Madam. Must work hard if wants to success in Singapore. Our parents say don‘t do this. Madam. madam. you are a teacher. the European and American tourists. Today. and they make love in taxi so much they don‘t know if you go round and round and charge them b y meter! I tell you. My father he was very strict. on one day alone I make nearly one hundred and fifty dollars! Some of it for services. madam. and they walk up. two daughters. the cane. not so much taximen. madam. fifteen. two clerks. one still schooling. fourth floor flat---and she open her purse to pay me. I know all their tricks. or so much cars and buses. outside the coffee house? See what I mean. ha. stay at home. Our government say stop. they go to public lavatory or hotel and change into these clothes. They usual is wait in bowling alley or coffee house or hotel. many children. if I tell you. pay. ha. Half hour should make it. all my children big now. Madam. one a teacher in Primary school. taxi fare double. So so. I know! As taximan. This way better. some of them don‘t care how much they spend on taxis. madam. stop. but a good. but they really come out and play the fool.The Taximan’s Story by Catherine Lim V ery good. much more money. Singapore not like this so crowded so busy. Do not want to study. . We obey. and go to night clubs and take drugs and make love. they just pay. I get more money from these young girls and their American and European boyfriends in my taxi. Last Saturday. But these young girls and their boyfriends don‘t bargain. but I know. madam. every month. Is no good at all.m. no education. madam? Yes. more than I get from other people who bargain and say don‘t want go by meter and wait even for ten cents change. every year. we never do. madam. but they act like big shots. I was big enough to be married. Madam. Ah. Phui!! Some of them really make me mad. she is twenty plus. Four of my sons working---one a businessman. Two children. will have plenty business. help the mother. but run away. we must sweat to earn money for wife and children. wearing latest fashion. less traffic. and friend. I go and wait outside Elroy Hotel or Tung Court or Orchid mansions. and I say! All American notes---ten dollar notes all. young people they are very trouble to their parents. can make a living. Very sad like punishment from God. got caning. got sports and games. Where got Family Planning in Singapore? People born many. My eldest daughter. no capital for business. My father cane me. madam. People like us. 4 Yes. I tell you this. enough. that. so I tell them and take them there. I take them about in my taxi. Big family! Ha! Ha! No good. young boys and girls become very useless. spending money. sixteen years old. Some of tourists don‘t know where. In those days. It is like this: after the 1 a. Today is much better. Their parents never know. Madam. and sure enough. What to do. you see this young people over there. smoking. one childs. and still. not married yet---Very shy and her health not so good. madam. and I prefer working this time. and they put make-up on their face. madam. Madam. Last time more peaceful. madam. and obedient girl. You agree with me madam? 6 Today. yes. six sons. less car jams. and making love.

Then they all go inside the coffee-house. but I don‘t care. yes but you must go and ask her where and why and who. Lay Choo is in school. Madam. 9 The very next day she is there again I stop my taxi. 10 Wat is it. So I let her stay back in school and day after day she come home in evening. I sure to kill that girl. so I just tell the teacher that Lay Choo is sick. and this girl is all dressed up and make-up. My wife and some neighbors they pull me away. 8 . extra coaching. Yes. when her father drive taxi all day to save money for her University. Oh. and I am so angry. Then one day. And I see her report cards and her teacher write ―Good work‖ and ―Excellent‖ so on. She cannot leave the house except to go to school. madam. None of my other children could go to University. please to excuse me. and very bold in her behavior. Then I drag her to my taxi and drive all the way hom e. thank you. and she is so good and study hard. Ah. which is maths. check. how can. madam. so on. and this is not like my daughter at all. so please to excuse her. and slap her and she scream. I will watch that Lay Choo and see her monkey tricks. Oh. I tell you because I myself have a daughter---oh. like young people in many years ago. young people today. my heart is very “susah hati” and I say to myself. madam. I lock her up in her room for three days. and I think if they not pull me away. you must not say. and so on. madam. madam. Madam? Yes. madam her teachers write ―Good‖ and ―Excellent‖. and she say teacher want her to go back to school to do extra work. it cannot be Lay Choo. what trouble they are… What. and I tell her mother always check.there plenty young people pick up. She study at home. driving along and hey! I see a girl looking like my Lay Choo. Madam. oh madam. a daughter I love very much. I rush up to this wicked daughter and I catch her by the shoulders and neck. madam. cannot wait for you to finish your meeting. very--. sorry. So very sorry. and my heart is very. madam. yes. I in my taxi driving. If you have a young daughter and she says Mummy I got meeting today in school and will not come home. madam? Oh. in everything she do. Must go off. how you feel in my place? Make herself so cheap. In a hurry. madam. Oh. and you find out. in her weak subject. and her friends---what sort of people they are. with other girls and some European outside a coffee---house but I think.hoe you describe it. she is very smart and intelligent--no boasting. Today young people not to trust. in her report cards. and I ashamed to tell her teacher. and thank you very much. then she do her studies and go to sleep. everything okay now. and I ask her what she want to be after left school.But I will tell you this. and help the mother. she my favorite child. but sometime a little lazy. madam. so on. it makes me so angry even now---one day. Must go off to Hotel Elroy. but this one. and she says go to University. madam. and at home I trash her stupid fool and I beat her and slap her till like hell.

from generation to generation. on a comparative basis. While fragile. The social and economic value of this transmission of knowledge is relevant for minority groups and for mainstream social groups within a State.unesco. performing arts. It thrives on its basis in communities and depends on those whose knowledge of traditions.What is Intangible Cultural Heritage? The term ‗cultural heritage‘ has changed content considerably in recent decades. partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO. festive events. they all are intangible cultural heritage: they have been passed from one generation to another. rituals. from a city on the opposite side of the world. knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts. encouraging a sense of identity and responsibility which helps individuals to feel part of one or different communities and to feel part of society at large. providing a link from our past. Source: http://www. or have been adapted by peoples who have migrated and settled in a different region. have evolved in response to their environments and they contribute to giving us a sense of identity and continuity. Intangible cultural heritage is:  Traditional. groups or individuals that create.  Representative: intangible cultural heritage is not merely valued as a cultural good. through the present. An understanding of the intangible cultural heritage of different communities helps with intercultural dialogue. or to other communities. Cultural heritage does not end at monuments and collections of objects. intangible cultural heritage is an important factor in maintaining cultural diversity in the face of growing globalization. skills and customs are passed on to the rest of the community. It also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants. such as oral traditions. social practices. nobody else can decide for them that a given expression or practice is their heritage. Intangible cultural heritage does not give rise to questions of whether or not certain practices are specific to a culture. and encourages mutual respect for other ways of life. Whether they are from the neighboring village. maintain and transmit it – without their The importance of intangible cultural heritage is not the cultural manifestation itself but rather the wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted through it from one generation to the next.  Inclusive: we may share expressions of intangible cultural heritage that are similar to those practiced by others.  Community-based: intangible cultural heritage can only be heritage when it is recognized as such by the communities. and is as important for developing States as for developed ones. contemporary and living at the same time: intangible cultural heritage does not only represent inherited traditions from the past but also contemporary rural and urban practices in which diverse cultural groups take part. and into our future. It contributes to social cohesion. for its exclusivity or its exceptional value.php?lg=en&pg=00002 .

Source: http://www. in November 2011. it inscribed additionally 11 elements. and oral traditions. sub regional and/or international levels that the Committee considers to best reflect the principles and objectives of the Convention. 19 new elements have been added to the list. The Committee incorporated 90 elements in 2008 (items formerly proclaimed Masterpieces) and inscribed 76 elements in 2009 and 47 elements in 2010. music. 2) The Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity is made up of those intangible heritage practices and expressions help demonstrate the diversity of this heritage and raise awareness about its importance. Indonesia. 4) Following the sixth session of the Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. five more programs were added to the list. In 2009. Three programs were selected for the Register in 2009 by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. performances. the Committee inscribed 12 and in 2010 . It aims at ensuring better visibility of the intangible cultural heritage and raising awareness of its importance while encouraging dialogue that respects cultural . 232 elements on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. there are 27 elements on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding . * — are components of a country's cultural heritage that are equally as important as physical cultural elements.4 elements. The elements are abstract and must be learned. Inscriptions on this List help to mobilize international cooperation and assistance for stakeholders to undertake appropriate safeguarding measures. In 2011. In 2011. encompassing traditional knowledge which includes festivals. held in Bali. projects and activities on the national. and 8 programs included in the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices. 3) The Register of Best Safeguarding Practices includes programs.unesco. handicrafts. celebrations.The Intangible Heritage List 1) The List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding is composed of intangible heritage elements* that concerned communities and States Parties consider require urgent measures to keep them alive. like World Heritage Sites. In 2011. It aims at ensuring exchange and cooperation at the international level for programs with proven success in safeguarding intangible cultural heritage.

Source: http://www. Sang Kancil wanted to taste the tasty-looking fruit because he was a little tired of eating leaves. They were always waiting to catch Sang Kancil for dinner. a big. "Of Then he said to Sang Buaya. none of the other crocodiles ever talked to him again. who wanted to eat him. He tried to think of a way to cross the river. "Promise not to eat me or I can't report to the king how many of you are coming. Sang Kancil said. lived in the river with other crocodiles. they came and made a line across the river." Sang Buaya was shocked and angry. including you and all the other crocodiles. There were many trees where Sang Kancil's lived along the river. One day when Sang Buaya was walking along the river. Sang Kancil outwits a big.Outwitting a Crocodile (Kisah Sang Kancil dengan Buaya) A Traditional Malaysian Folktale Retold by Chok Yoon Foo from Malaysia S ang Kancil is a clever. Sang Kancil stepped on Sang Buaya's head and counted one. He asked Sang Kancil. Sang Kancil said. Poor Sang Buaya was not so lucky. so he never had trouble finding food. Sang Kancil outwitted Sang Buaya. He needed to trick Sang Buaya. Whenever he was in a bad situation. I am afraid of you. "Aren't you afraid I will eat you?" Then he opened his big mouth very wide to scare Sang Kancil."Thank you for helping me to cross the river to my new home." Sang Buaya was excited and left to tell the other crocodiles about the feast with all the good food. In this story. He shouted at Sang Kancil. counting each one.htm .‖ They promised not to eat him. Sang Kancil loved his new home on the other side of the river because he had a lot of tasty food to eat. "Sang Buaya! Sang Buaya!" Sang Buaya slowly came out of the water and asked Sang Kancil why he was shouting his name. Sang Buaya. Please line up across the river. and finally reached the other side of the river. In this story. but he had to be careful. Sang Kancil suddenly had an idea. "You tricked us! There is no feast. He is having a big feast with lots of food. I have to count all of you. After that. tricky mouse deer who is always finding himself in predicaments with animals that want to eat him or harm him. he always played a clever trick to escape. There were always lots of leaves. but the king wants me to do something. Then he stepped on the next one and said. He needs to know how many of you will come. He didn't want to be caught and eaten by Sang Buaya. the big bad crocodile.topics-mag. he saw some delicious fruit on the trees on the other side of the river. bad crocodile. and he is inviting everyone. "Two. He called out to the crocodile. but he cleverly manages to escape each time. Soon. He spent his time running and jumping and looking into the river. is there?" All of the crocodiles looked at Sang Buaya angrily. so I can walk across your heads and count all of you. Sang Kancil was a clever mouse deer. But first. They were angry because he let Sang Kancil trick all of them." He stepped on each crocodile. bad crocodile.

and their communities better as members of a particular culture. relating the text to the work it has been excerpted from. the instructor will highlight the lexical items related to the chapter's topic or theme. their families. Literary characters can be matched to actions or facts related to them. and varieties).ucla.asp?parentid=60803 . words/phrases coined by the author and adopted by the language. speaking. and they develop students’ ability to think critically by inferring meaning. In each text. A multitude of literary tasks empower students to think and act critically and develop an appreciation of literature while developing language proficiency ( McKay 2001: 321-326). especially those characteristic of the written language. for example. sentence types. cultural connotations. "troublesome" words can be targeted in literary texts to help learners improve their orthography or eliminate the interference of English spelling. Heritage learners can expand their vocabulary by reading a variety of literary selections. heritage or non-heritage. they can serve as the basis for listening. they provide meaningful and memorable contexts for vocabulary expansion and grammar practice. students gain a deeper understanding. acceptance. · Vocabulary comprehension and expansion. etc. genres. The understanding and appreciation of culture that results from the study of literature helps students develop a positive self-image and attitude toward their heritage language and culture. and writing activities. writing a literary analysis of the piece. and cohesive devices. A wide range of grammatical structures. He/She may also point out idiomatic expressions (to foster understanding of cultural commonalities and differences) analyzing the characters’ and/or the author’s point(s) of view. By reading folk tales and legends. describing the relevance of the selection for contemporary readers in general and for heritage learners in particular. and expressing their own ideas and emotions ( Lazar 1993: 19). Such tasks include: describing the features of a literary genre and identifying them in the reading. can be taught or reviewed. · Grammar identification and practice. Heritage literature helps students understand themselves. they learn about "the origin of traditional cultural values and beliefs" (Diamond & Moore 1995: 221). Students will then be able to analyze the key structural features of the language of the selection. reading. find synonyms for key words. · Oral and written literary assignments. and the work to the personal/historical circumstances in which it was written. They can fill in missing words. · Spelling. Heritage literary texts can illustrate grammatical structures taught in class. and behaviors.Heritage Literature as a Teaching Tool Heritage literary passages are versatile tools for language study. literary words. · Cultural understanding and appreciation. regionalisms. Student drawings or collages based on the text will help students visualize and remember the characters in the story. They illustrate heritage literature (HL) in use (a wide range of styles. and writing an argumentative essay about the literary passage. beliefs. Depending on the HL. paraphrase sentences. · Reading comprehension. Source: http://www. placing the text/author within the heritage literary tradition. analyzing the literary techniques/ language/style used by the author. and respect for other systems of traditions. cultures. summarize paragraphs or the text as a whole. Students identify the target structures in the passage and then practice them as they appear in that context or give examples related to their own lives (personalization). Students can answer questions based on content. making interpretations. If heritage literary works are compared to writings from the dominant culture or other. values. registers.

This is the way of the world: what we desire to touch has no desire to be touched by us. a widow. She heard the rock calling her. saying ―You never managed to eat your roe because as much as you desired it. while fishing. wakes up Bulat and they try to chase her down. Fish roe back then was very. her daughter Mawar. hearing the commotion of her mother storming out of the house. At noon.‖ She then snaps and runs to the rock.Batu Belah Batu Bertangkup (The Devouring Rock) A Famous Malay Folktale T his story is about Mak Minah. When she came home. but it was no use. Mak Minah tells her children that they may each have their portion. As she did so. One morning. and just long enough for her children to catch sight of her. but after finishing his. right in front of it. and her young son. she catches a tembakul fish (local river fish). and the other for herself. Mawar. the eater of suicides. But I am your death and I have longed for you since you were born. Bulat. one for her young son. and beckoned her to enter. Mak Minah left the funnel on the floor and fled deep into the rock. Mak Minah goes home and starts to clean the fish. She of course is really happy. it never desired to be eaten by you. They called out after their mother. Mak Minah stopped only once on her way to the rock. very expensive and was a delicacy. the rock split. She would work in both a field and as a fisherwoman to support her fairly young children as best as she could. and her two children. Bulat demanded the other portion and threw a horrible tantrum when she said no. Mak Minah was so devastated that she didn‘t say anything and just went to bed. one for her older daughter. . She happily fries it before she goes to work in the fields and cuts it into three equal parts. one that poor people like herself would very rarely be able to enjoy. and fantasizes all day about eating the fish with her children for dinner. the voice of the rock drowned out everything else. where she made a funnel and filled it with her breast milk for her young son. That night Mak Minah was kept awake by the calling of the batu belah batu bertangkup. and is even happier when she realizes that there is fish roe inside. And now all I ask you is that you have the same longing for me. she finds all three portions eaten. Mak Minah spent the entire evening at the field thinking of eating the roe. As she heads out the door. but she asked them to leave her one of the pieces to eat when she comes home. and that he had taken the piece anyway. Mak Minah would work hard at several jobs in a day. Mawar explained to her that she and her brother had both eaten their portions.

Give at least two reasons why you liked or did not like the C: http://www. This paragraph tells the reader the things they have to know about the movie. talk about that. Do not explain why you liked it or did not like it. . Third Paragraph: Character and Plot Summary What happens in the movie? You should not tell everything that happens--and especially not the ending. it consists of five B: http://www. Also. Five Parts of a Movie Review 1. or retell another big moment from the movie and explain why it is important. You must justify your opinion--and that opinion should grow out of what you write in the rest of the review. Use these URL: A: http://www. One way to do this might be to write a sentence about each main character. you should explain very simply what the movie is all about--not necessarily what happens. or about the making of the movie. then your trailer should make people want to see it. explain that idea and talk about it a little bit. 5. you must go into depth about the movie. but that might work. When you begin your movie review. you should say something about the songs. Begin your review by retelling an incident or moment from the movie which you think captures the spirit of the movie as you understood it. the year it was made (if you watched it on video). or about the director. Fifth Paragraph: Evaluate the Movie Do you recommend it or not? Who will like it (kids or adults)? The most important thing here is that you must also explain why you are making your recommendation. in more detail than you do in the paragraph above. you have to tell the reader all the obligatory stuff--the title of the movie. Fourth Paragraph: A Key Moment or Idea In this paragraph. in one sentence or two. but they all have the same content.How to Write a Movie Review There are numerous formats you can follow in writing a movie review. Second Paragraph: Take Care of Business Near the beginning of the 4." If you liked the movie. the main actors. too. the rating. If it was a musical. 2. If the soundtrack was good. In this particular format. But you want to summarize the basic plot of the movie. but if you did not like it. make the reader like or not like the movie by what you describe. Watch these video on YouTube about making a ―filmed‖ movie review. Alternative: Begin your review with another kind of story or interesting fact--about one of the star actors. make your own "trailer. If you think the "idea" behind a movie was really interesting. the trailer should be something that shows why you did not like the director. the if you can say it in one two sentences. go into detail about something important that interested you about the movie. Write more about one character who was really intriguing. In this paragraph. Opening: Catch the Reader's Attention Think about how advertisements sell movies: "trailers" show you a few seconds of the movie to get you interested.

B.. and the Bolivians will always have Bolivian history and Bolivian pride. and it may inhibit students’ construction of the fact that many parts contribute to the whole (Aldridge et al. but the French will always have French history and French pride. It’s our inability to see things wholeheartedly from their perspective that may cause us to judge another culture as cruel. 3) culturally different individuals. language. Multiculturalism is divisive. work. there are Malays. Families from the same culture share the same values. In Malaysia. East Indians. For example.. In reality. while their grandchildren may be bicultural or mainstreamers (Aldridge et al. In the long run. To view regions or nations as if they were monocultural is erroneous. or naïve (Parrilla. 3. but this “national culture” is only one of the many cultures that affect us. 2. 3. Cultures exist because a group has found a way to make their lives better. According to this myth. A. grandparents may maintain their original culture. or Bollywood. Culture is based on nationality. 1997). These include “1) mainstr eamers. or YouTube. we will continue to be unique (Parrilla. Rather. socio-economic experiences. On Multiculturalism 1. 2) bicultural individuals. or 15 hour flights that connect Asia to Europe. Some cultures are just more evolved than others. racial. On Culture 1. we may begin to share certain values and behaviors. or outsourcing. share a common culture. and the tribal groups of Sarawak. 2000). The environment we all live in may be changing (slowly or quickly) impacted by such things as the internet. Lynch and Hanson (1998) reported at least four ways individuals and families from other countries “live out” their culture in the United States. but you cannot measure culture solely by one’s nationality. a continuum of cultural identity exists and the entire range often can be found within the same family. and holidays. 2012). 19). but they cannot be considered as one ethnic group sharing a similar culture. immigrants coming to the United States eventually have been . or Hollywood. 2012). 2012).Then combine what you have learned from the lecture and from these video when you are going to write a movie review. Probably. Our view of culture is affected by the subcultures we have at home. These people may share the same nation. age. geographic region. gender identity. stupid. Until such time as we all speak the same language. most cultures are benevolent and have positive intentions behind any values they instill. share the same history. or pandemics like the flu. No culture is inherently worse or better than any other. geographic location. go to the same schools. ethnic background and sexual orientation (Parrilla. 2012). religious faith. policies. and have uniform laws. You may argue that culture is a set of values and behaviors that are learned and shared by a group of people who have common experiences and influences. Tremendous historical. In addition. antiquated. or migration – but the bottom line is that we all still interact with these commonalities based on our cultures. and cultural differences must be acknowledged (Banks & Banks. This notion is especially false for nondominant cultures living in the United States. This is also affected by particular life experiences. Globalization is causing an inevitable homogenization of cultures. 2. Chinese. or those who speak the same language. and 4) culturally marginal individuals” (p. some cultures may have values and behaviors that do not support success when their environment changes. school and organizations we are in. (The vast majority of people do not want to intentionally create conflict or fail!). People from the same nation or geographic region.

children and families are multiethnic in nature. They have two elementary-age children who are being raised in Queens. 2010). Reading new words and phrases can increase anyone’s lexicon. The study of literature allows people to develop new ideas. New York. On Literature 1. there is no need to study other cultures. it promotes division rather than unity. This myth is pervasive in such societies. Most people identify with only one culture. If this is not acknowledged and valued. . Studying literature can help you understand different cultures or time periods. Here are just two examples. Studying literature can be an enriching. Breitborde.assimilated and considered themselves to be Americans. The children have never visited Ecuador or Pakistan. They have a unique cultural heritage. 2010). Increasingly. Patrick is of Chinese heritage. 4. 1999). As an example in English literature. 2012). & Murphy. ethical standpoints and can help an individual to present themselves as educated members of the society.. 2. Literature is also crucial to learning stylistic and artistic conventions for communication and writing (Priyadarshini. 5. The myth goes on to state that when ethnicity is turned into a defining characteristic. bicultural and monocultural areas especially need to learn about cultures to which they will be in close proximity in the immediate future (Greenfield & Cocking. C. but was born in Jamaica. a Muslim from Pakistan. Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” shows us the ambivalence the British felt towards empiricism. With an increasingly diverse society. Multicultural education should examine intrapersonal cultural diversity as well as the interpersonal. His family later moved to Toronto and now lives in Miami. it’s possible to understand how contemporary western culture has developed into what it is today (Priyadarshini. In predominantly monocultural or bicultural societies. These children are not stereotypical. By following the histories presented throughout English literature. eye opening experience. Maria is an Evangelical Christian from Ecuador who married Mohammed. children like Patrick could experience intrapsychic cultural conflict (Aldridge et al. This shallow reasoning denies the multiple diversities that always have existed and continue to exist throughout the United States (Swiniarski. Literature allows us to understand the philosophical movements and ideas that permeated a particular culture at a particular time. 1994).

He chased it and the deer ran deeper into the forest. My guards took me here but I got lost.‖ ―Thank you your holiness. Then he said something. He gave me his head dress and told me to put it under my pillow. I‘m Prince Banterang from the kingdom of Blambangan. He‘s very kind to me. the daughter of the king of Klungkung. As a good wife. So I put it there to show my respect for him. He never hurts me. His brother revealed that it was Raden Banterang who killed their father. I have no relatives here. As he took a rest under a big banyan tree suddenly a beautiful girl appeared in front of him. Banyuwangi is known as Blambangan. ―I am a priest. Someone has an evil intention on you. when Raden was in a forest he spotted a deer. He‘s protecting me.‖ the man said. If you find a head dress under her pillow then my words are correct.‖ But Raden no longer trust her. Unfortunately. This is from a man who will help you kill me. Tell me who he is. he lost the deer. ―Surati.The Legend of Banyuwangi Adapted from an Indonesian Folktale A long time ago. So he asked her. To respect her older brother. Bali. When he reached the palace. The rebels killed my father but I managed to escape. He came to Blambangan to take revenge. He found the head dress under Surati‘s pillow. ―Who is he?‖ asked Raden. I have to go now. ―Excuse me. not me. Raden confronted Surati. One day when Surati was in the street he met a man. I know that you want me dead. It is from a man who will help her kill you. he asked Surati to join him. One day.‖ Raden uttered. He fell in love with her and then several months later he married her. ―You life is in danger.‖ Surati pleaded. Raden took Surati home. Several days later. I‘m a princess.‖ Rupaksa was disappointed with her sister. He decided to penalize Surati by giving her a death . He suspected that the girl may not be human after all. At this time. ―But he killed our father. lovely lady. Raden prefers hunting that he often went to forest around Blambangan to hunt for animals. ―All right then. Rupaksa gave his head dress to his sister Surati. The priest was right. I don‘t know where to go. do you live around here?‖ ―No. I‘m from Klungkung. I met him several days ago when you went hunting.‖ said the prince. ―Raden Banterang is now my husband. ―You come to the right person.‖ Rupaksa ―It is hard for me to believe it. But please keep my head dress. he immediately searched Surati‘s bedroom.‖ Surati begged. This is the evidence. Surati. I just want to save you. He was very angry and upset. Please help me. ―It is my brother‘s head dress. The man called her. My name is Surati. Now I‗m alone. he was here and not in Klungkung. Then. I don‘t. Surati put it under her pillow. The man greeted him politely. It is my duty to serve him. It is Rupaksa who wants to kill you. Its kingdom has a wise king who has a handsome and smart son named Raden Banterang. I will never betray him.‖ Rupaksa demanded.‖ She was surprised to see her brother Rupaksa. she cried. His horse was so good and strong that he left his guards behind. I have a clear spiritual vision. Surati refused to join.‖ Surati was defenseless. Raden was hunting in a forest when he met a man that looked like a priest.‖ the man quickly replied ―Surati? How do you know?‖ Raden verified. She was all alone in the forest. Search her room. When I met Raden. ―Your wife Surati. Please come with me. put it under your pillow. ―You not faithful to me. I am going to protect you.

. Surati was innocent! Raden regretted what he had done. just throw my body into the river. it means that I am innocent. let me say a few words. ―Please do.‖ Raden granted Surati‘s request. Banyu means water and Wangi means fragrance.sentence near the riverbank. From then on. ―Before I die. Amazingly the water became clear and fragrant. ―When I die. But if the water becomes clear and fragrant.‖ Surati pleaded. Surati spoke calmly. Surati threw herself into the river. he changed the name of his kingdom into Banyuwangi. it means that I am guilty.‖ Then as Raden stabbed her wife with a kris. If water becomes dirty and smelly.

Surely her beauty rivaled that of a tree trunk. She was timber of exquisite beauty. For the first time Kopag felt able to enjoy life. His father was a highly respected man who held an important government position. submitting to whatever was said by those around him. His eyes would never see a woman. A woman. It was the voice of a woman. to appreciate the beauty that nature had entrusted to her. What was happening to him? Kopag cursed himself. Kopag trembled as the smell exposed him to the reality of being a man. the woman he'd been seeking for centuries. increasing Kopag's anxiety. of course. an aroma of dry leaves and damp wood. "Srenggi. merely subject to the decisions of the people closest to him. This time he felt that he had encountered a truth that was different from that developed by people who used their own truth as a personal yardstick. It was odd that other people were unable to see her loveliness. But are people born complete with all their senses capable of capturing all the secrets of this life—secrets that are held onto and kept hidden by nature? Would it be wrong if Kopag were suddenly to encounter extraordinary beauty in Srenggi? A beauty that he could see with his thoughts and feelings? Would that be wrong? The beauty of this young woman was extraordinary. "Tell me who you are!" "I am the one who will serve all your needs—from this moment on. Srenggi. "Who's there?" "It's me. Their hands touched. where was it coming from. The woman's skin felt like bark. compassion and sincerity. Even old Gubreg made no comment when Kopag praised the prettiness of this eighteen-year-old girl. his thoughts in a muddle! Kopag was aware. The smell was coming closer and he was finding it hard to breathe. the highest caste in the Balinese social structure. His hands were bereft. The voice seemed to be full of honesty. she was more beautiful than the most sacred pile of timber. he needed his chiseling tools. . intensely aware. so that people would recognize him and be able to distinguish him from others." the voice quivered. Usually he was treated as an object. He was the second son in the richest family in the compound. "What did you say your name was?" Kopag began to calm down a little. life had imposed the label "Ida Bagus Madé" onto Kopag." "Srenggi? Srenggi who?!" Kopag was trembling with trepidation now. almost slicing open his own leg—and all because he'd detected a strange smell coming from the direction of the door. Odd. "Is truth always manifested on earth in a homogeneous form?" Kopag had asked his servant Gubreg with a trembling voice. "Even when I'm judging beauty. He was able to provide an objective evaluation of the living creature known as man.The Century Carver by Oka Rusmini K opag dropped his sharp chiseling knife. Although. was that really the voice of a woman? When Kopag went to pick up his cane. What was wrong with the criteria he had used to judge her beauty? As a boy. this smell that made him feel so agitated? It wafted closer. He had the strange sensation of suddenly being submerged in the ocean. And now God had sent her for him. Srenggi quickly stepped in to help. The indentations of her body and her face resembled those in a piece of timber. The title "Ida Bagus" indicated that he was of the brahmana caste. Kopag was sure his judgment was right: this was the one. do I have to use their criteria?" "Their criteria? I'm not convinced that they're capable of genuinely seeing the beauty of life!" Kopag's voice was tense. His mind conjured up images of sharp knives." The voice sounded nervous. till the end of time. it was no cause for celebration to have been born blind. He also owned dozens of painting and sculpture galleries.

"She really is extraordinarily beautiful. an appalling one." . Gubreg. She resisted. I'll trust your eyes. He could transform a piece of dry wood into a work of art that attracted the elite of the art world. She knew he would impregnate her with the seed of an animal. I want to know what she's like. she had married Kopag's brother and had thus become a member of their noble family. a smell that leaped from those lips that were apparently so sweet. so red. commented on how lucky his brother was to have married the most beautiful girl in the village. after an absence of many months. could feel only darkness as his language. And in those circumstances he forced his wife to have sex with him. from an early age. resembled that of the daughters of the Balinese king. But what is the power of a woman? Especially since. his life. Kopag had reinvented the idea of artistic endeavor. He was an animal. He touched the dry wood that always accompanied him wherever he went. considering the circumstances of his birth. the faithful servant who had looked after Kopag since he was a child.Unfortunately he had a wandering eye. Being born blind was redemption of a kind. Kopag drew a deep breath. Tell me everything in detail. She became pregnant—and died giving birth to a baby boy. The life that Kopag so frequently cursed turned out to be quite democratic in fact. her body was one that all the men talked about. Her hands felt like those of a rotting corpse. nature had surrendered to his power. Before long his debts began to mount. How miraculous it would be if life could be acted out. For the first time. he said. now known as Jero Melati. and I want to feel it too. Solitude fenced in by beauty—without the sound of his sister-in-law harping. he came home in a sickening state. He was thin and pale. His sister-in-law's voice constantly rang in his ears. Her bearing." "Describe her to me. and his dreams as well. or the plates and glasses were in the wrong place in the kitchen. Gubreg also talked about the beautiful skin of Ni Luh Putu Sari. Outsiders only knew her extraordinary physical beauty and her much-lauded skin. He didn't just carve wood. In her absolute commitment to assuming the role of the wife of a brahmana. he carved his thoughts. Even Gubreg. For the moment. Kopag could smell the rancid stench of blood. Every time she opened her mouth. She had been focused on joining a brahmana family. People used to say that any woman was fair game for him. turned into a performance. Kopag loved the wood that had introduced him to his world. ever since his first encounter with the aroma of the earth and life. How could a woman that everyone said was so beautiful and elegant speak with such a foul mouth? Her screech was enough to blunt his chiseling knives. A member of the commoner sudra caste. His wealth evaporated. One day. Kopag had sensed this the first time his sister-in-law greeted him. she had been educated to become a noblewoman who would respect her husband. It didn't bother him whether she was beautiful or not. on account of her having married into a high caste family. or his cane had got tangled up with the bougainvillea that that gasbag of a woman had just planted. The world he wanted. in short. Srenggi's body was where life was created for this man who. He'd trodden on the plants in the side garden. To be honest. healthy or not. It gave him qualities that others could not possibly possess. just as Kopag had surrendered to the blindness that was his constant companion. Her name was Ni Luh Putu Sari but because she hadn't been born into the brahmana caste she had had to change her name to Jero Melati. Kopag often wondered whether human beings could ever share a genuinely objective set of views. She was always making a fuss about something. so perfect. "What can that blind brother of yours do? Tell me? He's a bloody nuisance!" The young woman's voice always set his nerves on edge. she had to demonstrate to everyone in the village her right to join the family. Like a piece of timber with its captivating curves. his brain. she was the perfect example of a playactor. for Kopag's father. any creature with a hole could be entered. How could this incredibly crude and carping woman be the one all the men adored? In Kopag's view.

don't you? Life has given him an extraordinary gift. Every since he'd gotten to know Frans. Kopag had always been as much a part of him as his own breath. And Gubreg taught him how to bring out the best in the knives and savor the aroma of their sharpness. He loved reading his Braille books. and hungry. master?" "About the beauty of a woman. he was approaching his twenty-fifth birthday.The old man fell silent. What were these feelings struggling inside Kopag's body? Gubreg was afraid—afraid of answering the question about the true meaning of masculinity. The old man felt that something was missing inside him. My grandson will know darkness for all eternity. His karma has fallen to his own son. The middle-aged Kafkasau got on Gubreg's nerves. with all the things he always brought with him. to better acquaint him with life. He looked deep into Kopag's eyes. Think of him as your own son!" That had been Ida Bagus Rai's last instruction before he passed away. "Gubreg. He's paying for the sins of his father. Gubreg. Ever since Kopag was a child. Kopag would ask Gubreg all manner of questions. You see it. So mysterious. about Michelangelo Buanorotti who Frans said was a famous Renaissance sculptor. God in Heaven! Master of the universe! Kopag had grown up. how it moves me? Gubreg. The knife's brilliance seemed to challenge that of the sun. a teacher would be brought in to teach him to read. master. In Kopag's hands the knife became cold. Sometimes he would read foreign books to Kopag. but still appealing? Can you see. Is she like this piece of banyan wood—cold. Gubreg couldn't answer the question about what it means to be a man. It's extraordinary. you haven't answered my question. Gubreg noticed how the powerful rays scattered and died away the moment they touched the sharp edge of each knife. Kopag was already in his studio bright and early in the morning. what is this feeling that overcomes me so often. his grandfather alone had taught him how to work with wood. The old man was quick-tempered these days. books he'd translated. including his rows of chiseling knives. Tell me what she's like. Ida Bagus Madé Kopag had a very fine body. A pain fluttered in his chest. Why don't you ask him?" Gubreg's voice was heavy with envy. He was tall and exceptionally skilled with his hands. Everyone makes their own judgment about it. it's so beautiful. "I need to talk to you. Look after him well. My grandson is in possession of all the eyes of everyone on this earth. He transferred everything he knew about carving to the body of the powerless little boy. "The boy is blind. Gubreg. I still believe that we can learn from such a life. "Aren't you going to answer my question. a different perspective on the world. And from time to time. he had been seven years old at the time. He still remembered Kopag's cry when he first touched those naked knives. The Frenchman had given him a new sort of education. A woman…" ." Kopag's voice was laden with curiosity. Gubreg?" "Don't ask me weird things. Too hard. Gubreg. A single sound uttered by the Frenchman was enough to make his stomach churn. Since he'd been a small boy." "I…I can't talk to you about the beauty of a woman." The sun's rays flashed off the edges of the chiseling knives. the Frenchman Frans Kafkasau would pay him a visit. It was Gubreg who taught Kopag that all things have souls. "About what. "Gubreg. I can't explain things like Frans can. Their sharpness. On occasion. Gubreg. arrogant. See how he produces perfectly carved statues. Kopag didn't need Gubreg any more. It made him so mad! Kopag no longer had any time to talk about things. Despite pondering it until almost midnight. It was hard. I tremble every time I touch these knives. It didn't take much to fire him up. is that what it feels like to be a man? Is that a sign of masculinity?" Kopag spoke slowly. it was Gubreg who had taught him about the texture of wood. When I watch his development I am constantly reminded of the things that my son did.

Why does the wood always draw me into a discussion. I have my own dreams. She said it was so that evil spirits would leave the family be. To this day. Frans and one of his friends once told me that my carvings of women were perfect. Gubreg felt as if someone was boring holes into his body. to crave the body of another to feast upon. The brahmana family sought out a balian for him. The old ritual healer cast her spells. Her white feet made his brain explode. Until this day Gubreg could still sense her aroma on his body. He took several breaths. He became pale. breathing fast. Gubreg was not sick. Gubreg could not talk about his male yearnings. they said. do you remember what Frans said?" "What in particular?" "He said that my wild manner of creating the human form from wood reminded him of Picasso's Guernica. the brahmana family took an offering to the river god. Gubreg realized that his hunger could no longer be contained. a dialogue. And Gubreg knew that the water in his body needed an estuary. He felt a deep and powerful love for Dayu Centaga. encourage me to debate. Over time Gubreg was wracked by extraordinary pain. "Gubreg. encircling and squeezing his body. I feel the beauty of the women through my fingertips. and he hadn't been possessed by an evil spirit. approaching his seventy-fifth birthday. she would always get Gubreg to scrub her back with a river stone. you haven't answered my question yet. and even works its way into my dreams. when his body began to need. He drew several breaths. In order to restore Gubreg's health. Her body was like a snake. The balian explained that Gubreg had thrown rubbish on the river's edge. Basically I'm curious. Often he would wake up in the middle of the night. Gubreg." said Kopag slowly. Dreams of the tree with its growing branches. A woman he had put on a pedestal. Thanks to Gubreg's efforts. my hands. Gubreg's body was encircled by smoke which restricted his breathing. Nobody knew that the healer's communications with the spirit world were false. Wood and knives have given me . until in the end its timbers find themselves in my hands. He knew what was happening. The beauty of the women that I portray in wood reminded Frans of the passion of Martha Graham. There wasn't a soul with whom he could talk about his anxiety. The balian went on to say that the river god had also wanted to get his hands on Dayu Centaga. wounded from a sort of misplaced hunger. a scent that could not be erased by the borrowed time that he lived on. the current within him no longer resembled the flowing of a river. Without a wife. and no longer able to enjoy normal human diversions. to think? It's a consuming curiosity that overwhelms my brain. so unsettling. Every time he thought about the barriers between himself and Dayu Centaga. a woman he greatly respected. He did not resist when the balian bathed him at the edge of the river. It was such an onerous thing. encased in a sarong. And Gubreg incurred the wrath of the river god. So Gubreg could understand why Kopag was asking about beauty. The river god happened to be resting at the time. That feeling suddenly reemerged in his own brain and his brittle bones began to connect him to his past once more. At the time Gubreg was a disheveled fourteen-year-old. He understood. he was nobody. Gubreg was prepared to undergo the ceremony. He could feel the changes in his body. He too was a man and had felt the stirrings of desire upon first encountering his own humanness. it was more like floodwater. without the passion of a man. As a commoner male he knew that he could never possess the body of a brahmana woman. Nature had entrusted something awe-inspiring to him. And on top of all that. His legs would cramp every time her wet body emerged from the water. cold. she had been unharmed. He was anxious. too. about those fragments of wood. Gubreg looked closely at Kopag's body as he finished his carving. He was often given the task of escorting Dayu Centaga when she went to bathe in the Badung river. Very surrealistic. Gubreg. Out of respect for the brahmana family. who used her whole body to bring into being the character she was playing. It was a love that rendered him rigid. a man who lived off the compassion of Dayu Centaga's family.Gubreg's voice broke off. "Gubreg. and its body. and my body. Gubreg was still faithful to the Griya family.

" "They agree. "My Lord. Kopag seemed distracted. In fact Gubreg was willing to let the boy steal. Do you know that when I fell into her body. Her skin was rough. "How about he marries the girl I've picked out for him." Gubreg raised his head. And this time nothing will change it!" "Who is it?" "Srenggi!" "My Lord…?" Gubreg felt as if he was suffocating. Jero Melati had stopped her nagging. I want to get married. "I've already chosen my wife. Kopag's carved statues were in great demand and drew a great deal of interest from both local and overseas collectors. Her skin is bark. He knew that Jero Melati's sister was a wild and wicked woman. she was not a good woman." The tone of her voice verged on a command. Gubreg never knew what Kopag wanted. Her face was a pitiful sight. prepared his meals and fetched his chiseling knives for him? She wasn't a woman. "I hope you'll forgive me. the face remained as impassive as stone. on account of the rigorous selection process it subjected potential exhibits to. page by page." "I am. And now all was calm within the family." Kopag's voice was very serious indeed." "Who?" "My sister. Five minutes passed with not a word. For the first time he sensed that this beautiful body was enveloped by an evil force. Gubreg." Gubreg's voice was very guarded. which was the most highly regarded in Bali. what is it you want? Don't be afraid. with a hump on her back." Gubreg said nothing. Pacing the room. I was swallowed up and I . but I've already discussed this with Jero and your brother. cleaned his studio." she replied seriously. my Lord. And she had but one good eye. poverty. You seem very distressed. the gallery had received funding support from Germany and France. keen to see Kopag's face light up. Last month. "We need to find a wife for the boy. Kopag had been taught to endeavor to understand life. Thanks to Kopag. She was more like a horrible monster—lame. the extended family managed to recover from their debts. Unfortunately. He was trying to come to terms with the very private and very profound thing that Kopag was trying to convey. Gubreg. Srenggi…? Were his old ears deceiving him? Wasn't Srenggi the woman who attended to all Kopag's needs. I want to talk to you!" This time Kopag's voice was serious." "You've already chosen someone?" "I have. She was driven by a desire for status. or not having it. "I've been taking her to bed every night. stooped over. she couldn't tolerate being poor. Jero Melati smiled when she heard Gubreg's words. Unthinkable! But she was very beautiful. Kopag's brother had even been able to open a big sculpture gallery. In fact they've chosen a future wife for you. The only thing that Gubreg had picked up on was that Kopag needed a woman. all that remained of her left one was the socket.different eyes. I've been thinking about it for a long time. Rumor had it that she sold her own body. she was at liberty to spend Kopag's money however she pleased. Gubreg did his best to figure out where the conversation was headed. Whereas. the secrets of the journey and pain he himself had endured as a man whose whole life had been dedicated to serving others. "Surely you can convince him that my sister is the right woman for him. Kopag was right. has its own beauty. The young man never attached any meaning to having money. Gubreg did not respond." "And what did they say. But strangely. Gubreg stared sharply at the woman. if one makes a commitment to it. "Gubreg. God in Heaven! What had possessed Kopag? Did he have no idea of the meaning of beauty? Gubreg took a deep breath and clutched his chest. Her body is a hollow in a piece of wood.

even more beautiful than my timbers. no knife can rival her sharpness. When she is naked.disappeared? She is the most beautiful woman." Gubreg collapsed. Source: . a chiseling knife in his bony chest. She is the one who honed this male body of mine.

he belongs to one origin. Therefore. honor and protect one another. their son was believed to be a descendant from the line of the Dragons. also divided her areas for them to govern. Meanwhile. of whom fifty will live with Lạc Long Quân along the coasts.vietnam. leaning its back on a range of high mountains while looking out facing the oceans from a long shoreline. he succeeded his father‘s throne and governed the Lac-Viet tribe. He married princess Long Nữ. Just as Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ promised to each other. Because of Long Nữ‘s origin. Wanting to unite his northern tribe with Lạc Long Quân‘s kingdom. they made a promise that despite the distance and separation. has become the pride and bond of unity for all Vietnamese. the daughter of Động Đình Vương . another kingdom rules the highlands in the north. popularly known in the kingdom as Lạc Long Quân. And indeed. Soon. Their king. So. They learned to build houses raised on bamboo stilts to keep themselves safe from wild animals. Source: http://www. he agreed to give his daughter‘s hand for marriage with the young man. Lạc Long Quân always finds his heart longing for the coasts while Âu Cơ constantly yearns for the Vietnamese people call themselves ―the children of the Dragon and the Fairy‖ referring to Lạc Long Quân‘s lineage from the world of the Dragons and Âu Cơ‘s Fairy Clan from the highlands. has a beautiful daughter named Âu Cơ. And a lavish feast was prepared as princess Âu Cơ was wed with Lạc Long Quân. Âu Cơ will lead the other fifty to dwell with her in the highlands. Âu Cơ. The children grew up strong and smart like their father. they must look after each other and always be there to lend a hand should one be in need. They were taught to live in the jungles and mountains. whichever part of the country one hails from.html . The two kingdoms then celebrated their unity. the "Dragon Lord of Lạc‖. then. But soon after. They were then blessed with one child. He taught them the skills of fishing and the art of tattoos to scare off sea creatures as they dive and hunt for food. Time went by. and the young man is often seen along the shorelines enjoying the waves and exploring the many sea creatures in sight. which soon hatched into one hundred beautiful children. who took fifty children to the highlands. Lạc Long Quân had extraordinary strength and supreme intelligence. Đế Lai. He also trained them to plant and harvest rice. the Xích Quỷ kingdom was an unknown stretch of a vast land on the far East. The children of Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ are believed to be the ancestors of Vietnam. This legend. breed animals and cultivate the soil to grow fruit trees for food. all Vietnamese should love.Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ: The Legend of Ancient Vietnam T housands of years ago. and as kind-hearted and skilful like their mother. Âu Cơ gave birth to a pouch filled with one hundred eggs. The couple decided to divide their children. However.sovereign of the Động Đình Lake. Lạc Long Quân took fifty children to the coast and divided the areas for them to govern. Today. during the reign of King Kinh Dương Vương. the couple started to grow unhappy. They were taught well how to cultivate their lands and live nobly. But his succession from his mother‘s underwater world developed in him a strong fascination for the ocean. as well as how to cook them in bamboo tubes. a boy whom they called Sung Lam.

he planned on jumping on the man when he returns to untie him." Calmly. and with a burning torch. I can go back and fetch it for you. the farmer returned carrying bundles of straws behind his back. Would you be kind enough to show it to me?" asked the tiger. foolish tiger. It is called wisdom. Eager to have such powers. secured him tightly to the palm tree and left. Wisdom is too precious for me to carry around the fields." So the farmer passed ropes around his body. what power do you have over the buffalo that makes him obey you so willingly?" the tiger asked the peasant. mighty tiger. the buffalo used to have sharp front teeth while the mighty tiger was a pure golden beast. But if you want it so badly. I left it at home. Whatever power he possesses. "Go ahead and tie me up. the tiger asked. I only know of one thing. While the buffalo grazed and the peasant is enjoying his meal. a tiger came up to the buffalo. As the air . If you agree." "I would do anything to see this amazing thing you call wisdom. he could just order the animals to come and then choose a suitable meal. Mr. sharp vision or a keen sense of smell manages to lead you and make you work for him? You are ten times heavier and stronger. How is it possible that that Man. Your horns are sharp enough to cut him and your hooves are mighty enough to trample him. I can never free myself from his mastery. Instead. I will tie you to a tree so my mind will be free. If he could rule all animals like how the man ruled the buffalo. and spend the rest of his days commanding the cows and dears and the delicious wild boars to come and be eaten as his meal. Eagerly. "I have watched you everyday from the edge of the forest. "I have not been able to solve that puzzle myself. it is here in my head all along. "I noticed the quite curious spectacle of your toil. He then. the tiger agreed." replied the peasant. Delighted by the peasant's words. A young peasant was resting under a mango tree one fine afternoon." he answered." But the young man said. "Please tell me. demanding answers for something that had puzzled him for a long time now. "I posses something that allows me to rule over all animals. yet he rules you and you never run away. "Unfortunately. "I will tell you. Instead. The only weapon he carries is a flimsy bamboo stick. No matter how I ponder the situation. The tiger roared in pain and raged as the ropes burned around his golden body. "I never keep my wisdom in a box. making them do as I say. Then I would willingly go get the wisdom you want to see. He would never have to hunt for food again. He and his water buffalo had plowed the rice field the whole morning and stopped for a while to have something to eat. would eat his water buffalo.The Peasant. he would no longer need to hunt for food. Farmer. the Buffalo and the Tiger: A Tale of Strength and Wisdom A long time ago. I have great need of it in my daily work. when animals still had the power of speech. Now I will teach you to stay away from my precious water buffalo. the tiger resolved to ask the peasant. mighty tiger." the tiger said." Eager to see wisdom so badly." He then piled the straws around the tiger. take his magic box of wisdom. he set them on fire. I keep it in a gilded box carved with dragons and a golden phoenix to make sure it's well protected. Soon after. "I will gladly stay and watch over your water buffalo while you are gone. the water buffalo answered. But sly as the tiger was. a small and upright being who neither has great strength. He strolled up to the palm tree. only he has knowledge of it. "Did you bring the wisdom for me to see?" "Oh yes. and I am about to show you. the tiger was willing to agree to anything. "I have heard your stomach rumble and I am greatly concerned over the possibility that you might eat my buffalo while I am gone." replied the young peasant. held up his legs and said.

The sight of this spectacle amused the buffalo so greatly that he laughed so hard and fell. the tiger realized that his strength could never defeat man who has wisdom he knew he could never have. Source: http://www. Though his burns have healed after some time. But most importantly.filled with smell of the tiger's singed fur and as the fire burned through the ropes.html . hitting his mouth against a rock. This caused the buffalo to knock all his front teeth out. the tiger has his stripes and the water buffalo never grew back his teeth. Up to this day. the tiger could no longer rid himself of the long black stripes that now circle his golden body.motherland-heritage. the beast finally managed to free He quickly leaped away from the flames and dashed into the jungle.

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