Analytical Applications of Nuclear Reactions

ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS

The basic steps in the activation technique are as follows: .ACTIVATION ANALYSIS Activation analysis is an analytical technique that allows one to determine the amount of a given element X contained in some material Y.

“isolate” X and X* from all other elements in Y (not necessarily quantitatively) and measure the activity of X*. . Chemical “isolation” of the activity of interest is performed simply by separating it chemically from all other activities. 2. Using chemical or instrumental techniques. a radioactive isotope of X. 3. Instrumental “isolation” of the activity of interest involves the detection of radiation that can uniquely identify the nuclide in question.1. Calculate the amount of X present. Irradiate Y with a source of ionizing radiation so that X will change into X*.

• Use of activation analysis can lead to measurement of elemental abundances of the order of 10-6–10-12 g.• A simpler technique is to irradiate and count a known amount of pure X under the same conditions used for the mixture of X inY. . Then • This is known as the comparator technique and is the most widely used method of activation analysis.

.Isotope Dilution Analysis Principle of isotope dilution.

Due to homogeneous distribution by mixing. the following relation is valid: mx = mass of unknown x m1 = mass of known added As = spesific activity .

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408  2.4  10mg  2. 408mg 5000 1275 mx.2  10mg  2.1  10mg  2. 700) mg mx  4 mx  2.3  10mg  1.1204 mx.880  2.550mg 5000 940 mx.880mg 5000 1350 mx.550  1. 700mg 5000 (2.385mg x  5 104 mg .

ke dalam tubuh mamalia tersebut disuntikkan V1 mL larutan zat radioaktif. Setelah beberapa menit darah mamalia tersebut diambil sebanyak V2 mL dan diukur aktivitasnya sebesar A2.• Untuk menentukan volume darah suatu mamalia. Aktivitas V1 mL larutan zat radioaktif tersebut adalah A1. Berapa volume darah mamalia tersebut? .

A1 As (1)  V1 A2 As (2)  V2 As (1)  As (2) Vx  V1 As (2) .

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