The Garuda Purana

This is a translation of an abridged version of the Garuda Purana. The Garuda Purana is one of the Vishnu Puranas. It is in the form of a dialog between Vishnu and Garuda, the King of Birds. The second section of this Purana (given here) deals with issues connected with death, particularly funeral rites and the metaphysics of reincarnation. Portions of the Garuda Purana are used by some Hindus as funeral liturgy. Indeed, some consider it unlucky to read this text except during funerals. Of interest are the intermediate states between birth and rebirth, which roughly correspond to the western concepts of Hell and Heaven. Since this was written during the medieval era, it is possible that the writer of this text had contact with Christianity. Earlier Hindu texts do not elaborate about 'hell' and 'heaven,' at least not to this extent, and the subject is completely absent in the oldest texts. Here, the torments of Hell are described in terms that would not be out of place in a Baptist revival tent (or Dante, for that matter). In addition, the four-square city of Yama, the God of Death, is reminiscent of the heavenly city in Revelation. However, these are way stations between incarnations (or, as termed in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, Bardos), not a permanent destination. The Garuda Purana starts with the details of the afterlife. Following this is an account of funeral procedures, including rituals, the astrological timing of the post-death observances, and ritual gifts. Balancing the extended vision of Hell in the earlier part of the document is a shorter account of the City of Yama. After that is an enumeration of correspondences between the macrocosmos and the human body. The final part of this text is an appeal to self-knowledge as the key to liberation, going beyond austerities and study of the texts. "The fool, not knowing that the truth is seated in himself, is bewildered by the Shastras,--a foolish goatherd, with the young goat under his arm, peers into the well."




Allahabad: Pâṇiṇi Office [1911] E-book as PDF by Ganesh Rama Kumar
NOTICE OF ATTRIBUTION. Scanned at, June 2006. Proofed and formatted by John Bruno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to January 1st, 1923. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies.

No. Chapter Name PAGE 1. The Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1 2. The Way of Yama 10 3. The Torments of Yama 21 4. The Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell 30 5. The Signs of Sins 38 6. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful 46 7. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One 52 8. The Gifts for the Dying 61 9. The Rites for the Dying 76 10. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire 83 11. The Ten-Days' Ceremonies 97 12. The Eleventh-Day Rite 103 13. The Ceremony for all the Ancestors 114 14. The City of the King of Justice 130 15 The Coming to Birth of People who have done Good 141 16. The Law for Liberation 154

This Garuḍa Purâṇa Sârodhhâra (Extracted essence of the Garuḍa Purâṇa) was compiled or written by one Navanidhirâma, son of Śrî Hari Nârâyaṇa, who lived in the city of Jhunjhuṇû, which was ruled by a King Śrî Sûkhalâlajî. It was done for the helping of those who cannot understand the difficult earlier works; but itself is not easy to understand, and required much labour, the author informs us. It is entirely originally written, he says, and comprises the results of very deep study of the sacred books, and is the extracted essence of them on the subjects with which it deals. It is used all over India at funeral ceremonies, but some are afraid to read it on other occasions, thinking it inauspicious. CHAPTERS I to VII deal with Hells. CHAPTERS VII to XIII deal with Ceremonies for the dead. CHAPTER XIV deals with Heaven. CHAPTERS XV & XVI deal with Yoga and liberation. The neo-theosophists, among the great good they have done to the world, have revived the idea that Hell is a living reality, and not a superstitious fiction, created by a designing priestcraft, to keep Humanity on its good behavior. Among the educated, with the vanishing of the belief in an after-life, has vanished also the belief in Hell. But owing to the labors of the Psychical Research Society and similar other bodies, there are few educated persons now, who deny the existence of the afterlife, as they used to do some thirty years back. But though the belief in after-life has revived, yet the cognate belief in Heaven and Hell is still very vague. Our Hindu Puranas, however, among the great mass of rubbish that they contain, have always been very clear on this question of Heaven and Hell. Serious writers of law books also like Yâjñavalkya and Viṣṇu have described asseriously the existences of various Hells, as they have done the various joys of Heaven. No doubt, the subject of Hell is not a very savoury one, and nervous persons have always fought shy of studying this unpleasant department of existence. But, pleasant or unpleasant, the science does not take into account the human feelings. No one is forced to study the subject, unless he feels strong enough to do so, as no one is bound to study Medicine, unless he is prepared to face the scenes of the dissecting room. The question then is, do these hells really exist? If so, where? This is a question of fact, and must be decided like all questions of fact, on the evidence of reliable witnesses who have, from personal experience, described this region. To a Hindu there is needed no greater testimony than that of Yogi Yâjñavalkya who, in the Prâyaśchitta Adhyâya of his law book, mentions 21 hells. The author of Viṣṇu Smṛiti also has followed in his footsteps. Hell, then, according to Hindu seers, is a particular locality walled off from the surrounding regions of space by the messengers of Yama, the ruler of Hell. Within this particular space so specially guarded, no joy can enter. It is a region of pain--sharp. intense and severe. Sinners clothed in their painful bodies (jâtana deha)--replica of their

The punishment in Hell is not eternal.physical bodies. The readers of the Hindu Sacred literature will no doubt remember the beautiful episode of Nachiketas going to Hell. But the permanent educative effect remains in that part of the sold--called the conscience. . The hell punishment is not remembered by the soul when it is re-born. suffer the punishments deserved by their sins. The natural fear. in fact Gautama in his law book definitely calls this stage hell. or is it in the astral plane only? As Heaven is both physical and astral. Aśvathâman. What are these prison houses in every well-governed community but physical hells? What is this outcasting by the society. Lohachâraka). if it so chooses. As a prison house is a prison only to the criminal. miscalled the secret of death. and leaves its senses unrestrained. After being thus purified by Hell-fire. there is again a fall for that soul. pp. It is Reformatory and Educative. and learning from its Ruler the secret of cosmic evolution. though not known as Hells. of a refined artist and poet like Dante. in the furnace of hell-fire. Mârkaṇdeya and others are said to be still living in their physical bodies. where the great ṛiṣis like Vyâsa. and which it will never lose through ages to come. and as the Svarga is on the physical plane also. in modern times we have the evidence of a hard-headed man of science like Swedenborg. omits to do good action or commits evil deeds again. who goes there on his mission of mercy and charity. and the great sage Râmkṛiṣna Paramahaṃsa. Leaving the testimony of Hindu seers aside. verse 22. so there are physical hells also. no more than it remembers the joys of heaven. and some say that Gautama did not believe. Says Yâjñavalkya in verse 218 of the Third Adhyâya that the lords of mercy place such souls in very favourable circumstances afterwards. though made of subtler matter. Thus the fact of concrete existence of hell cannot be doubted. make better use of its faculties. as the Heaven is situate in the astral region of the physical North Pole. so Hell is a place of punishment and pain only to the sinners and not to those who go there on similar missions. Where is then this Hell situated? According to Hindu belief. The twenty-two hells are described in the Viṣṇu Smṛiti. This is the permanent gain which the soul has acquired. Viṣṇu Smṛiti. * But if the soul so favourably placed. is the result of the finer development of conscience. But there is one distinguishing mark between the Hindu idea of Hell and that of votaries of Semitic creeds. (See Sacred Books of the East. but not to the visitor. but making one feel the torture of hell. 140-141. by passing through the bitterness of the valley of Yama--the merciful ruler of Hell. which certain souls feel at the sight of temptation to sin. † Is there any physical Hell also. its locality is in the astral region of the physical South Pole. in another form of hell. the soul is re-born with keener conscience and under circumstances where it can. as is mentioned in the next verse.

to describe these death penances to any sinner. a very salutary rule is laid down by the paṇḍits that no death penance should ever be described.Is there any means by which a man may save himself from the pains of hell? On this point. But no Paṇḍit is allowed. but a gift to a Brâhmiṇ. but one must suffer the full consequences of his sins. every mortal sinner must pass through the period of purificatory process of hell. our ancient authors held different opinions. has exploited to its extreme extent. For every sin. This presupposes that a kicking Brâhmiṇ has milk to give. Thus in certain cases of incest. however bad he may be. if a sinner asks the paṇḍit for the appropriate penance of his sin.--there is no penance. p. Like the dispensations of the Popes of Rome. is that for the intentional mortal sins--kâma kṛitamahâpâtaka. For minor sins. 265. the only operative penance is to embrace a red-hot iron image and die in that way. and possessed of wealth. by the rule of the present Iron age. Penances have become a farce in Modern India. the infliction of bodily pains is of secondary importance. for the sake of her milk. The after-life consequences can be warded off by appropriate penances. The later view. however meritorious it be in its nature. One class of thinkers held the view that sin could not be expiated by any act of man. the rule is different. verse 219. Footnotes iii:* "Afterwards freed from all sins. preying on the gullibility of its votaries. and in this age. and become accomplished in arts and sciences. as the saying goes that no one feeds a docile donkey. And here is a rich field which the Brâhmiṇ priestcraft of India. with its concomitant result in the shape of so much fee (dakṣiṇâ) to be paid to the Brâhmiṇ. which has gained ascendency now. is that according to the law. One who has performed such penance has exhausted the evil effects of his sins and for him there is no penance. there is a penance. for modern Hinduism has done everything in its power to throw in 'the background that rational idea. The result therefore. they are born in high families. the penance for drinking spirituous liquors is death by drinking boiling liquors or butter. which is far from the truth." iii:† Mandalik's Hindu Law. but a kicking cow. and also a pilgrimage. which can save the man from future troubles. penances can be compounded by the payment of amounts ranging from a cowrie shell to thousands of rupees to Brâhmiṇs. It is not that the gifts to a deserving man washes away sins. Several kinds of death penances are described in our law books. except the death penance. The practice of Prâyaśchittas or penances is based upon a more rational basis. . where they enjoy pleasures. Similarly. Repentance for sin is the highest prâyaśchitta.

and in what way they obtain the miseries of the Way of Yama. 1 the sages. misery-giving to the sinful. the Teacher. along which is the travelling. Once. when asked. I am willing to describe the way of Yama. As it was declared to Vainateya 3 by the Blessed Viṣṇu. to the virtuously inclined. The name of the Lord is easily pronounced. performed sacrifices for thousands of years to attain the Heaven-world. Please tell us correctly about the afflictions of this world and the other. and the tongue is under control. just so will I relate it. inquired:-Garuḍa said: The Path of Devotion. of those who turn away from devotion to Thee. 11. whose trunk is the Vedas. 7.--excels. 2 and the means of destroying its pains. when the Blessed Hari.. in the morning.GARUDA PURANA HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED GANEṢA CHAPTER I An Account of the Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1. the field of the sleepless Ones. fie upon the wretched men who nevertheless go to hell! 12. and also. it is revealed. Suta said: Listen then. 6. having offered oblations to the sacrificial fire respectfully asked this of the revered Sûta sitting there:-The sages said: The happiness-giving path of the Shining Ones has been described by you. to remove your difficulties. to what condition the sinful come. 3 having bowed reverently. whose flowers are sacrifices. and whose fruit is liberation. has been told the highest goal of the devotees. of many forms. 10. We now wish to hear about the fear-inspiring Way of Yama. 2.--whose firm root is Law. very difficult to tread. then. Those sages once. Fie. has been described to me by you. 3-5. Now I wish to hear about the fearsome Way of Yama. In Naimiṣa. happiness-giving. whose abundant branches are the Purâṇas. O Lord. was sitting at ease in Vaikuṇṭḥa. The tree Madhusûdana. 8-9. . Tell me. Saunaka and others. the son of Vinatâ. O Shining One. 1 Also of the miseries of the World of Change.

attached to the wicked. Lying encircled by his sorrowing relatives. He remains.--all the worlds appear as one. approaches him stricken with bodily and mental pain. diseased. being cared for by his dependents. 18. 25. and I will describe the Way of Yama. 21-24. unbending. by which those who are sinful go in hell. Not yet tired of life. having passed through death. In this condition. averse from the true scriptures and the company of the good. 20. with tubes obstructed by phlegm. . Having experienced the good or the bad actions. at the destruction of the decayed senses and the numbing of the intelligence. Powerful death. Then.--fall into a foul hell. When the breath is leaving its place. swooning with intense pain he dies amidst his weeping relatives. unexpectedly. with his body deformed through old age. yet anxiously hoping to live. O Târkṣya. With eyes turned up through loss of vitality.-and he does not attempt to say anything. Those men who are intent upon wisdom go to the highest goal. O Târkṣya. 28. Self-satisfied. with the death rattle in his throat. with mind busy with the support of his family. 17.13.--then. nearing death. being caught in the noose of death. O Lord of Birds. exhausted by coughing and difficult breathing. eating little. as the result of his 1 actions. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. like a house-dog. in accordance with his former earning. intoxicated with the pride of wealth. enveloped in the net of delusion. terrible even to hear about. those who delight in sin. Listen how the misery of this world accrues to the sinful. with failing digestion. some disease arises. then how they. In this last moment. the sinfully-inclined go miserably to the torments of Yama. though being spoken to he does not answer. and pain like the stinging of hundred scorpions is experienced. 14-16. 26. Bewildered by many thoughts. 19. the messengers of Yama come near and life departs. a divine vision arises. revelling in the enjoyments of the desire-nature. lacking the divine attributes. having the ungodly qualities. destitute of compassion and righteousness. eating what is ungraciously placed before him. with senses unconquered. meet with torments. 27. in the house. like a serpent. the moment of dying seems an age. moving little.

roasting in the sun. struck upon the back with whips.-'Hurry up. . 37-38. forest-fires and hot winds. The man of the size of a thumb. they forcibly lead him a long way. Hungry and thirsty. desiring the body but held back with a noose by the followers of Yama. by command of Yama. swiftly comes back through the air. O Târkṣya. crying loudly 'Oh. he weeps. without delay. tortured by hunger and thirst. 34-35. Having returned. and bound the noose about his neck. his mouth becomes filled with saliva. like the king's officers a convict.--in this way. and rising again. oh. bound by his past tendencies. you wicked man. and recount over and over again the awful terrors of the hells. shelterless and waterless.29. 32. and the gifts made during the time of his illness. seeing whom his heart palpitates and he releases excrements. bearing nooses and rods. Here and there falling exhausted and insensible. With failing heart and shuddering at their threats. with the messengers. You shall go to the abode of Yama. The vital breaths of the sinful depart by the lower gateway. with nails like weapons. with grinding teeth. two terrifying messengers of Yama are come. 30-31. of fierce aspect. afflicted. crying out 'oh. oh. almost powerless. 41. with hair erect. bitten by clogs upon the way. to Kumbhîpâka and the other hells. Having seen the fearful Yama. 30-40. The man is brought there in a short time and the messengers show him the terrible torments of hell. 43. Then.' is dragged from the body by the servants of Yama. As black as crows. along a road of burning sand. He obtains the rice-balls given by his offspring. Now he emits foam. painfully he walks.' 36. the man.' he is beaten by the servants of Yama. Nevertheless. Then hearing these words. after a time. naked. While thus leading him the messengers menace him. Having put round him a body of torment. remembering his misdeeds. with ugly faces. 42. 33. very miserably led through the darkness to the abode of Yama. and the weeping of his relatives. the sinful Denier does not obtain gratification. We will lead you now. looking the while at his own body.

56. by the seventh the thigh forms. 54. wander about in great misery. for the sinful. and by the fifth the navel. until the end of the age. acquires strength. 9 Vichitrabhavana. on the tenth day hunger and thirst. on both the eleventh and twelfth days the departed eats. O Twice-born. Those who are in the departed condition. 47. still they are tortured with hunger. 5 Gândharva. with fully formed body. the third goes to the messengers of Yama. 12 Nânâkrandapura. Two hundred and forty-seven Yojanas each day the departed travels. in an uninhabited forest. On the thirteenth day the departed. very hungry and pained with thirst. Karma not experienced does not die away even in thousands of millions of ages. For nine days and nights the departed obtains rice-balls. Every day these are divided into four portions. O Bird. the size of a hand (cubit). Two portions give nourishment to the five elements of the body. 55. 7 Krauncha. Hence. The extent of the way of Yama measures eighty-six thousand Yojanas. the being who has not experienced the torment certainly does not obtain the human form. 1 the gifts. 40. deprived of the rice-ball offering.44. The old body being cremated. 3 Sauripura. O Best of Birds. the sinful man goes to the place of the King of Righteousness 2:-Saumya. 45. 1 for ten days the son should offer rice-balls. through these sixteen cities on the way. 4 Nâgendrabhavana. 6 Shailâgama. and on the tenth day the being. Dwelling in the body formed by the rice-balls. do not uplift. bound by the servants of Yama. 51-53. O Bird. Although they eat the rice-ball offering. by this experiences good and evil on the way. walks alone along the road like a captured monkey. a new one is formed by these offerings. the neck and shoulders by the second. 8 Krûrapura. 46. 1 without Vaitaraṇî. The Śrâddha. going by day and night. 11 Duḥkhada. 13 . he lives upon the fourth. the man. by the sixth the hips and secret parts. Having passed successively. By the rice-ball of the first day the head is-formed. 50. 48. 58-59. 57. and the handsful of water. 10 Bahwâpada. Likewise next the knees and feet by two. by the third the heart forms: By the fourth the back forms.

8:5 Residence of the Lord of Serpents. the sinful. goes on the way to the city of Yama.e. 3:1 The ambiguity of the pronouns in this work is unavoidable. in and from the egg. 8:6 Place of Singers. 6:1 Ceremony for the dead.Sutaptabhawana. The superphysical beings. 2:3 A name of Garuḍa. who do not sleep. Vinatâ was the mother of Garuḍa. . 8:9 Town of cruelty. 8:10 A wonderful place. 8:8 Name of a mountain." having left his own house. 8:1 A Yojana is between 8 and 9 miles. 8:3 Calm place. They may be interpreted only with the aid of common-sense. 8:11 Many calamities. all birds are twice-born. Held by the nooses of Yama. 8:4 Town of Saturn.. the abode of righteousness 60. 14 Raudra. oh. 2:2 Saṁsâra: The three worlds in which men circle through births and deaths. 7:1 Members of the three higher castes take a "second birth" when invested with the sacred thread. 2:1 Yama is the Lord of death. 15 Payovarshana. crying out "Oh. 16 Shîtâdhya. 8:7 Inaccessible mountain. Footnotes 1:1 I. 8:2 Another form of Yama. 17 Bahubhîti 18:--before the city of Yama.

8:18 Many horrors. .8:12 Misery-giving. 8:15 Savage. 8:13 Town of varied cries. 8:14 Very hot place. 8:16 Rains 8:17 Very cold.

as though at the end of a pralaya. of which even an account arouses fear. in one place torn by thorns. In the midst of the way flows the terribly horrible Vaitaraṇî River. mosquitoes. and having forest-fires.CHAPTER II. 15-17. In one place are deep chasms. tigers. There the sinful soul goes along pierced by cold winds. An Account of The Way of Yama. which when seen inspires misery. in another stung by very venomous serpents. in which a man may take rest. Garuḍa said: What is the path of misery in the world of Yama like? Tell me. 7-8. 2. in what. Twelve suns blaze. No water is to be seen anywhere that he. and on this road there is none of the foods by which he may support life. and dogs. 14. 11. In one place he stumbles in the awful black darkness and falls into water. which is recorded as two thousand yojanas in length and breadth. showers of boiling water.--by whose leaves he is pierced and torn. made of smelted. In one place there is pitch darkness. The sinful in one place is bitten by ferocious lions. in others lakes filled with pus and blood. in another from a lofty mountain. 10. 12-13. 4. showers of blood. in another stung by scorpions. showers of weapons. in another in hot slime. 9. way the sinful go there. 5. when you have heard it you will become agitated. hawks.Infested with crows. 1. in another a mound of embers. O Keśava. In one place is a plain of hot sand. in others bills to climb and valleys to descend. owls. and with excrement. Although you are my devotee. in another a great cloud of smoke. showers of stones and thunderbolts. In some places are showers of charcoal. may drink. There is no shade of trees there. O Bird. And showers of caustic mud. bees. The Blessed Lord said: I will tell you about the Way of Yama. bestowing great misery. 6. in another burnt by fire. vultures. in another rocks difficult to climb over. extremely thirsty. In one place there is a very terrible forest of sword-like leaves. in another he treads on razor-edges and on spear-points. copper. . In one place he falls into a hidden well. 3. in another in mud abounding in leeches.

there is no rescuer whatever. and also by nooses through the ears. obstructed with hairy moss. O Son. 28. feet and back bound with chains. Covered with many scorpions. after the moment rising again. go the sinful. 26. impassible. a flow of pus and blood. They stay for a moment in the lower region. this river. Others are drawn along by a noose through the end of the nose. By hundreds of thousands of whirlpools the sinful descend to the lower region. carrying much foam. by the nooses of death being dragged along. impassible for the sinful. 29. 18-20. and with black snakes. this river was created only that the sinful should fall into it. O Father!'--again and again wailing.--of those who have fallen into the midst of this. 30-32. Very dreadful. which then they eat again. 24. vomiting blood from the mouth. cry. Some go on the way neck. infested with huge vultures and crows with adamantine beaks. like butter in the frying-pan: Covered all over with dreadful throngs of insects with piercing stings. of many kinds of pain. Bound by the noose. fear-inspiring. others.--at the very sight of it the sinful swoon away. fishes and turtles. with mud of flesh and blood. arms. and crowded with hundreds of dreadful birds. That river. and its opposite cannot be seen. Filled with porpoises. with crocodiles. 25. it is said. overspread with flames and smoke. and with other flesh-eating water-animals. with powerful roaring. Unfordable. with leeches.Extending a hundred yojanas. 22-23. are pecked by crows. Hungry and thirsty the sinful drink the blood. O Brother. with heaps of bones on the banks. bearing many loads of iron. seethes. and pierced from behind with points of weapons. O Bird. filled with huge crocodiles. Very sinful people. 27. fallen into the flood. giving extreme misery. some of them being dragged by hooks. O Târkshya. And being beaten with hammers by the awful messengers of Yama. flowing with blood. When it sees the sinful approaching. the sinful are led on. Thus along the Way of Yama. crying and weeping and laden with misery. 21. difficult to see into. . It is difficult to cross and gives great misery.

no offerings to the fire. make reparation for whatever you have done! 37.--O Dweller in the Body. calling on son and grandson.' repents:-'By great meritorious effort birth as a human being is gained. 44. did not visit the holy river 1. did not perform service at a place of pilgrimage as prescribed. Haying obtained that. . did not even a little for the support of cows and brahmins. crying 'Whence did I attain this human state?' he goes on. Owing to my bad deeds in former lives I got a woman's body. 'I did not duly honour the assemblies of Brâhmiṇs.--O Dweller in the Body.Bewailing their own karmas these beings. full of very great misery. I did not do my duty. 'Oh. oh.--also. And the stupid. whatever have I done! 35. the departed reaches the City of Saumya. ' Alas. make reparation for whatever you have done! 36. go on towards the mansion of Yama. thus going on the way. never preserved fidelity to my husband. did not value the precepts of the Vedas and the Śâstras. never performed any benevolent acts.--O Dweller in the Body. For seventeen days he goes on alone with the speed of the wind. The River Puṣhpabhadrâ is there. 'I made no gifts. which is a source of great misery.--O Dweller in the Body. nor by detailed observances. did not listen to the Purâṇas. nor after his death enter the fire. O Târkṣya.--O Dweller in the Body. On the eighteenth day. and a fig-tree delightful to see. 33-34. 43. Thus having lamented many times. 'Not knowing my duty I did not serve my husband. Having become widowed I performed no austerities. make reparation for whatever you have done!' 39.' 42. make reparation for whatever you have done! 40. make reparation for whatever you leave done! 38. 'I did not emaciate myself by monthly fasts by the course of the moon. performed no penances. either for the benefit of men or for the sake of animals and binds. 'I made no daily gifts and did not give food daily to the cow. did not pay due respect to my worthy elders. nor worship the wise. make reparation for whatever you have done! 41. becoming exhausted. did not worship the deities.-O Dweller in the Body. did not wait upon good men. incessantly crying out. Large numbers of the departed are in that excellent and beautiful city. I did not excavate tanks in waterless places. remembering the past incarnation. 'I did not follow the good advice of my husband.

57-58. 51. 59. There he remembers the enjoyment of wife. as spoken of in the Purâṇas?' 50. O Traveller in the Higher World! Yet you must inevitably go on that way. When he bewails his wealth. Having enjoyed there the rice-balls. In that city he eats a mixture of water and food. and is miserable. 46-47. which is familiar even to children? Have you not heard of it from the twice-born. he is forcibly dragged by the nooses. you fool. falling down and getting up again and running. Thus spoken to by the messengers and being beaten with the hammers. Having eaten the rice-balls of the fourth month he becomes somewhat happy. Go on for a long time! 48. and having seen the fearful forests there he cries in misery. given at the end of three fortnights. 'You know that provisions are the strength of a traveller. his family and dependents all. There stones rain down copiously upon the departed.41. 49. 54. At the end of two months the afflicted leaves that city. Having seen him he is overcome with fear and decides to give up efforts. being again dragged with the nooses he is led onwards by the servants. 'Have you not heard. O Mortal. and thence goes on into Sauripura. In that city he takes rest. Being dragged unmercifully he weeps again and again. Here he eats the monthly rice-balls given by his sons and grandsons through either love or compassion. There is there a king named Jangama. 52. then the departed belonging there and the servants say this: Where is your wealth now? Where are your children and wife now? Where are your friends and relatives now? You only suffer the result of your own karma. Thence the departed speedily goes to Nagendrabhavana. and then passes on from that city. along with the servants of Yama. of this way. 53. . Upon the coming of the third month. who has the appearance of Death. and there having eaten the rice-balls offered in the third month he moves on. having arrived at the city of the Gandharvas. You do not strive for provisions. In the fifth month the departed goes thence to the city of Krauncha. son and others. water and cloths given by his relatives. 55-56. where there is neither buying nor selling. And in the fourth month reaches Śailâgama city.

and then. Then having come before him some fishermen say: 'We have arrived. At the end of five and a half months the ceremony before the six-monthly is performed. he arrives at the city of Duhkhada. the departed. 69. threatened by the servants of Yama. At the end of the ninth month he goes to the city of Nânâkranda. Having eaten the rice-balls which are given in the eighth month he moves on. over which kingdom rules a king named Vichitra. 75. Having passed beyond that city. 'Oh heavens. he cries in great misery. otherwise not. satisfied with the rice-balls and jars then given. 64-65. then the boat will come to you. Remaining in the city of Krauncha.' he exclaims. When he sees his huge form he runs away in fear. The sinful soul who has made no gifts verily sinks in that. 'It is said by the sages. for a time and having left that city. very greatly afflicted with the desire to eat. 71. Travelling in the air he suffers great misery.60. bringing a boat for you--who desire to cross the great Vaitaraṇî River-if your merits are sufficient. 74. who see the truth. trembling and very miserable. . O Ruler of Birds. goes to Krûrapura. He goes on the way lamenting.' Having heard their words. He goes to Chitrabhavana. 68. Seeing him it seethes. 73. goes. 'If you have made the gift of a cow. that Vitarana is a gift. and this is called Vaitaraṇî because it is crossed over by that. carry him across like a fish upon a hook. 70. and being himself faint of heart. Having fixed a skewer through his lips. who is the younger brother of Yama.' 66-67. floating in the air. in the tenth month. Having left that city. Having seen many people crying in agony in various ways. having eaten it. 62-63. the messengers. he passes on. Having then eaten the rice-balls of the sixth month. the departed eats the rice balls given by hand in the fifth month. At the approach of the seventh month he goes to the city of Bahwâpada. 72. to Sutaptabhavana. threatened by the servants of Yama. Having stayed. There he enjoys what is given by his sons in the seventh month. seeing which he cries loudly. with difficulty. 61. He remains.

There he enjoys what is offered in the eleventh month by his sons and others. What else do you wish to hear? Footnotes 14:1 The Ganges. Into the city of the King of Justice there are four gateways. At the end of the year. and half after the eleventh month he reaches Payovarṣaṇa. 84. 86. 78. How they go on this most dreadful path. in misery. afflicted with hunger. The spirit the size of a thumb. thirst and exhaustion. At the end of the year he goes to the city of Śîtâḍhya. he. 'Does there remain any relative who will remove my misery?' 81. he looks about in the ten directions. 80. and them. coming nearer to the abode of Yama. Hungry and pierced with cold. painfully bound in tight bonds. O Bird. of which the way of the southern gate has been declared to you. where cold a hundred times greater than that of the Himâlaya afflicts him. . 83. thus go. 70. obtains the Śrâddha before the annual one. Though he there obtains the rice-ball gifts and water. O Kâśyapa. There the servants ask: 'What sort of merit have you?' Having eaten the annual riceballs he plucks up courage again. he is not happy At the completion of the eleventh month he goes to the city of Raudra. 82. getting a body of torment. giving misery to the departed. he casts off the body the measure of a hand. to work out its karma. There clouds team.76. Those who do not offer gifts for the dweller in the upper body. 85. has been told. 77. having reached the city of Bahubhîti. sets out through the air with the servants of Yama.

11. those who walk about in the city of Yama. these are all. The doorkeeper Dharmadhwaja. who have authority over mortals and immortals. O Descendant of Vinatâ. The sinful man cries when he hears the mingled wails of 'Oh.CHAPTER III. having passed along the way of Yama into the abode of Yama? Tell me this. Four and forty yojanas. . although he is allknowing. and are called. Oh. and always delight in great sin. granting heaven and liberation. he asks Chitragupta about their sins. speech and body. These followers of the King of Justice know accurately all the virtues and vices of mankind. Such is the power of these. 3. lies the great city of the King of Justice. by men. always stands there. and the karma born of mind. on earth. Thus do these truth-speaking Śravaṇas relate the actions of man. He. O Târkshya. Even at the description of hell you will tremble. Chitragupta. O Kâśyapa. 13. 9. Nevertheless. All go to the door-keeper and report it to him. To the man who pleases them by austerity. 4-5. These report to Chitragupta everything that is said and done. I will tell it to you from the beginning to the end. distinctively. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. 1. 6. 7. The Śravaṇas are the sons of Brâhmaṇ who wander in heaven. and see a long way off. Then Chitragupta tells it to the King of Justice. and in the nether regions. beyond the city of Bahubhîti. having gone to Chitragupta. charity and truthful speech. 14. Garuḍa said: What are the torments like that the sinful suffers. 8. They know accurately all that is done by women. as is proper. well-known to the King of Justice. An Account of the Torments of Yama. Their wives have a similar nature. 1 reports the good and evil deeds. enquires of the Śravaṇas 1. 12. The men who are Deniers. O Keśava. 2. Sravanîs. hear and understand at a distance.' and having heard his cry. openly and secretly. 10. they become benevolent.

Then. possessing thirty-two arms. become dispensers of misery. the strong and the weak. Then Yama. . the beggar and the wealthy. 25. injudicious. like a mountain of lampblack. the wretch. and Justice--know the actions of man. Very sinful people behold the terrifying form of Yama--huge of body. evil-doers. cries 'Oh. sky. relating them before the King of Justice. who are crying. Śravaṇas. Having seen him. overcome with fear. wind. polluted with egoism. 19-21. 16. 28. roaring. with red eyes and a long nose. and bewailing their karmas. Yama. 23. anger and association with the sinful. and those sins are the cause of unavoidable misery. why ever did you commit sin? 26. having assured himself concerning the sins of the sinful. Chitragupta speaks to all those sinners. 18. why ever did you commit that misery-giving sin which is born of lust. Extending three yojanas. and thereby are now destined for torment.15.' 30. earth and water. Near to him are all the messengers. 'O. It is no use turning your faces away. the sun and others see fully the sins and merits of the embodied being. Fever and others. terrible with weapons gleaming like lightning. seated on a buffalo. by command of Yama. you sinners. 'The sinful actions done by you are very many. resembling Yama. rod in hand. with mouth gaping with formidable fangs. 24. 17 The King of Justice.' The sinful soul who made no gifts trembles and cries again. 27 'Hitherto you have committed sins with great delight. the heart. Hearing these words of Chitragupta. with eyes like wells. 'O. Even Chitragupta is fearful. 29. Knowing the wicked actions of the sinful. 22. day and night. The sun and moon. fire. Chitragupta. and remain silent and motionless. Oh. you foolish people. 'It is known that Yama deals equally with the fool and the learned. those truth-speakers. the sinful then grieve over their karmas. summons them and shows them his own very terrible form. the two twilights. Roaring like a cloud at the time of pralaya. attended by Death.

It covers five yojanas and is one yojana in height. 'Forgiveness of faults is done by the Lord Hari 1 Îśwara. the servants address them thus: 'O. for whom there is no rescuer. Having bound them on the tree by chains. 42. along with which torment cannot exist. The King of Justice. 'Oh. 34. Prachaṇḍa. and on account of the beating they fall down like glowing charcoal.' 46. nor worshipped the deities. 'You did not give even halt a mouthful of food to the dog or the crows. 32. You did not meditate well upon Yama and Chitragupta. nor honour your guests. helpless. Though living as a householder you did not even express compassion. with spears. and beaten by the messengers of Yama. 'You did not do any acts of service. 35. 37. they beat them. seeing them quiet. There is one big tree there. having beaten them. Suffer the fruits of your own sin! Because you are devoid of righteousness you deserve to be beaten. with iron clubs. swooning away. as we are ordered. 41.' 33. You never visited any places of pilgrimage. you sinners. Thus beaten they become still. sinful people. having bound them with one noose. has fitting punishment ordered for the sinful. cry. glowing like a blazing fire. 36.31. burning there. 'Go along. Then the cruel messengers. head downwards. They. those most. forgive my faults'--with suppliant hands. Again and again they are forcibly struck. . 44. We only punish miscreants. lead them towards the hells. to the very dreadful terrifying hells. you sinner. nor make the water-offering to the forefathers. with maces and with big pestles. Thus having spoken the messengers heat them mercilessly. The messengers. nor repeat their mantra. 31. executors of the sentences of Yama. 39-40. implore the messengers. say. seeing them standing motionless like thieves. with metal rods. by the messengers. exhausted by hunger and thirst. Then. why ever did you commit such wicked deeds? You did not even make the easy water and food offerings at all. with hammers. Many sinful ones are hung on that silk-cotton tree. 43. Chaṇḍaka 1 and others. you evildoers. 45.

49. There are eighty-four lakhs of hells. 6 Pûtimṛittika. 1 Lohaśaṇku. the sinful.' 57. Some. fallen down and bitten by dogs. fixed in the middle of a machine. and others into heated oil. and they cry. Some are plunged into heated butter. 56. they are taken hold of by the messengers. O Bird. 12 Kâka. 52. 59. 60. 10 Sampratâpana. 7 Maharauravaśâlmalî. Some are surrounded closely with blazing charcoal. 5 Saṅghâta. 48. being bound with various nooses some are beaten with hammers. by order of Yama. 8 Lohitoda. 58. By the hard beaks of huge flesh-eating crows and vultures they are pecked in the head. 54. 9 Saviṣa. 50. in the hell-region. 55. 11 Mahâniraya.--near to the tree. Tâmisra and others.47. 15 Mahâpathin. and some with hands and feet bound are placed head downwards. the midst of which are twenty-one most dreadful of the dreadful. In the world of Yama I see my wealth being enjoyed by you. Thus disputing. are pierced in the head with arrows. Tâmisra. 13 Ûlu. are chopped into pieces with axes.--in which there is great misery indescribable in words. Others. Some are thrown into wells. and others thrown flat on the ground. Some of the sinful are cut with saws. and like a cake thrown into the frying-pan they are turned about. 3 Raurava. like firewood. Then the mouths of those who are crying are filled with dust by the messengers. 51. are given pieces of flesh torn off with pincers by the messengers. 4 Kuḍmala. eyes and faces. 61-64. are squeezed like sugar-cane. enwrapped with torches. Hells full of great misery are there. and. and thrown into the dreadful hells. are eaten away by them. Some are thrown in the way. some are hurled from heights. Others clamour: 'Give up. give up my wealth. 2 Kâlasûtraka. in front of huge maddened elephants. their bodies half-buried in a pit. which you owe me. 53. In falling their limbs are cut by the sharp leaves. others plunged into pits full of worms. 14 Sanjîvana. Thus quarrelling. and smelted like a lump of ore. 16 .

20 and Tapana. like an invalid who has been robbed of his wealth. experience there. 70: The individual. until the end of the age. 71. devoid of righteousness. 28:2 Iron spears. which was nourished at the expense of other creatures. 67. he comes here again. the various fruits of sin. having given up both. provisioned with the opposite of happiness. 65. Footnotes 21:1 Name of the being who records the doings of men. . Thus he who was holding a family or gratifying his belly. Men and women suffer the torments of Tâmisra. 28:4 Terrible. which are produced by secret association. 21--in all twenty-one. 19 Sampratâpana. which is the place of uttermost darkness. Andhatâmisra. who was fond of supporting his family by unrighteous means alone. 24:1 Both names mean fierce or violent. obtains appropriate fruit. the support of his family. 28:1 Darkness. 66. 18 Kumbhîpâka. 69. Listeners. purified. Who have fallen into these. the various torments of hell. 28:5 Blossoming. goes to Andhatâmisra. 17 Andhatâmisra. he goes alone to hell. All formed of various afflictions and diseases of different classes.Avîchi. He who takes away (sins). The man experiences in a foul hell what is ordained by his fate. Having cast off his body. Having experienced in due order the torments below. Raurava and other hells. The sinful fools. and inhabited by multitudes of servants. 26:1 Lit. 68. and being departed. 22:1 Lit. 28:3 Very terrible silk-cotton tree.

28:17 Waveless. 28:21 Hot.28:6 The thread of death. 28:13 Crows. 28:9 Iron weights. 28:12 The great exit. . 28:11 Burning. 28:16 The great path. 28:19 Based like a pot. 28:20 Burning. 28:15 Living together. 28:18 Besetting darkness. 28:14 Owls. 28:7 Stinking clay. 28:8 Accumulation. 28:10 Poisonous.

The righteous go into the city of the King of Justice by three gateways. teachers and Shining Ones. The Blessed Lord said: 'Those who always delight in wrong deeds. the Nyâya and the Vedânta. slayers of owe. the property of the temple or of the twice-born. Those who do not repay their debts. destroyers of the embryo. the Mîmâṁsâ. from misery to misery. who are foolish. The Vaitaraṇî River is only on this very miserable way. O Keśava. those who misappropriate deposits.-These. . weeping day and night. from fear to fear. who are attached to the wicked. who thinks themselves learned. who are unbending. who speak evil words. Garuḍa said: For what sins do they go on that great Way? Why do they fall into the Vaitaraṇî? Why do they go to hell? Tell me this. and are always evil-minded. who try to make the happy wretched. who are foolish. those who take away the possessions of women. and many others. I will tell you who the sinners are who go by it. Those who despise places of pilgrimage. and those who kill with poisonous foods. 1. I will tell you what sinners fall into it. An Account of the Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell. Slayers of Brâhmiṇs. who turn away from the company of the good. who are self-satisfied.CHAPTER IV. good actions. 3. 13. certainly go on the Way of Yama. 2. but the sinful go into it only by the road of the southern gate. infanticides. 5-12. 4. Those who are elated at seeing the miserable. who turn away from good deeds. they go towards the Vaitaraṇî. those who disparage the Purâṇas. and those who commit secret sins. and those who steal the possessions of children. devoid of righteousness. Those who steal the wealth of the teacher. who are jealous of those who have merit. those who betray confidence. Beaten by the messengers of Yama. Those who seize upon the fault and depreciate the merit. go from hell to hell. good men. murderers of women. the Vedas. Those who do not listen to good counsel nor even to the word of the Śâstras. very sinful. drinkers of intoxicants.

Those who ascribe evil to the good. Who takes away what he gave. 18-24. and many other fools. nor perform the ceremonies for those who are in the upper body. who removes fieldboundaries. teachers and preceptors and the reverend. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. 17. 15.-These. 27.14. who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brâhmiṇ women. who eats flesh and drinks liquor. having suffered great misery in it.--these men sink in it. not for the prescribed sacrifices of the Vedas. and modest. who hinders others making gifts. who destroy the chastity of widows. Who give false witness. having called them. fond of treading forbidden paths. says. Who cut down and destroy big trees. who neglect vows and pilgrimages. Who did not make gifts of black cows. Who has put aside his Brâhmaṇic duties. 23. who does not study the Śâstras. who is of unbridled nature. 16. who abducts others' wives. Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama. who ploughs up pastures. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. Who does not fulfil promises made to Brâhmiṇs. who repents of his gifts: who takes away another's livelihood. who earn by cheating. 28-30. and who gain a livelihood by thieving. who perform false duties. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. who drinks the milk of the tawny cow. the messengers hurl them into that river again. The Śûdra who studies the letter of the Vedas. 'There is nothing for you. Those who wickedly abandon their wives. and treat them disrespectfully.'--of these two the stay is continued. go to the tree standing on its bank. gardens and forests. of good qualities. O King of Birds. 26. Who covets the King's wife. which is the foremost among hells. and who slanders virtuous women. faithful. who is lustful towards virgins. who kills animals for his own gratification. anal abandoning prescribed ditties. fathers. . they then hurl those sinners into the Vaitaraṇî. and consorts with a lowcaste woman. Those who dishonour their mothers. by command of Yama. The Brâhmiṇ who sells liquors. Who obstructs sacrifices. possessed of thousands of merits. and having come. and who. of noble birth. who prevents the telling of stories.

Śivâ. and the good teachers. Those who destroy wells. in a road. commit transgression at the time of conception. having neglected their wives. into water. begetting offspring of a Śudra woman. 32. Those men who.--these certainly go to hell. on the four days of lunar change. Those who throw their bodily refuse into fire. through malignity. Those who. consort with women in the monthly courses. 36. tanks. 33.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. with timber. with women who have no other refuge. 42. 35. those fools who worship him certainly go to hell.The woman who despises her husband and thinks about another. ponds. or in a cowpen. or people's houses. through being beaten. on Śrâddha occasions. Vaiśyas who are dealers in skins. 43. Those who obstruct roads with posts. in a garden. I will tell you about the sinful who fall into them. goes to a low condition.--these certainly go to hell. these who sell poisons. self-indulgent. Sûrya. 44. those attached to senseobjects. Hari. Gaṇeśa. 40.--these certainly go to hell. blinded by passion. and having neglected the offerings to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. 41. Those who eat. Deniers.--these certainly go to hell. with mounds. The Brâhmaṇi who places a harlot on his bed. women who sell their hair. the avaricious. Those who. he is certainly degraded from the Brâhmiṇ rank: That wretched twice-born is not worthy of salutation at any time. Those who are fond of quarrels. and of bows and arrows. . 37-38.-all these certainly go to hell. Those who fall down. 39. shrines.--these certainly go to hell. the ungrateful. hypocrites. in the day time. the wise. servants and teachers. 34. in water. 31. do not worship Śiva. with stones or with thorns. children.---these certainly go to hell.--they certainly go to hell.--such and others at the silk-cotton tree experience much beating. and those who are sellers of them. Those who are makers of swords. do not give up causing dissension among Brâhmaṇs and cow-fights but delight in them. these certainly go to hell. those who break the laws of morality. the messengers cast into hells.

--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. 1 or bands of pilgrims. 'Ah. ha! Sleep comfortably in this cool shade!' 55. who hate the good. who punish the guiltless. who have come full of hope to the house. Powerless and breathless he is unable even to speak.--these certainly go to hell. then they say. is captured by the messengers of Yama and baked in pits of fire. it is declared. afflicted with thirst.45. Those who betray their friends. The very sinful man who sets fire to a house. and the tellers of the Purâṇas. 53. 52. and afterwards. 48. even though food is cooked. Being tortured thus. and those who destroy hopes. those who deceive all creatures. Why should I explain them fully. 47.' As soon as he drinks it he falls down. that there are many torments for the sinful. when they are spoken of in all the Śâstras? 59. Those who do not feed the Brâhmaṇ guests. Those who are suspicious of all creatures. 56. dwells in a dreadful hell from which there is no return. then the messengers give him boiling oil to drink. a village or a wood. When his limbs are burnt with fire. Then they say: 'Drink this liquid and eat this food. men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. Those who do not respect the teacher who imparts the knowledge of the Supreme Self. When his limbs are cut by its leaves. sharp as swords. and who are cruel to them. When.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. 51. 50. 46. O Târkṣya. Those who assume observances. 60-62. processions of the Shining Ones. 49. Those who do not compassionate the helpless. 54. 58. with senses uncontrolled. Thus. burning inside. he begs for water to drink. those who cut short friendship. he wails piteously. Getting up again somehow. and then is led by the messengers into the forest of sword-like leaves. he begs for a shady place. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures: . Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again.--these certainly go to hell. 57. cast them away again. He who interferes with marriage.

--it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates. 63. Thus they become men and women oozing with leprosy. and bearing the marks of sin. bushes. creepers. by the stains of sin. .-Insects. having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes. animals and fish. 64. birds. and even there. become very miserable. these are spoken of as unmoving. born blind. Footnotes 36:1 The images are carried round the streets on occasions. infested with grievous maladies.Trees. rocks and grasses. All these evolve thence into the human condition. plants. enveloped in great delusion.

a scorpion. becomes swollen-necked. without giving to others. who eats fled of other beings becomes diseased. and salt. Who bears false witness becomes dumb. Who steals jewels is born in a low caste. The slayer of a woman and the destroyer of embryos becomes a savage full of diseases. the murderer of a virgin becomes leprous. the drinker of intoxicants. 8. a eunuch. and to what sorts of birth such sins lead? 2. Who steals vegetables and leaves becomes a peacock. and who listens to them becomes deaf. the killer of a cow becomes humpbacked and imbecile. 12. who steals a book-is born blind. a vulture. The eater of flesh becomes very red. who steals water becomes a Châtaka-bird 2. and the signs produced by particular sins. He who eats sweet foods. 10. who steals any metal becomes poverty-stricken. an incendiary becomes bald. . on account of greed. 11. 6. diseased-skinned. 5. insults his teacher. who steals grain becomes a locust. who commits illicit intercourse. the Brâhmaṇ who. who speaks lies becomes a stammerer. who gives impure food at a Śrâddha ceremony is born a spotted leper. becomes an epileptic. who despises the Vedas and the Śâstras certainly becomes jaundiced.--all three born as outcastes. 13. The Blessed Lord said: The sins on account of which the sinful returning from hell come to particular births. The man who. who interferes with marriage becomes lipless.--these hear from me. who sells flesh becomes unlucky.CHAPTER V An Account of the Signs of Sins. flesh. by what sins particular signs are produced. an ant. through pride. eats what should not be eaten. O Keśava. becomes big-bellied. 9. who steals gold gets diseased nails. who goes with his teacher's wife. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ becomes consumptive. 1. 3. Who steals food becomes a rat. 7. Garuḍa said: Tell me. a gad-fly. honey. one with discoloured teeth. perfumes. and who steals poison. who breaks the meal-row 1 becomes oneeyed. 4. A poisoner becomes insane. Who strikes a cow or a Brâhmaṇ with his foot is born lame and deformed. a musk-rat.

Who steals betel.--an ass or a cow. or browbeats a Brâhmaṇ. who quarrels with sister and brother. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend in a waterless wilderness. the pupil who does not serve his teacher becomes an animal. a crow. becomes a ruddy goose for a long time. 27. an owl. grass and cotton are born from sheeps' wombs. 2 23. 21. and who is fond of hunting. or a kind of female serpent. having become a hyena and a porcupine. and she who scolds her husband becomes a louse. 22. becomes a flying-fox. who steal shoes. runs after another man. who speaks ill of caste and order is born a pigeon in a wood. 15. 26. is destroyed when an embryo in the womb. Who destroys hopes and who destroys affection. The Brâhmiṇ who does not recite the Gâyatrî 1. Who dies by drinking poison becomes a black serpent on a mountain. Who. 20. Who threatens and spits at his teacher. 24. The lustful man who goes with a female ascetic becomes a desert fiend. Who hates mother. a house-lizard. He who cuts off his lineage. whose feature is unrestrained becomes an elephant in a desolate forest. fruits and flowers becomes a forest-monkey. 19. 17. who consorts with an immature girl becomes a huge snake in a wood.14. Those twice-born who do not make offering to the World-deities. father and teacher. and causes constant quarrels. who is not hospitable to the goody becomes a howling Fire-face. Who lives by violence. is born from the womb of a bear. by eating without grace. The Brâhmiṇ who officiates for one unfit to perform sacrifice becomes a village hog. even for a thousand births. and who eat all foods without consideration. The twice-born who does not impart learning to the deserving becomes a bull. 28. who does not meditate at twilight. Who deceives a friend becomes a mountain-vulture. 25. who through dislike abandons his wife. 18. The woman who abuses her mother-in-law and father-in-law. becomes a crane. 16. Who does not give to a twice-born according to his promise becomes a jackal. . who cheats in selling. become tigers in a desolate forest. who robs caravans on the road. who is inwardly wicked while outwardly pious. certainly becomes a goat in a butcher's house. by embracing a woman of his own family. and by too many sacrifices he becomes an ass. becomes a leech. 29. abandoning her own husband.

Who covets his teacher's wife. having passed through dreadful hells produced by their great sins. 41-43. Who goes with his teacher's wife. it would be like offering to ashes instead of to the blazing fire near by. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend. 35. 44. He is called a neglector who. But it is no neglect if the Brâhmiṇ is without Veda-knowledge. Who feeds upon the eleventh-day offerings to the dead is born a dog. he is born blind and in poverty. becomes a chameleon. The wretch among twice-born who worships the deities for the sake of wealth is called a devalaka and is unfit to offer oblations to ale deities and forefathers. Who commits unnatural vice becomes a village pig. 32-33. The stealer of gold attains the condition of a worm. a drinker of intoxicants enters the wombs of a wolf. The Brâhmiṇ's possessions acquired by deception. bushes and plants. 34. gives it to some other. by taking a Brâhmiṇ's possessions. who is passionate becomes a lustful horse. The devalaka is born from the womb of a hen. a dog and a jackal. and with his friend's wife. an insect and a bird. families become broken up. goes to the condition of grass. afflict the family even for seven generations. 37. enjoyed even in friendship. becoming not a giver but a beggar. and having experienced the results in the successive hells. Those who are very sinful. but where is the person in the three worlds who can digest a Brâhmiṇ's wealth! Chariots and troops supported by the wealth of a Brâhmiṇ crumble away in battle like artificial river-banks of sand. are born here upon the exhaustion of their karma. 31.30. a camel and a she-buffalo. a donkey. who goes with the king's wife becomes corrupt. who consorts with a Śûdra woman becomes bull. powdered stone. 36. . By appropriating temple property. and poison.--and by forcible robbery even as long as the moon and stars exist: A man may digest even iron filings. who misappropriates deposits. 38-40. Who steals another's wife. who robs a Brâhmiṇ. Having neglected. and by neglecting Brâhmiṇs. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ goes into the womb of an ass. O Târkṣya. instead of making a gift to one who is well-read in the Vedas and Śâstras and has resorted to him.

by the force of sin he goes to hell. is born for sixty thousand years as a worm in excrement. he again dies. 46. 50. 47. made by themselves in this world. held fast by the noose of karma. who robs Brâhmiṇs of their means of sup port becomes an ape. which was given by himself for another. obtaining for thousands of lives the bodies of animals. are born with the residues of their sins. Having given the means of subsistence and a piece of land. They revolve at one time of earth. at another in hell. Karma not suffered does not fade away even in tens of millions of ages. 57. 55. Then. O Lord of Birds. Thus the makers of bad karma. having experienced the tortures mf hell. and is again born in poverty and again becomes sinful. Who takes away a plot of land. so mortals revolve by my magic. 48. Who gives the means of support to Brâhmiṇs obtains fruit equal to that of a lakh of cows. but robs. he becomes an embryo in due course. must inevitably be suffered. Birth and death are the lot of all embodied beings. they suffer from carrying burdens and other miseries. He who does not mike gifts becomes poverty--stricken and through poverty he commits sin. The sinner who takes back by force what has been given by himself. rain and heat. in these stated forms. he should then protect it firmly. when the good and evil are balanced. 49. whether good or evil. are seen to be the karma of the embodied. 51. Man and woman having come together. a dog and a monkey. Having suffered the miseries from conception onwards to death. goes into hell until the coming of the deluge. . Karma which has been made. 52. he afterwards reaches the human state. is born as a lame dog.45. Having experienced as a bird the misery of cold. thus turns the wheel in the four kingdoms of beings. Who does not protect. 54. 53. As the wheel of time turns. 56. These and other signs and births.

Footnotes 39:1 This refers to the custom among Brâhmiṇs of sitting in a row at meals. 40:1 A sacred mantra repeated every day by the twice-born caste. 39:2 A bird fabled to live only on rain-drops. and rising together. 40:2 A class of evil spirits. . Whoever gives different food to one than to another is said to break the row also.

in the three days on which Indra incurs the sin of Brâmicide. by the tenth day like the fruit of the jujube tree. it is unable to move its limbs. and on the third as a washerwoman. 9. hair. sour and acid. it feels pain all over its body. and the creature at the time of birth lies in the disgusting hollow of the loins. Garuḍa said:--Tell me. it moves to the left of the womb. The creature. how he who returns from hells is formed in the womb of the mother. Viṣṇu said: I will tell you how the mortal is born when the male and female elements are bound together by the union of man and woman. by the fifth hunger and thirst arise.--and remembering. enters the womb of a woman. as they are very tender. the Karma generated in hundreds of previous births. on the second as the murderer of a Brâhmiṇ. according to karma. salt. enveloped by the chorion. By the first month the head. by the sixth. The mother of one returning from hell is regarded on the first day as an outcaste woman. The bodily substances are formed of the foods and liquids of the mother. by the fifth night round. skin. 10. and what miseries he suffers in the embryonic condition. hot. by divine power. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful. in obtaining a body. All its limbs bitten constantly by hungry worms. 7-8. 12. There he remembers. which is the receptacle of a man's seed. 1. 4. amid fœces and urine. With its head placed in its belly and its back and neck curved. caused by the mother's eating many things--pungent. 3. by the second the arms and other parts of the body are formed. O Keśava. 5. by the third occurs the formation of nails. it swoons away repeatedly through excessive pain. the divine eye. linga and other cavities. the body of the sinful begins to form. bones. sobs for a long time. bitter. 6. In one night it becomes a lump.CHAPTER VI. By the fourth the seven bodily fluids. Thus enveloped by the womb and bound outside by the sinews. 11. 13. 1 and after that an egg of flesh. . 2.--like a parrot in a cage. obtaining not the least happiness. In the middle of the menstruation period.

and as s result I am tormented. and cries loudly. "If I am released from this womb I will lay myself at Thy feet. He is become changed in condition. If the state of mind which arises in the womb. and anxious to escape from it. When shall I get out? "In Him alone. and is compassionate to the afflicted. after experiencing his karma. Having fallen on the ground he moves like a worm in excrement." 24. or upon hearing the Purâṇas were permanent--who would not be liberated from bondage! 28. From the beginning of the seventh month. though he gains consciousness. who is compassionate to those who come for shelter. imploring and trembling. where misery results from my sinful actions. 26. "I seek refuge in Viṣṇu. suddenly is cast out head downwards into birth. "I did good and evil actions for the sake of my dependents. Let not this transmigration occur to me again. as regards body and son and wife. misled by my egoism I am transmigrating. resorting to Thy feet I will keep myself aloof from the worlds of change. like a uterine worm. Having this insight he. and has been ten months in the womb. "I am bewildered by Thy magic. will I seek refuge. O Lord. while they who enjoy the fruits escape. When he comes out of the womb. the destroyer of evil. bearing the fatigue. he who is in the womb trembles and moves about because of the parturition winds. adores in plaintive tones Him who placed him in the womb. 15. endowed with insight. 16-23. bound in seven bonds. by the winds of delivery. with hands put together. who has given me this experience. . The creature says. The Blessed Lord said: He who has thus considered. 27.14. bending down his head. "But no. the supporter of the universe. "Fallen into a well of fœces and urine. the husband of Śrî. while praying. deprived of knowledge. I am burnt by the fire of the belly. during illness. on the cremation ground. he comes out with anxiety and painfully breathless and with memory destroyed. I wish never to come out of the womb. and I will take the means by which I may obtain liberation. "Because remaining even here in great misery. Cast out forcibly. then verily the man is bewildered by the magic of Viṣṇu. 25.

40: After hundreds of lives one obtains human birth on earth. Lain upon a bed unclean and befouled by perspiration. What else do you wish to hear? . Mosquitoes. 38. 35. unable to ward off what is thrust upon him against his desire. and even more difficult to obtain is that as a twice-born: and who then only provides for and pampers the senses. He longs for the unobtainable. Then. Thus I have related to you. bugs and other flies bite him. and. attached to sense-objects. 30.29. and on account of ignorance becomes angry and sorry. how the sinful. the elephant. bewildered by my magic. and his pride and anger increase with the growth of his body. to sit. when he enjoys the five kinds of objects by five senses. how then shall the infatuated one not be destroyed. spends in vain the human birth which was difficult to obtain. as one elephant by another. are never released. 31. 42. he reaches youth and acquires evil tendencies. gnats. He is nourished by people who do not understand his wishes. as before. 37. deprived of the sacrifices for the dead. In this wise having experienced the miseries of infancy and of childhood. he is unable to speak. 39. infatuated he falls into great darkness. just as insects bite little worms. go in hell. he is troubled with great diseases. Seeing a seductive woman. Then he begins evil brooding. he is unable to scratch his limbs. Thus held fast in the ever-circling noose of karma. through foolishness lets slip the nectar from his hand. 34. Then. death having come. having arrived at old age. he goes to a miserable hell. and becomes lustful. his senses captivated by her blandishments. to his own ruin and is destroyed by those stronger than himself. like a moth into a flame. skinless and weeping and deprived of understanding. when he is touched by that magic. powerless. the bird. O Târkṣya. 36. the sinful. rise or move. he hates the scriptures and good men. He experiences the miseries of infancy and childhood arising from dependence. 32. Who is more sinful than the fool who. The lover makes quarrels with rivals. The deer. mingling in the company of the wicked. 41. 33. the bee and the fish: these five are led to destruction by one of the senses. 43.

hard. .Footnotes 46:1 That is.

CHAPTER VII. one is released from the debt to the forefathers. Having listened to the Harivanśa. 'By the son he conquers the worlds. but the illegitimate drags down. Sûta said: Having heard this. having seen the face of a son. the intelligent should beget a son. Even a single son. 8. by making Śrâddha-gifts are the means of their fathers' attaining heaven. you have done well in asking for the benefit of men. but never so. . or worshipped the Blessed Śiva with devotion. Accordingly. 11. O Best of Birds. 14. 7. and I will tell you all. For those men who are immersed in the ocean of transmigration.' is the ancient saying. Hard indeed. if righteous. With the help of sons. therefore he was named "putra" by the Self-existent himself. Garuḍa. 1. their reason clouded by sin. 12. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya. Garuḍa said: Tell me by what means men who have committed sins unknowingly or knowingly escape from the torments of the servants of Yama. one should avoid a woman of lower caste. or performed the Śatachaṇḍî. 3-4. grandsons. and great-grandsons he goes from the worlds and obtains heaven. They alone. O Bird. The son of a Brâhma marriage uplifts. Listen attentively. trembling like a leaf of the holy fig-tree. is the fate of the sinful and those without sons. If by any past action of his the birth of a son has been prevented. as already said. again questioned Keśava for the benefit of men. Knowing this. O Mâdhava. 10. O Lord. By the touch of his grandson a mortal is released from the three-fold debt. 13. and the means by which people attain a happy condition. their self dimmed by attachment to senseobjects-For their uplifting tell me. O Lord of Birds. The son saves his father from the hell called Put. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One. 6. 5. 9. then some means should be taken for obtaining a son. 2. the exact meaning of the Purâṇas. The Vedas also proclaim the great importance of the son. carries the whole family over. of weak intelligence. that of those who have sons and who are righteous. Sons having father and mother of the same caste are legitimate.

following the blood-stains on the grass. He entered a thick forest. Lord of Gifts. 24. pursued the deer and came into another forest. coming to a lake bathed in it with his horse. Now listen. there reigned over the delightful city of Mahodaya a king named Babhruvâhana. hungry and with parched throat. Righteously protecting his subjects as though they were his own sons. 17-19. rendered fragrant by the-pollen of the lotus. 22. Now he beheld a Departed One. and resounding with the cries of various birds. And standing like a big standard over the whole forest. with hair erect. also seeing the king who had come to that dreadful forest. That leader of men. and firm in righteousness. In the midst of the forest the king saw a deer in the distance. compassionate. always delighting in Kṣattriya duties. endowed with good character and of good conduct. A sacrificer. fainting with the heat and with fatigue. an example of the efficacy of gifts for the higher body. who was very powerful. ran out of sight into the interior of the forest. And saw a delightful fig-tree. . Crowded with various species of animals. The deer. The king approached and sat at its root. 16. 28. dirty. a lover of Brâhmaṇs. giving cool shade with its large spreading boughs. The king. that powerful king. and punishing the guilty. humpbacked and fleshless. severely wounded by his very hard arrow. valuing the good. Once. Babhruvâhana came out of the water refreshed. of terrible appearance. 25-27. and with senses discomposed by hunger and thirst. Then. full of various kinds of trees. carrying the arrow with him. Formerly. 20-21. from ancient history. Concerning this I will give you. Need I say one attains heaven by means of the Śrâddha performed by a son. 29-31. 23. The Departed One. in the Treta age. Târkṣya. when a Departed One went to heaven even when it was offered by another. with his army. having drunk of that cool water. went hunting. prosperous.15. sounding with many birds. Seeing him deformed and dreadful Babhruvâhana wondered. skilled.

The king said: "O Black-complexioned and Gaping-mouthed. 39-41. It is said that in this world the king is the kinsman of all castes. dreadful to see. "Beautiful with palaces and mansions. always engaged in worship of the Shining Ones. Who are you. "In that manner please act. . dear. even if hundreds of annual Śrâddhas are performed for him.--I am highly blessed. "If the sixteen monthly Śrâddhas. How my good deeds proved fruitless I will relate to you. possessed of all prosperity. Suffering from the misery of hunger and thirst. the blind and the wretched. O Great-Armed one. this king of the Departed spoke thus to the king: "I have escaped the condition of the Departed and reached the highest condition. There. O Lord of Earth. came near to him. no companion. are not performed. "Uplift me then. I gave food of various kinds to the poor. "Therefore. and my higher state arise. "There is a town named Vaidaśa. O Târkṣya. "I have no offspring. having many districts. by doing the ceremonies for my higher body. "I gladdened the twice-born by offering various gifts. and I will give you a most precious jewel. O warrior. O Best of Kings. by what bad deeds did you reach this state of the Departed. You will surely have compassion upon me when you have heard the cause of my condition as Departed. and highly unhappy?" "Tell me in detail the cause of your condition. I dwelt. By fire-offering I pleased the Shining Ones. I cannot endure this departed condition.And becoming filled with curiosity. and in which many religious acts are performed. O Reverend Sir. so that my departed condition may be destroyed. O great king. and abounding in precious stones of various kinds. Then. and likewise the forefathers by food. The Departed one said: "I will tell you everything from the beginning. if you desire my welfare. no relative and no friend like you. "By caste I am a Vaishya. O King. "All this. help me over. the condition as Departed becomes firmly fixed. O Lord of Kings. please know." 32-33. who will perform for me the ceremonies for the-higher body. and by what gifts will your condition as Departed pass away?" 34-38. by being in touch with you. through my evil fate has proved fruitless. 42-45. by name Sudeva.

as prescribed in the scriptures.--these. make offerings in the fire to these deities. the sacrificer should perform. honestly gained. "Next.' is a destroyer of all evil. with Vaidic mantras." 58-63. The king said. I have heard. and having made the gift of a bed. although afflicted with hunger and thirst. and pleasant fruits. you should worship thus. gifts. to the west Vâmanadeva 3. put on it various ornaments. in front of Nârâyaṇa. and compassion to all beings. Make offerings to the universal deities with clarified butter. by giving up anger and greed."In this forest there is sweet and cool water. on account of my sympathy for all. . 5 Worship these in turn with sandal-paste and flowers. consecrate a pot of water for the sake of the departed. 51-56. according to the rite. and perform all the ceremonies and the release of a bull. are the destroyers of the departed condition. 46-48. "If the great Nârâyaṇa rite is performed for me. "Dress it with a pair of yellow cloths. worship of Viṣṇu. having bathed. "So I will tell you about the worship of Viṣṇu. the destroyer of the departed condition. The departed said: "Oh Great King.--and placing it. to the north Gadâdhara. Bring two pieces of gold. Vaidic mantras. according to the rite. calm and controlled in mind. along with all the ceremonies for the higher body. "Then he must give thirteen sets of pots to Brâhmiṇs. "Then surely my condition as departed will unfailingly pass away. "The gift which is named 'the pot for the departed. "Listening to holy scriptures. austerities. Please take notice and l will describe that good gift by which the departed condition cannot exist. O King. having gone round them. 49-50. association with the good. about the pot which gives release to the departed. "Then. you have done well in asking this. "Place Śrîdhara 1 to the east of it. 4 "In the middle Pitâmaha 5 and also Maheśwara. "How is the pot for the departed to be prepared. and in accordance with what: rites must it be given? Tell me." 57. Madhusûdana 2 to the south. curds and milk. the ceremony for the upper body. "He must commence. O King. bathe it in many waters. but I am not able to grasp them at all. and make one image of Nârâyaṇa from them. In all the worlds it is difficult to obtain this dissipator of evil conditions.

58:3 The divine dwarf Viṣṇu. O Kâśyapa. give it to a twice-born. and Śaṅkara. never go to the departed condition. horses and chariots. bowed to him. full of milk and clarified butter. Footnotes 58:1 Viṣṇu. attained heaven. Having come out of the forest.--what wonder then that when the son performs it the father should reach it! 60. 59:1 Śiva. and all the guardians of the quarters. though they may. the king returned to his city. and arrived there remembering all that was said by the departed one. He duly performed. filled it with clarified butter and worshipped before it with devotion. 58:5 A name for Śiva. which is superior to all other gifts in removing great sins. with elephants. Îśa 1 and Keśava 2. for the release of the departed. and he who causes others to hear this holy history. On the arrival of the army the departed one. By the Śrâddha. followed him up. consecrated it to Brahmâ. likewise Viṣṇu. in the neck of it. have acted sinfully. 58:2 Another form of Viṣṇu. The Blessed Lord spoke on: His army. with incenses. the departed attain a happy state. one should give away the golden pot. eternal giver of happiness. again implored him. a form of."Having prepared a pot of refined gold. the guardians of the universe. flowers and sandal-paste. slayer of the demon Madhu. and the departed. What good are a hundred other gifts from you?"Brahmâ in the middle. "This gift. released by these sacred gifts. O King. in the east and other directions. while he was thus conversing with the departed. He who hears. 58:4 The club-bearing Viṣṇu. and became invisible. . the rites and ceremonies for the dweller in the upper body. in order-"These having duly worshipped. O King. should be made with faith. 59:2 Viṣṇu. 66-68. performed even by a stranger. having given the great jewel to the king. O Bird." 64-65.

An Account of the Gifts for the Dying. 1. Garuḍa said: Tell me, O Lord, all the rites for those in the other worlds who have done good, and also how these rites should be performed by the sons. 2. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya, you have done well in questioning me for the benefit of mankind. I will tell you all about the rites proper for the righteous. 3-4. The good person, finding his body, in its old age, afflicted with diseases, and the planetary conditions unfavourable, and not hearing the sounds of life, And knowing his death to be near, should he fearless and alert, and should make reparation for any sins committed knowingly or in ignorance. 5-8. When it is near the time to die he must perform his ablutions, and worship Viṣṇu in the form of Śâlagrâma. He must worship with fragrant substances, with flowers, with red saffron, with leaves of the holy basil, with incense, with lamps, with offerings of food and many sweetmeats, and other things. He should give presents to Brâhmiṇs, should feed them with the offerings, and should recite the eight and the twelve syllabled mantras. He should call to mind, and listen to, the names of Viṣṇu and Śiva. The name of Hari, coming with the range of hearing, takes away the sins of men. 9. Relatives, coming near the diseased, should not mourn. My holy name should be remembered and meditated upon repeatedly. 10-11. The Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-lion, the Dwarf, Paraśurâma, Râma, Kṛiṣṇa, Buddha, and also Kalkî 1: These ten names should always be meditated upon by the wise. Those who recite them near the diseased are called relatives. 12-16. Of him who gives voice to the auspicious name "Kṛiṣṇa" tens of millions of great sins are quickly reduced to ashes. Even the dying Ajâmila reached heaven by pronouncing the name Hari, which had been given to his son. 2 How much more then is its effect when it is pronounced with faith! Hari, meditated upon even by one who has evil thoughts, takes away sins: fire burns, even though accidentally touched. The sinful man is not able to sin while the power of the name Hari is uprooting the sins, O Twice-born.

Yama said to his servants: "Bring the man who denies, but O messengers, do not bring the man who meditates on the name Hari." 17-20. One should worship the Achyuta, Keśava, Nârâyaṇa, Kṛiṣṇa, Dâmodara, Vâsudeva, Hari, Śrîdhara, Mâdhavam, Gopîkâvallabham, Râmachandra, the Lord of Jânakî. 1 "O servants, do not go near those sinless people who take refuge in the lotus-eyed Vâsudeva and Viṣṇu, who is the supporter of the earth, and carries in his hand the conch and discus. "Bring those sinners who always turn away from time nectar of the lotus-feet of Viṣṇu,-which are served by the race of Paramahaṅsas, who know the true essence of things, and are without possessions,--and those whose desires are bound up in the household, which is the path to hell." "Bring them whose tongues do not pronounce the qualities and name of the Lord, whose minds do not meditate upon His lotus feet, whose heads never bow to Kṛiṣṇa, who do not offer worship to Viṣṇu." 21-23. Know, then, O Lord of Birds, the hymning of Viṣṇu, which bestows welfare on the universe, to be the best expiation for even great sins. The performance of penances does not purify the wicked man, who has turned his face away from Nârâyaṇa; just as even rivers cannot purify a liquor-pot. By the name of Kṛiṣṇa one is riddened of sins, and never sees, even in dream, Yama nor his servants. 24-25. The man, having a body of flesh, bones and blood,--who, towards the end gives cows to the twice-born, uttering "Nandanandanam," never falls into the Vaitaraṇî. Hence one should remember the name of Mahâ Viṣṇu, which effaces multitudes of sins, and should read or listen to the Gîtâ and the Hymn of the Thousand Names. 26-27. The fast of the eleventh day, the Gîtâ, the water of the Ganges, the leaves of the holy basil, the foot-water and names of Viṣṇu--all these are givers of freedom at the time of death. Then he must dedicate food, with clarified butter and gold, to a learned twice-born and. also give cows with calves. 28-31. Whatever a man gives in his last days, little or much, if it is approved by his Son, is exempt from decay, O Târkṣya. In these last days a good son should make all the gifts. It is for the sake of this that the wise pray for a righteous son in this world,

The sons, seeing their father lying upon the ground with eyes half-closed, should not covet his earned wealth. 1 A good son will make such gifts as will prolong his father's life, and free him from misery when he goes into the next world. 32-34. In disease and calamity two gifts rank above all others. They are indispensable-the eight-fold gift of sesamum and other things. Sesamum, iron, gold, cotton stuff, salt, the seven grains, a plot of ground, a cow,--every one of these is said to purify. The eight great gifts are the effacers of great sins, and should be given in the last days. Hear now their good effects: 35-36. There are three kinds of holy sesamums generated from my sweat. Asuras, Dânavas and Daityas 2 are gratified by the gift of these sesamums. White, black and brown are the three kinds of sesamums. The gift of these removes the sins gathered in speech, thought and action. 37-40. A gift of iron-ore should be made with the hands touching the ground,--then he does not go within the domain of Yama, nor tread his path. Yama holds in his hands, for the punishing of the sinful, an axe, a threshing-pestle, a rod, a sword and a dagger. This gift is considered propitiatory to these weapons of Yama. Therefore should be made the gift of iron, which is the bringer of happiness in the world of Yama. Because of this gift of iron, happiness is bestowed by these great messengers of Yama:-Uraṇa, Śyâmasûtra, Śuṇdâmarka, Udumbara, Śeṣa and Bala. 41-44. Hear this great secret, O Târkshya, about this most supreme gift, by which are pleased the dwellers in Bhû, Bhûvar and Swar worlds. 1 Brahmâ and others, sages, shining ones, and those who are in the assembly of the King of Justice are gratified by the gift of gold, and become granters of boons. Therefore a gift of gold should be made for the uplifting of the departed. He does not go to the world of Yama, O child, but reaches heaven. He dwells for a long time in the world of truth and is then reborn here as a king, handsome, righteous, eloquent, prosperous, and of unexcelled strength. 45. By the gift of cotton-stuff one is freed from fear of the messengers. By the gift of salt one is freed from the fear of Yama.

Chitragupta and the others who dwell in the city of Yama are propitiated. He should give a cow to overcome death. With special rites. cotton-stuff. another to absolve himself of debts. 53-55. sesamum and gold. in old age and in previous births. are producers of little fruit. another for the gaining of liberation. 1 panic seeds. without even a village hut. though for others. 56-57. He who gives to the twice-born land filled with grains goes to the abode of Indra and is worshipped by divinities and demons. O Kâśyapa. 49-52. mâṣa. barley. in accordance with the rites. Rices. having become a king. with the calf and other necessary things. in the morning. does not give land to the twice-born. in the twilight. Therefore shall a king especially make gifts of land. Not by vows.--of action. is reborn for many times as a beggar. in manhood. By gifts of inn. I say. salt. should the gift of a cow for Vaitaraṇî be made. absolves one from Brahmicide. All other gifts. Having given even once a tawny cow. It has been observed by the sages that the gift of a plot of land of the size of a cow's hide. Towards the end. The sins committed in boyhood. to a proper person. O Bird. The fruit produced by the gift of land increases daily. a cow should be given. 58-61. the gift. The sins committed in the night. wheat. through pride. The cows verily carry the man beyond three kinds of hells. not by any gifts but by the gift of land is a great sin committed in kingship expiated.--one is absolved of all these sins. does not make gifts of land. not by holy pilgrimages. in the forenoon and the afternoon. The giver is released by her at the end from the accumulated sins. learned in the Vedas. . dwarf-peas: these are called the seven grains. He who.46-48. of a cow is equal to a gift of land. The king who. speech and thought. shall dwell in hell as long as Śeṣa 2 supports the earth. And by gifts of the seven grains the standard-bearer of the King of Justice and others who stand at the gates are propitiated. kidney beans. in youth. milkgiving. to a well-conducted and austere Brâhmiṇ.

increases a hundred thousand fold. the removers of cold and poison. with ornaments to a Brâhmiṇ. 64. Take hold of the tail of the cow. A gift made to a deserving person multiplies a hundred-thousand-fold. 1 Present the cloths. One who has studied the scriptures and made fire-offerings to the shining ones and who does not eat food cooked by others is not polluted by receiving even the earth filled with precious stones. The cow given to an undeserving person leads the giver to hell. fill it with water. A gift made to a deserving person. A gift should not be made to an undeserving person by the wise who desire their own welfare. place a foot in the boat. the gift of a thousand when dying and bereft of mental faculties. Mantras and fire. tip its horns with gold. Put there a golden image of Yama. properly worship with fragrances. and milk it into a bronze vessel. 70-76. and place the covered bronze vessel upon some cotton-stuff. It brings unending fruit to the giver and does not harm the recipient. One should decorate a black or reddish cow. place clarified butter in the bronze vessel and put all upon the cow. and coloured rice 2. The gift of one cow while one is in full vigour of mind. flowers. and never to many. hang a bell round its neck. and an iron rod. having honoured a Brâhmiṇ. Make a raft of sugarcanes. I will tell you about the gilt of a cow. If he either sells it or shares it his family will he troubled to the seventh generation. do not themselves partake of these evil qualities. silver its feet. dedicate the cow there in accordance with the scriptures. And the gift of one hundred thousand cows after death 1. fastening it with silk threads. are equal. And it troubles the recipient's people for a hundred generations. and. Cover it with a pair of black cloths. who has bathed at the sacred waters. recite this mantra:-- . make a hole. which is a means for crossing the Vaitaraṇî River. 65-68. of which I have spoken to you already. One cow should be given to one only.62-63. and in it place the raft: Having placed the things which are born from the body of the sun in it. 69. the gift of a hundred cows while suffering from diseases.

--the supreme gift of a cow should be made. Salutations to thee. look upon me. O Bird. With hands together having invoiced. "O Cow. who is the mainstay of the shining ones. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî! "I have presented this to you. at the eclipses of the sun and moon. So one who desires his own welfare should make unending gifts. does not appear in the Great Way after the gift of a cow. 2 on Yuga days 3 and at other sacred times. may cows be behind me. God upon earth. Yama in the form of a cow. uplift me.77-82. 89. and lies on the very dreadful way of Yama. and when a proper person is present. and in the dwelling-places of Brâhmiṇs. 2 Therefore it is necessary to give a cow at all sacred times. "O Best of the Twice-born." 83-84. At the equinoctial and solstitial points. gives the Vaitaraṇî cow. 90. . its the form of a cow remove my sins. may cows be in my heart 1. should make a gift of a cow. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî. The wise man. 91-92. in which faith is produced. At all the sacred bathing-places. Thou art verily the saviour of those who are immersed in the ocean of existence. I have presented this gift to you. 87-88. with these mantras. like the Ganges. and may I dwell in the midst of cows. and having walked round all these things. He who. for the sake of my passing through the gateway of Yama on the great path. according to his wealth. which is a hundred yojanas in extent. he should give them to the Brâhmiṇ. Whether the body is well or ill one should carry out the Vaitaraṇî observance. with these rites. at Vyatîpâta. on the day of the new moon. at the crossing over 1. 85-86. "May she who is the Goddess of Prosperity for all creatures. being desirous of crossing that river. Bodies are transitory. Vaitaraṇî. goes by a righteous path into the assembly of the King of Justice. That river. "O Lord of the Universe. to a learned Brâhmiṇ. death is always near. Queen of the shining ones! "May cows be in front of me. the very form of Viṣṇu. made miserable by the waves of sorrow and remorse. desiring to cross that river.--thence flows unending benefit.--one should accumulate righteousness. That verily is called the sacred time. possessions are not eternal. compassionate to those who seek refuge in Thee.

When his body has been destroyed by fire his karma remains and wherever he is the man experiences it. having gained it. kinsman. and the grandsons? Whose is the wife. but when they have known him to be dead. and the time is effectual. 97-99. one should give with one's own hand. Otherwise--without provision--the man suffers pain on the path. and like the motion or sticks in a river is one's contact with mother. He who.The gift of even a little wealth. He should constantly remember that the true kinsman of the self is the Self. so long should one make gifts to a Brâhmiṇ. follows righteousness. reaches the supreme goal. Therefore one should make gifts himself. while still alive. goes and comes in misery.--all these are transitory. father. brother. 103-104. and goes again upon its exhaustion. Whose are the sons. Therefore righteousness should be sought. but when the wealth becomes another's one can have nothing to say. like a lump of wood or earth. 93-94. Nobody has a relation in this changing ocean of sorrow. He is born by the attraction of karma. body. wife and the others. He who has gifts as provision. be it good or bad. Wealth. Like creatures in a water-tank. goes happily on the Great Way. son. kinsmen. 107-100. presented with one's own hand:--this is unending. 105-106. much less will anyone give to the dead. If not to the living. birth as a human being is obtained. Life is transient. The relatives turn away with averted faces leaving the dead body on the ground. wife and fancily. and the relatives from the cremation-ground. The wealth disappears from the house. or the wealth? In the world of change nobody belongs to anybody. and who can give afterwards? 101-102. All the gifts made by human beings in this world clear the way for them on the path of the world of Yama. As long as one is in possession of wealth. So long as a man is alive he has a father and other relatives. their affection soon fades away. The man who neglects righteousness. sons. The fruitfulness of birth as a human being depends upon the pursuit of righteousness alone. 95-96. . 100. The good and evil karma he has made goes with him. By the power of great merit. but righteousness goes with him. Knowing all this.

He should cause his ailing father to make gifts on earth. Therefore should righteousness be pursued. Footnotes 62:1 The ten avatâras. through the mother. presented with devotion. All those sinful-misers. 63:1 Names of Vishnu. because of greed. for the sake of righteousness. 62:2 Ajâmila was a man of very evil life. though in poverty. not by large piles of wealth. the self-subdued. a flower. Righteousness is supported by faith. kinsmen and friends who do not make gifts on behalf of a dying man are without doubt slayers of Brâhmaṇ. himself. Wealth is born of righteousness. and go to heaven. What is given through the father has a hundred-fold merit. Hence should wealth be given. who. O Bird. grandsons. through the sister.On account of gifts made in a former birth much wealth is obtained in this. by that. his sets. and happened to call him as he was dying. brothers. Sons. but not that earned by the father. a leaf. . a gift should be made. a thousand-fold. except Kalkî. Therefore. through the brother. a fruit or water--from him. incalculable. 65:2 Classes of non-human beings. A righteous son is honoured even by the shining ones. with devotion. From him who offers to Me. who named his son Nârâyaṇa. 115. by all means. do not make gifts at the time of illness come to grief when dead. The wise. Whether it be small or great does not count with me. ten-thousand fold. who is still to come. 113-114. 116-118. which appeared in archaic and ancient times. 112. by one knowing this. and no fear caused by the messengers of Yama at the time of death. Righteousness verily is the cause of freedom. leave faith. and as prescribed. 110-111. If the wealth made by the father is given to the deserving by the sons--then. I accept that. 65:1 They may expect ancestral property. by righteousness desire is conquered. descents or incarnations of Viṣṇu. For him who makes gifts there are no troubles and no torments of hell. grandsons and great-grandsons are ennobled.

67:1 A kind of spotted grain. and the minutes declination are the same. 70:1 Probably the afore-mentioned cow. given by another for one. 72:3 Every month there is a day called Yuga--the last or last but one. 68:1 That is. are closely connected with sacrifice and therefore with the sun. 70:2 Akṣata. gold. that the cow is merely a symbol. etc. ghee.66:1 Physical. astral and lower mental worlds. silk. 72:2 When the sun and moon are on opposite sides of either solstice. 71:2 Note the subjective character of the "river. whole rice coloured with turmeric and saffron. and used to honour persons by sprinkling over them. 71:1 Note here. 67:2 The eternal serpent. ." 72:1 The passing of the sun from one constellation to another.

1. Liberation is certain for the being who dies near the Śâlagrâma stone. 1 Next. my riches. darbha-grasses and holy basil are three holy things. then. though he have hundreds of sins.--the servants of Yama do not come to it. there is always liberation for the dying. O Târkṣya. in the middle of the kuśa is Janârdana. holy basil. upon a seat of sesamum and darbhagrass. and by what rites men after death reach a good condition. which removes the pain of being. 14-15. 1 at the tip of the kuśa is Śaṅkaradeva 2--three shining ones are seated in the kuśa grass. Brâhmiṇs and cows do not lose their purity by being used again and again. Brahma is seated at the root of the kuśa-grass. The Blessed Lord said: Listen.CHAPTER IX. and they prevent an ailing man from going to a miserable condition. An Account of the Rites for the Dying. hence by the mere touch of them men attain heaven. the embodied leaves his ordinary body. mantras. unfailingly. 6-9 Where is the shade of the holy basil tree. are produced from my hairs. Tell now. hence Asuras. Yama is not able to see him who gives up his life while having a holy basil shoot. The darbha grasses. by the effects of karma. O Lord. The house in which the holy basil tree is enshrined is like a holy bathing place. Dânavas and Daityas run away from sesamum. The man who dies with a leaf of it in his mouth. Because the sesamum is produced from My sweat it is holy. Garuḍa said: You have spoken fully about the gifts for the diseased. Hence kuśa. Sesamums. he should strew darbha-grass. 3-5. and then have the Śâlagrâma stone placed on the cleaned platform. and I will explain the rites for one leaving the body. having scattered sesamum seeds. which removes all ills and sins. of the rites for the dying. . goes to the city of Viṣṇu. difficult to obtain by gifts. though he have no son. O Târkṣhya. 10-13. fire. near to a holy basil tree one should make a ring with cowdung. 2. When.

He who drinks even a drop of the water of the water of the Śâlagrâma stone 3 is absolved from all sins. By bathing in other rivers men are purified. Therefore should one drink of the Ganges. Then one should give him the water of the Ganges. spooks. 21-22. whose water helps one over the ocean of transmigration. on a cremationground. are both equal. Rudra 2 all the shining ones. placing him on the cleaned ground. It sanctifies meritless men by hundreds and thousands. Śrâddha. and the followers of Yama enter an impure place. mantras. and he who drinks the water of the Ganges. by eating the offerings for the departed. goes when dead to the city of Viṣṇu.--so also by merely touching. the feeding of Brâhmiṇs. so.Darbha-grass becomes unclean with rice-balls. The ground must he pure everywhere. elementals. Viṣṇu. O Târkṣya. Just as. and give him the Water of the Feet of Vishnu in the form of the Śâlagrâma. is his sin reduced to ashes. nor place the dying man upon the ground. cows and holy basil. He who drinks the water of the Ganges. If there is a stain it should be cleaned away by further plastering. a bundle of cotton is destroyed by falling into the fire. Next. He who calls. 1 Brahmâ. Hence without this ring one should not perform oblations to the fire. .--therefore should one make a ring. heated by the rays of the sun 1 is freed from all births and goes to the abode of Hari. when basely used. "O Ganges. One should lay the dying man on the ground cleaned with cow-dung and spread over with darbha-grasses. Brâhmiṇs. Demons. with no stain to be seen. and gives fruit of merit equal to bathings and gifts at all the sacred waters. the worship of the Holy Ones. which is the effacer of great sins. He who performs a thousand times the Chândrâyaṇa fast which purifies his body. and Sacrificial Fire stand upon the ring. by his drinking the water of the Ganges. one should put gold and jewels upon his lips. not support him in the air. goblins. and is not born again on earth. and goes to the residence Vaikuṇṭḥa. and a cot above the ground. 4 23-30. drinking or calling upon the Ganges. Ganges" while life is flickering in the throat. 16-20. and fire.

environed by the sheath of karma. nostrils and ears are the seven gateways through which go those of good deeds. which are joined. be proud of the body. When the Lord of Breath departs. 2 He who says. as does a householder whose house has been burnt. 36-39. O Bird. The mouth. he should make a fast. surrounded with sense-objects of sound and the rest. when his life is leaving. At the time when the breath is leaving the body. 40-41. and it is disliked by everybody. left by the vital breath. the life-breath departs from the inert body. 3 while life is still flickering in his throat. The repeating of the Vedas and the Upaniṣads. Kṣattriyas and Vaiṣyas. the body falls like a tree unsupported and stricken by time. dung and ashes? 42-43. or half or quarter of a verse of the Bhâgavata never returns hither from the world of Brahmâ. ether to ether: and the Self that is in the bodies is happy. foul smells soon arise in it. enters a new body created by his own karma. 44-45. keep in mind the Ganges. birthless and deathless. Endowed with good tendencies. Yogins go through an opening in the head. becomes detestable and unfit to touch. of him who is righteous and has thus performed the rites. And. similarly. . Dissatisfied with worldly things the twice-born should take up relinquishment. The motionless body. and is not born again on earth. The individual. salute. clinging to desire and love. with its three conditions. O Bird. Therefore he should contemplate. to the Bhâgavata." goes at death to the city of Viṣṇu. "I have relinquished. and drink its water. fire is dissipated in fire. possessing all the senses. who perish in a moment. becoming subtle. witness of the world. 34-35. Earth is dissipated to earth. then.And the man who.-worm. the hymning of Viṣṇu and Śiva--these bring liberation at death to Brâhmiṇs. become separate. How can men. likewise water to water. also air in air. When the rising and descending life-breaths. all-pervading. the life breaths easily pass out through the higher opening. Then. however little. eyes. contemplates with faith the Ganges. eternally free. goes to the highest goal. Then he should listen. He who in his last moments repeats a verse. 31-33. 1 which is a giver of liberation.

by virtue of gifts attains heaven. and is honoured by the Holy Ones. That great man. 80:1 The Bhâgvata Purâṇa. bringing a chariot wreathed with countless bells. 78:3 Water is poured over the stone. 79:1 Here is a mystical suggestion. possessed of gold and diamond ornaments. truly says. in a resplendent body. 48. who has performed the rites. resplendent with flashing plumes. . always beloved by the righteous. with shining garments and garlands. wise. 78:1 When the people of the house are aware that one is about. Footnotes 76:1 Cowdung is extensively used in India as a purifier and antiseptic. And they. knowing the true righteousness. 78:2 Siva. 77:2 Śiva. giving up attachment to worldly life and its objects. 80:3 That is.46-47: Then the messengers of the Shining Ones. carry him. 80:2 Sannyâsa. arrive. and thus consecrated to Viṣṇu. 77:1 Viṣṇu. away in their own chariot. to die they remove him from the couch to the ground. 78:4 The heaven of Viṣṇu.

O Lord. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire. he should offer them. Then the son. by doing which sons and grandsons are released from the hereditary debt. Then the daughter-in-law 1 and others should go round it and worship it. There is no need for numerous gifts. 11-13. or the clay of the Ganges. Having bathed the corpse. Having covered it with new cloths he. Then. except the nails and the hair of the armpits. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. should have the shave. Garuḍa said: Tell me. 10. the helper through the ocean of changefulness. 1 4-6. and dedicate rice-balls and presents.CHAPTER X. half-way. he should bathe the corpse and next adorn it with sandalpaste. The son who does not have the shave when the mother or father has died. he should make an offering for him. By this the earth and its presiding deity become pleased. by this the evil ones amongst the tens of millions of elementals can do no harm. abandoning sorrow. At the place of death. I will tell you all about the ceremonies for the upper body. in the name of the so-called dead. The son who bears his father on his shoulder to the burning-ground obtains the fruit of the horse-sacrifice at every step. along with all his relatives. 3. Then. 14. after cleaning and sprinkling. Then. should pronounce the family name. the rites for burning the bodies of the good. garlands. 1. in order to remove all sins. with his sacred thread on the right shoulder. Therefore he must have the shave by all means.--how can he be called a son. he should make a halt. He who carries his dead father on shoulder or back or hip pays off the debt of constant parental kindnesses. and describe also the greatness of the wife who is faithful. then along with the other relatives the son should bear it on his shoulder. having bathed with his relatives he must put on clean cloths. the son who does so obtains fruit like that of the Agniṣṭoma. Ḥe should wake offering at the threshold in the name of him who is become a traveller. . 2. but one should perform the funeral ceremonies for his parents. O Târkṣya. 7-9. bringing river water.

if it is done. he should make there a funeral pyre with sandal wood. 24. shall not cause disturbance of that body which is to be sacrificed. and others in the various directions. From the time he is released on the funeral pyre the condition as departed begins. Having thus prayed to the fire. I will explain to you the rites for the warding off of all ills. Beginning from the middle of Dhaniṣṭhâ. demons and fiends. An offering should be made on the funeral pyre. If burning takes place. 16-19. he should offer in the name of the departed two rice ball. make of darbha grass. Then it should be taken to the burning-ground. O Târkṣya. Thus the dead gets the benefit of the offering of five rice-balls. and consecrated with the four Rikṣa mantras.'-"Oh. Supporter of Beings.on the funeral pyre. lead Thou him to heaven!" 20-22. Oblations should be made in order that goblins. for the burning of the body. Burning should not be done then. having dedicated five rice-balls to the departed.15. 1 25-27. Then one should place near the corpse images. 20-33. in the hand of the dead. the holy bath wood. Those who know the ways of the departed call him a seeker. . otherwise the abovementioned come to disturb. 28. This one belonging to the changing world is dead. and with the wood of palâsha and aśwattha. 23. another death occurs. Womb of the World. Thou. The son. having taken out some earth and erected an altar and sprinkled it with water. either in this name. And having worshipped with flowers and coloured rice the Shining One known as the eater of flesh. or in that of Departed. Having placed the departed on the funeral pyre. if there is not Pañchaka. 1 he should make an oblation as prescribed. Who dies in the Pañchaka does not attain a good condition. should give them to the fire. as follows: Having swept the ground and washed it with cow-dung. evil occurs. beginning with 'loman. Harm befalls the house in which death takes place in the Rikṣa mansion. in the five Pañchaka mansions ending with Revatî 2 is not a suitable time for burning. Nourisher of Creatures. in case burning takes place in the middle of Rikṣa. and some trouble arises for the sons and family. and laid down with its head to the north. Some place should be cleaned there. and having placed the fire as prescribed. and having brought the oblation with the grasses.

on the day of the offering of the rice-balls. For three days. he should weep loudly. Thou hast been forsaken by relatives. at the cross-roads or on the burning-ground. diamonds. Here is milk and here water. and the departed goes to the supreme condition. the women in front and the men behind. Having bathed again at home. having split open the brahmarandra 1 should make an oblation of clarified butter with this mantra: "Thou art born from him. bound with-three sticks. Then the burning along with the images should be done. after having thus performed the pacificatory ceremonies. and a bronze vessel filled with clarified butter. silver. Having cleaned the place of death with cow-dung. bathe and drink!" . Holding the unbaked earthen pot. at sunset. then the sons. milk and water in an earthen pot. his skull should be split open. that he may become happy 60-61. he should keep a lamp burning there. 2 may he be born again from you. blaze forth!" Thus having made an oblation of clarified butter. They should walk home. 56-50. O Târkṣya. in the case of householders with a piece of wood. 34-66. and sacrifice performed with Rikṣa mantras.--no harm befalls him. His son. and the son. turned to the south. in that of ascetics with a cocoanut. does the burning. in order. he should give food to a cow and eat-from a leaf-plate-but not any food already in the house. with mantras and sesamum offerings. so that he may attain the world of the forefathers. and offer water mixed with sesamum. He should eat the leaves of the nimba-tree and recount the virtues of the dead. He is an offering to the heaven-world.Purified gold should be used. he should offer. When the burning is finished the women should bathe. O Fire." and with leaf-vessels. Whether half or wholly burnt. filled with milk and water. For warding off ills he should give a vessel full of sesamum. 63. in the name of the family. should perform the pacificatory rites for him. gold. with the mantra "Pretâjayata. 62. he should repeat this mantra: "Thou hast been burned with the fires of the burning-ground. Who. up to the twelfth day.

should offer three rice-balls. having put on a woollen garment. Having prepared a triangular plot of ground. and by those who do not. Having placed them on palasha leaves. water and sweetmeats. . touched with it his heart and head and walked round it saluting it. containing water. and. and worship them well. he. taking a three-legged stool he should place on it a jar with mouth uncovered. the divine Ganges. When the wind which has touched the waves of the Ganges touches the dead. by those who maintain household fires. with great austerities. As long as a man's bones float on the water of the Ganges.--for so many thousands of years he remains in the heaven-world. Having put them into a leaf-box. never returns from the world of Brahma. and wearing the sacred ring. the jar of bones. his sin is at once destroyed. Then he should several times sprinkle the bones with water and milk. facing south. He whose bones sink in the water of the Ganges within ten days. on the second or the third day he should do as follows: 68-78." Then having sprinkled milk over the place of the funeral pyre. which destroys the pain of burning. having bathed and become pure. On the fourth day the collection 1 should be made. Having collected the ashes from the pyre. an oblation of cooked rice with curds and clarified butter. O Bird. digging a hole there. Bhagîratha 1 brought her down from the world of Brahmâ. 79-84. and cleansed it with cow-dung. repeating the mantra beginning with "Yamâyatva. If there is nothing to prevent. carry it to a tank of water. he should sprinkle them with milk and water. O Lord of Birds. Then he should make. He should take fifteen steps in the northerly direction and. Having gone to the burning-ground. in the three directions. having put them into an earthen pot. he should sprinkle water. taking the vessel from the hole. Having worshipped. Then he should offer over it a rice-ball. with sandal-paste and saffron. place in it. 1 The son should make the grain oblation to the denizens of the burning-ground. and begin to pick up the heap of bones. for the uplifting of his forefathers. and. perform Śrâddha as prescribed. and walk round three times. for the departed. he should drop it into the middle of the Ganges.67. as prescribed.

and the child drawn out and placed on the ground. 91. whether vowed or not. or in a wood. along with milk-food and lumps of sugar. On the eleventh and twelfth days one should perform the ceremonies for a youth. If an infant dies. milk-porridge and eatables. 87. killed by a lion in a great forest. there are no rites. if a child dies. fed. If the embryo perishes. . one should give milk. it should simply be thrown into the Ganges. on the day this is heard of-Having made an effigy of darbha grass. one should burn it alone. If a woman dies in the fulness of pregnancy. one should have Brâhmiṇs. There was a certain hunter. or from dangerous thieves. When one who has passed five years dies. Older than that it should be burned and its bones strewn on the Ganges. 92-93. 94-98. If a child dies on the bank of the Ganges.In the three worlds is celebrated the purifying fame of the Ganges. A gift of a waterpot should be made. but without the rites of releasing a bull and of the great gift. and if his body is not found. a destroyer of all sorts of creatures who. up to twenty-seven months old. Now. and food should be given to children. went to the place called hell. as explained above. Hence the good son should himself drop the bones in the Ganges. if in another place. then one should offer a jar. one should offer ten rice-balls. for the performance of the annual Śrâddha. who led to heaven the sons of Sagara 2 who had been reduced to ashes. then. After the bones are collected he should perform the ten-days' ceremonies. one should have young children fed. if anybody meets his death in an uninhabited place. it should be buried in the ground. her womb should be cut open. Those men who die after committing sins attain the heaven-world by their bones falling into the Ganges. And from the same day the ten-days' ceremonies should be performed and that date should be noted. along with children. If a youth who has taken the vow dies. and then collect its ashes and drop them into the water of the Ganges. and she alone be burned. 88-90. When his bones were dropped into the Ganges by a crow he ascended the divine chariot and went to the abode of the Shining Ones. If a youth dies. 85-86.

. is declared to take the place of vows. Therefore rice-balls and water should not be offered to them. and the ten-days' ceremonies should not be performed for them by their sons. 99. the bull and other sacrifices should be performed. they should be thrown into them. is not available. Those who know are always free. no water rites. In boyhood and in youth the cot. these are Sannyâsins. hence they do not expect rice-balls to be given. 101. requires but scanty rites. With all ascetics there is no burning. because of carrying the three-fold staff they never go into the condition of the departed. 86:2 The fifth Nakṣatra. The Haṅsa. 84:1 His son's wife--the wife of the son performing the rite. 2 O Târkṣya. who is little bound by sense-objects. the great gift and the gift of a cow should be made. but one should perform the annual Śrâddha at the sacred waters. 5 days in each month. If the Ganges. with all the castes. by the mere holding of the staff. He who is little attached to action. A man. they must be buried in the ground.If the father is living. Where great rivers exist. by realisation of their own true nature. with women and Śûdras. Footnotes 83:1 A certain sacrifice. 102-107. and he who is young in age of body. 100. Kutîchaka. and Śrâddha at Gayâ. Previous to the taking of vows. becomes Nârâyaṇa 1. Paramahaṅsa. 85:1 The fire-deva. but on the twelfth day one should perform the ceremony for him alone. Bahûdaka. with devotion to the forefathers. or other. it is declared that they should be buried in the ground. there is not joint rite for the youth. rites are done according to age. 86:1 A certain astrological position. Marriage. and the gifts of land. and when dead.

87:87-34 87:87-35 88:88-41 88:88-42 88:88-46 .

the ancestors of Bhrigu.89:89-48 89:89-53 90:1 An opening at the top of the head. 92:1 A finger-ring of kusha grass. were released and purified by him in the Ganges. .000 sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes by Viṣṇu. 93:1 A great king who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to earth. 93:2 There is a legend to the effect that the 80. 90:2 The funeral pyre is lighted from the sacred household fire. put on the third finger of right hand. 96:1 Viṣṇu. 96:2 These names are given to advanced stages of human development. and that they. 91:1 Of the bones.

CHAPTER XI. rests awhile and then departs again. If there is no son the wife. An Account of the Ten-Days' Ceremonies. which removes misery. for the man who has no son. 1. Having considered this. . Because the departed has inevitably to drink the bitter tears let fall by his relatives. having done which. should perform them. Râma and Yudiṣhṭhira would not have experienced miseries. taking calm courage. so is the coming together of beings. what then of other persons’? As a traveller. either human or divine. The son. O Keśava. Garuḍa said: Tell me. the son should perform the rites. The ten-days' ceremonies. There is no way out. refraining from tears. This is inevitable and therefore a wise man should not grieve over it. should be performed by the sons or grandsons of his younger or his elder brother. should offer rice-balls to the father. O Bird. and if no wife the brother. The good things eaten in the morning are destroyed by evening. Nobody should form an excessive attachment to anybody. 3-8. how can there be permanence in a body which is sustained by these foods? 12-17. then Nala. and birth is certain for the dead. Death is certain for those who are born. 2 The Blessed Lord said: Listen. what good results follow from the performance of the ten-days' rite. a good son is released from the hereditary debt. resorting to some shady place. the body is only a dream. and they should not weep when sorrow is useless. Although there be sorrowing day and night for thousands of years. 9-11. the man who is dead may never be seen. If there were a way of averting the inevitable. the being who has come under the sway of death must be born again here. and I will tell you about the ten-days' ceremony. and given up sorrow arising from ignorance. and who should perform it if there is no son. O Târkṣya. or a Brâhmiṇ's pupil or a proper kinsman should perform them.

If there is nobody else. even if the wealth has been divided. . obtains such fruit as is acquired by performing the Śrâddha at Gayâ. The son obtains such fruit from the performance of the rite for the father and mother. mouth-perfumes and presents. The son who performs the rites for one year. cleansed with cow-dung. the riceball offerings. but only one of them has a son. Having gone to a well or a tank. 18. sandal paste. 19-21. or in a temple. 1 eating one meal. of brothers of the same father. as is obtained by going round the shrines seven times. a lamp. sleeping on the ground. the family priest may do them. devoted to Brâhmaṇ. 22-24. 2 and pure. in a garden. and having worshipped it with water for the feet and other things. between nine and twelve noon." Then having spread kuśa grass in front of it. But the annual Śrâddha should be performed severally if the wealth has been divided. to have a son. The ten-days' ceremony for the father should be performed by the son. as a seat for the rice-ball. by this sacrament for the helpless departed. O Bird.-Only by one these ceremonies. seated facing southward at the root of a tree. and the other sixteen Śrâddhas.Manu declared that if. they are all considered. should bow to it. The rites must not be neglected. Therefore should the eldest son perform with devotion the ten-days’ ceremony. Made of cooked rice or of barley meal. obtains the fruit of tens of millions of sacrifices. For all who have no sons a friend may offer the rice-balls. he should make an altar 1 there. and having placed upon it a ball prepared in the family-name of the departed. on account of that son. eatables. the father should not. He should place on it. If a man has several wives. only one has a son. A man or a woman who performs the rites for a friend. all of them have a son. saying the "Atasî. Being purified. perform it. He should dedicate Usîra-root. Even if the eldest son dies. Although there be many sons. a twice-born 2 made of darbha and kuśa grasses. he should bathe without reciting mantras. only one shall perform the ten-days' ceremony.--the son should make the offering. the flowers of the Bhṛiṅgarâja. 25-30. over leaves. incense. at a sacred bathing-place. beginning with the ten-days' ceremony. on account of that son. through excessive affection.

persist. Footnotes 99:1 One each day. And say: "May his family increase like the panic grass. since flesh is forbidden in the Kali Yuga at the ceremony for the forefathers. he may eat. pray for the release of the departed. During the ten days he should feed a twice-born with seasoned foods. wishing the dead to reach heaven. be Thou the giver of release to the departed. if given in the name of the departed. 41-42. 34-36. 100:2 A rough image. with hands together. Therefore. or a ball of mâṣa. and handfuls of castor-oil in a pot: "May all this. they should proceed to the place of the dead. from the first day onwards.Crow-food. in accordance with the sapiṇḍa rite. On the ninth day all the authorised kinsmen at the proper time should besmear themselves with oil." Every day at the conclusion of the Śrâddha he should prayerfully repeat this incantation. On the tenth day he should shave. milk and water. O Lord of Birds. Lotus-eyed. 40. so should the nine rice-balls be given. gone home. There is no reason for fear for those who bow to Govinda. O Bearer of the conch. cloths. 33. wealth or other things." 31-33. and having the women go in front. as also should the other relatives. water. the Eternal. "O Beginningless and Endless Deva. The son who performs the ceremony must again have a complete shave. and radiate like the parched grain. and given food to the cow. Having meditated upon Hari. symbolical of the deceased twice-born person. confer eternity upon the dead. Having bathed. he should. . 99:2 Celibate. that has been given by me to the departed in his earthly name. Food. discus and mace. Having bathed in the open." and then leave in the house the mixed-panic grass and grain. clad in yellow robes. one should pronounce the name of the departed woman or man. Indestructible. On the tenth day a ball of flesh should be given. In the same way that on the first day a rice-ball is given as prescribed. 37-38. 100:1 A square flat mound a few inches high. 39. as beautiful as the atasî flower. taking with them panic grass and parched grain.

and an iron one of Yama. offer a rice-ball to the departed. One should perform the tenth-day Śrâddha in the family name. tell me about the eleventh-day rite also. and bowing their heads. as prescribed. The son. And he should next make a gift of a cow for the helping along of his forefathers: "this cow is given by me. clad in red robes. and performing the Sandhyâ and other ceremonies 1.CHAPTER XII. One should make a golden image of Viṣṇu. with hands folded together. facing southward. to Viṣṇu. Garuḍa said: O Lord of the Holy Ones. 1. should make the wateroffering. with the sacred thread over the right shoulder 1. his conveyances. 3. with mantras. and.--a brass vessel filled with clarified butter. a copper one of Rudra. well-read in Vedas and Śâstras. O Ruler of the universe. To the south there should be a pot of rain-water for Yama. His clothes. The Blessed Lord said: In the early morning on the eleventh day one should go to a water-reservoir." 12-15. 11-13.--these. clad in yellow robes. explain the ceremony of the dedication of the bull. O Bird. 2. pray for the release of the departed. and on the eleventh day. An Account of the Eleventh-day Rite. He should make water-offering. He should invite Brâhmiṇs. to Śiva and to Justice. to the creator 2. To the east there should be a pot of milk and water for Brahma. O Mâdhava. and there one should place Rudra. and perform diligently all the funeral ceremonies. 5. 3 perform the offering to the fire and then the eleventh-day Śrâddha. the seven grains which he liked. a silver one of Brahmâ. . which he has used. without mantras. and upon it one should place Yama. and upon it one should place Viṣṇu. To the north there should be a pot of honey and clarified butter for Rudra. clad in black robes. 6-10. clad in white robes. To the west there should be a pot filled with Ganges water for Viṣṇu. 4. May it please Thee. and placed therein kuśa-grass. having made a circle in the middle. his ornaments. with Vaidic mantras. one should do the eleventh-day ceremony. Even a preceptor should become purified by bathing. and there one should place Brahmâ.

neck and hoofs. give the bed as prescribed. 20. and red in its eyes. black is suitable for a Śûdra. and which is the colour of lac dye is called dark. ill or too young. That which has red eyes.Sesamum and the rest. is called a reddish bull. sweetmeats. O Brâhmiṇ. and by the rite of the dedication of a bull. red horns. That which is dove-coloured and has a tilaka-mark 1 on its forehead is called deep-brown. A glossy and red complexion is suitable for a Kṣattriya. and the other things. and having worshiped it. the departed goes to the highest condition. That which has a red colour. they should be brought to his bedside and he should have them given. with white face and tail. and Śrâddhas of the ninth and other days. for the sake of the dead. On the eleventh day the rite of the dedication of a bull should be performed as prescribed. for the sake of the departed." With these words it should be given to a Brâhmiṇ preceptor who has a family. and is the uplifter of the ancestors. and give him cooked food. legs and tail are white. and increases the satisfaction of the forefathers. and is entirely beautiful in all its limbs. By this gift of the bed. One with all limbs red-brown. Having washed the feet of a Brâhmiṇ he should honour him with cloths and other things. 17-. so going round him he should salute him and present it. He should not use a cow which is crippled. the eight great gifts: if one does not offer these in his last days. is called very dark--of which five varieties are known. with tail and feet white. flour-cakes and milk. and brown hoofs and horns is called dark-coloured. That which has one colour over all its limbs and tail and hoofs is called dark-brown. . Then the son should place upon the bed a golden image. white belly and black back is suitable for a Brâhmiṇ. 21-30.19. The bull whose face. "This bed is given by me to you. yellow colour for a Vaiśya. a reddish colour. 16. That which is dark over all its body. with the image of the departed. but one having well-marked characteristics.

should recite this mantra:-"Thou art Justice in the form of a bull. Thou wert formerly created by Brahma. and will give release to the departed. he should release the bull and the young cow. of whom one perchance may go to Gayâ. he should bind them together with a marriage string in accordance with marriage rites. the son. "By whose dedication. all of us will go to the highest condition? Among all sacrifices. Having released the bull. and worship a bull. doing it himself. or marry a virgin Gaurî or dedicate a dark bull. at a sacred bathing place. On account of your being released. . Therefore this should be done. Having brought together a young bull and cow. Any one whose ancestors are tormented in Raurava and other hells helps them all out for twenty-one generations by the dedication of a bull. 37. or the dark on the twelfth and following days. and then tether them to a post. Having cast the positions of the planets and worshipped them with their respective mantras. the bull-sacrifice is the certain giver of release to us. and. He should [mark] the right side with the trident of Śiva and the. in the bright fortnight. 31-35. Even the forefathers who have gone to heaven desire the dedication of a bull: "which son in our lineage will perform the dedication of a bull. with hands folded together. help over this ocean of existence!" Having thus bowed to it.--so runs an ancient saying. In the month of Kârtika 1 and in other auspicious months. 38-42." 36. He should do everything with diligence according to the prescribed rite. and should not be used for domestic purposes. One should desire for many sons. one should perform the dedication of a bull. goes easily to the highest condition. having worshipped them with fragrances and garlands. 44-45. left side with a discus. Its fruit comes even during life. It exists in the world on this account. one should perform the bull-sacrifice. with this mantra. The man who has no son. And should bathe the bull and young cow with the water from the pot of Rudra. at the equinoctial and solstitial points.This should by all means be dedicated. for the release of the forefathers. when the sun is going north. He alone should be considered a son who performs the dedication of a bull and the Gayâ Śrâddha---who does not do so verily is like unto excrement. the ailing man should make the fire-offering. In the two eclipses. Therefore. walk round them. "I shall always be the grantor of boons to you." 43. according to the Śâstras.

As in the former case. one should perform the sixteen Śrâddhas. . The man who cruelly strikes a bull with his fists or with sticks. falls into a dreadful hell. and in a pure place. I will tell you what should be done prior to sapiṇḍîkaraṇa ceremony. the drinker of intoxicants. the slayer of a Brâhmiṇ. 50. likewise by gifts. in manhood and in old age are destroyed. One should offer the first rice-ball to Viṣṇu. a Brâhmiṇ who knows the rites and has the auspicious signs should be invited. O Târkṣya. by the dedication of a bull. Therefore should one perform the bull sacrifice with all diligence. and at the collection of the bones. And having placed a Śâlagrâma one should do the Vaiṣṇava Śrâddha. such as the fire-offering and the rest. O Bird. The sins which are committed in infancy. having a husband and a son. in the hand of the corpse. suffers the torments of Yama until the end of the age. one should present the third to the retinue of Yama. without doubt. there is no merit in all the three worlds equal to that from the dedication of a bull. nor by manifold gifts.46-49. By recitation. at the funeral pyre. the dedication of a bull should not be performed. all the rites should be done. sixteen:-30-64.--one should present a milk-giving cow. That condition which is obtained by the performance of the release of a bull. He who does this. He who burdens a bull on the shoulder or on the back. 54. That at the place of death. 57-59. the purification of the body should be done. is not reached by oblations to the fire and other sacrifices. predeceases both. and the ten piṇḍas given in the ten days:-These first sixteen are called impure. And next I will tell you about the second. by fire-offerings. in youth.--these six. and then perform the Śrâddha for himself and give gifts to the twice-born. in childhood. the ungrateful. by the performance of the dedication of a bull obtains the fruit of all his desires. At the hour when the sun enters an auspicious constellation. the second to the blessed Śiva. Having thus carried out the dedication of a bull. The betrayer of friends. whether having a son or not. 51-53. half-way on the road. 55-56. the middle. O bird! until the coming of the deluge. the stealer of gold are all absolved by the dedication of a bull. at the threshold. If a woman. he who goes with his teacher's wife.

-This is the last sixteen. 1 and the sixth to the bearer of oblations to the forefather. The forty-eight Śrâddhas destroy the condition of the ghost-life. Therefore the three sixteens should be performed by the son. One should offer a serpent incenses and lights. if deprived of Śrâddhas the ghost remains as preta always. the third fortnight. If he is killed through recklesness or wilfully. "the Faithful. The three sixteens should be performed so that the departed may join the assembly of the forefathers. and the annual and the fortnightly is called by me. the thirteenth to Viṣṇu. Having had food cooked. and also before the year. then he certainly does not join them.The fourth to king Soma. O bird. 65-67." This faithful wife lives for the good of her husband: the life is fruitful of her who worships her dead lord. Also. the fifth to the bearer of oblations to the Shining Ones. for any one who. 73-78. one should give to Puruṣa: These are called the middle sixteen by men who know the truth. is killed by fire. on the fortnight. owing to carelessness. and worship with white sweet-smelling flowers and sandalpaste. The eighth one should give to Rudra. He for whom this series is performed becomes a member of the assembly of the forefathers. then me should worship a serpent on the fifth day of each fortnight. one should perform the sacrament and other rites as prescribed. as prescribed. the fourteenth to Śiva. or by a serpent. O Târkṣya. 1 the ninth to Puruṣa. the fifteenth to Yama. One should form a picture of a hooded serpent upon the ground with ricepowder. She who does the funeral ceremonies on the death of her husband. 2 eatables and milk. and the eleventh reverently to Viṣṇu. much strew rice and sesamum. If the performance of the three sixteens of Śrâddhas is not carried out. 68-69. The twelfth one should give to Brahmâ. I have declared to you. 70-72. and should dedicate 1 uncooked rice-flour. or by water. 2 the tenth to the departed. either by himself or another. One should give rice-balls in each one of the twelve months. before the six months. . the seventh one should present to Death. The sixteenth rice-ball. or if the wife does them for the husband there is uninterrupted prosperity.

Sris Chandra Vasu. or rice-balls with water regularly. Viṣṇu. Then one should. Footnotes 103:1 For an account of these ceremonies. to a twiceborn. 108:1 Including the latter part of October and the first part of November. 110:1 That is Fire. It is the ceremony for all the ancestors together. according to his means. 80. Thus. he mast change it. 1 and when free from pollution he should have made a gift of a bed and other gifts.One should offer a serpent made of gold." And should further perform for them the rite Nârâyaṇa-bali. 104:3 Dharma or Yama. 111:2 The primeval man. usually with sugar and cocoanut. as it were in anticipation of the annual event. and a cow. 111:1 Śiva. see the Daily Practice of the Hindus by Mr. having done all the rites. with hands together "may the King of Serpents be pleased. Allahabad. 112:2 Made into a ball. and passes of the hands are made as though a influence it towards the image. 112:1 The food is placed near the image. 79. . one should give every day a jar with food and water until the end of the year. 104:1 It is usually worn ever the left shoulder under the right arm. 106:1 Orthodox Hindus place a mark on the forehead to show caste and other things. Panini Office. by which they are absolved of all sins and obtain residence in heaven. for this ceremony. 113:1 This ceremony is performed on the twelfth day. Having done this on the eleventh day he should then offer the rice-balls for all the ancestors. 104:2 Brahmâ.

If a person dies in a foreign land and one hears of his death. in six nights. An Account of the Ceremony for all the Ancestors. and the gotrajâs 3 are purified merely by bathing. 1 are not uplifted by the various gifts made by the sons. then the impurity lasts for the remaining portion of ten days on which he hears the news. he is polluted for three nights. the Sâkulya relatives 2 in three nights. a single day. and I will explain to you the entire Sapiṇḍa rite. without the Sapiṇḍa rite the impurity does not depart. 10-11. 2. those in the fifth degree. by which the condition of preta is left behind and the soul enters the class of the pitṛis. I will tell you about the ending of pollution to be observed by all. A Brâhmiṇ becomes pure in ten days. Garuḍa said: Tell pre. purification is immediate. four days. a quarter of a day. three nights. If the son is always impure. the sixth.CHAPTER XIII. . 13. 3-5. should be performed by the son. The eighth. before the investiture with the thread. 12. O Târkṣya. about the method of [performing] the Sapiṇḍa rite. he becomes pure even by bathing. 6-9. If after the lapse of ten days. If a second pollution comes daring that from the first death. merely till bathing. they are never purified. If after a year. a Kṣattriya in twelve days. at the end of the pollution period. 1. and the gift of accessories. and afterwards. Those who are related within the fourth degree to the deceased are purified in ten nights. Therefore the Sapiṇḍa. one night. a Vaiśya in fifteen days. the ninth. a Śûdra in a month. The Sapiṇḍa relatives 1 are purified from the death pollution in ten days. the seventh. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. If a boy who has not yet cut his teeth dies. it is said. the removal of pollution.--so long lasts the pollution of death and birth [according to the distance of degrees from the deceased]. ten nights. Those whose piṇḍas have not been mixed together with the ancestors called Śiva and the rest. then the purification from the first pollution includes that from the second. before tonsure. O Lord. three days. the tenth.

it should be understood.--are both subjected to suffering. 19. feeding of Brâhmiṇs and the observance of vows should not be done during the death pollution. purification of the Sapiṇḍa relatives is immediate. 20-22. the sixth month or at the end of the year. Therefore. for the purifying from pollution. O Târkṣya. Up to betrothal a single day. 17-18. during pollution. purity is regained. 28-30. 24-26. 27. hiding his pollution. in as many days the embryo lived months. so Manu declared. and from that to old age three nights are authoritative. gives food to a twice-born. 23. suffers evil. Blessing the worship of the Shining Ones. suffers no evil. that for the four castes the Sapiṇḍa should be on the twelfth day. who then goes to the world of the forefathers to join the multitudes of forefathers. giving. But I say. During the Kali Age--it is authoritatively declared in the Śâstras--ten days' purification for all the castes. only the husband's family. Whoever. reciting. and before the pollution by birth or death. For one observing vows. religious study. fire-offering. accepts it. in all the castes alike. one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for the father. the third fortnight. engaged in mantras or in fire-offerings. after births and deaths. After this the women are polluted. reception of guests. offering to the forefathers. Whoever. Food prepared before marriage festivals and sacrifices. according to the caste. or a twice-born intent upon Brâhmaṇ. Sandhyâ prayers. If the embryo dies before sixth month. if after marriage. but the giver even though it be to a mendicant that he gives. and touching others should not he done during the death pollution. If the embryo dies. the occasional and the specially desired ceremonies--of him the regular and other ceremonies already done are lost. If after the betrothal ceremony three days for both families. can be eaten. salutation. The truth-knowing sages hare declared that the Sapiṇḍa ceremony should be on the twelfth day. . accepts through ignorance. lying on a bed. and the Brâhmiṇ who knowing it. an ascetic or a king there is verily no pollution. purification is immediate.14-16. following the scriptural ordinances. He who during pollution performs the daily. If a girl dies between birth and tonsure.

wife. incenses. Then he should worship the world-deities with foot-water. good cloths and presents. If a Brâhmiṇ house-holder dies. By the omission of rites sinfulness arises. The daily and the occasional ceremonies should be discontinued. The husband should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for his. in the forms of Vasu. If the father dies while the grandfather still lives. or should mix the rice-ball with both mine and great Lakṣmî's. he should mix them severally with the three rice-balls given to the grand father and the others. the son should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. the fulfilment of vows. and the impermanence of the body. he should do the Sapiṇḍa for her along with the mother-in-law and others. and guestofferings should not be accepted. three rice balls should be offered to the great grandfather and his predecessors. and having cleaned with cow-dung the place of death. marriage and other ceremonies should not be done. lamps. 35. He should worship with sandal-paste. and the fourth rice-ball to the dead. The father's rice-ball. he should sip water. 40. as laid down in the scriptures. It is my decision. therefore one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. 41-43. 36-30. Having divided the rice-ball for the departed into three parts with a thin bar of gold. mouth-scents. and because of the shortened life of men. having bathed. . Rudra and Arka. if she has no son. agreeable fools. O Târkṣya. that the Sapiṇḍa ought to be done. He should offer three rice-balls in order to his grandfather and others. the fruit which accrues from performing all sacrifices: that fruit is obtained by doing the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. Hence. 44. Until the Sapiṇḍa has been performed the mendicant should not accept alms.The twelfth day is preferable because of the endless variety of conditions in the Kali Age. If the mother dies before the grandmother-Then he should perform the mother's Śrâddha in the same way as the fathers. The fruit which accrues from visiting all the sacred bathing-places. 1 and âchamana. leaves of the holy basil. whether he be without fire or with fire. 34. the mother's with the grandmother's and the father's with the grandfather's. 31-33. then investiture with the sacred thread. 2 Next. divided into three parts should be mixed with their rice-balls. oblations. having given rice-balls to other departed ones.

gold." along with Vaidic mantras. Afterwards he should always have a guest fed until he says "hanta." 52-53. sprinkle water. 47. 55. food. After the feeding of the twice-born. painted in beautiful colours. water. 1 headed by Indra. a horse. If. 46. 54. delightful. is not my opinion. then.45. He should have maintenance for a year. 59-64. the gift of a bed should he made. Made of the choicest wood. The preceptor should then. a good cow. with saffron. and he should give them presents. He should utter "Let there be Swadhâ." 1 By this the forefathers. the cloths worn during the rite should be cast off. 50-57. the Shining Ones and the Dânavas are pleased. O Târkṣya. Then he should worship with mantras--after saying "Hail to thee"--the planets. the sages. an elephant. Devi. during life or else after death. and after that. should present the coloured rice also consecrated with mantras. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony having been thus performed. and having bound a thread upon the hand. scales. first the offering of a rice-ball and other things for the father. extol the gift of a bed. having put grasses between them. . he should perform it with that of the mother-in-law and father-inlaw. ornamented with gold leaves. his father and grandfather"--that. "The Sapiṇḍa rite for women should be done with that for the husband. a weapon. silver." and four abundances is called "hantakâra. All the Devâs. O Kâśyapa! husband and wife ascend the same funeral pyre. who are respectively thus purified. Having done the Sapiṇḍa. clarified butter. a chariot and a plot of ground given to a preceptor. strong. As much as a mouthful is called "alms. During the Sapiṇḍa he should worship the feet of a twice-born with sandal-paste and coloured rice. and a rod should be touched severally by the castes. he should make the offering of water to the forefathers. and white cloths having been donned. for his continued satisfaction. O Târkṣya. coloured rice and eatables. Therefore a bed should be given. Only one son should perform the rites. with mantras." four mouthfuls is "abundance. 49-51. canopied with silken cloth. and make to him a gift. Then he should have Brâhmiṇs fed with various pleasant sweetened foods. because the wife being already half the body of her husband requires no Sapiṇḍa ceremony with regard to her husband. and twelve pots with water and food. the rite for the mother. having bathed again. 58. 2 and Vinîyakam 3.

together with a coverlet made fragrant with the scent of flowers. in the case of women. furnished with all the necessaries. ornaments. and then. is a teacher. Facing north. the Planetary Spirits and Vinâyaka. it should be placed on the ground covered with cloth. 69-71. with ear and finger ornaments and golden necklaces. 75. How seldom does any one so give!" He should rock the twice-born and Lakṣmî and Hari. and adore the Guardians of the World. ." 72-74. should be seated by him on the comfortable bed. O Kṛiṣṇa. a vessel. 67-68. clothes. give them leave. And. Thus he should place the handsful of flowers before the Brâhmiṇ and the image of Hari.Having beautiful pillows stuffed with swans' down. on full moon day the dedication of a bull. your bed is the ocean full of milk. On it he should have placed a golden Hari. he should have the red dye. broad and pleasant: such a bed as this being made. standing in front of the Brâhmiṇ: "Just as. Wearing a turban and an upper cloth and jacket. If he is rich he should give a very beautiful house. and holding flowers in his palms. weapons and clothes. a mirror. An umbrella. 76. together with Lakṣmî. and all the other necessary things. receive these. and then the bed-gift with its accompaniments. in their proper places. an oxtail fan. having placed them on the bed. seated on the bed. "O Brâhmiṇ. a water-pot. so that he may sleep happily on the bed. he should pronounce this mantra. Well-bound with bright bands. He should give it to him who observes vows. 65-66. in front of Lakṣmî and Nârâyaṇa. a row of silver lamps. saffron. with his wife adorned with fragrances and flowers. with all the ornaments. and a canopy of five colours. according to the rite. If a living man makes with his own hand the gift of a bed. may this likewise be not empty in my future births. Then a Brâhmiṇ. And all the other accompaniments of the bed he should place round it. there should be performed. a seat. while he is still living. and say. and tells about Brâhmiṇ. He should worship Hari and Lakṣmî with saffron and flower-garlands. having walked round and bowed.

The father. valuables. for the dead. a water-pot. and this padadâna gives happiness to those who have gone on the way of Yama. uncooked rice.77. them to thirteen Brâhmiṇs on the twelfth day. 81. and I will tell you the method of it. seated in the best of chariots. This pada becomes complete with a staff. he may obtain the fruit of his desires. a seat. and at the abode of Yama. a signet ring. And on the path in the world of Yama. he will arrive without doubt through the potency of the gift of a bed. very terrible. and the son giving it. and never to several. the son should have Padadâna given. This bed should be given to one only. shoes. clothes. full of great thorns. An umbrella. The messengers of Yama. The miseries of cold and heat and wind are dreadful there. do not trouble on the road him who made the gift of a signet ring. He will reside there free from trouble. . and on all the days of the changes of the moon: even superior to these is the merit arising from the gift of a bed. waited upon by numbers of celestial damsels. through the gift of a water pot he. rejoices here and hereafter. The merit from all the sacred bathing places. There is there intense heat. Divided or sold it drags down the giver. and sacred threads. Having given a bed to a deserving person. It is enveloped in great heat. certainly enjoys the fruit which is obtained by thousands of gifts of wells. obtained these thirteen padas he should give. 78. By this padadâna the righteous go to a good condition. according to his means. those who gave shoes go riding horses. At the celestial house of Indra. Having. a set of five vessels--are called the seven kinds of padas. 87-93. until the coming of the deluge. foods. a copper vessel. when thirsty. fierce and brown-black. is windless and without water. gives a water-vessel made of copper. Who. 79-80. drinks water. but by the power of the gift of clothes he goes happily along the way. Listen to my words. by which the man is scorched. 82-86. O Bird. Having this made the gift of a bed. but the gift of an umbrella makes pleasant shade above his head.

107-110. similarly the monthly and the first annual Śrâddhas. the twice-born should be fed. Thus. If one dies at the full moon his rites fall on the fourth day.] For the first half day take the former [the dark]. rice-balls are not used. a water-pot with rice-balls should be given every month. and of dying on lunar days. when there is sankrânta. The ceremony for one only should not be done. When there is no sankrânta. 97-99. this gift. by it one becomes the destroyer of his forefathers. after the Sapinda and before the annual ceremony. for the second half. the two fortnights and the thirty days are the same [both must be performed. leisurely going on the path he comfortably enjoys his provisions. 100-105. the latter. on the day of the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. Having thus given. O bird. 1 O Bird. Thus the annual Śrâddha should be done in both months. then in the thirteenth month the annual ceremony for the departed occurs. rice-balls are proper. and in that. in addition. as prescribed.Through properly giving to a twice-born a seat and a vessel. but. he should have many Brâhmiṇs fed. If one dies on the ninth day. also chaṇḍalâs and other outcasts. Thus are understood by the wise the two months which are in the irregular month. 106. the Śrâddha is not performed. When in one month [Kṣayamâsa] two saṅkrântis occur. the annual and the fortnightly ceremonies. 1 When there are two months in one month. of those two. There is no re-doing of what is done excepting the rites for the departed. After a year one should always offer three rice-balls at the Śrâddha. 911. should be done when there is no sankrânta. In these cases one should perform the fortnightly Śrâddha on the twentieth day. as a means of unfading satisfaction. at the end of the first year one should perform the annual Śrâddha. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony. for the sake of the departed it may be done again. If one dies on the fourth day his rites fall on the ninth. his day is the fourteenth. Then. in the irregular month. 94-95. the month being double. Now I shall tell you the rules concerning the monthly. . If there is an additional month in the middle of a year.

the deer on the mountain of Kâlinjira. by favour of the Viṣṇu. they go to the supreme state. will offer us rice-balls. concerning the deceased. O Târkshya. obtains the fruit of gifts. Any man who is poor. and giving liberation to the forefathers. The seven hunters in the country of Daśârṇas. 111-113. nor at eclipses. like the son of Kauśika. O Lord of Birds. 121. having gone to Gayâ. the Chakravaka birds in Śaradvîpa: and the swans in the Mânasa lake Were born as Brâhmiṇs learned in the Vedas. the Gajachchhâyam. Thus I have told you. The forefathers are freed from the ocean of existence by the Śrâddha at Gayâ and. is happy and becomes liberated. nor on yuga days. it should be done after a year. delighting the family. He who. although they killed a cow. Therefore a man should make every effort in devotion to the forefathers. the forefathers hear a song sung by the Holy Ones in Kalâpa.The Śrâddha at a sacred bathing-place. on the head of Gayâ. even he. on the field of the Kurus. giving merit to and satisfying the desires of the son. 122. O Târkshya. with devotion to the forefathers. but hears this account. the son of Manu:-"Are there none in your family. and in proper order offer rice-balls round them. were liberated by the favour of the forefathers. having gone to Gayâ. the garden of Ikṣvâku. O Lord of birds. the Śrâddha at Gaya. He should worship the feet of Viṣṇu with the shoots of the holy basil. a rice-ball of the size of even a śamî leaf helps over seven clans and one hundred and one fatuities. absolved from sins. with devotion?" 116-119. who. treading the good path. and all these sons of the twice-born attained liberation through devotion to the forefathers. for by devotion to the forefathers he becomes happy either in this or the other world. He who offers. If the son performs the Śrâddha at Gayâ. performs the Śrâddha and gives satisfaction to the forefathers. 111-115. The seven sons of Bharadwâja. O Târkṣya. his life is fruitful. The son who thus performs the rites for the other world. for the fathers--these he should not do during the year. having experienced a series of births. 120. all the ceremonies. .

--all males and unmarried females. thus declared by the Blessed Viṣṇu.--listen to the fruit for him:-The father gives good sons. in the assembly of Righteousness. 120:3 Gaṇeśa. with water. 120:120-48 .123-126. 118:1 Consisting of rice. Footnotes 114:1 The grandfather. 115:3 Cousins up to the forty-second. the Śrâddha offerings described by me. Sûta said: Having heard the result of the after-death gifts and their mighty greatness. Garuḍa went into raptures. wealth of cows and his great-grandfather becomes the giver of riches. granting the son's desires. his father and grandfather are considered as corresponding to Vasu. 125:1 If other ceremonies have been badly done they may not be re-performed. highly respected. 120:2 The consort of Śiva. according to the rite. and there they remain. and also hears the Garuḍa Purâṇa. gratified by the Śrâddha. Go on the way of righteousness to the mansion of the King of Justice. . Rudra is Śiva.--all males and unmarried females. on the male line. 127. on the male line. darbha grass. 118:2 See "Daily Practice of the Hindus" for an account of âchamana. the grandfather. 115:2 Cousins up to the fourteenth. 120:1 A benediction which the recipient makes when he has had enough. The great-great-grandfather gives foods in abundance: all these. and flowers. He who performs. but this may.--all males and unmarried females. Rudra and Âditya. 115:1 Cousins up to the seventh. on the male line. 121:1 A high class of superhuman beings.

not 13. on the other hand. but the regular mouth is dropped. . The difference of solar and lunar months is about 11 days in the year. Astrological calculations are done with solar months. The month preceding month which is dropped has its two fortnights taken as belonging to the regular and the dropped month respectively. the passing of the sun through one zodiacal constellation. hence an additional irregular month occurs once in 27 months. lf. but there are to be only twelve of the monthly ones in a year. or irregular portion. if his death occurred during the first half of the day. although it is a year of intercalary month. December. It is November. January or February which is thus dropped. in which there is no sankrânti. while the second half is regular. but the intercalary is always associated with one of the other eight. Hence there is an intercalary month of 30 days every three years.126:1 "The ceremonies are performed according to the lunar months. The sankrânta is a solar month. The kṣaya-mâsa is a name for a month which occurs every 149th year. then his annual Śrâddha must be done in the dark half on the same day on which he died. is the first half. In this case the intercalary is added and (?) treated as such. If a man dies in the second fortnight in this case the annual ceremony belongs to the month which was dropped. In this long month. a main has died and his month is dropped the preceding month is taken for the annual Śrâddha.--thus there are only 12 months in that year. and on the same day in the bright half if he died during the second half of the day. the malamasa. If a man dies in the adigmâsa.

The Blessed Lord said: Listen. and sounding with the songs of various birds. decorated by skilful painters and constructed by divine architects. and Biliousness also. Headache. tell me about those righteous ones and the ways. Syncope. Garuḍa said: what is the extent of the world of Yama? What is it like? By whom was it made? What is the assembly like. Beautiful with gardens and parks. To the east of the abode of Chitragupta is the great house of Fever. To the north there is consumption and Jaundice likewise. which is accessible to Nârada and others find is reached by the very meritorious. habited in every part by celestial damsels and choristers. To the west are those of the Snare of Death. to the south-east. resplendent. surrounded by high ramparts and measuring a thousand yojanas. to the north-west. Chitragupta. Surrounded with shining ramparts of iron. It is declared to be four-angled. Dyspepsia. In that city is the very lovely dwelling of Chitragupta. O Târkṣya. Abounding in chariots. Between the south and south-west is the city of the son of Vivaswata. with four gateways. 6-9. 10-15. or by whom good or evil deeds have been done And by order of Chitragupta he experiences all of them there. impregnable by Holy Ones or Demons. I will tell you about that shining city of Justice. considers the lives of men individually. which extends to the number of twenty-five yojanas. An Account of the City of the King of Justice. all built of diamonds. seated on his most wonderful throne in that assembly. 1-2.CHAPTER XIV. and with whom does Justice reside? The righteous go by righteous ways to the mansion of Justice. resounding with songs and music. O Treasure-house of Compassion. and smallpox likewise. up to ten [yojanas] heights. He is never mistaken in distinguishing between good and evil deeds. . 3-5. with hundreds of streets decorated with flags and banners. To the south are those of Rheumatism and skin diseases.

and purified by good actions go there. splendid like the sun. Those who have done great tapas. Twenty yojanas before the abode of Chitragupta.To the south-west. flame and the sun. It is certainly two hundred yojanas in extent. whether they be human or divine. In the middle of the city. is a fulfiller of desires. decorated with flags and banners. beautiful with trees. are of good vows. are sweet. with beautiful crystal stairways and walls beautified with diamonds. is Dysentery. and are adorned with shining garments. 24-28. And with windows of strings of pearls. decorated with emeralds. That assembly. and is full of palaces and mansions. is the very resplendent mansion of the king of justice. In that there is a divine assembly place which is a thousand yojanas in extent. and was created by the Architect of the Universe by doing tapas 2 for a long time. and embellished with golden fringes. accomplished. All there have bodies of light. the eatables are tasteful and plentiful. Filled with various wonders. and measures fifty yojanas in height. 29-30. plants and creepers without thorns. with hundreds of golden doors. and in every way satisfying. Chitragupta records the good and evil of men. most ravishing to the mind with no sorrows and no old age there. truth-speaking. to the north-west cold and heat--with these and other diseases it is surrounded. It is shining with jewels. the sounds and other things there are pleasant. and no trouble of hunger and thirst. All there are in a condition of happiness. is enchanting. and enjoyable in every way. tranquil. Pleasing to the mind with cupolas of the splendour of the autumnal sky. has no bondage. It is supported by thousands of pillars. renouncing. and splendid like lightning. ornamented with gold. rich with the sounds of bells and drums. both hot and cold. The water. 16-23. full of light. and trees always bear the fruit desired. . 1 With no extreme heat and no extreme cold. and remain there ornamented with their own meritorious actions. O Târkṣya. With these and other embellishments decorated always--it was created by the architect of the Universe by the power of his own Yoga.

bedecked with all kinds of jewels-Sits. Mândhâtâ. He is waited up by Mṛityu 1 with a noose in his hand. 46-47. on a throne pure and incomparable. and fanned by celestial damsels bearing in their hands fans of hair. also of the Lunar Race. Kraturatha. Agastya. with the sages: Atri. Jâmadagnya. There the Lord of Justice. Surrounded by various servants equal to him in prowess. Aṅgiras. Nala. Bhagîratha. Pâṇdu. splendid as a blue cloud. . Pitṛis. Manu. Ambarîṣa. Adorned with all ornaments. the powerful Barhiṣads formed and formless. 41-45. made splendid with a large crown. Śântaṇu. and also Bhṛigu. ornamented with ear-rings. the recorder of fate. Vaśiṣṭha. 1 serve the King of Justice by order of Parameṣṭhin. Aryamâs and others. Righteousness alone prevails in the assembly of the King of Justice. music and dances. meritorious. Bharata. Muchakunda. Pulaha. Nimi. famous.31-33. ready to do his bidding. Those who expound with accurate commentaries. Śibi. Who are the Agniṣvâttha. 34-40. Nahuṣa. his head dignified with the regal umbrella. Multitudes of celestial choristers and numerous groups of celestial damsels. and by Chitragupta. Dilîpa. hosts of progenitors. prosperous. and no jealousy.--these knowers of righteousness wait upon the King of Justice in the assembly. are in the assembly of Righteousness. Dakṣa. and others having forms. impossible to enumerate. ten yojanas in extent.-These. 2 the Somapâs and the Uṣmapâs. serve him with songs. either by their names or their deeds. and also Sahasrârjuna. Anaraṇya.--all these wait upon the King of Justice. O Bird. having performed many horse sacrifices. by kâla 1 still more powerful. Nârada. and Pṛithu. the Best of the Good. Duṣmanta. Sagara. and many others in the assembly of the King of Progenitors.-These royal sages. round about. 2 The kings of the Solar Race. bearing awful nooses and rods. Puru. the Dharmaśâstras. no untruthfulness. There is there no favouritism. well-read in the Vedas. Pulastya. Yayâti.

those who tell and listen to the Purâṇas. they go to the Assembly of Righteousness. those who give rest-houses in the summer. and make them gifts. Those who make gifts of land. Such. On this way go those who are learned in the Vedas. The second. of cows. those who speak consolation to the mentally distressed. covered with the shade of Pârijâta trees. By their merits they go into it. who go by the southern path. all are devoted to righteousness.All those assembled are knowers of the scriptures. magicians and great serpents.--are travellers on the path-These. and certainly those who give a hermitage. those devoted to father and mother. There is an eastern way. and multitudes of celestial damsels. 59-61. Hear about them:-51-55. O Târkṣya. having the essence of nectar. choristers. And worshippers of the deities. of houses. and the devotees of Śiva. Those who shelter ascetics 1 in their houses during the rains. Those who go into the mansion of righteousness by the three gateways. eastern and others. The sinners. enter by the eastern gate. is filled with hundreds of great chariots and with palanquins. and is paved with yellow sandal-wood. By that go the holy Brâhmiṇ-sages. the stainless royal sages. also those who honour guests. bounded by trees and pleasure-gardens. 2 and those who bathe at the sacred waters at the changes of the moon. and paved with jewels. 50. Busy with numerous chariots. do not behold it. It is full of swans and water-fowl. and there is there a delightful tank full of the essence of nectar. is the assembly of the great-souled King of Justice. and who give fuel in winter. Skilful in goodness. And those who delight in truth and righteousness. and of purified intelligence. and beautiful with Brâhmany ducks. those taking pleasure in the service of their Teacher. and others of good deeds. those free from anger and greed. splendidly lined with swans. abounding in all enjoyments. those who impart learning. and in that assembly they continually wait upon Vaivasvata 3 48-49. those who are worshippers of Dûrgâ 1 and Bhanu. . are those of good deeds. There are four ways leading into the city of the King of Justice: The way for the sinful has already been described to you. the northern way.

those who die in the protection of cattle. devotees of the feet of Śrî. assuming his four arms. those who perform Śrâddha for the forefathers. those intent upon renunciation. those faithful to their wives. 74-76. The third. and go to the mansion of righteousness. holding his conch. those who perform the rites of Brahmâ.-these. those who always take pleasure in the five sacrifices. Those who have attained knowledge and dispassion. rising and coming forward.Those who die in the pursuit of righteousness. Those who abstain from the company of the wicked. Is filled with maddened elephants sprung of the family of Airâvata 1 and with jewels of horses sprung from Uchchaiḥśravâ.-these. They drink nectar. by the will of the Shining Ones. and those who die of vow of starvation. at the sacred waters and on holy ground. in the service of the master. the austere. Those who always honour the deserving. go to the Assembly of Righteousness. devoted to the society of the good. and those who delight in making great gifts. 2 By this way go the self-reliant. seeing them come. 65-73. Those who turn away from injury to others. and from calumny. those who repeat the Vedas. stone and earth. Then. those who repeat the Gâyatrî-mantra. those who contemplate the good scriptures. repeatedly bids them welcome. those entirely devoted to Viṣṇu. reach the Assembly of Righteousness. he speaks and acts in a hind and friendly way to those who delight in meritorious deeds. those who keep vows to Śiva and Viṣṇu. those who die in Benares. the western way. always filled with the essence of nectar. those who look equally upon gold. the good. forest dwellers. those intent upon the welfare of all beings. entering by the northern gate. from the wealth of others. Those who die for the sake of Brâhmiṇs. ascend the best of chariots. and entering by the western gate. accompanied by numbers of celestial damsels. Those who are rid of the three-fold debt. mace and sword. is beautified with jewelled mansions. discus. those who maintain household fires. and splendid with ponds. Yama. . Observers of the vow of celibacy. those who are accidentally drowned in the sacred waters. those who perform the Sandhyâ at the proper times. those who die in the practice of Yoga.

Best of the Wise. amid perishable wealth and other things. he goes to a dreadful hell. 86. Go along the highest path. never acts wisely. and then honours them with sandal-paste and other things. All this about the abode of Yama has been told you upon your asking. and enjoyed superhuman pleasures. they obtain. in the impermanent body. "He who. "O’ You Assembled! Salute with deepest reverence the knower. 77-81. 135:1 Scriptures teaching the duties of life. stores up unchanging righteousness. "Therefore should righteousness be accumulated. 133:2 Meditation with an effort to produce physical effects. The man who hears this with devotion goes to the assembly of the King of Justice. accompanied by multitudes of chariots. 134:2 A class of progenitors. and bows to them. then those in that assembly of righteousness rise up with great respect Having spent there 1 some ages. 135:2 Brâhmaṇ. Footnotes 133:1 Taking any form desired. who avoid the pains of hell. as a result of their merits. Who is more foolish than he? "He who. . "O. Go you to the holy place which abounds in all enjoyments. He. Then again they go to the highest condition by their own good conduct. with every effort. will go to the world of Brahmâ. and being honoured by the immortals and extolled by the leaders of the sages. They. you have by your merits attained divinity. the state of happiness. attaining the human state. departing from my dominion." 82-85. expert in all the scriptures. washes their feet.He offers them the throne. 134:1 Forms of Death. having heard the words of Justice. holy human birth. Wealthy and wise. difficult to reach. and having saluted him and the assembly. he alone is a wise man.

136:1 Those who have renounced the world. . 138:1 The divine elephant. 138:2 The divine horse. the son of Visvasvat.135:3 Yama. 137:2 The Sun. 140:1 That is in Heaven world. 137:1 The consort of Śiva.

Their face should not be seen during that time. 13. her during the first seven days. is born in a stainless family. During the seven days the embryo continues impure. 1-2. I wish to hear what. I will tell you that supreme secret. Keeping away from. a woman becomes pure on the fourth day. From the seventh day she becomes fit to perform the rites of worship to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. like a husbandman. The husband. and likewise meditation upon the nature of Chit and Ânanda in the Brahmarandhra. I will tell you the real nature of that body which possesses the attributes of the universal Egg. That night is never obtained by vulgar people. Here the sons gradually enter during the eighth day. Now tell me how he is produced in the womb of the mother. 5-6. in this body. astringent and hot things should be entirely avoided. . 14-18. reaps a good harvest. on even nights he enters.--the object of concentration of Yogins. O Târkṣya. 11-12. On the firth.CHAPTER XV. The Blessed. Sons are born on even nights. a store of auspicious qualities. Lord said: You have asked well. Then is produced the righteous son. I will tell you also about the rites and observances of the parents. An Account of the Coming to Birth of People who have done Good. lest sin should arise in the body. even by knowing which one becomes all-knowing. Having bathed. Pungent. acid. day women should eat sweet foods. After menstruation the women should be avoided for four days. the man of good deeds thinks. O Treasurehouse of Compassion! 3-4. Hear how the Yogins perform the meditation upon the six chakras 1 within it. 7-10. and washed her clothes. Garuḍa said: The righteous man having enjoyed heaven. daughters on odd. Sixteen nights are declared to be common for women. Tell me. having sown the seed of great potentiality in the field which is productive of grain. And how he of good deeds is born in the house of the pure and prosperous. 1 On the fourteenth night the seed remains there certainly.

--these are the five attributes of earth. stretching and moving. For him there are numerous rites. and blood. The intelligence joined with the seed remains always in the sperm. For the understanding of the dissociation of Brâhmaṇ from that with which he is associated.--are said to be the five attributes of water. water. formerly done. urine. Then the man obtains semen. bones. Then he constantly strives to discriminate between the self and the not-self. The meritorious soul obtains birth in a high family. austerities. hair and flesh. should unite with his good wife. air and ether--these are called the stable elements. At the time of his birth Brâhmiṇs receive much wealth." 25-30. the fifth. Earth. Skin. wealthy and benevolent. sleep and sexual desire--are called the five attributes of fire by Yogins everywhere. and with righteous thoughts in his mind. such as the Punsavana. marrow. nerves. When desire. which are of the genus "Not-self. by association with the wise. declared to you by me. 2 20-23. O Lord of birds. This body is made up of the five elements. and in the interior of the womb the formation of ovum takes place. sloth. Saliva. 24. I will tell you the attributes of earth and the others. thought and sperm become united. having chewed betel. By adhyâropa 1 and apavâda 2 he meditates upon Brâhmaṇ. running. sperm. Bending. . becoming skilful in all the sciences. In his youth he is divinely handsome. fire. jumping. According to the thoughts in his mind at the time of union will be the nature of the one who enters the womb. thirst.The man. O Târkṣya. and clean clothes. He grows up in his parents' house. Now hear those of fire:-Hunger. and pilgrimages to sacred waters. The good son who enters the womb is the giver of the highest bliss. arising as the result of great merit.--these are declared the five attributes of air. by the union of sperm and germ [cells] 19. endowed with learning and modesty. 1 put on flowers and sandal-paste.

inflames it slowly. Mitra. Thus the airs. hair--are called unclean places. and are the ten principal Naḍîs. and Vyâna also. is split into two by that air. Devadatta and Dhanañjaya 12:-In the heart. tongue. Prachetas. 45. Kûrma. and have the flavour of past karma. The fire. as soon as eaten. feet. Vyâna: Vomiting is called Nâga. Udâna. does not leave even the corpse. 8 and Kuhû. hands. 6 Yaśasvinî. 5 Pûṣâ. Samâna. just as does the rising of the sun. Having entered near the anus it separates the solid and liquid portions. Mind. 33. the organs of generation and of excretion are the organs of action. 7 Alambuṣa.Speech. Iḍâ. eyes. Samâna. 9 and Saṅkhinî. may be understood by you with effort. having derived their power from the self. separates the substance from the waste. Food. is ejected from the body. eyes. 4 Gajajihva. opening and shutting the eyes is known as Kûrma. nails. Kṛikala. and the waste. Prâṇa. Upeudra. and carries all over the body the nourishment which is obtained by eating mouthfuls of food. The organs of speech. 11 36-39. perform their own functions. The Prâna standing under the fire. in the navel. the cause of hunger is to be known as Kṛikala. 40-43. all-pervading. forced through the twelve gateways. 31. Udâna. vacuity. head. in the region of the throat. generative organs. teeth. Devadatta. nostrils. Apâna. . Vahni. and the solid over the water. Ears. The Vyâna air makes the essence go all over. 44. trunk. affecting people. The air called Vyâna carries the essential part in all the Nâḍîs. thought. anus. Ears. Yawning. in the anus. the two Aśvins. reason. Prâṇa. 2 Suṣumnâ. Arka. 1 Pingalâ. are declared to be the duties of the organs of sense and action. Dhanañjaya. 32. inflamed by the air. Apâna. Dik. navel. Indra. Vâta. 3 thirdly. 34-35.--Nâga. analysis--these four are called the Internal Means. and distributed all over the body. skin. tongue and nose are the sense organs. delusion and mental instability--the five attributes of ether. and also Gândhârî. individualisation. placing the water over the fire. 10 the tenth as well--are situated in the interior of the body.

Fat is ten palâs. I will tell you about these. suns and planets are in the Pâramârthika 3 body. 54. phlegm is half of that. 2 53. 4 56-59. the "great blood" is three palas. On the Vyâvahârika there are thirty-five millions of hairs of the body. ovum one kuḍava. in the left triangle. Ramaṇa in the lines on the left. Seed is known to be two kuḍavas. Mandara is in the inverted triangle.--the seven great mountains. the flesh is said to be one thousand palâs 1 and blood one hundred palâs. at the loins Pâtâla. Svarloka. In the Pâramârthika body. at the middle of the navel. continents. seven hundred thousands of hairs of the head. marrow is twelve palâs. Talâtala. and the second Pâramârthika. Meru is situated in the triangle 1. mountains. at the forehead. By pondering upon them one becomes the enjoyer of the nature of Vairâja. these are declared to be the seven worlds: Bhûloka. in the heart. One is Vyâvahârika. O son of Vinatâ. at the secret part Rasâtala. There are said to be thirty-two teeth usually. which are the objects of meditation of Yogins. it is said. in the region of the mouth. number tens of million. The body which possesses these attributes is Vyâvahârika. Tapolaka. and bones in the body are said to be three hundred and sixty. there are six chakras in which are said to be located the attributes of the egg of Brahmâ. Below the feet is called Atala. at the thighs Mahâtala. at the throat it should be known as Maharloka. 55. Satyaloka in the Brahmarandhra--these are the fourteen worlds. At the hips. and twenty nails.46. at the knees know it as Sutala. skin is seven palâs. The nâḍîs. 47-52. 60-61. Vitala. . above it the Bhuvarloka. The waste materials are not measurable. bile is fifty palâs. the two-fold nature of the body of man. Now hear. as they are constantly changing. All the worlds. above the feet. Kailâśa is in the right triangle. O Bird. Himâchala. Niṣada is in the upper lines Gandhamâdana in the lines on the right. Janaloka. both dense and subtle. oceans.

62-65. Jambu is in the place of the bones; Sâka is situated in the marrow; the Kuśa continent is situated in the flesh; the Krauncha continent in the nerves; The Śâlmalî continent is in the skin; Gomeda, in the mass of hair; Puṣkara, in the place of the nails;--and next the oceans: In the urine the Kṣâra ocean; the Kṣîra ocean in the milk; the Sura ocean is situated in the phlegm; in the marrow, the Ghṛita ocean; The Rasa ocean in the juices; the Dadhi ocean is known to be in the ova; the Swâdu ocean in the region of the soft palate; you should know son of Vinatâ. 66-68. The sun is situated in the Nâda chakra; the moon is in the Bindu chakra; Mars is situated, it should be known, in the eyes; Mercury is in the heart, it is declared; Jupiter is in the Viṣṇu-sthâna, it should be known; Venus is situated in the seed; Saturn is in the navel; Râhu, in the face, it is declared; Ketu is situated in the lungs;--in the body is the circle of the planets. In all these forms one should meditate on his own body. 69-71. Always at dawn, sitting steadily cross-legged, one should meditate upon the six chakras, in the order of the Ajapâ. 1 The Gâyatrî called Ajapâ is the giver of liberation to the sages; by merely thinking upon it one is released from all sin. Listen, O Târkṣya, and I will explain the best method of Ajapâ, by doing which the individual always gives up his separateness. 72-73. Mûlâdhâra, Swâdhishthâna, Maṇipûraka, Anâhatam, Viśuddhi and also Âjñâ,--are spoken of as the six chakras. One should meditate in order upon the chakras, at the root of the generative organ; in the region of the pelvis; in the navel; in the heart; in the throat; between the eyebrows; at the top of the head. 74-75. The mûlâdhâra is four-petalled and resplendent, with letters from va to sa; the Svâdhiṣṭhâna resembles the sun, is six-petalled, and has the letters from ba to la; the Maṇipûraka is red in colour and has ten petals, from da to pha; the Anâhata is twelvepetalled, from ka to tḥa, and is golden-coloured; The viśuddhi lotus is sixteen-petalled, with the vowels, and has the light of the moon; the Mâtra 1 lotus is two-petalled, has the letters ha and kṣa, and is red in colour; the one at the top of the head is the most resplendent, this lotus has a thousand petals, and is the seat of truth and bliss, ever auspicious, light-possessing and eternal.

76. One should meditate, in order, in the chakras, on Gaṇeṣa, on Vidhi, 2 on Viṣhṇu, on Śiva, on Jîva, on Guru, and on Parambrahmaṇ, all-pervading. 17-80. It is said by the wise that the subtle movements of the breath in one day and night number twenty-one thousand six hundred. It goes out with the sound of "ha," and enters again with the sound of "sa." The individual is, indeed, always repeating the mantra. "Haṁsa, haṁsa,"-Six hundred for Gaṇeśa; six thousand for Vedhas 1; six thousand for Hari 2; six thousand for Hara. 3 A thousand for the Jîvâtman; a thousand for Guru; a thousand or the Chidâtman;--thus one should understand the respective numbers of the repetitions. 81-82. Aruṇa and other sages, who know the succession of Teachers, meditate upon the deities presiding over the chakras, who are rays of Brahmaṇ. The sages, Śuka and ethers, teach it to their pupils; therefore a wise man, after meditating upon the path of the Great Ones, should always meditate thus. 83. Having worshipped mentally in all the chakras, with unwavering mind, he should repeat the Ajapâ-gâyatrî according to the instructions of the Teacher. 84-88. He should meditate in the Ranḍhra, with the thousand-petalled lotus inverted, upon the Blessed Teacher within the Haṁsa, whose lotus-hand frees from fear. He should regard his body as being washed in the flow of nectar from His feet. Having worshipped in the five-fold way he should prostrate, singing His praise. Then he should meditate on the Kuṇḍalinî, as moving upwards and downwards, as making a tour of the six chakras, placed in three-and-a-half coils. Then he should meditate on the place called Suṣumnâ, which goes out of the Randhra; thereby he goes to the highest state of Viṣṇu. Then he should always meditate, between four o'clock and sunrise, on my form, selfillumined, eternal and ever-blissful. 89. He should bring his mind to a state of steadiness, not by efforts alone, but under the instruction of a teacher, without whom he falls. 90. Having done the inward-sacrifice he should perform the outward-sacrifice. Having done the purificatory ablution, and the Sandhyâ, he should worship Hari and Hara. 91-94. For those who are attached to the body facing-inward 1 does not come about. For then devotion is easier, and that gives liberation.

Tapas, and Yoga, and others, are also ways to liberation, but for those who are attached to the world of change the path by devotion to me is far superior. This is the conclusion of the all-knowing Brahma and others, after having conned the Vedas and the Śâstras for three periods. Sacrifices and other righteous duties purify the mind. The devotion to me has a form of fruit from which the obtainer never falls away. 95. The good man who follows this, O Târkṣya, by the union due to devotion to me, goes to eternal liberation.

141:1 Certain centres in the etheric and higher bodies, which revolves like wheels when set in motion by meditation; hence the name chakra. 142:1 Sixteen are favourable, but the fourteenth of them is best, if some other cause doer not render it inauspicious. 143:1 To augment the virile power. 143:2 A rite performed when living conception is observed. 144:1 False ascription, and ... 144:2 refutation, two sorts of arguments. 145:1 The left hand nâḍî. 145:2 The right hand one. 145:3 The central one. 145:4 This goes to the left eye. 145:5 This goes to the right eye. 145:6 This goes to the right ear. 145:7 This goes to the left ear. 145:8 This goes to the mouth. 145:9 This goes to the liṅgam.

Meru is the sacred mountain or pakk. ." 150:1 That is.) 147:2 Individual and common physical body.145:10 This gees to the mûla. 147:4 Viraj means "to shine. 151:3 Śiva. 150:2 Brahmâ. the Âjñâ. because they are thinking of outer things. 149:1 The saying of "Haṁsa. 147:3 Universal and spiritual body. 152:1 Their meditation is unsuccessful. 151:1 Brahmâ. 145:11 An inner nerve. 145:12 Various forms of the vital breath. channel for the vital breath. 151:2 Viṣṇu." 148:1 The triangle in the triangle. 147:1 Pala is a little more than an ounce (6/5 oz.

Garuḍa said: I have heard from you. The embodied. An Account of the Law for Liberation. compassionate to those who seek refuge. without attributes. like sparks of a fire. separated and encased in bodies by beginningless karma. In every life obtained. and if he becomes a knower 1 he attains liberation. who has the nature of Supreme Brâhmaṇ. O Bird. men.CHAPTER XVI. can obtain no knowledge of the truth.--in this terrible world of change. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. O Ruler of the Shining Ones. giving happiness and misery. through ignorance. They have also. and I will explain to you what you have asked. Are fettered by forms of good and evil. 11-13. one becomes a man by good deeds. through the accumulation of merit. I now wish to hear about the means for eternal liberation. and also the liberated. and fortune born of karma. all-doing. O Lord. in the worlds of change. Lord of all. goats. in all deep miseries. O Târkṣya. The unmoving things. beginningless and endless. in the eighty-four hundred thousands of bodies before attaining human birth. Śiva. the liṅga. lasting until liberation. Having worn and cast aside the four sorts of bodies thousands of times. O Lord. in the unsubstantial. O Ocean of compassion. all-knowing. Being and Knowing and Bliss. about the transmigrating of the individual. The endless multitudes of individuals. a higher and more subtle body.--with nationality of body. beyond the Beyond. tell me by what means they may obtain release. animals. Always miserable in this world. O Lord of Liberation. according to their order. birds. worms. who is partless. stainless and secondless. 1-4. Self-illumined. Through millions of myriads of thousands of births some time a being obtains human birth. 14-16. with beginningless ignorance. placed in various kinds of bodies. the righteous. 5-7. are born and die-of them no end is known. no one is ever known to be happy. the thirtythree deities. There is a Shining One. length of life. That which is considered the individual is from a part of Him. 8-10 These. . even by the hearing of which a man is released from the world of change.

and a step to liberation. having drunk the liquor of delusion. between happiness and misery.--where is there a discerning one who is at ease? Even a hundred years of life is very little. having obtained a human body. a house again. He should always guard his body.--who in this world is more sinful than he? The man who. so long should he strive for the best. So long as the body lasts. 17-19. wealth again. A village again. He who does not take precautions against the diseases of hell while here. does not understand what benefits the soul is a slayer of Brâhmaṇ. people are never afraid. and the miserable. nobody obtains the object of human life. so long as calamity does not befall. The time of death is not known by those who are variously embodied in the world of change. so long as the senses are not decayed. even those afflicted with diseases such as leprosy do not wish to give it up. Without a body. knowledge for the sake of Yoga-meditation. therefore should he guard his body as wealth and perform meritorious deeds. If he does not guard himself against harm who else will? Therefore should he look after his own benefit. what will he do? 24-25. does not help himself over. and half of it is sleep and idleness. Living. Riches are like unto a dream. So long as misery does not come. It should be guarded for the sake of duty. and even that little is unfruitful owing to the miseries of childhood. 22-23. those whom calamity has befallen. good and evil actions again-the body never again.--the stupid man digs his well when the corner of his house is already afire. Though seeing those just born. afflicted with disease and having gone to a country where there is no medicine. a field again. the dead. he should make every effort to protect it. diseases attack like foes. 26-32. youth is like a flower. . Old age comes on like a tigress. which is the means to everything.--then he is soon released. duty for the sake of knowledge.He who. disease and old age. life is fickle as lightning. does not know his own benefit. Alas! a man. the afflicted. The wise always adopt means for the preservation of the body. 1 20-21. having obtained this highest birth and superior senses. Therefore should he strive for the best. so long should truth be pursued. difficult to get. life goes like water from a broken pot. in view of welfare.

death. 45-48. waves may be bound. ." Him who is thus prating death overpowers. disease and old age. he falters. Air may be enclosed. 42. He who does not know what is good for him thinks the harmful beneficial. is unnoticed. mother."-death does not consider whether it leas been done or not done. the impermanent permanent. even Meru is reduced to powder. just as an unbaked pot placed in water disappears imperceptibly. the water of the ocean is dried away--what shall be said of the body? 39-41. when he should be awake he sleeps. He who is in it is afflicted with misery.--otherwise never. Though seeing. goes to the abode of Yama. "It must be done to-morrow. he does not know.He does not do what ought to be done. bewildered by the divine magic. though hearing. who prates of "my offspring. father." "This has been done. he does not understand. leaving his own body. Death preys upon the man afflicted with the needles of thirst. ether may be split. this other is done or not done. which is like foam on water and is attached to passing objects. This universe is immersed in the boundless ocean of death. though wearing away with every moment. and baked in the fire of desire and repulsion.--such is this world of creatures. my wealth. my relatives. where he should fear he confides. in the morning or in the afternoon. This individual. he does not understand. son and others? The world of change is verily the root of misery. Thou shalt encounter the enemy. and the evil good. 36-38. be free from fear? 33-35. this is to be done. young men. coming is shown by age.--though grasped by the crocodiles of death. the old. bitten by the serpent of sense-objects. Alas! what man is not stricken. How shall the individual who has taken a body. The wolf of death forcibly slays the lamb of a mortal. though reading. it must be done to-day. whose. He who abandons it becomes happy. What is the good of association with wife. who has an army of dreadful diseases--wilt thou not see the saviour? 43-44. Time. Earth is burnt away by time. those in the embryo condition. Death attacks children. my wife.--life cannot be made permanent.

Attachment to the good. 59-60. with self enveloped in ignorance the imposters go about. All those deluded men who turn away from the duties of their respective castes and orders. A man bound in fetters of iron or wood may be released. as a remedy for attachment. sexual pleasure. and eating are common to all creatures. which is the source of all misery. who is devoid of it is called a beast. so long shall the dagger of sorrow pierce his heart. Therefore should attachment be shunned always. should be abandoned at once. in the night by passion and sleep. are born and die deluded by ignorance. 52-55. and purity of the eyes--the man who has not these is blind. who constantly pursue evil courses. Some are intent upon ceremonies. does not see the iron hook. wealth. 49-51. Those men who do not understand what is good and what is not good for them. but from the fetters of son and wife can never be freed. does not see the torments of Yama. which steal away the senses of the body. Just as the fish. Sleep. covetous of flesh. alas! 56-57. and are intent on the filling of the belly. The fools. People are destroyed every day by the desire for great wealth. discrimination. 61-62. desire to obtain the invisible by single meals. O Bird. The men who are attached to the ceremonial alone are satisfied with mere names. Who possesses knowledge is called a man. are destined for hell. All those beings who are attached to their bodies. therefore should friendship with the great be cultivated. the seat of all calamities. bewildered by My magic. and the refuge of all sins. fasts and other restraints. deluded by the repetitions of mantras. perish fruitlessly. It is not possible to give up everything. oblations and other things. and do not understand the highest righteousness. attached to the practice of vows. covetous of pleasure.This world of change. Foolish men are tormented at break of day by nature's calls. Alas! Fie upon the foods of the senses. How shall he not tread evil ways? 58. and by the emaciation of the body. So long as the being makes attachments pleasant to the mind. so the embodied. and by elaborate rituals. . when the sun is in the meridian by hunger and thirst. wife and other things.

The fools.--direct knowledge of the Truth is the cause of liberation. rats. and always live in forests. leaves and water. Are these free from attachment? If men are to be liberated by earth. which feed upon grass. The hypocrites. remain with senses bewildered. miserable with anxiety. caught in the six waves they remain sophists. they explain in different ways but the best purport of the Śâstras is otherwise. . Therefore this class of practices is a thing which makes pleasure for people. does the dog which always live among earth and ashes become liberated? The jackals. and wearing quantities of matted hair. Donkeys walk about among people. this must be known. turning away from the highest truth. in forests and among houses. ashes and dust. but does not know the chief good. the Śâstras and the Purâṇas. 65-69.Of those who have no discrimination.--of that imitator all this is as the speech of a crow. They are tossed hither and thither in the dreadful ocean of Vedas and Śâstras. the brutes do not understand the chief good. 76-77. and using antelope skins. 71-76. deer and others. what liberation can there be by bodily tortures alone? What great serpent is killed by beating the anthill alone? 1 63."--thus bewildered by anxiety they read the scriptures day and night. fishes and others. He who knows the Vedas. decorated with garlands of poetry constructed of forms of speech. putting on appearances." and is devoid of both rites and Brâhmaṇ should be shunned like a low outcaste. He who is attached to the pleasures of the worlds of change. Fallen into the great well of the six philosophies.--are these observers of vows? 70. wander about like knowers. bound in the snare of animalism. "This is known. and even delude people. 71-73. dwell in the waters of Ganges.--do these become ascetics? The crocodiles. 1 O Bird. Men trouble themselves variously. O Lord of Birds. saying "I am a knower of Brâhmaṇ. quite naked and unashamed. and Châtaka birds do not drink water from the earth. which from birth to death.--do these become Yogins? Pigeons at times eat stones. but the highest truth is otherwise. 64.

O son of Vinatâ. this must be known. therefore the essence should be understood. not realising them themselves.--like the swan taking the milk in the water. to the knower of the Truth. Para Brahmaṇ is reached by discrimination. is beyond efforts of action. Śâstras are only a potter to the knowledge of the truth. 92. The Śâstras are numerous. If one lives for a thousand celestial years he cannot reach the end of the Śâstras.---knowledge only is the cause.They talk of the highest experiences. and to be obtained by the word of the Teacher. The study is of Śabda Brâhmaṇ. being engrossed in egotism. and argue with one another. Some have ceased preaching. to a man devoid of wisdom. The stages of life are not the cause of liberation. all learning is masquerade. the nostril knows the smell. hence. not by the study of tens of millions of texts. the wise man should abandon all the scriptures. but find impossible the understanding of the truth. Haring practised the Vedas and the Śâstras. They repeat the Vedas and the Śâstras. with the young goat under his arm. There is no liberation by the study of the Vedas. but they do not understand the highest truth. peers into the well. so is there not use for the scriptures. 85-86. other prefer the Dual 3 but they do not understand the One Reality. 87-88. The non-dual. verily declared auspicious. They read the Vedas and the Śâstras. Some prefer the Non-dual 2. just as one rich in grains abandons the straw. Just as there is no use for food to one who is satisfied with nectar.--darkness never disappears by talking of a lamp. and having known the Truth. not knowing that the truth is seated in himself. Reading. O Târkṣya. nor are the philosophies. The head bears flowers. 89-90. is bewildered by the Śâstras. for those who have understanding. 83-84. Emancipation is by knowledge alone. beyond the Dual and Non-dual.--a foolish goatherd. nor are actions. . "'This is known. The word from the Teacher gives liberation. life is brief. is like a mirror to the blind. Verbal knowledge cannot destroy the illusions of the world of change. and there are tens of millions of obstacles. Knowledge is said to be of two kinds: study and discrimination. The fool. 78-82. 91. nor by the reading of the Śâstras. not otherwise.--like the spoon the flavour of the food."--he wishes to hear everything. Among thousands of woods the Sañjîvana 1 is best.

oblations. so long as there is no meditation upon the Śâstras. 101. One who is tormented by the three miseries and the rest. sitting alone on a pure seat prepared as prescribed. 95-97. the desires connected with the body. worship and reading of the prescribed texts of the Vedas and Śâstras. by which he obtains liberation. the man. He should practise mentally upon the supreme three-fold pure Word of Brahmâ. 100. rid of fear. so long as there is no love for the Teacher. should cut off. with breath controlled. Therefore from the mouth of the Blessed Teacher the Truth of the self should be known. So long as actions are performed. O Târkṣya. so long as the impressions of the world of change remain. Courageously wandering from home. Listen! I will tell you now about the final actions of the knower of the Truth." so long as there is excited striving. not forgetting the Brahma Bîja. so long as there is the sense of "mineness. other karma is worrying. saying "Not-mine" is released. 102. with the sword of unattachment. 1 With reason for charioteer he should withdraw the senses from the sense-objects by the mind. upon the pure. His last days approaching. that the knowledge that gives release. So long as there is not stability of mind. always. so long as there is imagination of plans. if one desires liberation for himself. should resort to the shade of the tree of Liberation. pilgrimage to sacred waters. He should. . and under all circumstances he attached to Truth. By knowledge the being is easily released from the awful bondage of the worlds of change. whose flowers are righteousness and knowledge. restrain his mind. That is the karma that does not bind. drawn away by karmas. other knowledge is skilful chiselling. which is called the Nirvâṇa of Brâhmaṇ. So long as one does not reach Truth. and fruits are heaven and liberation. recitations. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? So long as there is pride of body. Two phrases make for bondage and liberation: "Mine" and "Not-mine. vows. so long as the senses are fickle." The being saying "Mine" is bound. with understanding.93-94. performing ablutions in the water of the holy bathing places. 103-107. he should every effort. Therefore. so long should he do austerities. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? 98-99. and should fix his mind.

8--these seven cities should be known as the givers of liberation. 111-114. Free from pride and delusion. The hypocrites. 7 Dwârâvatî. repeatedly prostrating himself. What else do you wish to hear? 118-120." remembering me. He who. 121. O Târkṣya. firm in non-attachment. devoid of knowledge and unattachment. leaning his home. goes to the Highest Goal. 2 Mathurâ. they go. and who gives liberation for supreme devotion to Him. 108. 6 Avantikâ. 4 Kaśî. dwells at a sacred bathing-place. sinners go to an evil condition. the Highest Goal. with desires overcome. Garuḍa became silent and lost in meditation. who go to that goal. always dwelling in the Higher Self." Having said this. 115. utters the one-syllabled Brâhmaṇ. This eternal way of liberal in al has been described to you. said this. expecting to die. Garuḍa. he verily attains liberation. He who. the Supreme Abode. with hands folded together:-"O Lord. My desires have been completely fulfilled. having heard these words of nectar I have been helped over the ocean of existence. I am Brâhmaṇ. thinking of no other. I will tell you about the wise. on that eternal path. "Oṁ. or dies in a place of liberation. who gives the condition of happiness for the sacrifice of worship. undeluded. Thus in sixteen chapters I have related to you the extracted essence of all the scriptures."1 am Brâhmaṇ. 117. Ayodhyâ. released from the contracts known as pleasure and pain. birds and others transmigrate. do not go there. the remembrance of whom removes evil. O God of Gods. 5 Kañchi.--he verily attains liberation. Knowers of Truth attain liberation. May Hari. 109-110. in the waters of Truth. O. He who bathes in the water of the Mânasa. righteous men go to heaven. when leaving the body.--hearing it with knowledge and dispassion one attains liberation.--he verily attains liberation. in the lake of knowledge. 1 which removes the impurities of attraction and repulsion. O Lord. Protector! "I stand freed from doubts."--having realised this and placed the self in the self he should meditate. these words from the mouth of the Lord.--protect us. worships me. O King. with the evils of attachment conquered. He who. . Sûta said: Having thus heard. with tranquil self. 116. 3 Gayâ. full-visioned.

Separateness of the individual and universal self. Vedânta. also a mystical place. One who knows the Self. 168:8 Dwârakâ. 165:2 Adwaita philosophy. Yoga.Footnotes 155:1 That is. Vaiśeṣika. Sâṅkhya. 156:1 Meaning that one may re-obtain these things after losing them--but not the body. Eternal inseparateness and non-duality. 168:4 Gayâ. 162:1 Nyâya. 168:2 Perhaps Oudh. a mantra governing a work such as an Upaniṣad Oṁ. 161:1 There is supposed to be a serpent living in the ground beneath the ant-hill. 168:6 Conjeeveram. 165:1 The plant brought by Hanumat to restore Lakṣman when killed by Indrajit. 168:5 Benares. Mîmânsâ. 168:3 Muttra. 167:1 Bîja is a seed. . 168:1 A holy lake in the Himâlayas. 165:3 Dwaita. 168:7 Ujjain.

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