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Socialization of the Child and Child Welfare

Dr. Jaimon Varghese

Unit 4 Child Welfare


Historical review of child welfare in India Changing philosophy of work with children UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child and other international initiatives

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child welfare

Unit 4 Child Welfare


Constitutional Provisions, National Policy for Children, National Charter for Children, National Action Plan for Children, Commissions for Protection of Child Rights and Maharashtra State policy for children.

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child welfare

Unit 4 Child Welfare


Review of Legislations for children to ensure child rights Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000; Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act; Guardianship and Wards Act; Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986

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child welfare

Unit 5 Services for children


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Current initiative: Statutory and non-statutory services, Supportive service (for example, supplementary nutrition) Developmental services (for example, non-formal education) Remedial services (e g. residential care, child guidance clinic), Child Right approach Challenges in developing comprehensive approach to child protection
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Statutory and non-statutory services


Statutory services have legal support; have been instituted by some legislation
Programmes for Juvenile Justice and children in need of care and protection (observation home, shelter homes, childrens homes) Adoption and maintenance Programme of Universal Elementary Education & Nutrition Statutory bodies in the field of child welfare Ministry of Women & Child Development National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Juvenile Justice Board Child Welfare Committee
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Statutory and non-statutory services


Non Statutory services have not been instituted any legislation, but may or may not have government support;
ICDS Shishu / Bal Grih Scheme (Ashramshala), Rajiv Gandhi National crche scheme National Immunization Programme Balika Samriddhi Yojana (1997) Childline Service (1988) Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS) Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG)

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child welfare

Supportive service: supplementary nutrition


Child support: ICDS, nutrition, immunization / vaccination, health services, child-line services The Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) ICDS under the purview of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) was launched in 1975 to eliminate hazards to child health and development. The objectives of ICDS are: To advance the nutritional and health standing of children in the age-group 0-6 years. To create a system that tackles the proper psychological, physical and social development of the child. To create a system that tackles the proper psychological, physical and social development of the child. To fight the rate of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout.
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Supportive service: ICDS


To have all the various ministries and departments work in a coordinated fashion to achieve policy implementation and create an effective ECCE system. To support the mother and help her become capable of providing of the necessary nutritional and development needs of the child and aware of her own needs during pregnancy. The scheme aims at providing an integrated package of services. These services include supplementary nutrition, immunization, medical check-ups, recommendation services, pre-school non-formal education and nutrition & health awareness. The purpose of providing these services as a package is because each of these issues is dependent on the other. In order to ensure that the overall care and education of the child is addressed the MWCD envisions the scheme as a complete parcel of provisions.
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Supportive service: ICDS


To have all the various ministries and departments work in a coordinated fashion to achieve policy implementation and create an effective ECCE system. To support the mother and help her become capable of providing of the necessary nutritional and development needs of the child and aware of her own needs during pregnancy. The scheme aims at providing an integrated package of services.

These services include supplementary nutrition, immunization, medical check-ups, recommendation services, pre-school non-formal education and nutrition & health awareness.
The purpose of providing these services as a package is because each of these issues is dependent on the other.

In order to ensure that the overall care and education of the child is addressed the MWCD envisions the scheme as a complete parcel of provisions.

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Supportive service: ICDS


The structure of ICDS is that it is a centrally funded scheme implemented through the States and Union Territories. Originally, financially it was 100% backed by the central government, except the supplementary nutrition, which must be provided by the State's resources. But in 2005-2006 it was noted that many of the States were not capable of providing adequately for supplementary nutrition in view drought, economic slowdown, etc. Hence it was decided to support the States up to 50% of their economic norms or to support 50% of expenses acquired by them on supplementary nutrition, whichever is less. The reason for the Central assistance for Supplementary nutrition is to ensure that all beneficiaries are receiving the supplements for 300 days of the year as has been laid out in the norms of the scheme.
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Supportive service: ICDS


Another modification in the financial responsibility of state and central has been that instead of 100% support in non-supplementary expenses the central government is now only responsibly for 90% in all States and Union Territories. In the 2009-2010 financial year the sharing pattern of supplementary nutrition in respect of North-eastern States between Centre and States has been changed from 50:50 to 90:10 ratio.

In other States and UTs, with regard to supplementary nutrition, the pattern continues to be a 50:50 ratio sharing.
Anganwadi's are set up according to the population in a given area. For Rural/Urban Projects one Angan Wadi Centre (AWC) for population from 400 to 800; additional AWC for every 800 people; one mini AWC for a population 150 to 400; For Tribal/Riverine/Desert, Hilly and other difficult areas/Projects one AWC for 300-800 people; mini AWC for 150-300 people

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Supportive service: ICDS


ICDS outlines the amount in calories that the beneficiaries receive. A child between the ages 6-72 months should receive 500 calories of food with 12-15 grams of protein (Rs. 4 per child / per day). A child severely malnourished on medical advice after health checkup (6-72 months) should receive 800 calories of food with 20-25 grams of protein (Rs. 6 per child / per day). Lastly pregnant and lactating mothers should receive 600 calories of food with 18-20 grams of protein (Rs. 5 per beneficiary / per day). ICDS is not only for the below the poverty line beneficiaries; The third phase of the ICDS scheme has begun: 792 additional Projects, 213286 additional Anganwadi Centres and 77102 MiniAnganwadi Centres to reach SC/ST and minority population in remote rural areas. The eleventh Five Year Plan set aside Rs.51,400 crores for ICDS including Rs.9000 Crores for Conditional Maternity Benefit Scheme.

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Supportive service: ICDS


The ICDS scheme receives aid from various other non-government bodies.

Three of the main contributors are Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE), UNICEF and the World Food Programme (WFP).
Pre-school education (PSE) has come under the purview of the MWCD along with pre-primary education. The MWCD does not specify much information about this area, simply that it will continue as planned under the ICDS scheme. The Non-formal education offered as per the Ministry of Human Resources (MHR) consists of providing a learning environment to children between the ages of 3-6.

PSE is supposed to be implemented through a medium of play to allow for social, emotional, cognitive and physical development of the child as well as prepare him for primary education in the formal system.
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Developmental services: non formal education


Pre school programme, National Institute of Open Schooling, balwadi, SSA, Adoption and maintenance Education programme in India: formal programme

pre-school (pre-primary) programme at Angan Wadi Centre under ICD Scheme (3-6 years)
Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary level education under Education Dept., HRD Ministry, State Govt. (6-18 years) Non formal education programme: National Institute of Open Schooling: any age group to appear Secondary and Higher Secondary public examination after the age of 14 The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) was set up as National Open School in 1989 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, as an autonomous organisation. It provides educational opportunities to persons like you who wish to study further and qualify for a better tomorrow in the non formal stream.
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The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)

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Developmental services: NIOS


The Mission of NIOS is to provide education to all with special concern for girls and women, rural youth, working men and women, SC and ST, differently abled persons and other disadvantaged persons who because of one or other reason could not continue their education with the formal system. NIOS operates through a network of Fourteen Regional Centres, Two SubRegional Centres and about three thousand Accredited Institutions (AIs) and Accredited Vocational Institutions (AVIs) commonly known as Study Centres in India, Nepal and Middle East Countries. For academic courses, admission is through On-line only.

The largest Open Schooling system in the world


21,08,973 learners have been certified at the Secondary and Senior Secondary and Vocational level since 1990 (till 2012). More than 4,00,000 learners take admission every year. Reaches out through a network of more than 5,911 Study Centres (AIs/AVIs/AAs) spread all over the country and abroad. Imparts education through distance mode using a media mix of selfinstructional print materials, audio, video and CD-ROM supported by Personal Contact Programmes at AIs. These are further supplemented by Radio broadcast and T.V. programmes.
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Developmental services: NIOS


1. Freedom To Learn: With a motto to 'reach out and reach all', NIOS follows the principle of freedom to learn i.e., what to learn, when to learn, how to learn and when to appear in the examination is decided by you. There is no restriction of time, place and pace of learning. 2. Flexibility: The NIOS provides flexibility with respect to: Choice of Subjects: You can choose subjects of your choice from the given list keeping in view the passing criteria. Admission: You can take admission Online under various streams or through Study Centres at Secondary and Senior Secondary levels. Examination: Public Examinations are held twice a year. Nine examination chances are offered in five years. You can take any examination during this period when you are well prepared and avail the facility of credit accumulation also. On Demand Examination: You can also appear in the On-Demand Examination (ODES) of NIOS at Secondary and Senior Secondary levels at the Headquarter at NOIDA as and when you are ready for the examination.

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Developmental services: NIOS


3. Relevance: The NIOS courses and programmes are functional, useful in daily life and also set the pathway for further studies. Successful alumni of NIOS are pursuing higher studies in IITs, Delhi University, Jamia Hamdard, Jamia Millia Islamia, Aligarh Muslim University, Punjab University, Allahabad University and many other reputed and professional institutions. The NIOS acknowledges previous knowledge by allowing transfer of credits up to two subjects passed from some of the Boards of Examination / State Open Schools. The NIOS takes conscious steps to provide quality education. The Govt. of India has vested authority with NIOS to conduct Public Examinations and provide Secondary and Senior Secondary level certificates, which are equivalent to the certificates provided by any other Board. NIOS is one of the National Boards like CBSE and CISCE.

4. Transfer of Credits

5. Recognized Quality Education

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Remedial services: residential care, child guidance clinic


Juvenile justice programme, Residential Institutions under JJ Act for the children in need of care and protection (refer JJ Act), CGCC Child Guidance Clinic (CGC): CGC provides remedial as well as preventive guidance and counselling services to children, parents, teachers and other care givers of children; Counselling and Guidance is an applied field of psychology (Counseling Psychology) Counselling tasks are information giving, test interpretation, referral, managing counselee hostility, and parent conferences (David A, 2004:107-144).

Purpose of guidance is to help one to adjust ones abilities and interests to the needs of the society.
There are different forms of guidance programme. They are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Educational guidance Vocational guidance Social guidance Economic Guidance Leadership guidance Leisure-time guidance (Srinibas Bhattacharya, 1963:6-7).
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Remedial services: child guidance clinic


Counselling is sometimes referred to psychotherapy. Common types of psychotherapy include art therapy, behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, exposure therapy, interpersonal therapy, play therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and psycho education (Medha Vasishit, 2008:15-18) Counseling Psychology is a psychological specialty that facilitates personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span with a focus on emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. a. b. c. a. b. c. Prevention of maladjustment (personal & social) Promotion of psychological health Protection of social harmony and industrial peace Educational guidance and counselling Vocational (career) guidance and counselling Psychological (personality) guidance and counselling

objectives of guidance and counselling

main types of guidance and counselling

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Remedial services: child guidance clinic


Needs addressed by CGCC a. Needs of the children i. Learning difficulties ii. Problems of indiscipline and truancy iii. Need for day care when the parents are away for work iv. Personality development needs (emotional, intellectual and social) v. Prevention of child abuse and harassment vi. Prevention of child labour vii. Entertainment, recreation and physical activity (playing together with peers) viii. Behaviour disorders (referral)

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Remedial services: child guidance clinic


Needs addressed by CGCC b. Needs of the adolescent and the youth i. Development counselling for the adolescent ii. Educational guidance for under achievers iii. Career and vocational guidance iv. Pre marital counselling v. Leadership training for personality development vi. Supplementary, remedial, alternative and non formal education vii. Sex education viii. Training in human relations skills ix. Personality counselling (emotional needs) x. Value education
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Remedial services: child guidance clinic


Needs addressed by CGCC c. i. Needs of the Parents and Guardians (Care givers) Teaching discipline to the children

ii.
iii. iv.

Supervision of the young in their play and work


Overcoming stress and worries about the children Good parenting and helping the children to choose right education and career

v.
vi. vii.

Imparting moral and value education to the children


Respecting child rights (survival, protection, development and participation) Helping children to learn, live and grow without guilt, shame and anxiety

viii.
ix. x.
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Teaching children civic sense and responsible decision making


Managing the time and daily routine of the children Enabling the older children to be self dependent
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Remedial services: child guidance clinic


Needs addressed by CGCC d. Needs of the Teachers and Schools i. Overcoming the behaviour problems of the children

ii.
iii. iv.

Helping the underachievers to improve their performance


Overall personality development of the children Understanding the intellectual development of the children and application of the appropriate pedagogy (teaching methodology)

v.
vi. vii. viii.

Problem of indiscipline
Career and vocational guidance Friendship building among the students Occupational and recreational therapy for hyper active children

ix.
x. xi. xii.
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Inculcating self discipline, self direction, good habits and character building among the students
Teaching morality and values to the children Sex education of the students Regularity and punctuality of students in the school
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Child Right approach


Child right approach vs. welfare / developmental / target oriented approach Child centred programmes Child rights first Policy environment

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Comprehensive approach to child protection: Challenges Current initiative: , Supportive service (for example, supplementary nutrition) Developmental services (for example, non-formal education) Remedial services (e g. residential care, child guidance clinic), Child Right approach in developing
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Unit 5 Services for children


The important schemes and programmes for such children include Programme for Juvenile Justice, Integrated Programme for Street Children, Shishu Grih Scheme, Scheme for Working Children in Need of Care and Protection, General Grant-in-Aid Scheme, CHILDLINE Service, Rajiv Gandhi National crche scheme for the children of working mothers, Pilot Project to Combat the Trafficking of women and Children for Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Destination Areas, etc. However, experiences with the implementation of existing programmes and polices has brought out a large number of shortcomings in the system. In view of the gaps identified and recommendations and suggestions received from various quarters it has decided to combine the existing child protection schemes under one integrated scheme titled Integrated Child Protection Scheme. The proposed scheme aims to provide for care and protection of all the children in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection. It would involve steps to strengthen families and prevent them to breakup leading children to become homeless and without care and protection

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Unit 6 Skills of Social Working with children


Communication individual and group Use of creative activities Skills in Behaviour modification techniques Skills in Advocacy and campaigning for children

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Thank You
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