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The Somali Dir Clan's History: Codka Beesha Direed
Wednesday, May 11, 2011 Pages

The Somali are definitely Kushitic. Despite numerous fictitious Quraish genealogical traditions which claim an Arab origin specifically, a Benu Hashim descent which makes them related to the Holy Prophet of Islaam, Muhammed S.A.W. The first and oldest traditions of the Somali which claim Arab and Quraish descent can be traced to the Dir Somali clan considered the oldest and noblest Somali group which many Maxay clans of North- Central Somali groups consider the founding nation. The Dir who entered from the West and invaded Zaila from Ethiopian region in the 700 AD imposed on the entire Somali region their culture and traditions which became know as the Xeer of Aji. Hence, even though their is evidence of at least 9 Pre-Dir Samaale Groups all Maxaay Speaking Somalis adopted the Aji Traditions which was a cultural and ways of behaving based on xeer, a strictly nomadic way of life, and egalitarian way of life. (The Invention of Somalia)

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The Oldest Dir traditions base their Arabian Quraish traditions on the arrival of Prophet Mohammed's followers to Ethiopia in the First Hijra when over 80 Ashaab landed in Djibouti Eritrea


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SOMALI The Dir claim that Dir Aji Xiil was the Son of Aqiil Ibnu Abi Muttalib who came 35 years after the first .A. According to this story the Muhajirs left East Africa but established business and intermarriage relations with East Africans. Somalia History of The Somali Dir Clan View my complete profile Despite these Arab claims the common relation between the Afar.W The Somali like other kushitics worshiped Waaqle. In Somali the word waaqle is not only associated with the sky but it also means God Illahey" the one supreme creator. "Lafeeko lafaako"" your bone is mine as mine is yours since you are my cousine a descendent of Aqiil Abi Muttalib who is a brother of my Forefather the Harmalis and all Assayo Marra--the red men. The King of Aussa Ali Mirreh after Meeting a Somali Dir from Dolo who traveled up North told this Dir Dignitary of the Dir Ugaas Seed. The Afar or the Dankalli of Ethiopia claim their royalty The Harmalis who gave birth to Afar Royals Assayo Marra are related to the Dir through Aqiil and the claim they were the sons of a leading Ashaabi who debated the Pagen Quraish at the court of King Abraaha. Somaliland. Dira Dhabe. Also it is used in the place of Allah or God the supreme creator: Waligaa iyo Waaqaa= Waligaa iyo Allahaa Gar Waqso= know the justice of God the Supreme Abdulwaaq= slave of God like Abdullah Tagaal Waaq one who fought in cause of God Gacal Waaq Bide Waaq Gudoom Waaq mahd waaq siwaaq rooon open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.A)Uthman and many other popular Ashaab. Somali. Somali and Oromo like other East Africans is a common past and common cultures and the Arab factor is used to unite these people with their prophet S. The Ashaab included Ruqiya Binta Rasuul (R. DIRSAME Djabouti.ports after fleeing pagan Quraish persecution. Somalis use: Waaqle in proper names and place names as well as major clans have waaqle names.

Waaq faal Astronomy or a from of Astrology. "Waq". Read the oromo Waaqfine they say Waaq is UUme Creator same term we Use --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Already a member? Sign in Follow ers Join this site w ith Google Friend Connect Members (31) More » What Are Their Beliefs? Gujji oromo These ethnic religionists worship a supreme being named Waqa. springs. 8 names from Dir. political. and so on. Waaqdacin Waaqlal and the North for Waaqooyi which is the direction the Oromo Kaaluu priests face. In the traditional monotheistic religion ("Waaqa") of the Oromo. Wadaja feasts are organized on various occasions. "Waaqa". Many people still believe that objects such as trees. Cooperation is central to this system.Barwaaqo Eel waaq Waaqfaal For the association of the sky the Somalis us Waqal daruureed. (Will post more evidence soon and over 60 Somali clan names associated with the term Waaqle. One basic value of the Oromo is tokuma. "Waqa". which is identification with the group. social. the name of God is given variously in English letters as "Waaqayoo". Wak or Waaq open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. It is also believed that spirits called jinn may take possession of people. 22 from Hawiye and over 30 names from the Daarood clans. Though they acknowledged a "superior being" called Wak. "Wak". and rocks have .the Somalis today call north waaqooyi. The religious. especially in work arrangements.and economic life of the Oromo revolves around this. "Waaq". and livestock is sacrificed in Waqa's honor. The northerns claim there is an old oath waa igu tiniixi tin waaq Southerns wrote used waa igu Caq Waaq.

African (Ethiopian) god who dwelled in the . and then created the first human. He rules over all. In other words. When the earth was flat. This is how the mountains were formed. and the man was so bored at the end of it all that WAAQA created a woman to keep him company. For seven years he made fire rain down.. Eventually man grew tired of living alone. Wak asked man to build himself a coffin. The man was a bit embarrassed by all this activity and tried to hide some of his kids. Waka-The bengign rain god of the Oromo of Ethiopia. He is worshipped devoutly and frequently by his followers. Oh. He was supreme and a benefactor god. He is omnipotent. honestly. and as a result.. He kept the heavens at a distance from the earth and ornamented it with stars. this is why man is awake for most of the day. This certainly gave him something to do. Wak took some of his blood and after four days. Untouched by missionary zeal. but man was so ashamed at having had so many that he hid fifteen of them away. Wak was angry at this. And he likes a great deal of attention. He was sure he had slept for a brief moment only and was shocked to find it had been so long and earth had changed so much. Knowing of man's loneliness. the blood turning into a woman whom the man married. WAAQA is exactly like every other monotheistic deity we know of. but WAAQA in his wisdom turned them into animals instead. Man and woman had 30 children. He is monotheistic. The process took seven long years. Wak then danced upon the place where the coffin was buried and man sprang forth. except that WAAQA and his people have often been the target of missionaries and religious fundamentalists claiming: a) that WAAQA is ALLAH and should be worshipped as such b) that WAAQA is JEHOVAH and should be worshipped as such c) that WAAQA really is JEHOVAH. He rewards the good and punishes the bad. His will is unshakeable and unbreakable. He is supreme. the children man hid away were turned into animals and demons. The Sakuye a group closely related to the Somali of NFD particularly the Gaarre Dir and adopted Boorana cultural traits like gabra open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. WAAQA created the Heavens and the Earth. Man did so and Wak shut him up in it and buried it. and the result was thirty children. so he buried the man in a homemade coffin to keep him safe while he added the finishing touches with fire and brimstone. WAAQA is still a Top God today. alive. Unfortunately the Earth wasn't quite finished. and there is little else to tell.

intolerant of injustice. Over the last century aspects of Islam has come into their culture.Religion: Traditionally the Sakuye worshipped one God. Wak. The Qaallu village is the spiritual centre. OROMO RELIGION OF ETHIOPIA Editor: Balaam's Ass Speaks: The following is filled with half-truths. the Oromo people practised their own religion. by putting sacrifices in special trees. source of all life. as he does not harm people. A Qaallu is like a Bishop in the Christian world and an lmam in the Muslim world. where political debates are organized for the candidates for the Gadaa offices. Although the office of Qaallu is hereditary. Ayaana followers believe it is necessary to appease Satan because he brings harm to them. each seen as manifestation of the one Waaqa or of the same divine reality. incomprehensible. He must respect traditional taboos (safuu) and ritual observances in all situations and in all his dealings and must follow the truth and avoid sin. he is pure. though just overlaid on their traditional beliefs and practices. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The Qaallu institution is one of the most important in the Oromo culture and society and is believed to have existed since mythical times. moors nor heathens. They believed in one Waaqayoo which approximates to the English word God. and they will run through the forest following the bird to see which way it turns in order to make a decision. They never worshipped false gods or carved statues as substitutes. de Almeida (1628-46) had the following to say: 'the Gallas (Oromo) are neither Christians. Islam and Christianity." The Oromo Waaqa is one and the same for . The Galla (Oromo) also have reached a degree of ecumenism with Islam that is rare anywhere in the world. more or less in the same way the Abyssinian Orthodox Church is the preserver of Abyssinian culture. Dabel is the center of the Ayaana. while it not necessary to appease God. THE RELIGION OF OROMO There are three main religions in Oromia: traditional Oromo religion. He is considered pure and clean. There are many saint-like divinities called ayyaana. in principle it is open to anyone who can provide sufficient proof of the special direct personal contact with an ayyaana. which possesses him at regular intervals. even though the Qaallu himself does not possess political power as such and religion is distinctly separated from politics. he can do and undo anything. for they have no idols to worship. It is a very important preserver and protector of Oromo culture. He is a religious and ritual expert who has a special relationship with one of the ayyaana. In the Oromo society a Qaallu is regarded as the most senior person in his lineage and clan and the most respected in the society. omnipresent. sin and all falsehood. The Galla DO believe in spirits. Before the introduction of Christianity and Islam. An effective relationship is often maintained between ayyaana and Oromo by Qaallu (male) and/or Qaalitti (female). He is the creator of everything. Waaqayoo is often called Waaqa for short. crime. a strong Oromo Satan appeasement and worship cult. infinite. and they hold a certain bird to be sacred. M. The Qaallu institution has political importance.

etc. At this stage it faces complete eradication and Orthodox Church buildings are fast replacing Galmas. the Gadaa class in power honours the Qaallu by taking gifts and making their pledges of reverence. hill side or in a grove of large trees. stones. red in the centre and white at the bottom. Muuda pilgrimage is very holy and the pilgrims walk to the place of Abbaa Muuda with a stick in one hand and carrying myrrh (qumbii). It is at the height of this that the possessing ayyaana speaks through the Qaallu's mouth and can answer prayers and predict the future. which reduced contacts between various Oromo groups. the Qaallu organizes and oversees the election of Gadaa leaders. during the fifth year of the Gadaa period. In the Gadaa. usually on Thursday and Saturday nights. represented those yet to enter active life. All Oromo through whose village the pilgrims pass are obligedto give them hospitality. Religious Oromo often made Muuda-pilgrimages to some of the great Qaallus and religious centres such as Arsi's Abbaa Muuda (father of anointment). who has a very different. This has been misrepresented by outsiders claiming that the Oromo worship trees. etc. Each ayyaana has its own Galma and its own special ceremonies. The national flag is made in the colours of the Qaallu turban (surri ruufa). As the Mecca pilgrims are called Haj among Muslims. The Galma is usually located on a hill top. On the other hand. rivers. those in active life (Luba) and those who had passed through active five. respectively. etc. He is notorious for extracting remuneration by threats or other means. these Muuda pilgrims are cared Jila. The national flag had three colours . such as the bokku (sceptre). it is beneath the dignity of an Oromo Qaallu to ask his ritual clients for gifts or payment. The Qaallu institution has suffered more during the last 14 years than it suffered during the previous 1 00 years. the three colours. it became the policy to discourage and destroy Oromo cultural institutions and values. social at the top. much lower. The Abyssinian ruling class has confused the terms. which often culminates in possession. The Qaallu institution was weakened with the advent of colonialism to Oromia.Thus he plays both a spiritual and political role in the Gadaa system. Among the Borana Oromo Muuda pilgrimages are still common. Many of these sites are now taken up by Abyssinian Orthodox Church buildings or Mosques. The Oromo Qaallu must not be confused with the Amhara Qaallicha. thus disparaging the Qaallu socially and religiously by using the term depreciatingly. black. by the side of big mountains. the national flag. The pilgrimage was prohibited. The use of these symbols is prohibited by the colonial government. sing and beat drums to perform a ritual called dalaga in order to achieve a state of ecstasy. beside large bodies of water. For instance. He is a vagabond who resorts to conjuring and black magic for his own benefit. Just before the beginning of the harvest season every year. red and white. 1967).com . The Qaallu institution was once a repository of important ceremonial articles (collective symbols) in the Buttaa (Gadaa) ceremony. the Oromo have a prayer ceremony (thanksgiving open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The believers visit the Galma for worship once or twice a week. As the head of the council of electors. (Knutsson. Places of worship also include under trees. At this time the followers dance. hills. This is the Muuda or anointment ceremony. The place of worship of Qaallu ritual house is called the Galma.

while the remaining few are still followers of the original Oromo religion. Oromos in Arsi province accepted Islam in large number as a demonstration of anti-Amhara sentiment and a rejection of all values associated with imperial conquerors. They call open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Bartels (1983) expressed this reality as follows: 'Whether they (Oromo) became Christians or Muslims. They do not believe in suffering after death as in Christianity and Islam. Atseme wrote: "The Galla became Muslim for his hatred of Amhara priests. friend. The Oromo accepted Islam and nonOrthodox Christianity en-masse because they identified Abyssinian Orthodox Christianity with the oppressor and also to assert their identity vis-a-vis Abyssinians. not in Arussi Galla. the Oromo's traditional modes of experiencing the divine have continued almost unaffected. today the majority of the Oromo people are followers of Islam and Christianity. In fact. the Oromo have resisted these religions for quite a long time." Many used to visit. The Oromo believe that after death individuals exist in the form of a spirit called the 'ekeraa'. If one commits sin he/she is punished while still alive. the Galla there. including them. There are many Oromo who are followers of Islam or Christianity and yet still practise the original Oromo religion. Oromo people have been in constant contact with other religions like Islam and Christianity for almost the last 1000 years. ". The offerings take place near the family or clan cemetery." Bereket (1980) also noted. The Amhara spy monk. in favour and defence of their own traditional religion. Editor: Balaam's Ass Speaks: Ha. Well. in spite of the fact that several rituals and social institutions in which it was expressed.. This is more true in regions where Abyssinian Orthodox Christianity prevails. are abandoning the Oromo religion because they see that the Christians are healthier and happier. and Christianity even before that. It once took place in river meadows where now the Abyssinian Orthodox Church takes its holy Tabot (tablets) for special yearly festivals. until very recently.festival) called irreessa." A somewhat similar situation in the west was the acceptance of Islam by many Afro-Americans in 1950s and 1960s. However. as a reaction to the racial discrimination and oppression they faced from the white community and in search of an identity different from that of the oppressor group. FOLKLORE Oromos believe that Waaqa Tokkicha (the one God) created the world. For instance. Oromo religion is full of terror of devils who are believed to be able to kill babies and drown people in the lakes on the Rift Valley. It is said that the Islamic religion spread in Oromia as a reaction to the Ethiopian colonization. the Galma and pay due respect to their clan Qaallu.D. which is usually in a village. One is obliged to pray to and to give offering by slaughtering an animal every so often to ones parents' ekeraa. So let us take this rubbish with a grain of salt please.. the Islamic religion was reported to have been in eastern Shawa about 900 A. the 'timqat'. who do not become Christians. The lrreessa has become illegal and anybody who attempts to practise it is now likely to be imprisoned. . The ekeraa is believed to stay near the place where the person once lived. Ha. Ha!! So when Oromo Galla become Christians they still practice their pagan religion. have been very diminished or apparently submerged in new ritual cloaks.

However. With the rise of bakkalcha. ayaana (spiritual connection) emerged. Thinkers who invented the gada system. raagas (prophets). Using the light of bakkalcha. spiritual. some Oromos have continued to practice their original . is the center of the Oromo religion. plants. Uuma includes everything created by Waaqa. and military leaders. and Christianity. Islam. The Ethiopian colonizers tried to ban the Oromo system of thought by eliminating Oromo cultural experts such as the raagas (Oromo prophets). Today. Eastern Orthodox Christianity was introduced by the Ethiopian colonizers. Original Oromo religion does not believe in hell and heaven. in air. When an Oromo dies. Waaqa acts in the person's life. those who have contributed to the Oromo national movement are considered heroes and heroines. uuma (nature). and physical worlds as interconnected. 5 • RELIGION Oromos recognize the existence of a supreme being or Creator that they call Waaqa. The movement of this sunlight created day and night. he or she will become spirit. Saffu is a moral and ethical code that Oromos use to tell bad from good and wrong from right. the ayaantus (time reckoners). the society imposes punishment while the person is alive. Three Oromo concepts explain the organization and connection of human. Islam was imposed on other Oromos by Turkish and Egyptian colonizers. are considered heroes and heroines. and saffu (the ethical and moral code). These ancestral spirits appear to relatives in the form of flying animals. and physical worlds: ayaana. Waaqa created all other stars. and in water. including ayaana. Oromos believed that Waaqa created the sky and earth from water. He also created dry land out of water.this supreme being Waaqa Guuracha (the Black God). They attempt to contact them through ceremonies. with their existence and functions ruled by Waaqa. or qallu. If a person commits a sin by disturbing the balance of nature or mis-treating others. Qallu leaders traditionally played important religious roles in Oromo society. Today. Some Oromos accepted Islam in order to resist Ethiopian control and Orthodox Christianity. and oral historians. In other areas. The original religion sees the human. Both Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia have been greatly influenced by open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. With this star. through which he connects himself to his creatures. Some Oromos still believe in the existence of ancestors' spirits. Oromos accepted Protestant Christianity in order to resist Orthodox Christianity. Islam and Christianity are the major religions in Oromo society. They have three major religions: original Oromo religion (Waaqa). In some Oromo regions. animals. and other creatures that live on the land. for example. Most Oromos still believe that it was this God who created heaven and earth and other living and non-living things. sunlight also appeared. since it was the only element that existed before other elements. and bakkalcha (a star) to provide light. Through each person's ayaana (spiritual connection). The Oromo religious institution. Waaqa also created ayaana (spiritual connection). The Oromo story of creation starts with the element of water. spiritual. Oromo heroes and heroines are the people who have done something important for the community.

Marriage is celebrated since it is the time when boys and girls enter adulthood. Oromo male children did not participate in politics and had little responsibility. Nowadays. apart from them. 7 • RITES OF PASSAGE Since children are seen as having great value. politics. Between the ages of one and eight. 8 • RELATIONSHIPS By Getachew Chamadaa Nadhabaasaa. Between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four. in peace and war. They attributed to Him the symbolic quality of the colour Gurraacha. Between ages sixteen and twenty-four. 4 but symbolically stands for Waaqa´s tolerance. These rites of passages were called ireecha or buuta. They identified the Supreme Being. most Oromo families are large. 1 It was the continent where the human being had begun to form simple and complex social organisations. those who can afford it send their children to school. The Oromos have also begun celebrating an Oromo national day to remember their heroines and heroes who have sacrificed their lives trying to free their people from Ethiopian rule. follee (ages sixteen to twenty-four). There were rites of passages when males passed from one gada to another. they were not yet allowed to take full responsibility and marry. by giving Him the name Waaqa. qondaala (ages twenty-four to thirty-two). and hunting big animals. These children complete their teenage years in school. as well as Islamic and Christian holidays. invisibility. They shared their knowledge with the qondaala group and carried out their leadership responsibilities. Member of Gadaa Melbaa The Origins of Waaqeffannaa As far as the investigation of human origin is concerned. Men thirty-two to forty years old had important roles. they served as soldiers and prepared to take over the responsibilities of leadership. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The birth of a child is celebrated because each newborn child will some day become a worker. In one area. Traditionally Oromos had five gada (grades) or parties. law and management. The names of these grades varied from place to . gracefulness. it brings members of the community together to say goodbye. Africa is proved to be the Origin of Man.Oromo religion. they took on the responsibilities of hard work. culture and history. literally means Black. rogge (ages eight to sixteen). Children and teenagers participate in agriculture and other activities needed for survival. They learned about war tactics. Death is marked as an important event. and dorri (ages thirty-two to forty). young Oromos marry and start the lifecycle of adulthood. as a Transcendental Reality. these grades were dabalee (ages one to eight). 6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS The Oromo celebrate ceremonial rites of passage known as ireecha or buuta. When they were between eight and sixteen years old. When young men were between twenty-four and thirty-two years of age. compassion. 2 It was on this continent that one of the earliest ancestors of Black African Families known as the Oromoo 3 had come to recognise the existence of a Supreme Being.

in defending the Gadaa-based moral qualities of the Oromo families. could be one among the earliest peoples of the world. Waaqa is frequently invoked. as a programme. to develop the doctrine of monotheism. in mediating conflicting parties for reconciliation. and the Teachings of Waaqeffannaa In the daily life of every Oromo. In morning and evening prayers. 16 Invoking Waaqa. Waaqeffannaa continues to offer pertinent answers to its adherents.. interaction with other peoples. voluntary or involuntary conversion to the ´written´ religions 15 of the Muslim and Christian worlds. in testifying witness etc. As a public affair. spring. Who helped them pass through the 'dark' rainy winter season 13 to the bright sunny season. as a religious thought. who had long ago recognised Waaqa as the only Supreme Reality. ritual. crater. and as an ideology 8 in checking and balancing the entire lives of the Oromo nation as one family. 14 In spite of problems confronting the Oromos in course of their history. helpfulness. 9 The Oromo people. and as a religious practice of the Gadaa-organized Oromo people. 6 Which Waaqa granted them . 7 Since then. in shaping the behavioural system of the Oromos (from blessing ceremonials to etiquette of socialising). Waaqeffannaa as a religion.they were able to institutionalise a highly elaborate egalitarian social system known as Gadaa. 12 The ceremony is conducted by offering thanks and greeneries to Waaqa. in giving an errand of blessing and oath. which cannot be perceived separately from the Gadaa System. the Creator of . among other symbolic qualities ascribed to Him. the time crops and plants are furnishing colourful flowers.through the first Qaalluu Booranaa (Mana Booranaa) . the Oromos have been organising "Thanksgiving Ceremony" (Irreecha/Irreessa) near a body of water (lake. in making peace. and in bestowing socially meaningful names upon the newly born Oromo children. Since the emergence of Waaqeffannaa as a public religious affair. 10 Thenceforth. 17 However. Waaqeffannaa is manifested by Oromummaa 11 as part of the cultural domain of the Gadaa Oromo Society. Hereupon was grounded the History of the organised social. in seeking peace. 5 Guided by the Law. in maintaining social harmony.purity. sprung out of the Oromo concept of Waaqa. their early ancestors were inspired by Waaqa. not only in Africa. Waaqeffannaa has made remarkable contributions in conflict resolutions. or stream) or at the Galma of the Qaalluu every year. According to Oromo mythology. which begins to shine in the month of Birraa/Fulbaana. Gadaa has been used not only as a system but as a method. this does not necessarily indicate that those who invoke are all on the Avenue of Peace open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. political military and economic activities of the people.

a counterfeiter. a socially inconsiderate. 21 Hence. physical character. hair texture. Waaqeffannaa teaches the invocation of Waaqa to be held at the right time. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API . beside their blasphemous connotation. who constitute the core part of the Abyssinian society. a flagrant violation of the spiritual quality of the Gadaa Oromoo Society. According to Waaqeffannaa. to devise the strategy of divide and rule. a renegade. 23 The most important quality for Waaqeffannaa is the "Tone" of the man and the coherency of his tone with his activity 24 that can defend the Nagaa Oromoo Family for the development of the "WeOromo society" together. care for strangers. Waaqeffannaa refrains from approving a 'certificate of integration' into the religious life of Gadaa Oromoo Families. honesty to the legitimacy of social taboos.(Karaa Nagaa) that Waaqa brightened for the Oromo people to walk on. 25 However. language. and hospitality to foreigners etc. skin colour. 22 Waaqeffannaa teaches its followers to abhor practices like persecution. who worship 44 types of ´Tabots´. 20 Falsehood invocations are a blatant rejection to walk on the Avenue of Nagaa. No one can ever trust such person as a faithful citizen of the Republic of Gadaa Oromoland. a cheeky person of sneaky behaviour. Oromos' fairness. height or weight. Waaqeffannaa rather adheres to teaching human compassion. a defection and flight from being a faithful citizen of the Gadaa-based indigenous republican form of Oromo governance. selfish and deceptive person is understood as existing against the Law of Waaqa. for the right reasons. fairness to individual and public opinions. the leaders of the Monophysitic Abyssinian religion. Religious Terrorism and Intolerance carried out by Monophysitic Abyssinians In order to uproot Waaqeffannaa. as it has been witnessed in the past ten decades. have greatly helped the successive colonial regimes of Abyssinia to carry out wars and perform all sorts of military and police activities. including the Monophysitic Eritreans. openness and honesty have given ample opportunities to the ´closed´ Monophysitic 26 Amhara and Tigray people. 18 There could be individuals who might have gone far from the Avenue of Peace and committed themselves to a tricky invocation. respect to the Law of Waaqa. conformity to facts of truth. ethnicity. at the right place. ostracising and segregation of man by man because of differences in faith. 19 Falsehood invocations are believed to be signals of calling misfortune upon one's own life.

hospitality. they preach means to control such tendencies through long fasting that requires abstention from nutritious food like milk. chicken. as a direct consequence of man's close communion with the Law of Waaqa and his constant walk on the ever-luminous path He cleared for man to travel on. compassion. modesty. meat. 32 vindictive. have taken the advantage of Oromos' openness. victory etc. 28 Helped by Oromos' generosity. 38 According to Waaqeffannaa. the missionaries 29 have been able to manipulate Oromo's local psychology. They teach how the very nature of man is aggressive. when one is born to live on earth. happiness. the teachings of the Euro-centrists are not different from those of the Monophysitic Tewahido 31 . and succeeded in establishing Euro-centric 'Cross Worshiping Centres' among Waaqeffataa Oromos.In addition. 36 The Monophysitic Coptic Abyssinians. a person is totally responsible for all sins he committed while on earth. and deceptive. and succeeded in diverting numerous Oromos from the path of their original faith to the imported 'Cross Worshiping' religion 27 by giving priorities to selected Oromo localities. and frankness. That is why. teaches the existence of a 'wonderful life after death in paradise' 33 but it conditions it "if all peoples accept Islam as the only true religion of the world. too. purity and humanity as open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. truth. to be able to conquer the 'beauty of life after death'. 39 It attributes virtue of success. and their followers are in the same category in rejecting Waaqeffannaa as a Human Faith. egg etc. Islam and Waaqeffannaa Islam. The worst side of Pentecostalism is the creation of self-alienation. scrutinise their mental faculty. They preach what they call preparedness for 'the best life after death' 30 which does not exist in the Oromos´ Waaqeffannaa creed. who also preach the 'beauty of life after death´. Hence. too. Waaqeffannaa always advocates honesty. On this point.". the Muslim Arabians 37. the inculcation of an illusive life on the part of its followers. the Evangelical European missionaries. Waaqeffannaa does not believe either in the existence of an eternal joyous life in heaven after death or a miserable life in hell. the greedy-espionage of European missionaries. It teaches "holy slavery" 34 to the Arabian 35 Supreme Being called Allah. notably the Pentecostal sects. It only believes in the virtual existence of the dead person in the form of Ekeraa (Ancestor´s Holy Ghost) where the person was buried in his ancestor's cemetery. peacefulness. so as to damage the indigenous values. Its teachings are based on the existence of Life before death on earth.

Waaqeffannaa teaches the abhorrence of the root causes that emit cataclysmic social disorders and defile the established social norms with which the Oromos have been living in the longest period of their history. 45 This is diametrically opposed to the ´revealed´ religions of the Christian and Muslim worlds which preach too opposite to Waaqeffannaa´s fundamental religious . Caffee/Gumii. The origin of the religion and the word Waaqeffannaa is Waaqa. to walk on. Waaqa blessed for them with the Gadaa Rule of Law. Followers of ´revealed´ religions call this power satan. as promulgated and declared by the Supreme Legislative Organ. 40 2. wisdom and supreme authority. Waaqa strictly warned them never to cultivate persons of dictatorial ambitions nor to allow the growth of such person among them and so on. 44 These and other messages of Waaqa are believed to have been delivered through the mouth of the first Qaalluu Booranaa. 46 According to their teachings. He blessed them to be a victorious and prosperous nation of numerous progenies. Waaqeffannaa teaches that 1.. Waaqa blessed the Oromos to be men of justice and law-abiding citizens of the Republic of Gadaa Oromoland. this so-called satan is full of power.inherent qualities of the Gadaa-based Oromo Society. if they follow the Avenue of Peace. which can lead them to successful achievement for the endeavours they are constantly undertaking. Hence. Waaqa endowed the Oromos with the Avenue of Peace. The Oromo Concept of Evil Waaqeffannaa preaches that there is no other power to dares challenge Waaqa's Supreme Authority. when they stood in the light of Seera Waaqa and Safuu Oromoo. 41 3. The message has become a self-assertive declaration in rejecting and fighting any form of internally assumed dictators and the Abyssinian colonial rules and rulers. 42 4. 43 5. More specifically. who had been anointing Oromo pilgrims from all over Gadaa Oromoland at Haroo Walaabuu before colonisation. Karaa Nagaa. has the ability to instigate man open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. there is no other power that could contend Waaqa´s infinite power. the Invisible Supreme Power.

and his violation to observe and respect Seera Waaqa and Safuu Oromoo. they reply: " God created him. Waaqa against man. 50 The disobedient Eve in turn seduced her husband. this so-called seexana is blamed and condemned to death for their weaknesses and failures. However. 47 To the question they are often asked "who created the satan?". social vice. delinquency. 52 According to Pheenxee Oromos. satan is the cause of all conflicts. He restricted him to be king of eternal damnation. can be attributable to the work of seexana. dishonesty. came into existence as ´Holy Scriptures´. everything. unhappy lives. war. all material cultures pertaining to Oromo traditional religion are ´idols´ 53 serving the will of seexana. to become king of the world on earth and king of paradise in heaven. disobedience. since God found him challenging His power. Karaa Nagaa irraa jallachuu. crime. deviant and sneaky misbehaviours. sadness.. as sa-ta-nas. vagrancy. they say. deviancy. the hell". breach of oath. being hence condemned to demolition and destruction. They identified it as a chief adversary of "Their God". conflict. Oromo ritual objects are not human beings´ creativity to help the Oromos provide a meaning of life and satisfy their needs. disgracefulness etc as a consequence of man's departure from the Avenue of Peace. madness. delinquency. the objects are devil´s invention moulded and embellished to worship satanic authorities. war. etc. madness. disharmony. it has become one of the foreign words that existed in a corrupted form in Afaan Oromoo. The Oromos call it seexana.against Waaqa. 49 Unfortunately. They categorically reject any values that are indigenous and relevant to African origin. 55 As they are officially preaching. and the recognition of its decisive role in JudeanChristian and Muslim religious beliefs. In their views. natural disaster. Adam. 57 open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. 54 For them. Before the introduction of the colonial religions into the belief systems of the Gadaa Oromoo Society. unsuccessful achievements. madness. man against man. etc. Thereon. the spirit of the satan interwoven with that of God. to follow the same rebellious action like her. unsuccessful achievements. 48 According to the Bible and the Qur ´an. injustice. narrating that Satan had spoken through the mouth of a serpent and succeeded in seducing Eve into disobedience to God. In Hebrew language. robbery. the word satan had not existed in the vocabulary of Afaan Oromo. for their delinquent. deviancy. social vice. conflict. 56 Waaqeffannaa attributes the occurrence of sadness. In great contrast with the Waaqefataa Oromo religious doctrine of altruism. In Greek. they preach egoism within the context of Pentecostalism as the only means to achieve the desired self-centred objectives etc. it is known as sa-tan. particularly followed by some Islamic sects. illness. 51 As the case of Pheenxee Oromos clearly demonstrated to .

and the Mecca-centred Muslims are claiming a 'monopoly of truth' 59 over Waaqeffannaa. In the 2nd half of the 19th century. it is only Waaqa Who is to be praised or to whom either displeasure or resentment is to be expressed. They believe that. They blame the misfortune and bad-omen they have encountered in their daily lives and activities as a result of their own negligence. They know no other super power. to Waaqa Who created them as one of a peace-loving people of African societies. derailed to follow the main chapters of Waaqa´s law. The Survival and Revival of Waaqeffannaa The colonising religions of Coptic centred Monophysitic Abyssinians. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Waaqa. the Euro-centred Evangelists. the Abyssinian empire builders had effectively used their Coptic Monophysitic Abyssinian religion as a weapon to colonise the Oromo people. They are offering "Thanksgiving Ceremony".com . Emperor Haile Sellasie declared that "the church is like the sword.The Oromos express their resentment directly to their Creator. human heritages. However. despite systematic harassment by the colonial regime and despite open condemnations by the fundamentalist sections of the followers of the aforementioned religions. 58 Whether the Oromos confront problems or pursue happiness. they begin to pray and appeal to His help for resilience. Then. Waaqeffataas are reviving the genuine Oromo Religion. they directly complain to their Waaqa. Irreecha/Irreessa. resisting the Abyssinian church's sword on the right side. Then. the sword cannot cut by itself without the use of the arm". the government's arm on the left side. be it in time of happiness or in moments of sadness. and the government is like an arm. by labelling this indigenous African religion as pagan. peace and peaceloving peoples of African origin in which the Waaqaafannaa-led Oromo concept of Nagaa has been deliberately interpreted as a 'violent pagan faith'. why He withdrew His protection away from them. therefore. Pheenxee's and Sheikhs´ assault from the rear and front lines. and imbued with a 'monopoly of falsehood'. inferior. 61 Such derogatory connotations have tried to molest the noble functions of Waaqeffannaa. backward. 62 The emperor's decree had clearly justified the nature of their religion and its role in provoking violence instead of peace. they might have committed Cubbuu (sin) that could anger the Creator and Tolerant Waaqa. animist. The Oromos have had direct relationship with their Creator. Waaqeffannaa has testified to its survival to this day. 60 They are competing with each other for the scramble of the Gadaa-based Oromo Society. They have become the major cause for the destruction of human lives.

the preservation of sacred places. .. for the religions of the indigenous peoples of African origin can better satisfy their needs. though they admire and preach the monopoly of their own colonial faiths. and because of this they rather continue nurturing social conflicts. The door of Waaqeeffannaa was open. This man could not conceal the true nature of Waaqeffataa Oromos. it would be a wise judgement on the part of Oromo Qeeses (priests). Waaqeffannaa is an indigenous religion of African origin. need to develop moral judgements and human compassion by respecting and deeply exploring the values of the indigenous religions. Waaqeffannaa does give holistic. At the beginning of the 20th century. the various mushrooming sects of all colonial religions in Oromoland endanger the revival of Waaqeffannaa. it must continue to be open to those constructive ideas and various innovations that help enhance the creative capacity of the Oromo people. and the institutions. which are detrimental to the religious function of Nagaa Oromoo. Phillipson. Such a wise act would help them avoid any further jumping into various forms of hasty generalisation. a certain missionary. not merely Waaqeffannaa. 65 Therefore. which is followed by millions of people. and the Oromo Sheikhs. and historically remarkable answers to its followers. their followers and disciples in particular. who have recently begun to be addressed by the Gadaa title 'Luba'. and it is still open. based on their texts. 64 The various missionaries. their religion teaches them to take care for strangers bound on an errand of peace". 66 Posted by DIRSAME at 12:46 AM open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. These colonial religions run for the monopolisation of 'truth'. 63 Conclusion To sum up. the Oromo prayers. Nonetheless. if they start taking seriously into account the absolutely prominent and greatly beneficial role Waaqeffannaa has been playing in protecting Oromummaa throughout the ages. visited the Oromo communities around the coast of Indian Ocean and said: "To their [Oromos] beautiful custom of hospitality. instead of restoring social harmonies among the Oromos. even if he was sad that the Oromos did not accept the ´written´ colonial religion that was ravaging the peoples in Kenya at that moment.They are thus demonstrating to the world the continuity of their stiff resistance to the colonising religions.

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