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# UNIT 1: The Scientific Method DAYSHEET 15: More Experimental Design & Graphing Practice

Biology I

## Name :________________________________________________ Date:____________________________

Bellringer: The following were the most missed multiple-choice questions from the formative graphing and data analysis quiz. Use your previous daysheets to help you determine the best answer for each question. 1. Which term(s) correctly describes the trend in temperature during the beginning of the week? a. falling c. staying the same b. increasing d. rising

2. Which statement best describes what is being shown in the graph? a. The number of learners weve had in our college has dropped significantly over the last five years. b. There has been a small decrease in the number of learners in our college over the last five years. c. There has been no significant change in the number of learners in the last 5 years. 3. Between what two games was there the greatest decrease in overall football game attendance? a. b. c. d. e. Games 6 & 7 Games 4 & 5 Games 7 & 8 Games 3 & 4 Games 1 & 2

4. What should you always look at first when reading a graph? a. Y-axis b. X-axis c. Data points d. Origin e. Graph Title

Objective: I can use my understanding of experimental design to analyze experiments and graph data. Homework: Complete HW#15 and study for your Graphing & Data Analysis Quiz

## Activity 1: Different Types of Graphs

Purpose: To find out about the three different types of graphs Task: While you read, use your reading strategies! Outcome: Answer the questions about each type of graph Graphs are pictures that help scientists understand data. There are many different kinds of graphs. In order to figure out what kind of graph to use, a scientist must think about what kind of data they have and what they want their graph to show. A circle graph is shaped like a circle. It is divided into fractions that look like pieces of pie, so sometimes a circle graph is called a pie graph. Scientists use circle graphs when they want to show percentages. The circle of a pie graph represents 100%. Each portion that takes up space within the circle stands for a part of that 100%. In this way, it is possible to see how something is divided among different groups. An example of a pie graph is shown below:
FAVORITE TYPE OF MUSIC

1. What type of graph is this? 2. Why was this type of graph the best choice to show this data?

A line graph shows points plotted on a graph. The points are then connected to form a line. Line graphs are used to graph data that is continuous this means that there are middle values. For example, weight is continuous. A person does not have to weight 100 pounds or 101 pounds. They could weigh in the middle 100.5 pounds. Other examples of continuous data are age, height, temperature, and time. An example of a line graph is shown below: 3. What type of graph is this? 4. Why was this type of graph the best choice to show this data?

A bar graph uses bars to show data. The bars can be vertical (up and down), or horizontal (across). The data can be in words or numbers. Bar graphs make comparisons that are very easy to see. Bar graphs are used to graph data that is non-continuous this means that there are no middle values. For example, the number of people in a family is noncontinuous a family can have 3 people or 4 people; it cannot have 3.5 people. Other examples of non-continuous data are class size, favorite subject in school, or favorite sport. An example of a bar graph is shown below:

5. What type of graph is this? 6. Why was this type of graph the best choice to show this data?

## Activity 2: Practicing with Types of Graphs

GRAPH 1
1. What type of graph is this? 2. What happens to the number of predators when the number of prey increase? 3. Why do you this happens? 4. What happens to the number of predators when the number of prey decrease? 5. Why do you think this happens?

GRAPH 2

1. What type of graph is this? 2. Which insect has the fewest wing vibrations per second? 3. A cicada vibrates its wings about 300 times per second. Which insect is a cicadas vibration rate most similar to?

GRAPH 3:

## 2. What percent mass of the human body is calcium?

3. Water (H2O) contains hydrogen and oxygen. About what percent mass of the human body is water?

GRAPH 4:
Customers Who Switched From MCI to AT&T Customers Who Switched From MCI to AT&T

1. These two graphs show the same information. Why do they look different?

## Activity 3: Is it a good experiment?

Directions: Carefully read each of the statements below about a specific scientific experiment. Circle, underline, and/or highlight as you read. Determine whether proper experimental design has been followed. If the statement fits the parameters of proper experimental design, circle YES. If the statement does not fit the parameters of proper experimental design, circle NO. 1. Sydney wanted to determine what breed of dog is best suited to guarding a home. She decided to borrow her best friends pitbull. She left the dog in her home, and asked a friend to act like he was breaking into her home. Is this a good experiment? YES or NO Why? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. DeKwan wants to buy his mother perfume for her birthday. He doesnt know which type of perfume his mother would like best. He decides to go to the store and get some free samples. The first sample was his moms current perfume. The second sample was a new fragrance called Beautiful Roses that he saw on a TV commercial. The last sample was Full Moon Passion. He asked 10 women at his church which perfume they liked best. Is this a good experiment? YES or NO Why? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Zavonne wanted to test the effects of sugar consumption on focus in high school students. He decided found 22 volunteers at his high school who were willing to participate. He mixed up 22 glasses of sugar water. Each glass contained a couple of scoops of sugar. He asked all the volunteers to drink the sugar water and then attend a math class for 90 minutes. At the end of the experiment, he had the 22 volunteers take a quiz to determine their level of focus during the math lesson. Is this a good experiment? YES or NO Why? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

## Activity 4: Finding the Mean, Median & Mode

Finding the Mean, Median & Mode When you hear someone use the word average to describe a set of numbers, be careful. A more accurate phrase to use is MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY. There are three ways you can describe data, all of which can be thought of as average. The MEAN of a set of data is probably what most people refer to as average. You find the mean of a set of data by adding up all the numbers in the data set and then dividing by the number of data points you added up. When someone says average, this is usually what they are talking about. However, there is another number that is often used to describe a set of data which is the MEDIAN. If you think about driving along an interstate highway, you often see signs that say Keep Off Median meaning that you cant drive on the grassy area in the middle of the interstate. Median in math is the same thing. Well, its not the grassy area, but the median does refer to the number in the middle of a data set. When finding the median of a data set, you have to make sure that the numbers are put in order first. If there is an odd number of data in the list, there is only one number that is exactly in the middle of the data. But if there is an even number of data points, then there are two numbers in the middle. In that case, you have to add those two numbers together and then divide by two to find the median. The MODE of a data set refers to the number that occurs most often. If there is not a number that occurs more than any other, we say there is no mode for the data. It is possible to have more than one mode for a data set. Why in the world would there be three different ways to describe a set of data? It all depends on the situation. Generally speaking, mathematicians and scientists tend to follow some simple rules.
-If there are extremely high or extremely low values I the data set, those numbers can greatly affect the mean. In those cases of extreme values (in one direction or another) it is preferable to use the median because it is not affected by extreme values. -When you have categorical data, or data that appears as words instead of numbers, you need to use the mode. For example, if I ask you your favorite color and get word answers like red, blue, green, purple, it is impossible to add up those values to find the mean or to order the colors and find a median. The only alternative to describe this set of data would be the mode. Then you can say that most people prefer red (or whatever color occurs most).

Lets Practice: 1. What is a mean? __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is a mode? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is a median? _________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Given the following data set, find the mean, median, and mode: 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30, 32, 32, 35 Mean: ____________ Median: _______________ Mode: ____________

5. Videos R Us keeps a record of how many movies are rented on each day of the week. The data is listed in the data table below. Monday 410 Tuesday 250 Wednesday 210 Thursday 420 Friday 690 Saturday 650 Sunday 400

What was the mean number of videos rented for the week? ________________________________

HW15: Graphing
Name ______________________________ Date ________________

Biology I

Directions: Carefully read the description of the experiment below. Then pick out the important parts of the experiment and create a graph!
To study the effects of common substances on the heart rate of a tiny aquatic organism known as Daphnia, students placed a Daphnia in a drop of water on a glass slide. The students then added 1 drop of water on a glass slide. The students then added 2 drops of a test substance dissolved in water to the slide, waited 10 seconds, then counted heart beats for 10 seconds. Their data table is shown below:

Heart Rate of Daphnia in Different Solutions Substance tested None Coffee Ethanol
1. Identify the 5 important parts of the experiment!

## Heart Rate (beats per minute) 58 65 50

The Important Part Is Independent Variable Dependent Variable Experimental Group(s) Control Group Constants

## In The Experiment This Is

2. Create a graph of the data on the back of this paper. Make sure your graph has all the parts on the Good Graphing Checklist. 3. What conclusions can you draw from your graph?