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Concrete Design
The concrete design modules can be used for the design of reinforced
and pre-stressed concrete
beams and slabs, columns, column bases and retaining walls.
Concrete Structural Systems
Typical Beam/column/slab
Columns
Columns carry all vertical loads to the foundations in compression.
There may be bending moments as a result of the frame action.
Floor slabs
Transmit live loads as well as stationary dead loads to the horizontal beams,
which are part of the frame. Slabs do this in bending and shear.
Beams
Transmit loads from the slabs to the vertical columns in bending and shear.
Foundations
Carry all vertical loads to the soil.
Vertical
loads include all dead load and live
loads.
Concrete Design using PROKON
Beam and slab design
-The Continuous Beam and Slab Design.
-Rectangular Slab Panel Design .
-Finite Element Slab Design.
-The Punching Shear Design module.
Column design
-Rectangular Column Design.
-Circular Column Design.
-General Column Design .
Substructure design
-Column Base Design
-Retaining Wall.
Section design
- Concrete Section Design.
- Section Design for Crack
width.
Continuous Beam and Slab Design
The Continuous Beam and Slab Design module is used to design and detail reinforced
concrete beams and slabs as encountered in typical building projects. The
design incorporates automated pattern loading and moment redistribution.
Downwards redistribution
The downward distribution method aims to reduce the hogging
moments at the columns without increasing the sagging moments
at mid span.
Slabs
One - Direction
Slabs may be simply supported and span in one or two
directions.
Two - Direction
If Ly/Lx > 2
If Ly/Lx < 2 the slab spans in two directions as shown in the sketch
the slab spans only in the shorter direction.
One-Way Continuous Slabs And
Beams
The following sketches show some one-way spanning continuous slabs and
beams.
Beams and girders
T-beam and slab
One-way joist and girder
Two-way Spanning Slabs
Rectangular Slab Panel Design
Design
scope The program designs rectangular reinforced concrete flat slab panels.
Design loads include own weight, distributed and concentrated dead and
live loads. Slab edges can be made free, simply supported or continuous.
The design code symbols are used as far as possible :-
Slab geometry
dx : Effective depth for reinforcement in the longer span direction, i.e. parallel to the X-axis
(mm or in).
dy : Effective depth for reinforcement in the shorter span direction, i.e. parallel to the Y-axis
(mm or in).
h : Overall slab depth (mm or in).
Lshort : Length of the short side of the slab, taken parallel to the Y-axis (m or ft).
Llong : Longer side length of the slab, taken parallel to the X-axis (m or ft).
Material properties
fcu : Concrete cube strength (MPa or psi).
fy : Reinforcement yield strength (MPa or psi).
: Time factor for long-term deflection
n : Poissons ratio, typically equal to 0.2.
g : Unit weight of concrete (kN/m or lb/ft)
List of symbols
time factor Duration of load
2.0 years or more 5
1.4 months 12
1.2 months 6
1.0 months 3
0.0 Instantaneous
Applied loads
WADL : Additional distributed dead load (kN/m or kip/ft).
WLL : Additional distributed dead load (kN/m or kip/ft).).
PDL : Additional dead point load (kN or kip).
PLL : Additional live point load (kN or kip).
Reinforcement calculation
The finite element analysis yields values for bending stresses about the X and Y-
axes and
tensional stresses. Due to the practical difficulties involved in reinforcing a slab to
resist
torsion, the Wood and Armer equations are used to transform the bending and
tensional
stresses to effective bending moments in the X and Y-directions.
Design output
Abotx : Bottom steel parallel to the X-axis (mm/m or in/ft).
Atopx : Top steel parallel to the X-axis (mm/m or in/ft).
Aboty : Bottom steel parallel to the Y-axis (mm/m or in/ft).
Atopy : Top steel parallel to the Y-axis (mm/m or in/ft).
Column Design
The concrete column design modules are suitable for the design of
the following column types: -
Rectangular Column Design, RecCol: Solid rectangular columns of which the larger
column dimension does not exceed four times the smaller dimension.
Circular Column Design, CirCol: Solid circular columns where the simplified design
approach applicable to rectangular columns may be applied.
General Column Design, GenCol: Columns of any general shape and columns with
openings.
All column design modules can design reinforced concrete columns subjected to bi-
axial
bending. Bending schedules can be generated for editing and printing using the
PROKON
Drawing and Detailing System, Padds.
Conditions of columns in Prokon
S.C with axial load S.C with bi-axial bending
Braced column with
bi-axial bending
Unbraced column
with
bi-axial bending
with to bi-axial bending
Short Column
Slender Column
Cantilever column
General Column Geometry Input
GenCol is used to design columns of any general shape and hence has a
reasonably intricate input procedure.
U-SHAPE
Semicircle
Retaining Wall
Design
The Retaining Wall Design module is used to analyze retaining walls
for normal soil and
surcharge loads or seismic load conditions. Various types of walls can be considered,
including
cantilever, simply supported and propped cantilever walls.
Cantilever Wall
.The base is fixed against rotation with the wall cantilevering from it
Simply
supported
The base has no fixity, i.e. free to rotate. The wall is
supported horizontally at the bottom and at the level
defined by Hr.
Propped Cantilever Wall
Fixed at the bottom and simply supported at the level defined by Hr.
Gravity Wall
Reservoir Wall
A
t
: Wall thickness at the top (m).
A
b
: Wall thickness at the bottom (m).
B : Horizontal base dimension in front of the wall (m).
C : Depth of the base (m).
D : Horizontal base dimension at back of the wall (m).
F : Depth of the shear key (m).
H
1
: Total wall height (m).
H
2
: Height of soil in front of the wall (m).
H
3
: Height from top of wall to soil level at back of wall (m).
H
r
: Height of the support point from the top of the wall for a simply supported
or propped cantilevered wall (m).
H
w
: Height of water table, measured from the top of wall (m).
X : Inclination of the wall (m).
X
f
: Position of the shear key, measured from the front of the base (m).
X
L
: Position of the line load, measured from the front edge of the wall (m).
X
P
: Position of the point load, measured from the front edge of the wall (m).
: Angle of soil behind wall ().
Where possible, the same symbols are used as in the design codes.
Wall geometry
List of symbols
f
cu
: Concrete cube compressive strength (MPa).
f
y
: Reinforcement yield strength (MPa).
: Angle of friction between wall and soil (). Must be zero if Rankine theory is
specified.
: Angle of internal friction ().
: Poissons ration for the soil. The plane strain value should be used rather than
the triaxial value see geometry and loads input.
k
h
.( : Horizontal acceleration for seismic analysis (g
k
v
.(: Vertical acceleration for seismic analysis (g
.(L : Line load on or behind the wall (kN/m
L
h
.( : Horizontal line load at top of wall (kN/m
.(P : Point load on or behind the wall (kN
.(W : Uniform distributed load behind the wall (kN/m2
Material properties
Applied loads
DL
fact
: Ultimate limit state dead load factor.
LL
fact
: Ultimate limit state live load factor.
P
max
: Design bearing pressure at serviceability limit state (kPa)
SF
Ovt
: Allowable safety factor for overturning at serviceability limit state.
SF
Slip
: Allowable safety factor for slip at serviceability limit state.
A
s1
: Flexural reinforcement in the wall (mm2).
A
s2
: Flexural reinforcement in the back part of the base (mm2).
A
s3
: Flexural reinforcement in the front part of the base (mm2).
A
c1
: Compression reinforcement in the wall (mm2).
A
c2
: Compression reinforcement in the back part of the base (mm2).
A
c3
: Compression reinforcement in the front part of the base (mm2).
D
s
: Density of soil (kN/m3).
K : Active pressure coefficient, including seismic effects.
K
a
: Active pressure coefficient.
K
p
: Passive pressure coefficient.
K
ps
: Passive pressure coefficient including seismic effects.
M
1
: Maximum ultimate moment in the wall (kNm).
M
2
: Maximum ultimate moment in back part of the base (kNm).
M
3
: Maximum ultimate moment in front part of the base (kNm).
P
fac
: Pressure factor used for Terzaghi-Peck pressure distribution diagram.
V : Shear force in wall at base-wall junction (kN).
v : Shear stress in wall at base-wall junction (MPa).
v
c
: Allowable shear stress in wall at base-wall junction (MPa).
: Friction coefficient between base and soil.
Design parameters
Design output

A unit width of the wall is considered.

Predominantly active soil pressures are assumed to act on the right-


hand side of the wall.

Predominantly passive pressures are present on the left-hand side of


the wall.

Soil pressure, soil weight and wall self-weight are taken as dead loads.

Applied distributed loads, line loads and point loads are considered to be
live loads.

If a water table is specified behind the wall, a linear pressure distribution


is used along its depth. The pressure applied on the bottom of the base is
varied linearly from maximum at the back, to zero at the front.

Point loads are distributed along the depth of the soil. In contrast, line
loads are taken constant in the transverse direction of the wall.
General assumptions

'
The equation for determine Ka is deferent for all types of walls
Example:-
Ka = tan 2(45 (/2)) for Cantilever & simple support wall
- Overturning: F.S > 2.0 . Ok
-
Sliding: F.S > 1.5 ...Ok
Base pressure :-
86
Determine Ka:-
Check Factors of Safety :-
Section Design for Crack width
The Section Design for Crack width can be used to design reinforced
concrete sections to meet specific crack requirements. Both beam and slab
sections can be designed for the combined effects of axial tension, bending
moment and temperature.
[



[ .l. jl
Section dimensions
bt : Width of the section (mm or in).
h : Overall height of the section (mm or in).
he : Effective surface zone depth (mm or in).
Material properties
fcu : Concrete cube strength (MPa or psi).
fy : Main reinforcement yield strength (MPa or psi).
Design scope
Codes of practice
List of symbols
'
R : Restraint factor.
T1 : Hydration temperature difference (C).
T2 : Seasonal temperature variation (C).
a : Thermal expansion coefficient of concrete (m/m per C or in/in per
C).
T
SLS
: The tensile force on the full section at serviceability limit state
(kN or kip).
T
ULS
: The tensile force on the full section at ultimate limit state. (kN
or kip).
M
SLS
: Serviceability limit state moment (kNm or kipft).
M
ULS
: Ultimate limit state moment (kNm or kipft).
Ro critical : The minimum percentage of reinforcement to be
supplied.
Applied loads
Ast : Area of suggested reinforcement layout. (mm or in).
fst : Tensile stress in reinforcement (MPa or psi).
Mu : Ultimate moment capacity of section (kNm or kipft).
TU : Ultimate tensile capacity of surface zone (kN or kip).
Design output
The following checks are considered for each load case at serviceability
limit state:
The combined effect of bending moment, tensile force and the seasonal
temperature
variation, i.e. M
SLS
+ T
SLS
+ T2.
Early thermal movement, T1 only.
Early thermal movement and seasonal variation combined, i.e. T1 + T2.
The section is also evaluated at ultimate limit state by considering the
combined effect of
bending moment and tensile force, i.e. M
ULS
+ T
ULS
.
Desgin Scope
ConcreteSection
Design
module is a simple utility for designing concrete sections for combined
bending, shear and torsion. Rectangular and T-sections are accommodated.
The Concrete Section Design


Section dimensions
B : Width of the web (mm).
Bf : Width of the flange (mm).
Dct, Dcb : Distance from the top or bottom face to the centre of
the steel (mm).
H : Overall height of the section (mm).
Hf : Depth of the flange (mm).
Material properties
fcu : Concrete cube strength (MPa).
fy : Main reinforcement yield strength (MPa).
fy : Shear reinforcement yield strength (MPa).
Design scope
List of symbols
'
As : Bottom steel required for bending (mm2).
As : Top steel required for bending (mm2).
Anom : Nominal flexural reinforcement (mm2).
Asv : Required shear reinforcement (mm2/mm).
Asvn : Nominal shear reinforcement (mm2/mm).
Mu : Ultimate moment capacity for bottom reinforcement
only (kNm).
v : Shear stress (MPa)
vc : Allowable shear stress (MPa).
vt : Torsional shear stress (MPa).
.
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Design output
Some Reinforcement Configurations Are Also Suggested: -
Number and diameters of reinforcement bars to resist bending only.
Links to resist shear only in the web.
Links to resist torsion only in the web and flange.
Longitudinal reinforcement bars to resist combined bending and torsion
in the web. The bottom and top bar configurations are chosen to exceed
the required flexural reinforcement at that position plus half the total
longitudinal torsion reinforcement.
Punching Shear
Design
The Punching Shear Design module designs flat slabs for punching shear at
edge, corner or internal columns. Only reinforced concrete slabs are designed to
design pre-stressed concrete slabs for punching shear, use the Pre-stressed Beam/Slab
Design module, Captain, instead.


Slab geometry
A : Horizontal column dimension, as shown on the screen, or diameter of circular column
.((mm or in
.(B : Vertical column dimension, as shown on the screen (mm or in
.(Deff : Average effective depth of the slab (mm or in
X : Horizontal distance, as shown on the screen, from the column centre to the slab
.(edge (mm or in
.(Y : Vertical distance from the column centre to the slab edge (mm or in
Material properties
fcu : Concrete cube compressive strength (MPa of
.(psi
fy : Yield strength of flexural reinforcement (MPa or
(psi
fyv : Yield strength of shear reinforcement (MPa or
.(psi
Design scope
List of symbols

'
A
sx1-4
: Average area of main steel parallel to the X-axis crossing each of the four
perimeters (mm or in). The first perimeter denotes the innermost perimeter.
A
sy1-4
: Average area of main steel parallel to the Y-axis crossing each of the four
perimeters (mm or in).
Slab reinforcement
A
sv
: The total area of stirrups to be provided within 1.5Deff inside a perimeter (mm or in).
U
crit
: Length of critical perimeter (mm or in).
v
c
: Allowable punching shear stress (MPa or kip).
V
c
: Shear force capacity at a stress of vc (MPa of psi).
V
eff
: The effective shear force as a function of Vt, Mtx and Mty (kN or kip).
Design output
M
tx
: Ultimate bending moment about the X-axis (kNm or kipft).
M
ty
: Ultimate bending moment about the Y-axis (kNm or kipft).
V
t
: Ultimate vertical load on column (kN or kip).
Applied loads
The design procedure includes the following steps:
- The effective shear force, Veff, is calculated.
- The program chooses four shear perimeters. The first perimeter is taken a distance 1.5 Deff away
from the column face. Subsequent perimeters are spaced at 0.75 Deff. The perimeters are chosen to
be as short as possible, extending to the slab edge when necessary.
Design
. 345 Punching Shear Flat Slab
:
Interior Columns
Edge Columns
Corner Columns.
Pre-stressed Beam and
Slab Design
Captain
) C omputerA idedP ostT ensioning
A nalysisI(nstrument
Captain (Computer Aided Post Tensioning Analysis Instrument) can be used to
design and detail most types of continuous pre-stressed beam and slab systems
encountered in typical building projects. The design incorporates automated
pattern loading and moment redistribution.
Both unbounded systems, e.g. flat slabs, and bonded systems, e.g. bridge decks,
can be
designed. Estimates for quantities are calculated and tendon profile schedules can
be generated for use with Padds.
Finite Element Slab Analysis