Education

THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN LARKANA & KAMBER SHAHDADKOT DISTRICTS OF UPPER SINDH DURING BRITISH RULE
(1843-1947)

By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
M.A. (Sindhi Literature), M.A (Sociology) & M. Phil Studies (Sindhi)

Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot-1887

SAROH
1

THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN LARKANA & KAMBER SHAHDADKOT OF UPPER SINDH DISTRICTS DURING BRITISH RULE

(1843-1947) By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi

SAROH
Saroh Social Development Organization Shahdadkot Saroh Office, Near Scientific Public School, Railway Station Road, Shahdadkot, District Kamber-Shahdadkot, Sindh, Pakistan- 77300 Ph: +92-74-4012896, Cell: +92-3337505896/03342015896 E-mail: org.saroh@gmail.com 2013 AD/ 1434 AH

2

I dedicate this work to

Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti
(Retired Head Master Government Prov: Boys High School Shahdadkot)

Mr. Khalid Hussain Channa
(Lecturer in English at Government Boys Degree College Shahdadkot)

&

Miss. Saira Altaf Chandio
(Lecturer in English at University of Sindh Jamshoro & English Teacher at SIE Hyderabad Sindh-Pakistan)

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The present research is based on my work which I undertook at Shahdadkot, Larkana, Shikarpur, Hyderabad and Karachi after publishing my Autobiography entitled, “The Story of My Life: Adventures & Experiences on Prasiane, the lost Island of River Indus” (Vol: 1) in July 2013 which is basically description of my early life up to my primary schooling. Then I moved to collect matter for my second part of book related with my high school life. In the mean while I realized to write a unique of history of education in my region first instead of life of single man like me, more over I was also very keen to study Education in Sindh during British Period (1843-1947) therefore I started collecting data on Jacobabad, Larkana and Kamber Shahdadkot Districts in North Sindh, Pakistan which was mostly unavailable in theses of renowned scholars of present times. The aim was to identify schools, their headmasters & masters who had played their effective role on the ideological and socio-economic well-being of populace in the Larkana & Kamber Shahdadkot districts and pay tribute to all of them for their roles. I started my field work by interviewing from Primary, Middle and High School teachers in Shahdadkot. I find no suitable words to appreciate the services of Mr. Anwer Ali Baber, Mr. Aijaz Ali Wadho and Mr. Abdul Haque Silro for providing me information regarding education system of the past. I’m also thankful to Mr. Nisar Ahmed Wadho (Head Master Govt: Main Primary School Shahdadkot), Mr. Ghulam Qadir Lodhi (Head Master Govt: Urdu Primary School Shahdadkot), Mr. Bashir Ahmed Wadho (Head Master Govt: Primary Boys School Chakiani) and Mr. Mehmood Bhatti (Assistant Master Govt: Primary School Sanjer Bhatti) and Mr. Muhammad Mehmood Baloch (In charge Head Master Govt: Prov: Boys High School Shahdadkot and Mr. Muhammad Bux Wadho (Dealing Assistant SSC Part I & II Examination Branch Govt: Prov: Boys High School Shahdadkot) who all showed me old General Registers (GRs) of their schools from 1905 to 1947 for references. I must appreciate them also for preserving such old records of British Period in their schools. I’m cordially grateful to Dr. Muhammad Yar Khuhawar Emeritus Professor University of Sindh Jamshoro who sent me some valuable information regarding Education in Sindh. I give special thanks to Wafa Nadia Wadho who produced me rare photographs of Government Municipal High School Shahdadkot which were taken in the years 1962 and 1964. I wish to thank Muhammad Aslam Bozdar and Farhan Ali Pathan who accompanied me while interviewing senior teachers in the city on weekends. During these interviews, I collected a lot of information from retired school teachers specially Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti (Rtd. Head Master Govt: Prov: Boys High School Shahdadkot), Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Mr. Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani and Advocate Mr. Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri of Larkana. Mr. Bhurgri was born in 1921 at village Ghulam Nabi Bhurgri taluka Shahdadkot. He is father of Mr. Abdul Majid Bhurgri, a computer software professional from Sindh, and is now settled in Seattle United States of America. I have also used some of the related information from the Reminiscences of Comrade Maulana Illahi Bux Qureshi (1903-1975) and articles of Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi (1910-1992), the first Chairman of Shahdadkot Municipality before partition. While compiling this work I have also visited online Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government (1849-1937) and flipped some of the selected Government Records of Larkana Collectorate Sindh dating back to 18441947. The theses of Dr. Abdul Jabbar M. Mughal, Dr. Habibullah Siddiqui, Dr. Chand Bibi & Dr. Ghulam Ali Sangi were also before me for my ready reference while I compiled this research work. I also contacted Dr. Dur Muhammad Pathan, Dr. Dad Muhammad Khadim Brohi and Dr. Ghulam Nabi Sadhayo on phone for some information who gave me positive response by suggesting some points from time to time which I have tried to incorporate accordingly. I would like to express my profound gratitude to Honourable Mr. Saifullah Abro-Additional Deputy Commissioner-I Larkana who permitted me to go through British Government Files kept in the Record Room of DC Office Larkana, Sind. In the same way I’m profusely indebted to Mr. Ravinder L.Jha, Director Research Officer, Information and Archives Department Government of Sindh Karachi who helped me in providing some required material on education relating to the Records of the Chief Commissioner in Sindh. Similarly I must appreciate the efforts of Mr.Tafazul Hussain and all his team for facilitating me in Sindh Archives Office Karachi during my visit on Tuesday 10th September 2013. Finally I dedicate this work to Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Professor Khalid Hussain Channa and Professor Saira Altaf Chandio who have devoted themselves for the promotion of education in Sindh. It is nothing but a simple tribute from my side in acknowledging their selfless efforts in helping a great number of downtrodden and poor people by educating them regardless of caste, creed and religion.

Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi Shahadadkot Wednesday 18th September 2013

4

There is no time to rest nor time to sleep; Your search in the winter and heat unceasing keep Hurry! The footprints of your beloved you may not find You may be overtaken by darkness, dense and deep.

Rtd. Head Master Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto & Dr. Muhammad Yar Khuhawar of Shahdadkot are those lucky and fortunate persons who studied in University of Sindh under the supervision of Allama I.I. Qazi (1886-1968) , a renowned scholar, philosopher, jurist, and educationist of Sindh

5

THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN LARKANA & KAMBER SHAHDADKOT DISTRICTS OF UPPER SINDH DURING BRITISH RULE (1843-1947)
By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
INTRODUCTION The East India Company was founded by wealthy London Merchants in 1600 AD. The company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, tea and opium. The government owned no shares and had only indirect control. The company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own private armies. The EIC succeeded in occupying Madras in 1640 and Bombay in 1664. Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey. When the English acquired Bengal, they found a number of scattered institutions known as tols developed to Sanskrit instruction on the ancient methods, a number of Muslim Maktabs and a number of village schools of the humbler sort which gave a kind of secular and practical instruction to the lower classes. They respected the endowments made to educational institutions before their time. In 1773, Warren Hastings (1732-1818) was appointed the first Governor-General of Bengal by the EIC. In 1781 Hastings founded Muslim Madrasa 'Aliya; in 2007, it was transformed into Aliah University by the Government of India, at Calcutta. In 1784, Hastings supported the foundation of the Bengal Asiatic Society, now the Asiatic Society of Bengal, by the oriental scholar Sir William Jones; it became a storehouse for information and data pertaining to the subcontinent, and existed in various institutional guises up to the present day. Warren Hastings also founded the Benaras College, an institution meant for Hindus in the year 1791 at the recommendation of Mr. Duncan, the then resident at Benaras. Both institutions namely Madrasa 'Aliya and Benaras College were purely oriental in character, and their objects were the encouragement of oriental learning and the training of qualified law officers for government. The victorious battle of Mysore was fought by English in 1798-99. Delhi was captured in the year 1803 by the company forces. From 1799, a number of Christian Missionaries had been working in Bengal. The labourers of this mission were incessated, it had a printing press and it edited a series of Vernacular books for educational purposes and by 1815, it had established no less than 20 schools in the neighborhood of Calcutta, attended by about 800 children. In 1816 some of the Indian gentlemen of Calcutta associated together and subscribed a capital sum of Rs. 100,000 to found an institution for the instruction of the Indian youth in European and Asiatic languages and Science. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), an Indian religious, social and educational reformer was the leading sprit of this movement. He was son of Ramakanta, a Vaishnavite Brahmin of Bengal. While his mother Tarinidevi was from a Shaivite family. He challenged traditional Hindu culture and indicated the lines of progress for Indian society under British Rule. He is called the "Maker of Modern India" and also as "Father of Modern India”. He is also regarded as the "Father of the Bengal Renaissance”. His influence was apparent in the fields of politics, public administration, and education, as well as religion. He is known for his efforts to abolish sati, the Hindu funeral practice in which the widow immolated herself on her husband's funeral pyre, and child marriage. He was the first feminist in India and his book, Brief

remarks regarding modern encroachments on the ancient rights of females (1822), is a reasoned argument in favour of the equality of
women. (Education in British India By M.L.Zutshi, The Indian Press Allahabad 1910, Pages 1 & 2). In 1817, in collaboration with David Hare Raja Ram Mohan Roy established an institution with the name of Vidayalya or the Indian College of Calcutta. His main contention was that the India stood more in need of English than of oriental education and held that a knowledge of western Science, Medicine, technology and modes of thought was essential for the improvement of his countrymen. During this time Delhi College was established in 1825. Ram Mohan came to England in 1830 as the ambassador of the Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II (Ruled 1806-1837) who conferred on him the title of Raja to lobby the British government for the welfare of India. He was the first educated Indian to sail to England in 1830.In 1832 he visited Paris, returning to England the same year, and coming to stay at Beech House, Stapleton Grove, Bristol England UK in 1833. However, ten days after arriving in Bristol he fell ill with meningitis, and died on 27 September 1833. He was initially buried in the grounds of Beech House, but 10 years later his friend Dwarakanath Tagore had him reinterred at Arno's Vale. A funerary monument was designed by William Prinsep and built with sponsorship from Dwarakanath Tagore. Ram Mohan Roy was married three times. His first wife died during his childhood. His second wife, who died in 1824, bore him two sons: Radhaprasad in 1800 and Ramaprasad in 1812. Roy's third wife, Uma Devi, outlived him.
Lord Warren Hastings & Raja Ram Mohan Roy

6

THE EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN SINDH DURING BRITISH PERIOD The First Afghan War was fought from 1839-42. 42. The British felt that Russia might attack India through Afghanistan. hanistan. Hence H the British conquered Sindh which was located between en Afghan Afghanistan and India in 1843. On the conquest of Sindh by the e British in i 1843, Sir Charles Napier was appointed its first governor on a salary o of 7000/. per annuam. The former rulers of the country, the Talpurs, Talpu were provided for by cash pensions. Sir Charles Napier, after a rule of a lit little more than four and a half years, left Sindh in the month onth of October Oc 1847, and was succeeded in the government of the province ce by Mr. Pringle, of the Bombay Service, with the title of Commissioner issioner in Sindh, the province being thence ford made a subordinate to the he Bombay Presidency. The province of Sindh contained 3 Collectorates torates at that t time 1) Karachi 2) Hyderabad and 3) Shikarpur. The British created a s system of political control after 1943. Sindh remained a Division vision of o Bombay President from 1847 to 1936. The Bombay Presidency was consisted partly rtly of Briti British districts and partly of native states. The total area, including Sindh but excluding Aden, was 188,745 sq. m., of which 122,984 4 sq. m. w were under British and 65,761 under native rule. The total al population populat (1901) was 2 5,468, 209, of which 18,515,587 were resident in British ter territory and 6,908,648 in native states. The province was s divided into in 4 commissionerships and 26 districts. The four divisions were the he norther northern or Gujarat, the central or Deccan, the southern or Carnatic, , and Sindh. The twenty-six districts were: Bombay City, Ahmedabad, Broach, , Kaira, Panch Mahals, Surat, Thana,Ahmednagar, Khandesh, esh, Nasik, Nasik Poona, Satara, Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, Kanara, Kolaba, Ratnag Ratnagiri, Karachi, Hyderabad, Shikarpur, Upper Sind Frontier/Jacobab /Jacobabad and Thar & Parkar. It was during Mr. Pringle’s administration which las lasted from October 1847 to December 1850, that military comissions comission were abolished and 4 different grades of Civil and Criminal Courts rts establis established in lieu. These were the Commissioners’, Magistrate’s, e’s, Deputy Magistratre’s and Kardar’s Courts. The revenue of the province ce had no now begun to show a great improvement in the comparison on of 1843-44.In 1843 December 1851, Mr. Pringle, having resigned his appointment ent , was suceeded in 1851 by Sir Bartle Frere, of the Bombay Civil il Service, to whom Sindh is so much indebted for the great progress it made ade during his long and able administration of its affairs. Sir Henry ry Bartle Edward E Frere, 1st Baronet, GCB, GCSI, (29 March 1815 – 29 May 1884 1884) was a British colonial administrator. He established 2 annual fairs fa at Karachi and Sukkur to promote trade in Sind. He took initiatives to control Snake Bite cases in the province especially in n Shikarpur Shikarpu area. A large portion of Shikarpur, Upper Sindh Frontier and Karachi arachi wer were topographically surveyed during his time. One of his main achievements achie is the opening of Railways from Karachi to Kotri through 2 steam tr trains. Muse in 1851 . Sir Frere, as In the year 1851 Sir Bartle Frere founded the modern Indian postal service. He established Karachi Library and Museum the commissioner of Sindh issued a decree e in 1851, m making it compulsory to use Sindhi language in place of f Persian in Sindh. The officers of Sindh were ordered to learn Sindhi compulsorily lsorily to e enable them to carry on day-to-day work efficiently. A committee ommittee was constituted under Asst. Commissioner & Chief of Education Departmen Department comprising equal number of Hindu & Muslim members ers which unanimously decided to go for Persio-Ara Arabic Sindhi script with slight modifications modificati in 1853. Sir Richard Francis is Burton, Burton an Orientalist, with the help of f local scholars scho Munshi Thanwardas and Mirza Sadiq Ali Beg evolved olved a 52-letter 52 Sindhi alphabet. Sir Bartle Frere not n only gave Sindhi language ge one script scr but he even published different differe Sindhi books related to various ious streams stream of the literature, which provided necessary n impetus to Sindhi i writers to move fast on the road of literacy. The Bombay B University was established ished in 1857 18 at Bombay.
Sir Charles rles Napier Nap & Anglo Vernacular Vernacula School Karachi 1873

7

A Vernacular School with provision for teaching ching Pers Persian and Sindhi was being managed by the Karachi Municipality nicipality since s 1853. The year 1854 was marked by great educational progress gress in th the province of Sindh. The Commissioner Sir Bartle Frere e presided at the opening of the Government English School on Bandar Road ad Karach Karachi. The school was supplied with a small but well chosen library. It was also provided with small stock of Chemical apparatus, a magic c lantern a and electrical machines. In March 1853 an annual outlay y of 10,000 10,00 Rupees, were sanctioned for educational purposes in Sindh. The sc schools in existence in March 1856 were as follows; English School Engineer School (English) Normal School Vernacular Schools Total: 2 1 1 27 31

Mr. E.I. Howard was appointed to promote e educatio education in Sindh. He assumed charge of his duties as Education on Inspector Inspect on 28th February 1856. He remained in Sindh for Six and a half month and visited government English and Vernacular schools ls in the province. He says in his Report of the Director of Public Instruction n Bombay Bombay-1855-56, “Very little was done in the first year after the e grant had been sanctioned, in actual establishment of schools. It was necessary, essary, at first, to prepare books. It was not till 1854 that schools began to appear, a all the schools in Sind, with two or three exceptions, were established stablished in the years 1854 and 1855.” (See Report of the Director r of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1855-56, Education Society’s Press s Byculla B Bombay, Pages 101-108). The Vernacular Schools established lished at that th time were of Karachi, Thatta, Kotri, Sehwan, Dadu, Shikarpur, karpur, La Larkana, Ratodero, Bakrani and Sukkur. Local funds, libraries raries and museums were encouraged from 1853 to 1856. Major F.J.Goldsmid, officiating Educational al Inspect Inspector, Sindh Division writes in his report that, “Larkhana: the Larkhana Larkh school is specially noted, because it has made great progress since last year with very small means. The master, a respectable Cazee, selected sele by Captain Ford in 1853, assisted only by one of the least advanced anced or pr promising pupils of the normal class, has not only contrived ived to teach teac his boys, but himself also, from the rudimentary Sindee books published ublished u under Mr. Elli’s superintendence.” There were a total number umber of 173 boys including 53 Muslims and 120 Hindu were studying in Larkana V Vernacular School in 1856-57. According to Major F.J.Goldsmid oldsmid general ge progress was very gratifying the two first classes were becoming ing expert arithmeticians. 39 prizes were awarded for Sindhi, Persian, Arithmetic Arith and Geography. Describing Ratodero Vernacular School he e writes, “A large village, at which a school has just been reported set on foot”. foot It was the time when Dr. Trumpp of the Church hurch Miss Missionary Society compiled Shah Jo Risalo, a finer book than han any other ot native language of India could boast of. The book contained valuable aluable Si Sindhi poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689-1752). It was prepared prepa with new Sindhi Type in London and was published from Leipzig eipzig G Germany in 1863. Major F.J.Goldsmid also describes new schools opened op at Ghotki, Mohbatdero Jatoi, Daharki, Mithiani, Jhirk, rk, Mehar, Dubo, Khee, Mona, Boola Khan, Thariri, and Islam Kot. Mr. Chintaman Chin Sakhram was appointed English Master at Sukkur during this s time time. (Extract Report by Major F.J.Goldsmid, Officiating Educationa ducational Inspector, Sindh Division 1858-59, Pages 204-233) In beginning there was want of School Masters sters in Sin Sindh but it was later covered up. Mr. J. G. Moore, Esq, C.S, .S, Educational Educat Inspector in Sindh during 1865-66 inspected Karachi, Hyderabad, abad, Kotr Kotri, Sehwan, Larkana, Kamber, Jacobabad and Shikarpur schools. The Collector of Shikarpur Captain Dumsterville was in the e habit of v visiting the School opened at Shikarpur, and these visits s stimulated stimulate both masters and the pupil’s exertion. The Deputy Educational Inspector Rao Saheb heb Naray Narayan Jugoonath also visited following schools during the years 1865-66 1865 AD. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Karachi Thatta Kotri Sehwan Dadu Hyderabad Nasarpur Tando Muhammad Khan
General John Jacob & Sir Bartle Frere

8

9)

Halla (New)

10) Halla (Old) 11) Matli 12) Tando Allahyar 13) Naushehro Feroz 14) Tharoo Shah 15) Bhiria 16) Kandiaro 17) Hallani 18) Nunger Parkar 19) Mithi 20) Veera Wah 21) Tando Adam 22) Umer Kot 23) Tando Ghulam Hyder 24) Shikarpur-I 25) Shikarpur-II 26) Larkana 27) Kamber 28) Powar/Panhwar 29) Dara Wahan 30) Sukkur 31) Rohri 32) Singrar 33) Kot Mir Muhammad Khan 34) Mirpur 35) Khairpur 36) Punna/Pano Aqil 37) Jacobabad 38) Obauro
39)

Thaurairee/Thariri

Bombay mbay Pres Presidency

(See Report of the Director of Public Instruction uction Bom Bombay for the year 1865-66, Education Society’s Press Byculla yculla Bombay, Bom Page 66-79). Regarding Larkana School Mr. J.G.Moore writes tha that, “Larkhana School: This school still maintains its reputation. utation. The Th attendance is steadily increasing. Great attention had been paid to Gramm Grammar throughout the school; the elementary branches of study tudy are well w taught. The Head Master is a Cazee, and has great influence, not only w with the town’s people, but with the Zimindars in the neighbourho eighbourhood. He has some able assistance. I was given to understand, when n at Larkh Larkhana, that the Cazee was in the habit of receiving his friends, ends, in the th school hours; I spoke to him on the subject, pointing out the impropriety propriety o of such conduct. I also gave written instructions on the subject. He, He as Head Master, is however responsible for the state of school, l, and I mu must say its present state is creditable to all concerned. I observed two t defects in this school –one was a too minute division of boys into to classes, and the other the absence of any regular system of study. y. I spoke to Rao Saheb, who happened to be at Larkhana with me, and he reports that the number of classes has been reduced to eight, and that he has drawn up a timetable specifying the studies of each class. I hope in a very short time to send one of the trained Normal College ege men to this school, in order that the study of English may be commenced”. Atten Attendance at the close of 1864-65 in Larkana School was 144, 4, while attendance a during 186566 was 164 with average attendance of 140. Describing Kamber School situation he says, “Kumb “Kumbur School: This school has greatly improved both in attendance endance and an studies. The Master is an energetic man.” The attendance at the e end of 18 1864-65 in Kamber School was 29, while during the year 1865-66 66 it i increased up to 46 with average attendance of 38. Sindhi, Persian, ian, Geog Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic were taught in the schools. Assistant Assi Masters were paid Rs.60/= salary per month (See Report of the he Directo Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1865-66, Education ducation Society’s S Press Byculla Bombay, Page 66-79). “The Masters and Assistant ssistant M Masters in all these schools, with the exception of Engineer eer School were paid, some wholly,

9

some in part, from the Educational Fund. Those who received only a position of their salaries from the fund had the balance paid them either from the Municipal Fund, or by Jageerdars or Zamindars of the towns or districts in which their schools were respectively situated.” (Page 102) The government received several applications for grants for the erection of School-houses and for augmenting salaries of Masters. Books were translated and lithographed for educational purposes. The schools in Sindh were known as High School, Zilla School, Taluka School, Village School, Normal College and School and Engineering School. The number of government schools in existence had been increased in 1859-60. The Education Department in Sindh was supervised by an Educational Inspector, who was at the same time the covenanted Assistant Commissioner in Sindh. He was assisted by a Deputy Educational Inspector, 2 Assistant Deputy Educational Inspectors, with suitable establishments and 18 headmasters of engineering, high, normal and Anglo Vernacular institutions. The Kamber Municipality was established on 1st May 1862. An income in 1870-71 of Rs. 3,768/= derived most from town dues, cattle pound and fisheries. In 167-68 government paid special attention to provide education in Upper Sindh Frontier spread on 2,176.74 miles and a population of 85,000. For this Mian Muhammad was appointed as Assistant Deputy Educational Inspector Shikarpur sub division on 2nd November 1867. He was made head of Vernacular Division comprising Middle Class Schools and Lower Class Schools. He visited 31 Vernacular Schools and 4 Anglo Vernacular Schools in his division. He specially turned his attention to girl’s education in Upper Sindh and discussed and ventilated the issue through Sindh Sudhar periodical. A Matriculation Examination was also held at the Bombay University for students of Sindh in November 1867. According to J.G. Moore, during the years 1866-67 new 10 Primary Schools were opened at 1) Thano Boola Khan 2) Boobak 3) Mirpur Bathoro 4) Suttee 5) Arazi 6) Chhachhro 7) Khipro 8) Nabisar 9) Moro and 10) Tando Bago Khan. At the same time 2 schools of Jacobabad and Pano Aqil were closed and 3 schools namely Thatta, Sehwan and Larkana were transferred to the Anglo Vernacular grade. Under School Operation an estimated cost of Rs.1, 350/= was fixed for Kamber School in the same year. 100 boys were studying in this school at that time. The Sindh Central Book Department supplied books throughout the province, with books in English, Sindhi, Persian, Marathi, Gujrati and Hindustani languages. The Arabic-Sindhi books consisted on Babnamo (Reading Book-I), Reading Book-II, Reading Book-III, Lekheje Pir/ Elementary Arithmetic, Aesop’s Fables, Sassui Punhoon, Dil Ja Hisab, Rai Diyach, Sindhi of Abu-Al-Hassan, History of Sindh, and Geography of Bombay Presidency. (See Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1866-67, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, Page 93-114). The School Building Operations during the year 1869-70 were as follows;

NAME OF SCHOOL Khairpur Nathan Shah Khairpur Juso Banguldero Khairodero Warah Lakhi Dakhan

NUMBER OF PUPILS 50 50 100 50 50 50 50

ESTIMATED COST Rs. 528 Rs. 500 Rs. 480 Rs. 520 Rs. 520 Rs. 489 Rs. 490

These funds included Imperial Fund, Educational Fund, Municipal & Popular Contributions and School Fee Fund. The Anglo Vernacular School-house at Larkana which was commenced and completed during the year 1869-70, was built under the Superintendence of Executive Engineer, Ghar Division. The Municipality at Larkana very liberally contributed Rs. 2,075 being half the cost of the building. (See Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1869-70, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, Page 203-248). The total Number of Government Schools in Sindh, of all kinds, in 1869-70 was 157 divided into normal, engineering, and high, Anglo Vernacular and Vernacular / Primary Schools. The total number of pupils attending these schools in Sindh was in the same year 8261, of whom 5339 were Hindus and 2855 were Muslims, but not more than 800 of them were studying English Schools. There were 279 Indigenous Schools in 1869-70 with 6136 scholars. The number of government and private schools, in each Collectorate and political Superintendency in 1869-70 with the number of pupils attending them, is shown as under;

10

District Karachi Hyderabad Shikarpur Thar & Parkar Upper Sindh Frontier/ Jacobabad 30 45 68 14 00 157

Number of Schools Government Private 16 105 142 14 02 279 1,759 2,147 3,723 632 00 8,261

Number of Pupils Government Private 1,030 2,381 2,446 239 401 6,136

In 1870, the let or flood left River Indus between the towns of Jhali and Madeji, crossed Shikarpur district and flowed through Ratodero, Khan Wah, Banguldero, Muhammad Gujrani, Mahiun, Isi, Kamber, Dost Ali and Panhwaro tappas and destroyed the country in great extent. Many Vernacular Schools were disturbed and their attendance was decreased due to these floods. Mr. J.G Moore left Sindh on 31st October 1870 on two years furlough and was succeeded by Mr. F.R.S. Wyllie. He took 6 months leave, and on his departure Rao Saheb Narayan Jugoonath, Deputy Educational Inspector Sindh, officiated for a short time, from whom Mr. G.Grant, Csq.C.S, received charge on 18th, March 1871. He examined and distributed certificates testifying to their qualifications to teach English in Second Grade Anglo Vernacular Schools were granted to Mr. Boolakidass Jawahirdas HM Umerkot Vernacular School, Mr. Ooodharam Bhojraj HM Sehwan Vernacular School, Mr. Choethram Girdhardas HM Larkana Vernacular School and Mr. Wasson Mal Jairamdas HM Sehwan Vernacular School Shikarpur. Under instructions from the Department of the Public Instruction, Bombay Presidency, the Educational Inspector in Sindh offered a prize of Rs. 300/= Cash for the best translation of a) Samuel Smile’s- Self Help and b) Rasselas. The translations were submitted to the Educational Inspector Sindh and the President of Vernacular Literature Committee before 1st January 1872. (See Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 187071, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, Pages 292-338). This report was compiled by Mr. George.F.M. Grant, Educational Inspector Sindh on 26th June 1871 in Educational Inspectors Office Karachi, Sindh. Some government schools decreased in Karachi Collectorate, Hyderabad Division and Shikarpur and Upper Sindh Frontier/ Jacobabad districts of Sindh. The decrease was owning to the general causes, the high prices of staple food which had prevailed for some time in the province, and the general distress through the River Indus floods of June 1874. On 19th June 1874 the Jhali Bund broke out which caused a disastrous situation in Naushehro Abro, Waris Dino Machhi, Sanjer Bhatti and Karira tappas of Larkana area. This great flood destroyed 100, 000 acres of Agricultural lands and washed away 80 villages and towns in Sindh. The flood is known as Kashmor Let and it was also joined by Kachhi Nais from Balochistan. A large portion of Jacobabad town was also washed away during this flood. Sir Philip Wood House, the Governor of Bombay came to Sindh and visited flood affected areas of Kashmor, Jacobabad, Larkana, Mehar and Sehwan. In June 1875, days were very hot and nights were much cooler in Upper Sindh Frontier. Water supply in canals was quite inadequate and more very much required. Diarrhea continued at Garhi Khero. Several deaths were recorded from heat and fever. Due to the sickness, heavy rains and floods the examination results came unsatisfactory which became issue for Department of Public Instruction Sindh. Village School Committees were formed to address this serious issue in the province. These committees were consisted upon the Mukhtiarkar, as its president, and Zamindars or Waderas of Muslim and Hindu communities as its members. Some of the laborious, promising and highly popular teachers also died in this flood which contributed to some extent to add to the decrease, for schools were greatly affected in Sindh by the character or popularity of individual teachers. The circumstance prevented nearly all district officers from touring, and the pressure of transport arrangement in Upper Sindh compelled Commissioner to reside at Sukkur nearly 3 months. Under this circumstance parents did not allow their children to schools. They were forcibly sent to tend cattle or labour to earn some Anna’s for the benefit of their families. Due to the heavy rain, fever was prevalent throughout the province. A rumor had spread among the people that the guns of the British in Afghanistan had been bewitched, and had refused to go off, and that government had in consequence, been obliged to smear them with blood, and with the object had ordered the forcible circumcision of all male children in the country. The panic caused by this rumor was excessive, and the schools were almost deserted for some days. The source of this absurd idea had not been traced by it appeared to have organized in Upper Sindh. (See Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1878-79, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, Page 118).
Girl’s School in Sindh 1873

11

The services of Mr. Alu Mal (Karachi), Mr. Ghulam Ali (Hyderabad) and Mr. Qazi Ahmed (Shikarpur) were extraordinary for the promotion of education in Sindh during the year 1878-79. Mr. Hart Davice appreciated their efforts in his departmental reports. Mr. R.Giles succeeded Mr. Lee, Warner who was relieved by Mr. Hart Davice, the permanent inspector. In the days of Mr. Hart Davice the gymnastic classes were attached to the high school at Karachi and Hyderabad. The Hyderabad boys attended the classes thrice a week and learnt games from the Sepoyees of the Baloch Regiment. The Cricket Club Class at Karachi flourished under the management of Mr. Edalji Talati who took great interest in it. The boys of his school played fortnightly matches among themselves to compete for the prize of a bat awarded in every year by the Commissioner of Sindh. The general forms of education in Bombay Presidency during 1878-79 were as follows;

The establishment of public primary schools by the Local Boards under the guidance of Educational Department dates from the levy in 1863 of Local Fund Cess, one third of which is set aside for education. In 1884, the burden of supporting Primary Schools in Municipal towns was transferred from the Local Boards to Municipalities. “The Education Department is administrated by a Director, who has under him an Inspector in each Division and a Deputy Inspector, with Assistants, in each District. These officers inspect all schools that receive state aid, and also administer the Public Primary Schools supported by Local Boards. The Director and three of the Inspectors are recruited from England, while the other Inspector belongs to the Provincial Service, and the deputies and their assistants to the sub-ordinate Service. Two Inspectresses of Girl’s Schools, recruited from England, have lately been added. The government also maintains in Bombay and at the headquarters of each District (except Ahmadnagar, Kolaba, Larkana, Thar and, Upper Sind Frontier) a high school as a model secondary institution. Three headmasters of high schools are recruited from England, and the rest belong either to the Provincial or the Subordinate service.”(The Imperial Gazetteer of India: Vol: 8, Oxford, 1908, Page 373). “In 1884-85 Sind could boast of a Government high school at Kurrachee with 400 pupils, of another high school at Hyderabad with 338 pupils, and of a third at Shikarpur with 228 boys. The three passed 39 out of 48 candidates for matriculation at the Bombay University. Of vernacular or Sindi-Persian schools under native masters there were 34 which came under Government supervision in 1858, whereas there were in 1884-85 no less than 23 middle schools—teaching the vernacular and English—with 1165 pupils; and in the primary schools the number of pupils was nearly 20,000.” (See Upper Sindh Frontier, Encyclopedia 1902). Larkana Municipality opened Middle School in 1876 while Naushehro Feroz, Mirpurkhas, Pithoro, Sehwan, Mehar, Kamber, Ratodero Middle schools were opened in 1886-87. In Bombay, for example, the complete course of vernacular education was delivered at primary school. The Imperial Gazetteer of India states, "The type of primary school varies from the primitive pathshala or maktab to the modern institutions in which the pupils are educated in accordance with approved European methods. The Bombay local rates schools are in general better built, equipped, and managed than the Bengal indigenous institutions...There are three classes of secondary schools - the vernacular and English middle schools, and the high schools. The vernacular middle school course is a prolongation of the primary course, and completes the instruction of those who do not aspire to an English education. In most Provinces the course lasts for three years, and should be completed at about the age of thirteen."

12

Karachi-Sindh 1873 Group Porttait of female pupils, with their teacher, in the European & Indo European School at Karachi

Girl’s Class at St.Patrick’s School in SindhSindh-Karachi 1873

13

MR.H.P.JACOB & PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SINDH The further improvement in the Primary Education in Sindh including Hyderabad was made after the year 1886 with the appointment of Mr. H.P.Jacob, being the first Educational Inspector of School having vast educational experience. He was a nephew of General John Jacob (18121858), the commandent and political agent for Upper Sindh Frontier. He was selected by Donald James Mackay, 11th Lord Reay (1839-1921), a Dutch-born British administrator and Liberal politician. In 1885 he was appointed Governor of Bombay, a post he held until 1890. From the time of H.P.Jacob the Education department had been continuously administered by officers of educational experience. He was known for his love for refined English and did not tolerate the usage of any slang in the speech. He frequently visited the Sindh Medressah spending time evaluating the progress made by students in English literature and speaking skills etc. Sindh Medressatul Islam was founded by Hassan Ali Effendi (1830-1895) on 1st September 1885. He was a Sindhi of Turkish origin who settled in Karachi. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan also studied in Sindh Medressah at that time. Jacob also made the administration and the teachers to go an extra mile to improve and polish the language skills of their students. This gentleman was a valued member of Indian Education Commission of 1882 and drew up the tables attached to its reports. He may be said to have breathed new life into education throughout the province of Sindh. Under his able administration the next decade showed a great increase in the number of primary schools in Sindh. The Training College for Men Hyderabad was established in 1887 and the famed Akhbar-e-Taleem was published from this educational institution of Sindh in 1902. A Museum was opened in 1908. A library was established in 1916 while Garden & Zoo was set up in 1934. Schools and colleges were developed throughout the province under Lord Curzon’s Educational Reforms of 1901-1935. THE EARLIEST VERNACULAR SCHOOLS OF DISTRICT LARKANA FROM 18531853-1947
Vernacular School Larkana Vernacular School Sakhi Miran Larkana Vernacular School Sadha Sabha Devi Shala Larkana Madresseh-Tul-Islam High School Larkana Kanaya Vidiyalia Larkana Kanaya Maha Vidiyalia Larkana Muncipal Girls School Nao Takk Larkana Vernacular Dari School Larkana Vernacular School Police Headquarter Larkana Vernacular School Dhamrah Vernacular School Vikia Sangi Muhammad Ali Dini Madressah School Larkana Vernacular School Ratodero-I Vernacular School Ratodero-II Vernacular School Morio Faqir/Ratodero Vernacular School Wasayo Bhutto/Ratodero Vernacular School Bakrani Vernacular School Banguldero Vidiyalia Banguldero Vernacular School Khairodero Vernacular School Chhoharpur Vernacular School Garelo Vernacular School Nazar Vernacular School Lahori Vernacular School Biro Chandio Vernacular School Garhi Khuda Bux Bhutto Vernacular School Arija Vernacular School Dokri Vernacular School Pathan/Dokri Vedid Vidyalia SM School Jharree Mahboob/Kot Mirza Dokri Vernacular School Naodero Vernacular School Miani Nehal Vernacular School Agani The Larkana Academy PILOT SCHOOL LARKANALARKANA-1926

14

Primary School Education

Sir Richard Francis Burton who played important role in the finalisation of Sindhi Alphabet 1854

15

SOME EARLIEST VERNACULAR SCHOOLS OF DISTRICT KAMBER SHAHDADKOT 01. Kamber Taluka & its Vernacular Schools
Paper Seal of Kardar Taluka Kamber Kandi 1852

Kambar, a taluka (or sub-division) of the Larkano Deputy Collectorate, containing and area of 943 square miles, with 8 tappas, 134 villages, and a population of 50,553 souls. The revenue (imperial and local) of this sub-divion during the past four years, ending 1870 -71, is as follows:Revenue 1867-68 Rupees Imperial Local Total 1,78,294 18,321 1,96,615 1868-69 Rupees 1,86,729 18,194 2,04,923 1869-70 Rupees 1,95,693 19,164 2,14,857 1870-71 Rupees 2,42,707 19,049 2,61,756

Kambar, the chief town in the Kambar taluka of the Larkano Deputy Collectorate, in lat.27 33 N. and long. 68 2 E, distant about 12 miles west by north from Larkano. It has road communication with Larkano, Ghaibi Dero, Sujawal, Rato Dero, Nasirabad, Dost Ali, and Shahdadpur. It is the head-quarter station of a Mukhtiarkar and a Tappedar, and, in addition to their “deras”, possesses a Governmnet school, muncipal hall, district bangalow, musafirkhana, branch post-office, and ploice lines for 29 men. The population numbers in all 2320, of whom 1071 are Muhammadans and 1249 Hindus. The former comprise the saiyad, Gopang, Gadra, Juneja, and Chandia tribes; the latter are principally Brahmins and Lohanos. The Kambar muncipality, established 1st May 1862, had an income in 1870-71 of 3,768 rupees,derived mostly from town dues, cattle-pound fees, and fisheries. The expenditure in the same year was 4,503 rupees. The manufacturers of the town are not of any importance, and consist only of those articles ordinarily in use among the inhabitants; of the local trade, all that is known is that it consists in grain of different kinds, but no record appears to be kept of either its quantity or value. The town has no transit trade. The best known facts in connection with the history of Kambar, are its being plundered by the Balochis in 1844, and the occurance of a great fire in the town in the following year. (See Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Compiled by A.W.Hughes London 1876, Pages 314 & 315) In 1901, the population of Kamber taluka was 88,527 being 47,649 males and 40,878 females. The total population of Kamber town was 6,286 at the Census of 1911. It contained a District Bungalow, Mukhtiarkar’s Office, Dispensary, 2 Markets, Anglo Vernacular School, combined Post & telegraph Offices and Musafirkhana. The town was wealthy and prosperious as it was situated in rice growing tract of country . At a distance of 6 miles north-north east of Kamber on the banks of of the Ghar Canal near Fatehpur situated the tomb of Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro. He was grandson of Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro whose tomb is located on a hill in Sukkur.A light Railways was constructed through Kamber in 1918. Carrieges plied between Larkana and Kamber which was only 14 miles away from the town. In the year 1919 the total area of Kamber taluka was 400,640 Acres. Kamber was the only town of the taluka while it has 94 villages. The total population of the town was 91,751 being 49,624 males and 42,127 females. Number of occupied houses was 17,461. (See Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Larkana District Compiled by J.W.Smyth Bambay 1919, Pages 53) . The Chief Jagirdar of this taluka was Nawab Sir Ghaibi Khan Chandio (1872-1954) who owned 2,16,116 Acres of Land in present Larkana, Kamber Shahdadkot, Jacobabad & Dadu districts of Sindh.
Tomb of Chaker Khan Khuhawar & Government Main Primary School Kamber

16

Vernacular School Kamber-1864 The Kamber Vernacular School had been established round about 1864. The school greatly improved both in attendance and studies in later years. The attendance at the end of 1864-65 in Kamber School was 29, while during the year 1865-66 it increased up to 46 with average attendance of 38. The school masters taught there Sindhi, Persian, Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic. The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Kamber taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Name of School Government Main Primary School Kamber Gathar Chhajra Mena Allah Rakhio Junejo Mahi Makol Hamzo Chacho Dital Abro Ber Dedar Girls Primary School Kamber Kanwar Thorhi Sohrab Jean Abro Fateh Muhammad Mugheri Meenhal Shabrani Thorhi Bijar Drigh Soomar Khan Chandio Kot Ghulam Shah Hot Dahot Boohar Ghazi Khan Khuhawar Koor Suleman Abad Khahi Meenho Raunti Ghaibidero Noor Muhammad Sheikh Hani Naitch Dost Ali

Foundation Year 1864 1887 1904 1904 1906 1908 1910 1910 1914 1920 1922 1924 1926 1925 1933 1934 1935 1935 1935 1943 1945 1946 1946 1947 1947 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1936-43 Existed during 1938-47

Source: GR Vernacular School Sanjer Bhatti 1905-1947, GR Vernacular School Chakiani 1914-1947, GR Vernacular School Shahdadkot 19111947, Larkano Saah Sebano Compiled by Gul Muhammad Gad Published by Muncipal Employees Union Larkana 1984, Larkano Tareekh Je Aeney Main (History) Compiled by Muhammad Yousif Sheikh Published by Larkana District Historical Society Larkana 2002, Kamber: A Study Edited and Compiled by Riazat Buriro, Published by Dr. Muhabat Academy Kamber October 2006 & The Schools Directory District Kamber Shahdadkot ,Sindh Education Management Information System District, Tahsilwise School Directory Based on Schools Census 2007 & 2008.
Haso Lake Kamber District Kamber Shahdadkot,Sindh

17

MAP OF SHAHDADPUR TALUKA UPPER SINDH FRONTIER DISTRICT 1882-83

Map of Shahdadpur or Shahdadkot Taluka , Upper Sindh Frontier District 1882, 1903 & 1908, Printed at Poona 1910 “The density of population works out at only 56.7, but it must be borne in mind that west of the Edan Canal there are no settled villages, and that the people of the Sir and the Mountains are nomadic in their habits. The Hindus are only 9.1 percent of the population, and two-thirds of them support themselves by trade in the town of Shahdadkot. The Muhammadans are either Baluchis or Sindhis (Jamots). The main Baluc tribes are the Jamalis, Chandias and Magsis. They are very old fashioned in their ways and take little interest in improving their lands. The Jamalis are for the most part in debt. The Chandias and the Magsis are hereditary enemies and the main preoccupation of the both tribes is to keep the feud alive. The Sindhis are reasonably good farmers, though the standard of farming is distictly below that in the adjoining taluka of Jacobabad, and the biggest zamindar of the taluka, Sirai Muhammad Bakhsh Khuhawar does not set the others a good example in the personal management of his estates.” Revision Settlement Report of the Shahdadkot Taluka of the Upper Frontier District Compiled by J.W.Smyth, Deputy Commissioner Upper Sind Frontier District, Jacobabad 24th April 1920, Page 2) Sirai Muhammad Bux Khan Khuhawar was the son of Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-I. He died in 1932 at Shahdadkot. He left behind 6 sons named 1) Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-II 2) Rais Feroz Khan Khuhawar 3) Rais Yar Muhammad Khan Khuhawar 4) Rais Wajid Ali Khan Khuhawar 5) Rais Safdar Ali Khan Khuhawar and 6) Rais Imdad Hussain Khan Khuhawar. Most of them were philanthropists and played their vital role in the development of Shahdadkot. Sardar Muhammad Bux Khuhawar-II (Ex Chairman Municipal Committee Shahdadkot), MPA Sultan Ahmed Khuhawar & Miss Naheed Khuhawar are also the descendents of Sirai Muhammad Bux Khan Khuhawar.

18

02. Shahdadkot Taluka & its Vernacular Schools Shahdadpur , a Government town in the Kambar taluka of the Larkana Deputy Collectorate in latitude 27 46 N. and longitude 68 E, distant about 30 miles north-north-west from Larkana. It is seated on the west bank of the Dato-Ji-Kur canal, and has road communication with Kamber, Garhi Khairo, Jamali and Hamal, and is the head-quarter station of a Tapadar. The town is situated in a barren tract, which, a short time after the conquest of province by the British , was almost destitute of population, and is described as being more like the bed of a salt lagoon in an interval of spring tides, than an inland district. The population , in unmber about 783, comprises 464 Musalmans of the Pirzadah, Kalhoro, Lashari, Siyal, Magsi, and Muhana tribes, the remainder (319) being Hindus. The chief man of note in this place is Pir Bakhsh Kahawar, a very influential and public spirited Zamindar, who has done much towards raising this town to its former prosperity. At one time Shahdadpurwas a large place , from which Sir John Keane, when in Sind, drew supplies for his army, then on the point of advancing on Afghanistan, after that it fell into ruinous condition-so much so, that when Lieutenant James, the Deputy Collector of the Chandko district, visited it in 1846, an old Hindu was its only inhabitant.The town has a fair trade in wool, rice and grain of different kinds, but there are no manufacturers of any description in it. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Compiled by A. W. Hughes- F.R.G.S, F.S.S BOM.UNCOV .Civil Service London 1876 Pages 769-770). The name of the town was changed from Shahdadpur to Shahdadkot in 1914 owing to the confusion caused by the existence of another town of the same name in Nawabshah District, Sindh. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: Upper Sind Frontier/Jacoabad District Compiled by J.W. Smyth, Bombay Civil Service Government Central Press Bombay 1919 Pages 31-32). The changing of the town’s name can also be seen in the General Registers of Shahdadkot, Chakiani and Sanjer Bhatti Vernacular Schools of June 1914. Before 1883-84 the town of Shahdadkot was contained in the Sijawal taluka of the old Shikarpur District Sindh Bombay Presidency. This taluka had been formed out of parts of Sijawal, Ratodero and Kamber talukas. In 1883, the taluka contained 2 Criminal Courts, Police Circle (Thana) 1, with Regular Police of 19 men. Its revenue was 8054. (The Imperial Gazetteer of India Compiled by W.W. Hunter, C.S.I, C.I.E, L.L.D, Director General of Statistics to the Government of India, Vol: XII Ratlam to Sirmur, Trubner & Co. London 1887). In 1883-84, Shahdadpur or Shahdadkot became a taluka of Upper Sindh Frontier/Jacobabad District, Sindh, in Bombay Presidency. There were within Municipal limits, 4 schools in 1881-82 with 182 scholars. The building of Government Main Primary School Jacobabad showed the inscription of 1886 of its construction. Shahdadkot taluka was divided by the Edan Begari Canal. The land to its eat was irriagated by the Begari and the tails of the Sukkur Canal and Koor Shah and Koor Dato branches of ex Ghar Wah starting from Larkana.The land to to the west was known as the Sir Amani tract.It was irrigated by the Edan Wah, and was exposed to hill floods. 73% of the cultivation was under flow and 27% under lift. The principal crops of Kharif and Rabi were Juari, Bajri, Rice, Wheat, Rape & Jambo, Chicling Vetch/Matar, Gram and Indigenuious vegetables. While European Vegetables and fruits of different kinds were grown during the cold season. A factory was engaged in Rice husking at Shahdadkot. The taluka Local Board Shahdadkot was consisted on 5 members including 1 member from Hindu Panchayat. Its president was Mukhtiarkar Shahdadkot. The District Local Board was consisted of 13 members, of whom 11 were non officials and 2 were officials. They were nominated by the Commisioner of Sindh.Two non officials were chosen for each taluka, and one represented the Jagirdars of the district. The 2 officials were the Deputy Commissioner and the Deputy Collector. The former was invaribally the president of the Board ; the latter was VicePresident. Besides the ordinary maintenance of roads and bridges, dispensaries, veterinary hospitals, vernacular schools were establhed through this Board in the district. Under the auspices of the Board , a Horse Show was also held at Jacobabad. In those days Shahdadkot was considerd as backward area and there were no education facilities in it. Khanbahadur Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-I, was also a member of District Local Board Upper Sindh Frontir. He regularily attended meetings of the Board. According to Dr. Ghulam Nabi Sadhayo he owned a house in near Adam Sarai in Shahgasi Muhalla Jacobabad, where some of the servatnts always lived and took care of the house. These servants served Khanbahadur Sirai Pir Bux Khan KhuhawarI, on his visits to Jacoabad. The houses or Otak consisted upon round about 15 rooms with large courtyard and trees. Khanbahadur Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-I, highlighted issues of his area and took personal efforts to develop Shahdadkot as modern town. Though he himself was not educated but he took great interset for childrens education. On the occasion of Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubuli , Lord Reay, L.L.D,C.I.E, Governor of Bomaby arrived in Karachi Harbour on Saturday 8th Janauary 1887 through Tenasserim and landed at Merewether Pier. 3 guns were fired on the sighting of the steamer. He proceeded by special train and met Brigadier General Commanding Sindh and all heads of departments. Later on he addressed from Karachi Muncipality to the public and offcials.
Queen Victoria (1819-1901) the Monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

19

On Sunday 9th January 1887 he left for Shikarpur to view Upper Sindh Horse Show. The prizes had been given by H.N.B.Eraskine, Esquire, C.S.Commissioner in Sindh, His Highness Mir Ali Murad Khan Sohrab Khan, Talpur, of Khairpur, The Pir Hizbullah Shah Ali Gohar Shahof Kingri Badshahpur, Rohri, The Pir Ghulam Mahi-al-din Saleh Shah of Ranipur, Khairpur State, Jagiradar Mir Ghulam Hyder Khan Muhammad Khan, Talpur, of Ulra, Rohri, Jagirdar Mir Muhammad Bakkar Khan Ahmed Khan Talpur, of Dara Wahan, Rohri, Jam Bhambho Khan Abul Khair Dahar, of Ubauro, Sardar & Jagirdar Muhammad Khan Dato Khan Chandio, of Kamber, Khanbahadur Tharo Khan Fateh Khan Lahori, of Larkana, and Khanbahadur Gohram Khan Badal Khan Rind, of Malir Karachi. Great festivities were also arranged in the city. Mr. Alfred Mayhew, Major, was the Collector and President of District Local Board Shikarpur at that time. In March 1887 disease was reported among goats and the sheep in Shahdadkot taluka of Upper Sindh Frontier/Jacobabad District. (The Sind Official Gazette, Vol: XXXVI Karachi, Thursday, 17th March 1887, Pages 298). The Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom was celebrated on 20 June 1887. Victoria marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June 1887 with a banquet to which 50 European kings and princes were invited. Mr. Erskine retired and went home this year. Sir Charles Pritchard succeded him in the office. During his time Mr. Paru Mal, the Deputy Collector Upper Sindh Frontier/Jacobabad District was tried for bribary and was dismissed from his post. Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot 1887 A Vernacular School was opened in 1887-88 at Shahdadkot by the Department of Public Instrution Sindh Bombay Presidency. It is now locally known as Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot. The school was run by Taluka Local Board Shahdadkot. In the beginning only boys were enroled but later on girls were also given admission in the classes. Education in this school was entirely free. The teachers for newly opened school had been appointed from Jacobabad, Larkana & Dadu areas. A III Class, Victoria Dispensary Shahdadkot was established beside Vernacular School Shahdadkot in 1889 (See Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Upper Sindh Frontier District Compiled by J.W.Smyth Bambay 1919, Page 75). This dispensary stood beside Vernacular School uptill 1942 floods. Dr. Roopchand served the patients with great care and affection. The sick pupils of the school also got treatment from this dispensary because it was the nearest one. One of the earliest pupils of this school was Ghous Bux Mula Rab Dino Chaki who paased 5th standard examination during last decade of 19th century. He worked at the house of Rais Haji Muhammad Bux Khan Khuhawar I (died 1932), who was son of Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar I, and was the greatest landholder of Shahdadkot taluka. He lived a princely life in the taluka. The son of Ghous Bux Chaki, Maulana Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi (1903-1975) also passed 5th standard examination from this Vernacular School. His other brothers Moula Bux, Qalander Bux, and Ali Bux could only pass 2nd standard examination from this School. Maulana Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi writes in his Autobiography that, “It was the year 1914-15 when England received victory in a war. On

this victorious occasion sweetmeat was distributed among pupils in Vernacular School Shahdadkot. I refused to get that sweetmeat and left the standing queue. Soon after,the Union Jack was hoisted over the school building . I hated this act and climbed up the school building and burnt the English flag instead of that I hoisted Indian National Congress flag on the school. I was arrested and was taken to the Police Station. They were about to beat me and wanted to put me in the prison but during this some Congressmen under the leadership of Haji Ghulam Muhammad Soomro rushed towards Jail and talked to the Police Station authorities for my release.At last I was released from the jail and was seated on the horse ; a procession was taken out. The partcipants chanted slogans against British Rule in India. After crossing through various roads we finally reached at the main chowk where speeches were made for an Independent Indian State. I also made a speech there. I had already burned English clothes in Shahdadkot under Congress influence”. (An Autbiography (Manuscript) written by
Maulana Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi 1975, Page 19). Maulana Qureshi was a wellknown socio-political figure of Shahdadkot . He became President of Indian National Congrees Branch Shahdadkot in 1938. He proved himself a true companion of Comrade Hyder Bux Jatoi in Sindh later. He played an active role in the floods of 1942 and 1948 and did social work for the flood affected people of Shahdadkot. During British rule over Sindh, a test called Vernacular Examination of 8 papers was conducted in schools after completing eight years primary education. The candidates who passed it were qualified to be taken up as primary school Teachers, Tapedars, Abdars and Munshis in the courts. It was tough in arithmetic, geometry, history of India, geography of world, commercial accounts, general Science, Advanced Sindhi Grammar, and Sindhi Literature. Such was the high standard that not many Matriculates of Bombay University could pass it. Comrade Hyder Bux Jatoi (1901-1970) topped the Sindh Vernacular Final Examination in 1918 among candidates from all over Sindh and then won his first position in Sindh at the matriculation examination from the Bombay University in 1923. He remained for many years the president of the Sindh Hari Committee, a movement for the development of Peasants in Sindh.
The list of Headmasters Vernacular Schools Shahdadkot

20

According to Advocate Mr. Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri (born 1921 AD village Ghulam Nabi Bhurgri taluka Shahdadkot),“After passing 4th Sindhi

Standard from Vernacular School Sanjer Bhatti, I came to Shahdadkot to get admission for Anglo Vernacular classes in 1932. The Building of Vernacular School Shahdadkot was made of burnt and sundried bricks. The school consisted round about 7 to 8 classrooms excluding Headmasters office and english class. Attached to the Vernacular School was a private building in which Taluka Headmaster Mr. Ghulam Ali Narai resided.There was a classroom inside the compound wall in which Mr. Gajrai used to taech English. He belonged to Shikarpur.At that time only 3 Standards of English were taught in the school. The total number of students in English class was 20 out of them 18 were Hindus and 2 were Muslims. I and Shahnawaz Soomro were the only two Muslim students in that class. The Head Master of the school was Mr. Ghulam Ali Narai of Dadu who was an ideal teacher. The total number of students in the school including English Class was round about 250 and there were 10 teachers. The school taught up to 7 Vernacular Standards. I passed 2 standards in English from Vernacular School Shahdadkot in the year 1934 and after this I wento Larkana to get admission in Sindh Madressah High School Larkana. Mr Ghulam Ali Narai supported me in getting half free boardership there. At that time there were round about 200 Hindu and Muslim Students enrolled in this school and it was nicely administrated by Principal Mr.Karim Bux Sheikh. I passed my Matriculation Examination from there in 1939. This school was specially established in 1901 for Muslims who were very backward in the field of education at that time.The school was run by District Local Board Larkana”.
The details of Admissions given in Vernacular or Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1947 are as under; Karira, Buthi/Taluka Miro Khan, Sando Mehmood, Silra, Angh, Reti, Kot Shahbaig Dakhan, Ghaibidero, Chhajra, Karam Ali Gopang , Pul 97000, Hyder Chandio, Imam Bux Jamali , Khan Wah , Aitbar Khan Chandio, Garhi Khero Jamali, Chakiani, Arzi Bhutto, Anglo Vernacular School Shahdadkot , Muslim School Limo Junejo, Bhagwan Pathshala Shahdadkot , Zakrio Mahesar, Arabia Siddiqui Madressa School Shahdadkot , Biro Chandio , Fateh Muhammad Mastoi/Bago Daro , Qutria, Sijawal, Shahpur, Muslim School Shahdadkot, Nao Goth Kamber, Naitch, Meenhon Leghari, Muslim School Jeand Jarawar, Raunti, Khairodero, Arain, Larkana, Thul, Quetta, Korai, Nasirabad, Mena, Sanjer Bhatti, Allahabad, Muhammad Khan Bhutto, Sheranpur, Girls School Shahdadkot , Larkana High School, Shah Muhammad School Larkana, Waleed, Ratodero-II, Wagan, Chhoharpur, Shikarpur Vernacukar School I, Maktab Jarwar, Banguldero, Rohri, Madeji, Panjoodero, Jarwar Mirpur Mathelo, Garelo, Anglo Vernacular School Kamber, Tajodero, Wasayo Bhutto, Garhi Yasin, Dokri, , Ratodero, Shikarpur Academy, Kashmor, Khairpur Mirs, PPCM High School Sukkur, Naz High School Khairpur Mirs, Girls School Karachi, Hyderabad Vernacular School, Bakrani, Sukkur, Shah Panjo, , Jean Abro, Nazar, Vernacular School Jacobabad, Madressah Gambat, Kandhkot, Gandava, Maripur/Karachi, Kamber, Lahori, Larkana, Dital Abro, Dini Madressah Larkana, Khamiso Jatoi , Noor Muhammad Sheikh, Gachal, Dadu, Khairpur Nathan Shah , Bhriya, Warah, Shikarpur Muncipal School -IV, Tharu Shah Taluka Naushehro Feroz, Darbelo/Taluka Kandiaro, Hani Taluka Kamber, Khairpur Branch-II, Hyderabad High School, SM School Shahdadkot, Girls School Kotri, Arazi, Jafferabad, Kandhra, Indian Girls Primary School Karachi, Sahib Khan Gorar, Muncipal High School Kamber, Qubo Saeed Khan, Bhanbho Khan Chandio, Abri, Hangorja, Gaheja Garhi Yasin, Goza taluka Kakar, Muhabatdero Jatoi, Gathar Adilshah, Kasmor, Mubarakpur taluka Thul, Gianchandani Hangorai Sijawal, Teerathdas Chandoo Mal School Karachi, Muslim Maktab-II Shahdadkot, Muslim Maktab-III Shahdadkot, Hindu Sindhi Muncipal School Shikarpur, Sadha Sabha Devi Shala Larkana, Gianchandani Hangorai Girls Karachi, Rai Saheb Dr. Tarachand Primary School Hyderabad, Tarai, Muncipal Girls School Nawa Tak Larkana, Dodo taluka Larkana, Ayoob Jatoi/Kandhkot, Ishwari Bai Seetaldas Teerathdas Girls School Shikarpur, Halani, Sakhi Miran School Rohri, Mula Maktab Petahro, Sakhi Miran School Larkana, Gulabrai Teekchand School Hyderabad, Pathan, Arija, Main School Larkana, Laki, Kotri, Obauro, Ghulam Bhutto, Dari School Larkana, Tando Allahyar, Tharu Shah Girls School, Bhaledino Abad District Jacobabad, Radhan Station, Police Headquarters Larkana, Mehar, Dodapur, Bhotrai taluka Sehwan, Navalrai Hiranand Academy Karachi, Primary Bagh Sukkur, PV School Shahdadkot, Frontier Sindhi School Quetta, Warah, PL Waswani, Bozdar Wada, Gambat Khairpur State, Kot Mir Muhammad Khan/Rohri, Vikia Sangi, Muhammad Ali Dini Madressah Larkana, Hindu Balak Private School, Bharat Jia Mandir Karachi, Wagan Wada, Main School Jacobabad, Dedar, Pir Bux Bhatti, Khahi Meenhon, Girls School Naushehro Feroz, Masu Hab, Peeru Mal Thakurdas Girls School Karachi, Hyderabad Vernacular School-II, Gaji Khuhawar, Phulpota, Middle School Nawabshah, Middle School Jacobabad & GL Bhojwani Kharadar Karachi.
Advocate Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri,

21

The important events in the history of Vernacular School Shahdadkot are as under; 1919-1924 Challenge to the British system : Khilafat Movement in Shahdadkot 1932 Shahdadkot was separated from Jacobabad district 1935 Separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency 1942 River Indus Floods which destroyed Education in Sindh. 1945 Exodus of Hindus from Shahdadkot to India 1947 Pirs & Politics under the Raj and Creation of Pakistan
Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi, Dr. Muhammad Yar Khuhawar & Pathan

Some outstanding and laborious teachers in the history of Vernacular School Shahdadkot are Ghulam Ali Narai, Tanoo Mal, Sajan Mal, Muhammad Saffar Babar, Gobindram, Qadir Bux Bhutto, Gianchand, Atal Dalpatrai,Daulat Khan Bhatti, Shahbaz Dino Khan Sheikh, Illahi Bux Mangi, Khuda Bux Soomro, Sijawal Khan Wadho, Muhammad Younis Bhutto, Azizullah Bhatti, Muhammad Bux Umrani, Pir Bux Sheikh, Jamaldin Dayo, Ali Hassan Khoso, Ghulam Sarwar Leghari, Muhammad Waris Jhurir, Ali Gul Buriro, Mumtaz Ali Wadho, Muhammad Ayoob Khatiyan, Ahmed Nawaz Kango, Mumtaz Ali Bhatti, Muhammad Esa Magsi , Mian Fakhurudin Mekan, Karim Bux Bhatti, Syed Zamir Hussain Shah, Ghulam Mustafa Chhalgri, Nisar Ahmed Wadho, Ghulam Mustafa Soomro, Shafqat Hussain Soomro, Muhammad Ali Soomro, Shafi Muhammad Umrani, Nisar Ahmed Mangi, Lal Ganwas, Khalid Hussain Soomro, Ghulam Murtaza Wadho, Aziz Ahmed Mastoi, Khadim Hussain Bhatti, Gul Muhammad Umrani, Shamsudin Chandio, Yar Muhammad Umrani, Niaz Hussain Bhatti, Salim Soomro, Zamir Abbass Malhani, Hyder Ali Soomro, Master Raza Soomro and Nazir Ali Soomro.Currently 1836 students including 1101 boys and 735 girls are enrolled in this school. There are 50 teachers in this school and headmaster of school is Mr. Nisar Ahmed Wadho. The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Shahdadkot taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 25

Name of School Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot Sanjer Bhatti Chankiani Dhing Silra Reti Kot Nabi Bux Sher Shah Aitbar Khan Chandio Gul Muhammad Jarwar Girls School Shahdadkot Bhagwan Pathshala Shahdadkot Qutria Sando Mehmood Bhanri Ji Wandh Khan Wah Muhammad Khan Bhutto Arabia Siddiquia Madressah Limo Junejo Fateh Muhammad Mastoi/Bago Daro Angh Girls School Shahdadkot Bhagwan Pathshala Meenho Leghari Jeand Khan Jarawr Shahbazi Khan Chandio

Foundation Year 1887 1887 1914 Existed during 1914 Existed during 1918 Existed during 1918 1920 1925 1929 1932 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 1935 Existed 1936-43 1938 Existed during 1938-1947 Existed during 1938-1947 Existed during 1938-1947 Existed during 1938-1947 Existed during 1942 Existed during 1942 Existed during 1929 1944 Existed during 1947

Source: GR Vernacular School Sanjer Bhatti 1905-1947, GR Vernacular School Chakiani 1914-1947, GR Vernacular School Shahdadkot 1911-1947, Dr. Ghulam Ali Sangi 1985, Schools Directory District Kamber Shahdadkot 2007, The Schools Directory Sindh Education Management Information System District and Tahsilwise School Directory Based on Schools Census 2007 & 2008.

22

The General Register of Vernacular School Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1926

The General Register of Vernacular School Chakianit from 1914 to 1937

23

The General Register of Vernacular School Sanjer Bhatti from 1905 to 1957

The building of Vernacular School Chakiani was constructed by District Local Board Larkana in 1938

24

03. Miro Khan Taluka & its Vernacular Schools

Miro Khan, the headquarters station of the taluka of that name, is in 27 46 North Latitude and 68 8 East Longitude. It is small village and has only assumed some importance since the creation of the taluka in 1911. Besides the Mukhtiarkar’s Office and the Police Lines there are a Public Works Department Bungalow and a school.Miro Khan is centrally situated and roads lead from it in every direction .The population at the Census of 1911 was 1898. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: Larkana District Compiled by J.W. Smyth, Bombay Civil Service Government Central Press Bombay 1919 Page 43). Miro Khan is 27 Km away from Larkana. Mirokhan is famous for a great Islamic scholar and Saint's shrine called Mian Hamid Huzoori Roshan Ali Tunio (1798-1873) who lived during Talpur and British Rule. He had very large number of followers spread in Sindh and Balochistan. He was close to Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan who had migrated from Kanda, Kalat State and finally settled down at Shahdadkot. Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan was the father of Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan (1844-1905) of Shahdadkot. The Miro Khan Police Station and Quarters were constructed during First World War in 1915-16. The old buildings still bear year stone. The famous personalities of this taluka are Maulana Khush Muhammad Mirokhani, Allama Ghulam Mustafa Qasmi, Chhato Faqir Sangi, Maulana Din Muhammad Buthvi, Maulana Kher Muhammad Lashari, Haji Mehmood Khadim Tunio, Maulana Qazi Muhammad Ibrahim of Karira and Ustad Peeral Qamber who played their role in the development of Islamic education, and literature in the area. The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Miro Khan taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15

Name of School Miro Khan Buthi Karira Bhanbho Khan Chandio Mubarak Kalhoro/Maktab Bahram Karam Ali Gopang Shahpur Petaharo Tharo Wadho Girls Primary School Miro Khan Tharo Nao/Maktab Rap Watoo Khan Chandio Ali Sher Gopang Dad Muhammad Mastoi

Foundation Year 1887 1906 1909 1926 Existed during 1929 1933 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1934-38 1935 1937 Existed during 1940 1941 1942 1947

25

04. Qubo Saeed Khan Taluka & its Vernacular Schools Qubo Saeed Khan is situated 18 Km in the west of Shahdadkot. Saeed Khan Jamali the founder of Qubo Saeed Khan Jagir is said to be a disciple of Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro. He also served Talpur Amirs of Sindh and became their Army Commander and fought many battles. The area of Qubo Saeed Khan taluka was most backward but during British Rule it developed slowly . Its town Bago Daro had commercial linkages with Kalat, Iran and Afghanistan The historical tomb of Haji Khan Marri is sitauted on a hill in the south west of Kachi Pul & Qubo Saeed Khan. Captain Charles Mason saw this tomb in 1839. General John Jacob (1812-1858) paid special attention to this area and brought peace and prosperity here. It became a village of Shahdadkot taluka in 1883-84. On 14th March 1934, a resolution was passed by District Local Board Larkana in which a contarct was signed with Mr. Khialdas to construct a road from Shahdadkot to Qubo Saeed Khan. On the request of District Superintendant Police Larkana, Government of Sindh increased Police Force and installed telephone system at Hamal, Ghaibidero, Bago Daro, Qubo Saeed Khan and Imam Bux Jamali posts in order to control robbers on Sindh Balochistan border. This notification was issued by the Government on 8th February 1940. Later, on 15th June 1940 a resolution was passed by District Local Board Larkana for buying land to construct Qubo Saeed Khan Medical Dispensary. The dispensary was named after Sir Shahnawaz Khan Bhutto in 1940. Its foundtaion stone is still seen fixed in newly established building of RHC Qubo Saeed Khan. The taluka was formed in December 2004. The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Qubo Saeed Khan taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05

Name of School Kot Shahbaig Dakhan Imam Bux Jamali Qubo Saeed Khan Fateh Muhammad Mastoi/ Bagodaro 97000 Pul

Foundation Year Existed during 1914 Existed during 1934-38 1935 Existed during 1937-38 1939

Bullock Cart of village Zar Taluka Qubo Saeed Khan

26

05. Sijawal Junejo Taluka & its Vernacular Schools Sujawal, a taluka (or sub-division) of the Larkano Deputy Collectorate, containing an area of 192 square miles, with 3 tappas, 86 villages, and a population of 15,875 souls. The revenue, imperial and local, of this sub-division during the four years ending 1870-71 was 58,953. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Compiled by A. W. Hughes- F.R.G.S, F.S.S, BOM.UNCOV .Civil Service London 1876 Page 807) . The Lieutenant of Upper Sindh Police did correspondence with the Deputy Collector Larkana through letter No 168 of 1857 for the erection of suitable quarters for the mounted police and the stables for the horses in the Kardarates of Soojawul and Buckrany at Rs. 400 each in the year 1857. The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Sijawal Junejo taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

Name of School Thoof Chausool Arzi Bhutto Mehboob Jo Banglo Hyder Chandio Korai Zakrio Mahesar Hyder Detho/ Maktab Saindad Leghari Meval Jagirani Sijawal Kot Lal Bux Mahesar Soonharo Bhatti Allah Dito Jalbani

Foundation Year 1904 1904 1906 1914 1920 Existed during 1934-38 Existed during 1939 1940 1940 1945 1945 1946 1947

Taluka Sijawal Junejo with Tappas Sanjer Bhatti, Jeendo and Sijawal in Shikarpur Collectorate 1870

27

06. Warah Taluka & its Vernacular Schools Warah, the headquarters station of the Warah taluka, is in 27 27 North Latitude and 67 51 East Longitude. It is a small town to which the headquarters of the taluka, which was formerly known as Nasirabad, were removed from Nasirabad some years ago for administrative convenience. It contains a Mukhtiarkar’s Office , Police Lines, Post Office, School and Musafirkhana, also a District Bungalow contained in a very pretty garden. The nearest railway station is Badeh at a distance of 16 miles. The population at the census of 1911 was 686. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: Larkana District Compiled by J.W. Smyth, Bombay Civil Service Government Central Press Bombay 1919 Page 52) The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Warah taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

Name of School Gaji Khuhawar Pechhoha Lalu Raunk Warah Jandahi Muhammad Khatiyan Girls Primary School Gaji Khuhawar Garhi Makoro Junani

Foundation Year 1903 1926 1929 1931 1932 1935 1939 1946 1946

Beautifuly built old building of Government Boys High School Wraah 1931

28

07. Nasirabad Taluka & its Vernacular Schools In 1876, Nasirabad was a taluka of the Mehar Deputy Collectorate, containing and area of 343 square miles, with 8 tappas. 54 villages and a population of 26,102 souls. It was situated on the Chilowah Canal, 10 miles east from Warah. It had road communication with Larkana, Mehar, Radhan, Wagan and other villages and there was also communication carried on by means of the Chilowah Canal. It was only the headquarter station of a Tappedar, the Mukhtiarkar’s Kachehri being at the thriving town of Warah. This place possesed a Deputy Collectors Staging Bangalow , a Musafirkhana, and Lines for the accomodation of 5 men of the district police. The population of the town was 1085, of whome 800 were Muslims and 285 Hindus. The former were of the Kathia tribe, and the latter of the Pahin caste. There was some local trade in the export of ricefrom this town, but nothing seemed to be known of either the quantity or value. The transit trade was also said to be in the same article. The town was built by Mir Nasir Khan Talpur, and was formerly of some importance. It had also a good fort during 1876. Mirza Qalich Baig (1853-1929) served as First Class Magistrate and Mukhtiarkar in Nasirabad during 1887. During this tenure he visited mountanious areas of Khirthar Range located in the west of Nasirabad,Sindh. He also visited Darhiyaro, a mountain hill in theis range. He compiled his travelogue which was later published in a book from Sindhi Adabi Board Hyderabad,Sindh. After serving the British Government as Deputy Collector for thirty years, he retired in 1910. Mirza Kalich Beg wrote more than 400 books, which are categorized under Drama, Articles, Research Books, Novels, and History. The first Adabi (Literacy) Conference was held under his president ship in 1921 at Larkana. The names of some of the oldest Vernacular Schools in Nasirabad taluka are as follows;

S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Name of School Khairpur Juso Thariri Hashim Ghogharo Nasirbabad Dera Abri Wasu Kalhoro Girls Primary School Nasirabad Girls Primary School Khairpur Juso Miandad Chinjni Choudero Hatim Sohu Dedar Girls Primary School Ghogharo Bazari Kandhira Wagan (Wada)

Foundation Year 1889 1892 1898 1898 1904 1906 1920 1922 1928 1933 1935 1935 1935 1938 1939 Existed during 1940

Mirza Qalich Baig served as First Class Magistrate & Mukhtiarkar in Taluka Nasirabad Sindh in 1887

29

Middle School Education

Madresseh Tul Islam High School Larkana 1912

30

THE ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN SHAHDADKOT Anglo Vernacular School Kamber 1899 Comrade Sobho Gianchandani

According to J.W.Smyth the Muncipal School Larkana was started in 1867 and it taught up to 6th Standard. The Kamber AV School was opened in 1899. The Madressah School Larkana was founded by Mr. J.H.E. Tupper, I.C.S,in June 1900. It was opened on the Baker Road opposite to the Civil Hospital Larkana. He collected subscriptions from the local Zamindars of the division for educational purpose. The Medresseh School Larkana consisted of 2 buildings, a mosque and a boarding house. The English Branch of the school taught up to the 5th standard. The staff consisted of a Principal, 4 Masters, a Clerk, a Moulvi and a Drill Instructor. The Anglo Vernacular School Kamber taught up to 5th Standard and the Ratodero Anglo Vernacular School (Opened in 1914) taught up to the 4th standard. The 7th standard of the Anglo Vernacular Course was the class in which students were prepared for the Matriculation Examination of the Bombay University and for the Departmental School Final Examination. In 1915 the number of boys on the rolls was 61 at Kamber and 66 at Ratodero. The expenditure was Rs. 4,009 and Rs. 4,579 and the government grant Rs.786 and Rs.1,200 for the schools respectively. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Larkana District Compiled by J.W.Smyth Bombay 1919, Pages 31). The Anglo Vernacular School Jacobabad was opened in 1905 and reached up to 5th standards. Attached to the Vernacular School was a Boarding House maintained by the District Local Board for Muslim boys of the district who were being educated in Jacobabad. It had accommodation for about 30 boys. Comrade Sobho Gianchandani (born 1920), the famous social scientist and revolutionary writer got admission in Anglo Vernacular School Kamber in 1929. He was accompanied by his elder brother Kewal Ram. Both of them stayed in Boarding House attached to the school. Mr. Rochiram Shahani was the headmaster of the school who developed school and its library nicely. Following is the List of the Head Masters of Anglo Vernacular School Kamber since 1887.

S.NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

NAME OF HEAD MASTER Mr. Qazi Abdul Rehman Junejo Mr. Mandhiodas M Oshani Mr. Rochi Ram L Shahwani Mr. Ibn-e-Hassan Sheikh Mr. Karim Bux Baloch Mr. Tackchand Revachand Mr. Visyo Mal J Matai/ VJ Matai Mr. Ameer Bux G Sheikh Mr. Abdul Latif Mahar Mr. Muzzafar Ali Mr. Ghulam Shabir Abbassi Mr. Dr. Abdul Hadi Surhio Mr. Shafi Muhammad Rajper Mr. Usman Ali Ansari Mr. Noor Muhammad Rajper Mr. Abdul Rehman Bhutto Mr. Azizullah Abbassi Mr. Bhagwandas Khoobchandani Mr. Asadullah D Soomro Mr. Aijaz Ali M Qadri Mr. Abdul Khalique Brohi Mr. Ali Muhammad Soomro Mr. Abdul Khalique Broh Mr. Abdul Ghaffar Brohi Mr. Manthar Ali Buriro Mr. Abdul Khalique Brohi Mr. Ghulam Hussain Gopang

FROM 01-05-1887 01-12-1899 06-05-1909 04-02-1934 03-02-1938 03-06-1945 02-01-1946 01-02-1967 24-10-1973 01-04-1974 01-08-1974 10-04-1978 02-10-1982 22-01-1986 10-03-1986 10-09-1990 18-09-1990 21-10-1993 30-10-1993 02-11-1993 16-08-1997 25-09-2000 22-10-2002 04-11-2003 23-80-2004 23-11-2004 05-12-2005

TO 30-11-1899 05-05-1909 03-02-1934 02-02-1938 03-06-1945 01-01-1946 31-01-1967 23-10-1973 31-03-1974 13-07-1974 09-04-1978 01-10-1982 21-01-1986 09-03-1986 09-09-1990 17-09-1990 20-10-1993 29-10-1993 01-11-1993 16-08-1997 25-09-2000 21-10-2002 04-11-2003 23-08-2003 23-11-2004 04-12-2005 -

SOURCE: Kamber: A Study Edited and Compiled by Riazat Buriro, Published by Dr. Muhabat Academy Kamber October 2006, Page 85

31

Anglo Vernacular School Nsirabad 1916

Pirbhdas Tolani (1893-1988) the president of Larkana Muncipality

According to Dr.Ghulam Ali Sangi the Anglo Vernacular School of Nasirabad was established in the year 1916 and Shahdadkot Anglo Vernacular School was opened in 1920 which was later known as Muncipal High School Shahdadkot. Dr. Ghulam Ali Sangi’s PhD Thesis entiltled “ Role of Education in Socio-Political Economic Conditions in Larkana District during Talpur and British Period (1783-1843) was submitted in the University of Sindh Jamshoro in 1985. He has highlighted Nasirabad Anglo Vernacular School in his thesis too. Anglo Vernacular School Shahdadkot-1920 Shahdadkot was a taluka of District Upper Sindh Frontier/ Jacobabad from 1883-84 to 1932. During this period a Taluka Local Board was formed in Shahdadkot. The purpose of this board was to plant shady trees along different roads of the town. Its first president was Rais Muhammad Bux Khan Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-I, while its other members were Seth Anand Ram, Seth Kewal Ram, and Haji Darya Khan Mastoi. Similarly the District Local Board consisted on Bhai Jethanand Seth Utamchand, Bhai Bhagwandas Bhai Gangadas and Rais Muhammad Bux Khan Khuhawar-I. The board also looked into the affairs of Schools, dispensary and Musafirkhana. According to Dr. Ghulam Ali Sangi, the Anglo Vernacular School Shahdadkot was opened in 1920. After 1932, Shahdadkot was separated from Upper Sindh Frontier District Jacobabad and was made a taluka of Larkana District. In the year 1934 the Shahdadkot Taluka Local Board was replaced with District Local Board Larkana. According to the thesis of Dr. Ghulam Ali Sangi one Advanced Primary (AP) class was attached with Vernacular School or present Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot (est: in 1887) where pupils were given admission for English standards 1st . Later on, in 1921 the 2nd standard was also started. Mr. Gajrai who was resident of Shikarpur used to taech English to the pupils in the School .When the number of students increased a news class of 3rd standard was shifted into a building owned by a Hindu situated presently Kamboh Muhalla Shahdadkot in 1935. There were round about 5 class rooms in this school excluding headmaster’s office, Science Hall and Teachers Hostel near to it. Haji Sardar Ali S/o Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar (1925-2013) passed 5th standard examination from this Vernacular School of Shahdadkot in 1939-40. His teachers were Mr. Sher Muhammad Buriro and Mr. Muhmmad Nawaz Awan. Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti also paseed I, II & III satandards from this school building. Currently the families of Muhammad Ramzan Kamboh, Abdul Rehman Kamboh and Muhammad Rafique Kamboh are residing in this school building.The building still presents old picture of Shahdadkot. On 9th July 1934, Mr. Nabi Bux Khan Bhutto was elected as the president of District Board Larkana. The total number of members was 24 who were Ali Hassan Khan Hakro, Muhammad Ayoob Khuhro, Rai Sahib Gokaldas, Asoodo Mal, Jan Muhammad Chandio, Deewan Bhojraj, Farid-ul-din Jatoi, Abdul Hadi Bughio, Hassan Ali Khan Isran, Qadir Bux Tuino, Faqir Muhammad Unar, Seth Aildas, Allahdad Tunio, Sirai Pir Bux Khuhawar (Shahdadkot) , Nabi Bux Khan Bhutto, Muhammad Siddique Wagan , Abdul Haque Bhutto, Haji Ameer Ali Khan Lahori, Allah Bux Jalbani, Ahmed Khan Bhutto, Ali Gohar Lahori and Seth Pirbhdas Tolani. The meetings of District Local Board were organized at Larkana on regular basis in which important decisions were made for the welfare and development of people in the district. Under Section 40(3) of Government of India Act 1935, Sindh was separated from the Bombay presidency with effect from 1 April 1936. With the introduction by the same Act of Provincial Autonomy, the newly created Province of Sindh secured a Legislative Assembly of its own, consisting of 60 members, who were elected on the basis of communal representation and weightage to the minority community. Sir Lancelot Graham was appointed as the first Governor of Sindh by the British Government on 1 April 1936. Sir Khanbahadur Allah Bux Soomro was the first chief minister of Sindh. The Members of Sindh Legislative Assembly from Larkana, Kamber & Shahdadkot, were as under; 1) Mr. Abdul Majeed Lilram Sheikh 2) Khanbahadur Haji Ameer Ali Tharo Khan Lahori 3) Khanbahadur Ghulam Muhammad Abdullah Khan Isran 4) Rai Sahib Gokaldas Mewaldas 5) Khanbahadur Muhammad Ayoob Shah Muhammad Khan Khuhro and 6) Mir Muhammad Nawab Ghaibi Khan Chandio.
Old building of AV- III Classes in present Kamboh Muhalla Shahdadkot

A meeting of District Local Board was held on 4th June 1936 at Larkana. It was presided over by Mr. Nabi Bux Khan Bhutto. The meeting was also attended by Assistant Collector Kamber and Deputy Collector Larkana. The other participants were Muhammad Ayoob Khuhro, Muhammad Siddique Wagan, Sirai Pir Bux Khuhawar, Ahmed Khan Bhutto, Pirbhdas Tolani, Allahdad Tunio, Assodo Mal, Ameer Ali Khan Lahori, Jan Muhammad

32

Chandio, Ali Gohar Khan Lahori, Hassan Ali Khan Isran, Seth Aildas, Faqir Muhammad Unar, Allah Bux Jalbani, Farid-ul-din Jatoi, Rai Sahib Gokaldas and Diwan Bhojraj. In this meeting it was unanimously decided that English classes for 4th standard will be started in Shahdadkot. In another meeting of District Local Board organized on 29th June 1937 at Larkana it was decided that land would be purchased for the play ground of Shahdadkot English School. Decisions were also taken for contracts to construct the buildings of Chakiyani Vernacular School and a dispensary in Qubo Saeed Khan. It was also decided that taluka level dispensaries would be established at Dokri, Warah, Miro Khan and Shahdadkot. The schemes of purchasing tube wells for Badah, Warah and Pir Bux Bhutto were also discussed in this meeting. Kajlo Kharan Khan (born 1-7-1922 at Shahdadkot) was the first pupil who got admission in standard IV on 1st May 1937. The other students who received admission from May to December 1937 were as follows; 1) Manthar Panju Mal Hindu Amil( born Khairpur Mirs 21-1-1920), Wasand Balo Mal (born 12-12-1923 Gachal/Ratodero), Warial Relu Mal (born1-4-1922 Shahdadkot), Muhammad Alim Baran Khan Brohi (born 1-1-1918 Wandh/Shahdadkot), Mano Khubchand (1-1-1922 Shahdadkot), Dwarko Gurdas Mal (born 10-6-1922 Morio Faqir/Ratodero), Jeal Jagan Mal (born 10-1-1921 Garhi Khero), Tecko Tiloo Mal Chandnani (born 1-3-1920 Garhi Khero), Ghulam Dastageer Ghulam Muhammad Abro (born 107-1924 Ratodero) and others. While Bhojo Aasun Mal Hindu Bhaiband (18-3-1920 Shahdadkot) was the first student who was given admission in V standard on 2-5-1938. His progress was fair with good conduct and he left school on 31-3-1939. In GR Remarks it is mentioned that no further classes were available for more study. Another pupil of Vth standard was Atal Dalpatrai (born 7-11923 Minho Leghari/ Shahdadkot) who had come from Anglo Vernacular School Kamber and was admitted in 5th standard on 15-6-1938. His date of leaving is 31-3-1939. His reason for leaving school is described as Higher Studies. Some other pupils were Pahlaj Mulchand (born 109-1923 Vakro), Mehrullah Abdullah Sheikh (born 24-10-1924 Shahdadkot), Srichand Jodhram (born 8-3-1923 Bakhsh Jatoi) and Manohar Dhiandas Hindu Amil (born 25-3-1923 Kamber). (See GR Anglo Vernacular School / Municipal High School Shahdadkot from 1-4-1936 to 10-1-1940 GR NOs 1-178). During those years Sindhi Primary Education was also provided to the students along with English Classes. In the same way another District Local Board meeting was organized on 3rd April 1938 at Larkana which was also presided over by Mr. Nabi Bux Khan Bhutto. During this meeting it was decided that English classes of 5th standard would be started in Shahdadkot. This time Diwan Wadhoo Mal, Muhammad Ali Mugheri, Anandram Shahdadkoti, Allah Warayo Jarwar, Anandram Badahi, Sirai Pir Bux Khuhawar, Abdul Rehman Kalhoro, Sirai Illahi Bux Khokhar, Gul Muhammad Abro and Mithal Khan Sheikh also attended the meeting. The official record of these meetings is preserved in Gul Hayat Institute Khair Muhammad Arija, Taluka Dokri District Larkana Sindh. The development of Primary Education System started with The Woods Dispatch, 1854 who was then the president of the Board of Control of the East India Company Court of Directors. It was the first comprehensive policy document in respect of Education. After this The Hunter Commission presented its recommendations in 1882. The government gave its point of view regarding definition of Education in this report as, “For the position in life, and was not necessarily to be regarded as a position of instruction leading to the university.” The practical aspects of the Education Policy adopted under the recommendations of the Hunter Commission included: (1) Transfer of control of Primary Education to the Local Bodies set up under the Local Self Government Acts of 1883-85; and (2) the development of a system of grants-in-aid to Mulla Maktabs and other private schools. Lord Curzon, the Governor General of British India called an Educational Conference in 1901. The five year period from 1918 to 1923 witnessed developments which drew educational planning back to Gokhlae’s idea of Compulsory Education. The introduction of Compulsory Primary Education under the Bombay Government Education Act 1923 Larkana Taluka was taken up in 1928; Sukkur in 1939, Thul in 1941, Hala, Gooni, Jacobabad and Dokri taluka in 1945 and Kandiaro Taluka in 1946 were gradually brought under the scheme. The control of Primary Education was vested in the District Local Boards under the Bombay Primary Education Act 1923. The education in Sindh developed more after the Separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency (1936-1947). In this regards Director Public Instructions KB Ghulam Nabi Qazi and Allama Dr. Umer Bin Muhammad Daudpota played their great role.
Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-II (1903-1978) of Shahdadkot

After the ending of Sindh Educational Conference held on 1st April 1939, six months Adult Literacy Campaign was started in 1939 for the educational uplift of Sindhi Muslims. The conference had been called by Honorable Pir Illahi Bux, the Minister of Education. It was decided in the conference that Literacy Campaigns would be launched in 2 talukas of each district and in the Karachi City. Accordingly Larkana and Ratodero talukas were included from Larkana District. The 1st of May 1939 was celebrated as the Literacy Day in every village in the taluka selected for the Literacy Campaign. In morning, procession comprising students and teachers, went through streets carrying banners and posters and shouting slogans specially prepared for the occasion. Music was also played where possible. In the evening public were invited to a function in which songs, lectures and dramas were presented, highlighting the

33

horrors of illiteracy and the advantage of education. At the end of programme (from 15th May to 31st December 1939), a total 29995 adults were made literate of whom 2077 were women. Centers were opened having 15 illiterate adults in it in each district. The centers were housed in the primary school buildings or in rent free accommodations, provided by the village headman. Contingent expenditure was made from the Literacy Fund, specially raised for the purpose. Thus mats, lamps, and kerosene oil were provided in each centre and each learner was supplied with free reading and writing material. A weekly periodical was also published with the name of Ilm/ Knowledge which contained articles on Education, Health & Hygiene, Public Health, Sanitation, Agriculture, Morality and News Bulletin. As a follow up Mobile Libraries were provided in each district to offer interesting reading material to the persons made literate under this programme. (See Education in Sindh: Past & Present by Dr. Habibullah Siddiqui, Published by Institute of Sindhology University of Sindh Jamshoro 2006, Pages 188-189). Mr. G.M. Syed as the Education Minister of Sindh had also played an important role for the development of education in the province. He worked very hard for the formal education of Sindhi Muslims. After him Pir Illahi Bux took initiatives for the education promotion. Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar, Member District Local Board Larkana also played an important role during Literacy Campaign in Shahdadkot in 1939. A letter of recognition was issued on 14th June 1940 from Collectors Bungalow Larkana in the name of Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar in which Mukhtiarkar Shahdadkot on behalf of Literacy Campaign Committee Larkana thanked and appreciated his efforts for the promotion of education in Shahdadkot area. In December 1939 Education Show was organized at Suko Talao (Dry Tank) by District Local Board Larkana. All the Anglo Vernacular Schools of Larkana District presented handicrafts, woodwork, Fret work, book binding and basket making items along with scented oil at the stalls installed at the event. A 2 day drama was also organized to aware masses regarding education importance. A song competition of 3rd to 5th standards was also arranged in the show. Mr. Wahid Bux Bhutto (1916-1982) and Mr. Amul Roy were given special tasks to identify talented students from whole of the Larkana district. Both of them visited all the Anglo Vernacular Schools of the district and selected 2 students from Anglo Vernacular School Veehar, 2 students from Anglo Vernacular School Garelo and 20 students from Shahdadkot and Nasirabad Anglo Vernacular Schools. All the selected students had been prepared for one month. All the selected students were accommodated in Boarding House at Larkana. District Local Board Larkana paid all the expenses of their stay there. The chief guest of the event was Khanbahadur Karim Bux Khan Khuhawar, President District Local Board Larkana. While Mr. Agha Taj Muhammad Administrative Officer District Local Board Larkana and Mr. Pahoo Mal, Head master Anglo Vernacular School Nasirabad supervised the education show. (See Larkano Saah Sebano Compiled by Gul Muhammad Gad Published by Muncipal Employees Union Larkana 198, Pages 249 & 250)

Farewell of 5th Standard 1939-40: Mr. Sher Muhammad Buriro (Gathar) & Mr. Muhammad Nawaz Awan (Shikarpur) with their students Sardar Ali Khuhawar (1925-2013) with Turkish Cap & Black dress in centre, Muhammad Pariyal Ghaloo, Dr. Qadir Bux Qazi, Muhammad Khan Sheikh while Shafiullah, Lalchand, Habibullah Pathan, Monk Nanak Ram, Ahmed Sheikh and others sitting on the ground. This photograph was taken at Irrigation Bungalows Shahdadkot

34

Shahdadkot was destroyed by the great flood of July 1942. The flood water of Indus River covered 17 talukas of Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Dadu districts. Vast areas came under water and thousands of people lost their houses, crops, animals and other properties. Both Hindus and Muslims constructed Bunds (Protective Walls) around Shahdadkot city to protect it from the inundation water but these could not stand in front of a great flood disaster and in this way whole of the city came under water and people fled to save their lives. Mr. R.R.Pears, the then Assistant Commissioner was monitoring the flood and was in Shahdadkot for monitoring relief work done by Government, Zamindars and citizens. Similarly Mr. V. Eastern was also visiting the area very frequently. During flood disaster Mahraj Gopi Krishan arranged boats to evacuate the people from flooded areas and sent them to upon high sand dunes in the west of the city. He also provided them cooked food and fresh drinking water. He helped those families who wanted to go for safer places like Jacobabad. He arranged cooked degs for many days so that the flood effects could survive in hot summers under open sky. For sick and ill people he arranged doctors to treat them. He also tried to help the people to evacuate their belongings from shops and rice mills. Not only had this but he also did many arrangements for the cleanliness in the city. Not only Primary schools but also AV Classes suffered issue of attendance because of flood. It in fact affected education system in the area. Mr. Haroo Mal Sandrani, secretary Sanitary Committee Shahdadkot also looked after the city for cleanliness it's why he was attacked by Tuberculoses Bacteria (TB) and died for a good cause. Very soon the Commissioner Mr. C.B. Clee paid a visit to Shahdadkot and after watching whole the disaster and destruction he did announcement for the establishment of Municipality. The Main objectives of this Municipality were the construction of roads and drainage system. The population of the town was now reached to 16,000 souls. The British Government of India had introduced Municipality System in the Indo Pak Subcontinent in 1850s. Its work was to maintain health and hygienic conditions, schools, colleges and hospitals. It was responsible to install a clock in the midst of the city or town to keep people aware about the importance of time. Railway buildings were also a beauty of the Municipality in grand cities like Karachi. Previously forts and religious buildings were considered as very valuable. It was also a responsibility of Municipality to supply safe drinking water to the city dwellers. Streets and roads were also lightened by the Municipality at night. The Larkana Municipality was established in 1855, Kamber in 1862 and Jacobabad in 1875.
Interviewing Mr. Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani, Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto & Advocate Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri

35

An election of Shahdadkot Municipality was held in December 1942.It had following 16 members: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi (President) Seth Lalchand Punjabi Seth Herdas Mal Mahraj Shankar Lal Advocate Bhai Saboo Ram Seth Satram Das Seth Jaro Mal Seth Warial Das Mahraj Aso Ram

10) Seth Bacho Mal 11) Haji Ghulam Muhammad Sheikh 12) Seth Karim Bakhsh Khan Sheikh 13) Sirai Nek Muhammad Dakhan 14) Mistri Ghulam Rasool Khan Soomro 15) Haji Darya Khan Mastoi 16) Khan Sahib Imdad Hussain Khan Khuhawar The president of the Municipal Committee was Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi, who already had a lot of experience of social work in Shahdadkot. The Municipality Building was at Kotoo Motoo Chowk in Shahdadkot. It had a main room for president and other rooms. In his tenure, Mahraj Gopi Krishan constructed many roads in Shahdadkot including Shahi Bazzar. For this purpose, services were taken from A.C.C Cement Company Karachi. Drainage System was introduced for the first time in the city and Grain, Vegetable and Beef Markets were constructed in Shahdadkot. After one year the Municipality was able to do a lot for the development and beautification of Shahdadkot. In 1943 Mr. Sir Hugh Dow (1886-1978), the Governor of Sindh and Lady Hughdow visited Shahdadkot and admired the efforts taken by Municipality under the President ship of Mahraj Gopi Krishan. In his speech he claimed that one day Shahdadkot Municipality would lead the rest of Municipalities in Sindh. Due to 2nd World War (WW2) this Municipality could remain functional for 3 years i.e. from 1942 to 1945. Mahraj Gopi Krihsan was honoured with a Gold Medal by Indian British Government for his services done during 1942 flood disaster. In January 1946 another Municipality Election was held in which 16 new members were elected under the president ship of Seth Jaro Mal. Remembering 1942 flood, Advocate Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri says, “I was studying in C & S College Shikarpur at that time. This was the first

Sindhi College in Upper Sindh which was established by Messers Chellasingh & Seetaldas in 1936. As I was worried about my examinations therefore I made up my mind for going to C&S College Shikarpur. All the roads and railway lines were under flood water from Larkana to Shikarpur. Seeing this situation I set from Larkana and reached Noor Wah Bridge which was situated in the west of Kamber on Larkana Shahdadkot route. I hired a boat and sailed towards Shahdadkot which was already flooded but some of its parts were safe. I stayed there in the house of Mr. Qadir Bux Bhatti who was Supervising Tapader in Shahdadkot. He was my father’s old friend. Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, his son later became Head master of Municipal High School Shahdadkot in 1960. After one or two days stay at Shahdadkot I went to my ancestral village Ghulam Nabi Bhurgri. From this place I moved to Garhi Khero and reached Shikarpur via Jacobabad.” Dr. Muhammad Yar
Khuhawar Emeritus Professor University of Sindh Jamshoro also passed his Intermediate examination from C&S College Shikarpur in 1966. According to the statement of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh and Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto that after 1948 flood disaster, English Classes of Anglo Vernacular School which were earlier located presently Kamboh Muhalla were shifted to the present building of Government Urdu Primary School on Municipal Park Road Shahdadkot. It was quite dry and easily accessible place at that time. The new building was arranged by Shahdadkot Municipality from Seth Naraendas Pirbhdas (died 1964) who also owned property in Larkana, Shahdadkot, Garhi Khero and Warah talukas. The building is situated in Ward A- bearing City Survey number 330 and its total area measures 529.4 yards. The school building comprised on 10 rooms, 1 store, and 1 latrine. The Science Hall was constructed by Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti during his tenure from Municipal rubble. This school building was evacuated when Municipal High School was shifted into present building in 1963. During this period Science Hall was encroached upon. Through the efforts of Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi, Mahraj Gopi Krishan and orders of DC Larkana Govt: Urdu Primary School Shahdadkot was established in the same building in 1964-65. A dispute arose on school between Gul Muhammad Jarwar and Urdu School Administration in August 1995. Finally EDO Rev KSK through his order No 347 of 01-04-2010 observed that CS No: 330 was the property of Education Department and cancelled all previous entries’ in the favour of

36

school children. Currently there is 14 teaching and 3 non teaching staff working in the school. Round about 800 students including boys and girls are getting education from this school. Mr. Ghulam Qadir Lodhi is administrating as headmaster presently. The General Register of the Anglo Vernacular School available at Govt: (Prov) High School Shahdadkot bears the name of Ghulam Farooque Abdul Rasool as the first enrolled student of the school. Other GR details show that he was born on 2nd April 1921 at Shahdadkot. He got admission in Anglo Vernacular Shahdadkot on 1st April 1936. Last school attended by him was Vernacular School Shahdadkot locally known as Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot. He was half free student and he was admitted in second standard. The second student was Mano Khubchand (1-1-1922), a Hindu of Shahdadkot. He was admitted on 1st April 1936 in third standard and passed his course 31-3-1937. While the third student is named as Ghulam Rasool Gul Muhammad (1-10-1922) who also came from Vernacular School Shahdadkot. He left school on 31-8-1936 during second standard and joined his father’s profession. The School GR-I, started from 1-4-1936 to 10-1-1940 with a total enrolment of 178 students. These students had formerly come from the various locations and schools such as Vernacular, Anglo Vernacular and High Schools of Shahdadkot, Sanjer Bhatti, Imam Bux Jamali, Karira, Minho Leghari, Chakiani, AV Classes Garhi Khero, Primary School MTajo Dero, Khan Wah, Gachal, AV Naitch, Dakhan, Naudero, Kamber, Mahyoon Makol, Arija, Garhi Khuda Bux Bhutto, Banguldero, Larkana, Madeji, Morio Faqir/ Ratodero, Khairpur Juso, Garhi Yasin, Pathan/ Dokri, Shah Panjo/ Mehar, Sukkur, Rohri, Khairpur Mirs, Naushero Feroz, Tando Muhammad Khan, GN School Garhi Yasin, Dakhan, BM High School Ratodero, Miro Khan, Municipal High School Kamber, AV School Naudero, Pir Chandam, Tarai, Mirpur Sakiro, Primary School Mehar, Wagan, LB High School Tharu Shah, Primary School Kehar, Primary School Tagar Nawa, Guru Nanik Academy Garhi Yasin, AP Classes Drabelo, Shamim Bai Basant Singh Girls High School Karachi, Dhamrah, Dokri, Muhammad Khan Bhutto, Government High School Mirpur Khas, LB High School Tharu Shah, Kanaya Vidyalya Larkana, AV Classes Miro Khan, Girls School Shahdadkot, Premier High School Shahdadkot, Bhgwan Pathshala Shahdadkot, Vedic Vidyalya SM School Jharree Mahboob/ Kot Mirza Dokri, SM Classes Bhan, Primary School Nasirabad, Muncipal High School Ratodero, SM School Garelo, Primary School Agani, Primary School Zangeja, PHH School Dadu, SM School Deparcha, The Larkana Academy, SM Classes Miro Khan, SM Classes Khairodero, SM Classes Bulra, SM Classes Sita Road, AV School SM Nasirabad, GA High School Mehar, Dr. Tarachand Jhandriji Sindhi Boys School Karachi, EC Warah, Primary School Ghogharo, Madressah High School Larkana, High School Jacobabad, SM Classes Radhan, Pul 97000, Qubo Saeed Khan, Hyder Chandio, Primary School Sijawal, Kot Lal Bux Mahesar, Kot Shahbaig Dakhan, Primary School Phulji, Sobhodero/Khairpur State, DT High School Larkana, Warah, Priyatam Dharam Sakha High School Qazi, Vasi Maluk Shah Guni, PS Bakrani, Fateh Muhammad Mastoi/Bago Daro, PS Chhajra, Buthi, Pano Akil, Jeand Jarwar, PS Juneja, AV Classes Jhimpir, Government High School Larkana, St. Mary’s School Sukkur and Nava Vidyalya Kania High School Hyderabad, Sindh, Government High School Hyderabad, The names of Head Masters of Anglo Vernacular School Shahdadkot after 1947 were Mr. Abdul Kawi Zia (MA). Mr. Mushtaque Hussain Zaidi/Karachi (BA & BT), Mr. Ahmed Ali Wagan/Yarodero (BA & BT), Mr. Abdul Haque Solangi /Nasirbabad (LLB), Mr. Muhammad Saleh Bhutto /Mehar (BA & BT) and Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti of Shahdadkot (MA, BT & LLB) respectively. In the days of Mr. Abdul Haque Solangi a trip to Hakim Shah was arranged for students of school. When the party reached on the banks of Warah Branch and tried to play sports a quarrel arose between the head master and the overseer Abdul Rehman Khatiyan. Finally it took a shape of conflict which ended with the death of overseer. The head master had shot him dead with his American gun. On this incident Mr. Abdul Haque Solangi, other teachers as well as students were sent to lock up. The person who was killed was a relative of Shah Murad Khan Chodho and was employee of Irrigation Department. Later on Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti married his daughter Qazbano Khatiyan. Mr. Abdul Haque Solangi was from Nasirabad. Later on he started his career as advocate in Larkana. He was son of Moulvi Muhammad Azim Sheda, one of the greatest scholars of Arabic and Persian in the region. C & S College Shikarpur 1936 Education was also provided to girls in Anglo Vernacular School Shahdadkot from 1936 to 1940. Some of the girl’s students of this school are registered as Miss Sulachhani Sabhago Mal Hindu Amil (born 3112-1924 Banguldero), Miss Parpati Moolchand Hindu Amil (born 5-5-1925 Hyderabad), Miss Jamki Satramdas v Hindu Amil (born 4-8-1926 Quetta), Miss Mira Chelasingh Hindu Amil (born 30-10-1927

37

Banguldero) and Miss Indira Menghrajmal Hindu Amil (born 01-11-1929 Larkana). Some other notable Muslim students were as follows; Muhammad Alam Baran Khan Brohi (born 1-1-1918 Wandh ), Mazhar Ali Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar (born 10-02-1923 Karira) Saindad Wali Muhammad Mastoi (born 15-01-1924 village Haji Saindad Khan Mastoi), Sardar Ali Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar (born 24-07-1925 Karira), Gul Muhammad Jeal Khan Sheikh ( born 01-01-1926 Shahdadkot), Muhammad Amin Haji Darya Khan Mastoi (born 05-03-1929 Haji Saindad Khan Mastoi), Sijawal Khan Muhammad Bux Wadho (02-08-1931 Chakiyani) and Muhammad Bux Nek Muhammad Khan Dakhan/Soomro (born 01-10-1937 Kot Shahbeg Dakhan). Following is the list of the known Head Msters of Anglo Vernacular & Muncipale School Shahdadkot from 1936 to 1960 were; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mr. Gulab Rai Mr. Naraindas Mr. Mr. Ghuman Mal Khiani Mr. Abdul Kawi Zia Mr. Mushtaque Hussain Zaidi Mr. Ahmed Ali Wagan Mr. Abdul Haque Solangi Mr. Muhammad Saleh Bhutto

Anglo Vernacular Classes Warah 1931 In February 1893, Sanitary Committee was established which continued up to 1959. In the same year it was made Headquarter of UC Warah. In 1919, Warah contained a Mukhtiarkar Office, Police Lines, Post Office, School and Musafirkhana. It had also a District Bungalow which contained a prety garden. The nearest Railway station was Badah , at a distance of 16 miles. The AV Classes started in Warah in 1931. The school building consisted upon 4 claasrooms.This eye captivating school building still stands in the town of Warah with grandeur. Anglo Vernacular Classes Miro Khan 1942 In 1925-26,Sanitory Committee was established in Miro Khan which continued up to 1959. Anglo Vernacular Classes existed in Miro Khan during 1942. Some of the students had come to Shahdadkot Anglo Vernacular School for seeking admission from Miro Khan later.

Mr. Muhammad Saleh Bhutto, Head Master of Muncipal High School Shahdadkot along with his staff in 1959-60

38

High School Education

Government (Prov) High School Shahdadkot in 1950s

39

THE SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SHAHDADKOT Muncipal High School Shahdadkot-1954
Mahraj Gopi Krishan (1910-1992) Chairman Muncipality Shahdadkot

The Anglo Vernacular School Shahdadkot came under Municipal Administration after 1942. This time the school was run by Shahdadkot Municipality which paid Rs.60 per month to the house owner as a rent. The Anglo Vernacular School was shifted in 1948 to presently Govt: Urdu Primary School Shahdadkot and its attached classes of 6th standard were started within the office building of Municipal Park in 1951. A Branch School was also opened in Martin Abad Shahdadkot after partition of 1947. The history of Govt: (Prov) Boys High School Shahdadkot is incomplete without the description of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti. He was born on 1st June 1929 at Shahdadkot. His father Haji Qadir Bux Bhatti was a retired Supervising Tapedar while his grandfather Ahmed Khan Bhatti Kalani was a poor farmer and lived at village Sanjer Bhatti in the north east of Shahdadkot. He also instructed village children in the reading of Holy Quran in a mosque. Amina Khatoon Khokhar, the mother of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti was daughter of Nabi Bux Khan Khokhar who was a servant of Brigadier General John Jacob (1812-1858) of Jacobabad. He originally belonged to Khairpur Mirs but after quarrelling with his relatives, he went to Calcutta India for a better future. Later on, he joined General John Jacob as his servant and settled himself at Jacobabad. John Jacob bestowed upon him a land of 500 Jarebs near Osta Muhammad Balochistan for his services. This land was sold by the family after 1947 partition. Muhammad Hashim Bhatti, one of the close relatives of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti was also a Supervising Tapadar but afterwards he resigned from his post and joined the Silk Letter Movement. Another of his relative named Ghulam Hussain Bhatti was a Primary School Teacher at Village Chakiani who did stool in Union Jack as the sign of hatred from British Rule over India in 1920s. A case was lodged against him which caused end of his service. Advocate Dengo Mal came to Shahdadkot from Karachi for the hearings of the case. On the other hand Maulana Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi, Ghulam Rasool Soomro and Ghulam Qadir Soomro gave moral and political support to Ghulam Hussain Bhatti. On 8th September 1921 Ghulam Hussain Bhatti donated Rs. 50 to Khilafat Movement Committee which was a very huge amount at that time. The father of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti Haji Qadir Bux Bhatti had also second marriage with Sardar Khatoon Awan. The couple had two other sons named Abdul Ghaffar Bhatti (Principal Himayat-ul-Islam High School & College Karachi) and Hussain Bux Bhatti who died in Dubai, UAE. Haji Qadir Bux Bhatti had two brothers named Abdullah Khan Bhatti and Khuda Bux Bhatti. Their ancestral village was Lundo Bhatti in taluka Miro Khan. Haji Qadir Bux Bhatti served as Supervising Tapedar under Mr. H.E.G. Aikton (1945-1947) the Collector or Deputy Commissioner Larkana. One day he was found absent from the office as he had gone to offer prayers. Seeing this Collector Mr. Aikton dismissed him. When Qadir Bux Bhatti saw this he filed a case against the British Official. After some hearings he was released by the court. Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti received his early education in Sindhi from Vernacular School or Govt: Main Primary School Shahdadkot in 1936-37. After passing 4th Standard he passed I, II & III standards from Anglo Vernacular Classes located presently Kamboh Muhalla Shahdadkot. Later he went to Nasirabad Middle School for 4th & 5th standards. Nasirabad was known for its wealth and luxurious life. There he met famous Sindhi poet Dadan Faqir Sonaro who was also studying in the same school in which Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti was learning his lessons. He passed his 6th and 7th standard examination from Kamber in 1941-42. It was the time of 1942 flood disaster. Due to the absence of transport he would go through the Railway line by tracing its slippers on foot. After passing his Matriculation examination he passed his Intermediate, BA, BT and MA (Sindhi Literature) examination privately from Kamber. He passed his LLB from Larkana after getting job in education department. It was in fact an uphill task to acquire such degrees of high excellence at that time which Mr. Bhatti achieved. He was the first Muslim student of Shahdadkot who received MA, BT & LLB degrees from University of Sindh Jamshoro up till 1948. He received his education from Allama II Qazi (b. 1886 - d.1968), Dr. Nabi Bux Khan Baloch, Mr. Parvez Shami and Mr. Shafi Muhammad Memon of Hala during his Bachelor of Teaching (BT) Classes. He entered education department as an English School Teacher from 1948-49. On 11th March 1960 Mr.Abdul Sattar Bhatti became head master of Municipal High School Shahdadkot. The school building consisted on 10 classrooms, Science Hall and a canteen which were constructed under the supervision of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti. The teaching staff included on following teachers namely 1) Mr. Imdad Hussain Ghaloo 2) Mr. Deedar Hussain Kalhoro/Totani 3) Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh 4) Mr. Allahwarayo Qureshi 5) Mr. Sijawal Khan Wadho 6) Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Sheikh 7) Mr. Seetaldas of Kamber 8) Mr. Abdul Sami Arain 9) Mr. Seetaldas of Larkana 10) Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto 11) Mr. Muhammad Azim Soomro 12) Mr. Abdul Wasi Qureshi 13) Mr. Mushtaque Rasool Qureshi 14) Mr. Qadir Bux Sheikh 15) Mr. Ramchand Nagdev 16) Mr. Dur Muhammad Sheikh 17) Moulvi Barkat Ali Chandio 18) Mr. Milan Mal 19) Imdad Hussain Sheikh 20) Ghualm Abbass of Banguldero and 21) Maulana Shah Muhammad Hakro .
Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Headmaster Municipal High School Shahdadkot

40

During 1965 War, One of the teachers of Muncipal High School- Mr. Ramchand Nagdev was arrested on the allegation that he had close contacts with RAW. After releasing he resigned and migrated towards India and never came back. The well-known Advocate Mr. Kanaya Lal Nagdev was his brother whose office situated in Shahi Bazzar Shahdadkot. There were two times of recess at that time. The students returned back to school in the evening. After finishing free coaching classes different games were played on ground opposite to Railway Station. Mr. Bhatti also arranged a tour programme of Bhanbhor for school students. In those days Vernacular or Primary School was taught up to 4th Classes in Sindhi. On the other hand 7 classes of English were taught at High School. In this way a students could receive education up to 11th Standards. General Muhammad Ayoob Khan (1958-69), the president of Pakistan changed and introduced new reforms in education and made Matriculation on 5 primary and 5 English classes. He made Technical education mandatory. Civil Defense Training was also made mandatory in the schools and colleges.
Mr.Z.A.Bhutto

Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti was the first Muslim head master in the whole Larkana district in Upper Sindh. He strived during the years 1961-62 and 1963 to upgrade his Secondary School into a High School through legal struggle. Finally examinations of three years were conducted and the teachers were paid their three years remaining salaries. He did not get salary for 7 years and contributed his amount for the development of the school and students. He organized extracurricular activities and organized sports weeks in the school. Mahraj Gopi Krishan (19101992), the first chairman of Shahdadkot Municipality gave importance to education in his all life. It's why he frequently visited all educational institutes in Shahdadkot during his tenures. He used to visit primary school, middle school and high school in the city and encouraged teachers. Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti married Anwer Khatoon Soomro in 1937 when he was only 8 years old while he did second marriage with Qazbano Khatiyan in 1961. She is sister of Mr. Abdul Majeed Khatiyan. He has 11 sons named 1) Sardar Abdul Ghani 2) Abdul Fattah 3) Abdul Qayoom 4) Abdul Rauf 5) Abdul Hafeez 6) Dr. Javed Sattar 7) Khalid Sattar 8) Tarique Sattar 9) Sharjeel Sattar 10) Shakeel Sattar and 11) Sunny Sattar and 5 daughters named 1) Sakina 2) Fatima 3) Badarunisa 4) Qamarunisa and 5) Fakhrunisa. Some 30 years ago Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti distributed all his 200 Jarebs of agricultural land among his sons and daughters and started living on pension. I interviewed him in detail on 9th March 2008 when he was quite healthy and energetic. Last time I met him on Sunday 15th September 2013. This time he was unable to walk as he had fracture in his leg. He uses walker and passes most of his time in front of his home these days. Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti produced best students from Municipal High School who proved their talent not only in Pakistan but all around the world. After serving 39 years Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti retired on 20th June 1987. He is living now a retired life. The description of opening English Classes in Shahdadkot through Vernacular & Anglo Vernacular School from 1920-1954

DESCRIPTION

YEAR

STANDARD STANDARD

LOCATION

REMARKS

AP Classes AP Classes English Classes English Classes English Classes English Classes English Classes English Classes English Classes English Classes Present Matric System

1920 1921 1935 1936 1938 1951 1952 1953 1954 1954 1962

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X -

Govt: Main Primary School Shahdadkot Govt: Main Primary School Shahdadkot AV School in Kamboh Muhalla Shahdadkot AV School in Kamboh Muhalla Shahdadkot AV School in Kamboh Muhalla Shahdadkot Kamboh Muhalla & Urdu School Shahdadkot Kamboh Muhalla & Urdu School Shahdadkot Kamboh Muhalla & Urdu School Shahdadkot Present Urdu Primary School Shahdadkot Present Urdu Primary School Shahdadkot Present Urdu Primary School Shahdadkot

Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri passed I & II standards in 1934 Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri passed I & II standards in 1934 Abdul Sattar Bhatti passed I, II & III standards 1939-40 District Local Board Larkana started AV-4th Class in 1936 District Local Board Larkana started AV-5th Class in 1938 AV-6th Class was started through Municipality AV-7th Class was started through Municipality AV-8th Class was started through Municipality High School was affiliated with Sindh University in 1954 High School was affiliated with Sindh University in 1954 5 Classes of Sindhi & 5 Classes of English

41

The old Building of Municipal High School Shahdadkot locally known as Government Urdu Primary School today

Group Photo of Teachers and Students of Municipal High School Shahdadkot on 21st February 1962
Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh, Mr. Mushtaque Rasool Qureshi, Mr. Seetaldas of Kamber, Mr. Muhammad Azeem Soomro, Mr. Allahwarayo Qureshi, Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Sijawal Khan Wadho, Mr. Qadir Bux Sheikh, Mr. Imdad Hussain Ghaloo/Khuhawar, Mr. Deedar Ali Kalhoro & Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto

42

Whole Municipality system was damaged during partition of August 1947.It is why Mr.Tufail Muhammad C Rajpoot (1947-1949) DC Larkana dismissed Shahdadkot Municipality. Most of the old record pertaining to this Municipality was destroyed in the floods of 1948. At last once again the Municipality system started its work after 1950. At this time Khan Sahib Imdad Hussain Khan Khuhawar was its president. In 1951 the population of Shahdadkot was 8,994 while in 1961 its population was 15,043 showing an increase of 67 %. In the year 1953, Khan Sahib Imdad Hussain Khan Khuhawar was elected Vice-president of Municipal Committee Shahdadkot. He was born in January 1919 at Shahdadkot and died in June 1972. He was younger brother of Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-II. He Joined Muslim League in 1942 and was selected as president of Muslim League Taluka Shahdadkot. He was elected General Secretary District Muslim League Larkana in 1945 and Councilor All India Muslim League in 1946. He was elected member District Local Board Larkana after the partition of 1947. He did refugee welfare work in Shahdadkot after partition. He was also Justice of Peace and member of District Transport Committee Larkana. In the days of Khan Sahib Imdad Hussain Khan Khuhawar, some of the renowned teachers and other citizens of Shahdadkot under the leadership of Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Abdul Razzaque Aawn, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto and others went to Sirai Ghulam Mustafa Muhammad Pannah Khan Khuhawar in order to request him for donating plot for school. After assessing vacant plots of Manzilgah and present Govt: Girls High School site, it was decided that new building of Municipal High School Shahdadkot would be constructed on the plot of Sirai Ghulam Mustafa Khan Khuhawar in the south of Shahdadkot city which was suitable for fresh air and environment. Finally Sirai Ghulam Mustafa Khan Khuhawar donated his best fruit garden plot for the great cause of education. It is said that he wished to construct a mosque beside the school but he could not be able to do this. He was allegedly killed by his nephew on a family matter in Shahdadkot. He was fond of listening Qawali and would invite many popular Qawals of the time. With the continuous efforts of Mahraj Gopi Krishan, Hakeem Nazar Hussain Sheikh, Dr. Roopchand and Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti Municipal Middle School or presently Government Prov: High School Shahdadkot was established in 1963. Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti did many efforts for the issuing of notification and construction work of the school. The foundation stone of the school was laid by Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Minister of External Affairs Government of Pakistan on 24th March 1963. The plot for the school construction was donated by Sirai Ghulam Mustafa Khan Khuhawar (1911-1986) who was a grandson of Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-I. He is buried in the western side of Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan’s grand mosque in Shahdadkot. Actually this plot was a Mango garden and it spread on 5 acres or 10 Jarebs. The construction Committee consisted on Mr. Amjed Khan (PCS), Deputy Commissioner Larkana and Mr. Ikramuddin Khan, Chairman Municipal Committee Shahdadkot. The architect was Mr. A.H. Baloch and the name of contractors was M/s Manzoor & Company. The construction work took a year and nearly 50 skilled masons and non skilled labourers worked to complete the target. The Municipal Middle School Shahdadkot taken by the Sindh Provincial Government in 1971. Noticing the dire need of students for higher education, Mr. Mumtaz Ali Bhutto laid foundation stone of the first college of Shahdadkot On 25th February 1973. During 1980s following teachers taught at High School ; Mr. Allahwarayo Qureshi, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh , Mr. Mushtaque Rasool Qureshi, Mr. Abdul Samee Arain, Mr. Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani, Mr. Muhammad Azeem Soomro, Mr. Qari Ahmed Dero, Mr. Wazir Ali Mangi, Mr. Nek Muhammad Rid, Mr.Zamir Hussain Qadri, Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Qureshi, Mr. Mumtaz Ali Wadho, Mr. Illahi Bux Magsi, Mr. Muhammad Ibrahim Brohi, Mr. Allahwarayo Jamali, Mr. Khair Muhammad Phulpoto, Mr. Sikander Ali Sianch, Mr. Ghulam Rabbani Malhani, Mr. Abdul Majeed Khatiyan, Mr. Ashfaque Sheikh, Mr. Nazir Hussain Soomro, Mr. Saindad Wadho and Mr. Sadar Jamal Dayo. A 3 days Science Exhibition was organized by Mr. Khair Muhammad Phulpoto in the school in February 1988. Mr. Muhammad Saleh Bhutto, SDO Education Larkana specially visited different scientific stalls of the exhibition bearing items of Biology, Physics, and Chemistry. On organizing this wonderful event Mr. Khair Muhammad Phulpoto was promoted to 17 grades and was sent for training to Islamabad. Round about 5000 male and female students, teachers, citizens, social & political workers and press reporters visited exhibition. The schools of Qubo Saeed Khan, Umed Ali Junejo, Chakiani, Dhing and Aitbar Khan Chandio were specially invited for the exhibition. Presently Govt: Prov: High School Shahdadkot consists of a grand building having a Drawing Hall, Laboratory Hall, Meeting Hall, Headmaster’s Office, Office Room, Staff Room, Computer Lab and a library. The total number of rooms is 42 excluding 7 latrines. There is 96 teaching and non teaching staff in it. While the number of students enrolled here is nearly 2000. Mr. Munawar Ali Kori is the present headmaster of this school. Some of the noted students of this school are Dr. Muhammad Yar Khuhawar (Professor Emeritus & Visiting Professor University of Sindh Jamshoro), Veena Shringi (All India Radio Broadcaster, Writer & Poetess), Dr. Sikander Sheikh Principal Chandka Medical College (CMC) Larkana, SSP Muhammad Khan Khoso, Professor Naraindas Khiani, Huzoor Bux Sheikh, Muhammad Ayaz Soomro, Sultan Ahmed Khuhawar, Gul Hassan Abbassi etc.

43

Following is the list of the Head Masters of Govt: (Prov) High School Shahdadkot from 1960 to 2013

S.NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

NAME OF HEAD MASTER Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti Mr. Allahwarayo Qureshi Mr. Ali Murad Tunio Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh Mr. Allahwarayo Qureshi Mr. Mumtaz Ali Sheikh Mr. Abdul Nabi Hulio Mr. Mumtaz Ali Sheikh Mr. Taj Muhammad Rajpoot Mr. Abdul Majeed Khatiyan Mr. Rahim Khan Khoso Mr. Abdul Majeed Khatiyan Mr. Nek Muhammad Langah Mr. Abdul Majeed Khatiyan Mr. Liaqat Ali Bhatti Mr. Abdul Majeed Khatiyan Mr. Nek Muhammad Tunio Mr. Syed Usman Shah Mr. Muhammad Mehmood Baloch Mr. Abdul Rauf Bhatti Mr. Munawar Ali Kori

FROM 11-03-1960 21-06-1987 21-12-1987 01-08-1989 02-01-1990 21-04-1997 23-04-1997 27-04-1997 30-06-1998 09-12-1998 24-03-2001 18-05-2001 11-03-2003 03-06-2005 16-06-2005 02-05-2007 08-08-2007 09-08-2008 30-04-2009 30-04-2012

TO 20-06-1987 20-12-1987 31-07-1989 01-01-1990 20-04-1997 22-04-1997 26-04-1997 25-05-1998 08-12-1998 23-03-2001 17-05-2001 11-03-2003 03-06-2005 15-06-2005 02-05-2007 07-08-2007 08-08-2008 29-04-2009 30-04-2012 -

MUNCIPAL CLUB SHAHDADKOTSHAHDADKOT-1965

NOV 8, 1965: Chairs 1st Row: Mr. Tufail Ahmed, Habib-un-Nabi, Abdul Hakim Solangi, Safdar Ali Khan Khuhawar, Akber Hussain (President), Mr. Sami Qureshi (DC Larkana Chief Guest), Rafique Ahmed Qureshi (Secr:), Abdul Rahim Qureshi, Anwar-un-Nabi Khan, Khalid Ansari, Ahmed Nawaz Sh.. Chairs 2nd Row: Mr. Amanullah Soomro, Muhammad Moosa Sh (Treasurer), Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Abdul Fattah, Karampal Lalwani, Lal Chand Advani, Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Wahid Hussain (Joint Secretary), Abbass Zaidi. Standing: Mr. Muhammad Idrees, Sikander Ali, Nawab Ali, Gurditto, Saeed Ahmed, Allahwarayo Qureshi, Muhammad Ibrahim, Abdul Sami, Mushtaque Rasool & Umer Din Peon

44

1964: Mr. Sijawal Khan Wadho, Mr. Sardar Ali Sheikh, Mr. Abdul Sami Sulemani, Mr. Seetaldas Gamnani, Mr. Seetaldas Pirthiani, Mr. Mushtaque Rasool Qureshi, Head Mster Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Sheikh, Mr.Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Mr. Allahwarayo Qureshi, Mr. Muhammad Azeem Soomro, Mr. Munir Ahmed Pathan, Mr. Abdul Wasi Qureshi and others

1966-67: Mr.Seetaldas Gamnani, Mr. Mushtaque Rasool Qureshi, Mr. Seetaldas Pirthiani, Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Sheikh, Head Master Mr.Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Mr.Abdul Razzaque Awan, Mr.Abdul Sami Arain, Mr.Allahwarayo Qureshi, Mr. Adib Alam, Mr. Munir Ahmed, Mr. Sardar Ali Mr. Faiz Muhammad Soomro & others

45

Rare photographs of the old and new buildings of Munciple High School Shahdadkot

1970: Mr. Munir Ahmed, Mr. Faiz Muhammad Soomro, Mr. Abdul Razzaque Awan, Mr. Seetaldas, Mr. Abdul Sattar Bhatti, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto, Mr. Muhammad Azeem Soomro, Mr. Muhammad Hassan Sheikh, Mr. Imdad Hussain Ghaloo Miss Zakia Begum, Mr. Girdhar Lal, Mr. Abdul Wasee, Mr. Muhammad Khan, Mr. Abdul Fattah, Mr. Abdul Samee, Mr. Ali Akber & Miss Mubashrah Neer

46

GOVERNMENT PROV: BOYS HIGH SCHOOL SHAHDADKOT SINDH

Satellite image of Government Prov: Boys High School Shahdadkot, Sindh-Pakistan 2013

47

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.

Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1855-56, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, 1955-56 Extract Report by Major F.J.Goldsmid, Officiating Educational Inspector, Sind Division 1858-59 Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1865-66, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay 1866 Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1866-67, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, 1866-67 Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1869-70, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, 1869-70 Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1870-71, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, 1870-71 Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Compiled by A. W. Hughes- F.R.G.S, F.S. BOM.UNCOV .Civil Service London 1876 Report of the Director of Public Instruction Bombay for the year 1878-79, Education Society’s Press Byculla Bombay, 1878-79 The Imperial Gazetteer of India Compiled by W.W. Hunter, C.S.I, C.I.E, L.L.D, Director General of Statistics to the Government of India, Vol: XII Ratlam to Sirmur, Trubner & Co. London 1887

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10. The Sind Official Gazette, Vol: XXXVI Karachi, Thursday, 17th March 1887 11.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India: Vol: 8, Oxford, 1908

12. Education in British India by M.L.Zutshi, the Indian Press Allahabad 1910 13. Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: Upper Sind Frontier/Jacoabad District Compiled by J.W. Smyth, Bombay Civil

Service Government Central Press Bombay 1919
14. An Autbiography (Manuscript) written by Maulana Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi 1975 15.

Training College for Men Hyderabad jo Sindhi Adab Mein Hiso: PhD Thesis by Dr. Abdul Jabbar Mughal, University of Sindh Jamshoro 1982

16. Larkano Saah Sebano Compiled by Gul Muhammad Gad Published by Muncipal Employees Union Larkana 1984, 17.

Role of Education in Socio-Political Economic Conditions in Larkana District during Talpur and British Period (1783-1843): A PhD Thesis by Dr. Ghulam Ali Sangi, University of Sindh Jamshoro 1985

18. Education in Sindh: Past & Present: A PhD Thesis by Dr. Habibullah Siddiqui, Institute of Sindhology, University of

Sindh Jamshoro 1987
19. Larkano Tareekh Je Aeney Mein (History) Compiled by Muhammad Yousif Sheikh Published by Larkana District Historical Society Larkana 2002 20. Education System in Sindh during British Period (1843-1947): A PhD Thesis by Dr.Chand Bibi Bukhtiarzai, Pakistan

Study Center, University of Sindh Jamshoro 2003.
21. Kamber: A Study Edited and Compiled by Riazat Buriro, Published by Dr. Muhabat Academy Kamber October 2006 22. The Schools Directory District Kamber Shahdadkot ,Sindh Education Management Information System District,

Tahsilwise School Directory Based on Schools Census 2007 & 2008.
23. An Autobiography by Advocate Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri Published by Sindhika Academy Karachi 2013 24. The Schools Directory District Kamber Shahdadkot ,Sindh Education Management Information System District,

Tahsilwise School Directory Based on Schools Census 2007 & 2008.
25. GR Vernacular School Sanjer Bhatti 1905-1947 26. GR Vernacular School Shahdadkot 1911-1947 27. GR Vernacular School Chakiani 1914-1947

48

Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi

49

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful