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THERMODYNAMICS

by Hipolito Sta. Maria

Answered by: Engr.

Naser A. Fernandez

Published by: ‘I Think, Therefore I’m An Atheist’ Enterprises

and Priority Development Fund (PDF)

***This solution manual is an original work of Engr. Naser A. Fernandez. No part of this
**

Manual may be reprinted, reproduced and distributed in any form or by any means

without prior permission from him. j/k :-D

Chapter 1

1. What is the mass in grams and the weight in dynes and in gram-force of

12 oz of salt? Local g is 9.65m/s2 1lb = 16oz

Given:

m= 12 oz

g= 9.65 m/s2

= 965 cm/s2

Solution:

(a) 12 oz x

x

= 340.2 g

(b) Fg = mg/k

=

Fg = 334.80 gf

(c) Fg = 334.80 gf x

= 328324.97 dynes

**2. A mass of 0.10 slug in space is subjected to an external vertical force of 4 lb.
**

If the local gravity acceleration is g = 30.5 fps2 and if friction effects are

neglected, determine the acceleration of the mass if the external vertical force

is acting (a) upward (b) downward.

Given:

m= 0.10 slug x

F= 4 lbf

g= 30.5 ft/s2

= 3.2174 lbm

Solution:

F

(a)

i. Fg = mg/k

=

Fg

ii. (F-Fg) = mg/k

(4-3.05)lbf =

a = 9.5 ft/s2

i.(F+Fg) = mg/k

(b)

(4+3.05)lbf =

F Fg

a = 70.5 ft/s2

**3. The mass of a given airplane at sea level (g = 32.1 fps2) is 10 tons. Find its
**

mass in lb, slugs, and kg and its (gravitational) weight in lb when it is travelling at

a 50,000-ft elevation. The acceleration of gravity g decreases by 3.33 x 10-6 fps2

for each foot of elevation.

Given:

g = 32.1 ft/s2

m = 10 tons

h = 50, 000 ft

Solution:

(a) 10 tons x

= 20,000 lbm

(b) 20,000 lbm x

= 621.62 slugs

(c) h =

50,000 = (a-32.1)/(-3.33 x 10-6/ft)

a = 31.9335 ft/s2

Fg = mg/k

=

Fg = 19850.50 lbf

4. A lunar excursion module (LEM) weighs 1500 kgf on earth where g = 9.75

mps2. What will be its weight on the surface of the moon where gm = 1.70 mps2.

On the surface of the moon, what will be the force in kgf anf in newtons required

to accelerate the module at 10 mps2?

Given:

**Fge = 1500 kgf
**

ge = 9.75 m/s2

gm = 1.70 m/s2

Solution:

(a) i. Fge = mge/k

m = 1508.71 kgm

ii. Fgm = mgm/k

=

**Fgm = 261.5 kgf
**

( b) a = 10 m/s

2

Fgm =

**Fgm = 1538.5 kgf
**

(c) Fgm = 1538.5 kgf x

= 15,087.45 N

**5. The mass of a fluid system is 0.311 slug, its density is 30 lb/ft3 and g = 31.90
**

ft/s2. Find (a) the specific volume (b) the specific weight (c) and the total volume.

Given:

m = 0.311 slug x

= 10.006

g = 31.90 ft/s2

d= 30 lb/ft3

Solution:

(a) v = 1/d

= 1/(30 lb/ft3)

v = 0.0333 ft3/lb

(b) γ = dg/k

=

(c) V = m/d

=

V = 0.3335 ft3

γ = 29.7445 lb/ft3

**6. A cylindrical drum (2-ft diameter, 3-ft in height) is filled with a fluid whose
**

density is 40 lb/ft3. Determine (a) the total volume of fluid, (b) its total mass in

pounds and slugs, (c) its specific volume, and (d) its specific weight where g =

31.90 fps2.

Given:

d = 40 lb/ft3

h = 3 ft

diameter = 2 ft

Solution:

(a) V = πr2h

(c) v = 1/d =1/40 = 0.025 ft3/lb

= π(1)(3)

V = 9.42 ft3

(d) γ = dg/k

(b) i. m = dV

3

3

= (40 lb/ft )( 9.42 ft )

= (40)(31.90)/(32.174)

γ = 39.66 lb/ft3

m = 377 lb

ii. m = 377 lbm x

= 11.72 slugs

**7. A weatherman carried an aneroid barometer from the ground floor to his office
**

atop Sears Tower in Chicago. On the ground the barometer read 30.15 in.Hg

absolute; topside it read 28.607 in. Hg absolute. Assume that the average

atmospheric air density was 0.075 lb/ft3 and estimate the height of the building.

Solution:

ΔP = (30.15 – 28.607) in.Hg x

= 109.10 lb/ft2

x

x

x

ΔP = dh

109.10 lb/ft2 = (0.075 lb/ft3)h

h = 1455 ft

8. A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 0.66 m.Hg. What is the

absolute pressure in the condenser in kPa when the atmospheric pressure is

101.32 kPa.

Given:

**Po = 101.3 kPa
**

Pg = 0.66 m.Hg

Solution:

**1mmHg = 0.13332 kPa
**

Pg = 0.66 m.Hg x

x

= 87.99 kPa

P = Po - Pg

= 101.32 – 87.99

P = 13.3 kPa

9. Convert the following readings of pressure to kPa absolute, assuming that the

barometer reads 760 mmHg: (a) 90 cm.Hg gage; (b) 40 cm Hg vacuum; (c) 100

psig; (d) 8 in.Hg, and (e) 76 in. Hg gage.

Given:

Po = 760 mm Hg x

Solution:

1 mm.Hg = 0.13332 kPa

x

= 101.32 kPa

(a) Pg = 90 cm.Hg x

x

= 119.99 kPa

x

= 53.33 kPa

x

= 27.09 kPa

x

= 257.36 kPa

P = Po + Pg

= 101.32 + 119.99

P = 221.31 kPa

(b) Pg = 40 cm.Hg x

P = Po - Pg

= 101.32 – 53.33

P = 48 kPa

(c) Pg = 100 psi

= 100 lb/in2 x

= 689.48 kPa

P = Po + Pg

= 101.32 + 689.48

P = 790.8 kPa

(d) Pg = 8 in.Hg x

P = Po - Pg

= 101.32 – 27.09

P = 74.2 kPa

(e) Pg = 76 in.Hg x

P = Po + Pg

= 101.32 + 257.36

P = 358. 68 kPa

**10. A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections in a flow line. At
**

section 1:A1=10ft2, Ʋ1=100ft/min, (specific volume)v1= 4ft3/lb. At section 2: A2=2ft2,

(density)d2= 0.20 lb/ft3.Calculate the (a) mass flow rate and (b) speed at section 2.

Given:

A1=10ft2

Ʋ 1=100ft/min

v1= 4ft3/lb

A2=2ft2

d2= 0.20 lb/ft3

Solution:

mass flow rate = (A1)( Ʋ 1)( d1)

(a) d1 = 1/v1

= 1/(4ft3/lb)

= (10ft2)( 100ft/min)(0.25 lb/ft3)(

= 0.25 lb/ft3

= 15,000 lb/h

(b) (A1)( Ʋ 1)(d1) = (A2)( Ʋ2)(d2)

(10ft2)( 100ft/min)( 0.25 lb/ft3) = (2ft2)( 0.20 lb/ft3)( Ʋ2)

d2 = (625 ft/min)(1min/60secs)

Ʋ2 = 10.42 fps

**11. if a pump discharges 75 gpm of water whose specific weight is 61.5
**

lb/ft3(g=31.95fps2). find a) the mass flow rate in lb/min, and b) and total time

required to fill a vertical cylinder tank 10ft in diameter and 12ft high.

Given:

**Volume flow rate = 75 gal/min
**

Specific weight, γ = 61.5 lb/ft3

g=31.95fps2

Solution:

(a)

x

= 10.03 ft3/min

mass flow rate = (10.03 ft3/min)( 61.93 lbm/ft3)

= 621.2 lb/min

γ = dg/k

61.5 lbf/ft3 =

d = 61.93 lbm/ft3

)

(b) diametercylinder = 10ft

h = 12 ft

T = (Volume)/(flowrate)

=(

)(h)/(flowrate)

=(

)(12)/10.03

T = 93.97 min

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