Technical Information Handbook

Wire and Cable

Products. Technology. Services. Delivered Globally.

We are a leading global supplier of communications and security products, electrical and electronic wire and cable, fasteners, and other small components. We help our customers specify solutions and make informed purchasing decisions around technology, applications and relevant standards. Throughout the world, we provide innovative supply chain management solutions to reduce our customers’ total cost of production and implementation.

Copyright by Anixter. 2301 Patriot Blvd. Glenview, Illinois. 60026. No part of the publication may be reproduced without express permission of Anixter. Anixter Inc. does not manufacture the items described in this publication. All applicable warranties are provided by the manufacturers. Purchasers are requested to determine directly from the manufacturers the applicable product warranties and limitations. Data and suggestions made in the publication are not to be construed as recommendations or authorizations to use any products in violation of any government law or regulation relating to any material or its use. All due concern has been devoted to accuracy, but Anixter cannot be responsible for errors, omissions or obsolescence. All data herein are subject to change without notice. Fifth Edition Copyright © 2013 ISBN: 978-0-615-24926-1

Technical Information Handbook
Wire and Cable
Fifth Edition Copyright © 2013

Products. Technology. Services. Delivered Globally.

Trademarks and Reference Information

The following registered trademarks appear in this handbook:
Alumel® is a registered trademark of Concept Alloys, LLC Chromel® is a registered trademark of Concept Alloys, LLC Copperweld® is a registered trademark of Copperweld Steel Company CSA® is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards Association CCW® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation DataTwist® is a registered trademark of Belden Duofoil® is a registered trademark of Belden Flamarrest® is a registered trademark of Belden Halar® is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis Hypalon® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Hypot® is a registered trademark of Associated Research, Inc. IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation Kapton® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Kevlar® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company K FIBER® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema, Inc. Loc-Trac® is a registered trademark of Alpha Wire Megger® is a registered trademark of Megger Group Ltd. Mylar® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company NEC® is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association Nicrosil® is a registered trademark of Harrison Alloys, Inc. Nisil® is a registered trademark of Harrison Alloys, Inc. Nomex® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Polywater® is a registered trademark of American Polywater Corporation Scotch® is a registered trademark of 3M Scotchlok® is a registered trademark of 3M Solef® is a registered trademark of Solvay Solexis Teflon® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Tefzel® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Tyrin™ is a trademark of Dow Chemical Company UL® is a registered trademark of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. UniBlend® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation UniShield® is a registered trademark of General Cable Corporation UniStrand® is a registered trademark of Belden Inc. Valox® is a registered trademark of General Electric Company Z-Fold® is a registered trademark of Belden Zytel® is a registered trademark of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company

Information in this handbook has been drawn from many publications of the leading wire and cable companies in the industry and authoritative sources in their latest available editions. Some of these include: • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) • Canadian Standards Association (CSA) • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) • Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) • Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) • Underwriters Laboratories (UL). Note: National Electrical Code (NEC) is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. The term, National Electrical Code, as used herein, means the triennial publication constituting the National Electrical Code and is used with permission of the National Fire Protection Association.

II

Preface

The Anixter Wire and Cable Technical Handbook is an easily accessible collection of engineering and technical information about electrical and electronic cable and their related products. Primarily intended for individuals who design, specify or troubleshoot wire and cable systems, the Anixter Wire and Cable Technical Information Handbook contains information about topics such as: • Basic principles of electricity • Conductor, insulation and jacket materials along with their electrical and mechanical properties • Cable types, selection criteria and application guidelines for electrical and optical wire and cable • Installation and testing guidelines and recommendations • Application tips for cable accessories such as connectors, lugs and terminations • Packaging, handling and shipping guidelines • References to hundreds of key domestic and international wire and cable standards • Conversion tables (e.g., AWG to mm2) and basic engineering equations used in the industry The information contained in this handbook will assist engineers and individuals in designing and constructing safe, reliable, cost-effective and environmentally responsible electrical and communications networks. Anixter wishes to acknowledge the contributions of the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this edition of the handbook. Anixter especially wants to recognize the efforts of Deborah Altman, Dana Anderson, Harmony Merwitz, Eric Bulington, Mark Fordham, Jeff Gronemeyer, Andy Jimenez, Jason Kreke, Jonathan Meyer, Nader Moubed, Ania Ross, Eric Wall and Bill Wilkens. Anixter hopes it has succeeded in making this handbook the best in the industry and welcomes your comments and suggestions for improvements in future editions. If you are interested in downloading the PDF version of this book, please visit anixter.com.

About Anixter
Anixter is a leading global supplier of communications and security products, electrical and electronic wire and cable, fasteners and other small components. We help our customers specify solutions and make informed purchasing decisions around technology, applications and relevant standards. Throughout the world, we provide innovative supply chain management solutions to reduce our customers’ total cost of production and implementation.

III

IV

3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire 2. Conductors 2.6 Ampacity 1.7 Electrical Systems 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2.4 The Ohm 1.4 Copper Strand Properties 2.2 Types and Applications 3.3 The Ampere 1.6 Additional Conductor Properties 5 7 10 10 11 22 26 3.4 Properties 33 34 34 38 47 V .1 Electricity 1.2 The Volt 1.3 Color Coding 3.2 Coatings 2.5 Ohm’s Law 1.1 Strand Types 2. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2. Basic Principles of Electricity 1.Contents Contents Trademarks and Reference Information II Preface III About Anixter III 1.1 Purpose 3.

Contents

4. Shields
4.1 Power Cable 4.2 Electronic Cable

55
56 58

5. Armor
5.1 Interlocked Armor 5.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) 5.3 Basket-Weave 5.4 Lead Sheath 5.5 Wire Serve

61
62 62 63 63 63

6.

Cable Types and Selection Criteria
6.1 Portable Power and Control 6.2 Construction and Building Wire 6.3 Control, Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6.4 High Temperature 6.5 Power 6.6 Armored Power and Control 6.7 Electronic Cable 6.8 Telephone 6.9 Military 6.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643, MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915) 6.11 Optical Fiber Cables 6.12 Tray Cables

65
67 68 68 70 71 73 73 78 80 81 81 84

7. Electrical Characteristics
7.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors 7.2 DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors 7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors 7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz 7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz 7.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance 7.7 Voltage Drop 7.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current 7.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current 7.10 Resistance and Ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz 7.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables 7.12 Ampacity of Power Cables 7.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings

85
86 89 91 92 93 94 95 96 99 100 101 102 102

VI

Contents

8. Installation and Testing
8.1 Receiving, Handling and Storage 8.2 Conduit Fill 8.3 Pulling 8.4 Installation Methods 8.5 Overhead Messengers 8.6 Vertical Suspension 8.7 Hipot Testing 8.8 Fault Locating 8.9 Megger Testing 8.10 Moisture Removal 8.11 Fiber Optic Testing 8.12 LAN Cable Testing

103
105 106 111 116 119 121 122 124 125 126 127 127

9.

Cable Accessories
9.1 Coaxial Connectors 9.2 Data Connectors 9.3 Power Connectors 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors 9.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations

129
131 133 134 137 143 145

10.

Packaging of Wire and Cable
10.1 Reel Size 10.2 Reel Handling

149
150 157

11. Industry Standards
11.1 Industry Standards List 11.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies

159
161 176 182

VII

Contents

12.

Continental Europe
12.1 European Union (EU) Standards 12.2 Austrian Standards 12.3 Belgian Standards 12.4 Danish Standards 12.9 Dutch Standards 12.5 French Standards 12.6 German Standards 12.7 Irish Standards 12.8 Italian Standards 12.10 Norwegian Standards 12.11 Portuguese Standards 12.12 Spanish Standards 12.13 Swedish Standards 12.14 Swiss Standards

187
189 197 198 199 199 200 202 204 205 206 207 208 209 210

13. United Kingdom
13.1 Standards 13.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

213
214 219

14.

Latin and South America
14.1 Mexican Standards 14.2 Venezuelan Standards 14.3 Brazilian Standards 14.4 Colombian Standards 14.5 Argentine Standards

221
222 223 224 224 224

15. Canada
15.1 Standards 15.2 Cable Types 15.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 15.4 Fire Ratings 15.5 Single Conductor Teck 90 Terminations

225
226 228 231 232 233

VIII

Contents

16.

Asia Pacific
16.1 Australian Standards 16.2 Singapore Standards 16.3 Japanese Standards 16.4 Chinese Standards

235
236 238 239 240

17.

Conversion Tables
17.1 Metric to English Conductor Size 17.2 Circular Measurements – Diameter, Circumference and Area 17.3 Length, Weight, Area, Power and Energy 17.4 Temperature Conversion 17.5 kVA to Amperes 17.6 Horsepower to Amperes

241
242 244 246 248 249 250

18.

Formulas and Constants
18.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits 18.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors 18.3 Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits 18.4 Series and Parallel Connections 18.5 Engineering Notation 18.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables 18.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices 18.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter 18.9 Coaxial Capacitance 18.10 Inductive Reactance

251
252 252 253 253 254 255 255 256 256 257

Glossary Index

259 293

IX

X

1. Basic Principles of Electricity

1. basic principles of electricity
1.1 Electricity 1.2 The Volt 1.3 The Ampere 1.4 The Ohm 1.5 Ohm’s Law 1.6 Ampacity 1.7 Electrical Systems 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

1

voltage (V). It is important to know that many external factors affect the ampacity of an electrical conductor and these factors should be taken into consideration before selecting the conductor size. 1. Ohm’s Law can be expressed as: V=I× ­ R Where:  V = volts I = amps R = ohms 1. the more free electrons a material has. the Canadian Electrical Code and in other engineering documents such as those published by the Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA). The volt is the unit of pressure. Conversely.5 Ohm’s Law Ohm’s Law defines the correlation between electric current (I). copper or aluminum. A conductor’s resistance increases as its length increases or diameter decreases. the ampere and the ohm.1. Basic Principles of Electricity 1. 1. 2 .g. the volt is the amount of electromotive force required to push a current of one ampere through a conductor with a resistance of one ohm.1 Electricity Electricity.2 The Volt The pressure that is put on free electrons that causes them to flow is known as electromotive force (EMF).4 The Ohm The ohm is the unit of resistance in a conductor. For instance. is the flow of electric current along a conductor. Thus. and its temperature.. 1. and resistance (R) in a conductor. when one coulomb (or 6 x 1018 electrons) flows past a given point on a conductor in one second. the lower the conductor resistance becomes. There are three primary electrical parameters: the volt. This electric current takes the form of free electrons that transfer from one atom to the next. a rise in temperature will generally increase resistance in a conductor..3 The Ampere The ampere defines the flow rate of electric current. The more conductive the materials used. the better it conducts. These limits are given in the National Electrical Code (NEC). 1.6 Ampacity Ampacity is the amount of current a conductor can handle before its temperature exceeds accepted limits. it is defined as a current of one ampere.e. simply put. e. its material. Three things determine the amount of resistance in a conductor: its size. i.

(star).7. Basic Principles of Electricity 1.3 – Three phase star.4 – Three phase wye (star). three wire.000 V) are illustrated below: Typical low voltage systems (0-2. four wire.5 – Three phase delta. three wire Figure 1. three wire Figure 1.2 – Three phase delta.4 to 35 kV) alternating current (AC) electrical distribution systems in North America are illustrated below: Figure 1. grounded neutral 3 .1 – Three phase wye (star). four wire.000 V) are illustrated below: Figure 1.1 Medium Voltage The most widely used medium voltage (2.3 – Three phase star.systems three wire three wire 1.1 – Three phase wye Typical low voltage (0-2. grounded neutral Figure 1. grounded neutral Figure 1. grounded neutral Figure 1. three wire.4 – Three phase wye (star).2 Low Voltage Typical low-voltage systems (0 to 2. four wire.2 – Three phase delta.000 V) are illustrated below: Figure 1. four wire. grounded neutral Figure 1.7.7 Electrical Systems 1. grounded neutral Figure 1.5 – Three phase delta.1.

4 .

1.4.1.3 IEC Stranding 26 26 28 31 5 .7 Class M Copper 2.2 Class B Aluminum 2.2 Coatings 2.1.2 Bunch Strand 2.6 Additional Conductor Properties 2.2 Stranding.5.4 Sector Conductor 2.5.3 Rope Strand 2.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire 2.6. Conductors 2.6.5 Class I Copper 2.4 Class H Copper 2.1.2 Solid Copper 2.6 Annular Conductor 2.1 Strand Classes 2.6.4.1. Area and DC Resistance (32 through 4/0 AWG) 2.000 kcmil) 2.7 Compact Strand 2.1.4.5.4.1.8 Compressed Strand 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 2. Conductors 2.3 Class B.5 Segmental Conductor 2.4 10 10 11 11 12 14 17 19 20 21 Copper Strand Properties 2.1.1 Strand Types 2. C and D Copper Strand 2.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2.4.1 Concentric Strand 2.1 Solid Aluminum 2. Area.6 Class K Copper 2.3 ACSR 22 22 23 24 2. DC Resistance and Weight (20 AWG through 2.4. Diameter.1 Stranding.2. Diameter.4.

√ Millimeters Square 2 Metric sizes are given in terms of square millimeters (mm ). the intermediate sizes are found by geometric progression. It is p/4 (equal to 0. circular mil area or in square millimeters. That is.200 cmils).) is used almost exclusively in the USA for copper and aluminum wire.122932 0. Conductor size is usually specified by American Wire Gauge (AWG).1–Relative Electrical and Thermal Conductivities of Common Conductor Materials Metal Silver Copper (annealed) Copper (hard drawn) Gold Aluminum Magnesium Zinc Nickel Cadmium Cobalt Iron Platinum Tin Steel Lead Relative Electrical Conductivity at 20°C 106 100 97 72 62 39 29 25 23 18 17 16 15 12 8 Relative Thermal Conductivity at 20°C 108 100 – 76 56 41 29 15 24 17 17 18 17 13-17 9 Additional electrical properties can be found in Section 7 of this handbook. Conductor Characteristics Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common metal conductors are as follows: Table 2.2. and S. whereas one square inch equals 4/p x 1.0050 Circular Mil Sizes larger than 4/0 are specified in terms of the total area of a cross-section of the copper in circular mils (cmil).4600 inch and that of size #36 equals 0. A solid wire one inch in diameter has an area of 1.273. The diameters according to the AWG are defined as follows: The diameter of size 4/0 (sometimes written 0000) equals 0.000 cmils. the ratio of the diameter of one size to that of the next smaller size (larger gauge number) is: 39 0. The area of a circle in circular _ equal ␲ mils is therefore equal to the square of its diameter in mils. A circular mil is a unit of area 4 to the area of a circle one mil in diameter.001 inch).000.0050 inch.7854) of a square mil (one mil=0. The Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG) is used for steel armor wire. 6 .000 cmils (equal to 1. AWG The American Wire Gauge (sometimes called Brown and Sharpe or B.000. Conductors Conductors The conductor is the metallic component of cables through which electrical power or electrical signals are transmitted.4600 _____ = 1.

Figure 2.1. This construction has the advantage of lower AC resistance due to increased surface area and skin effect. Figure 2. the first layer will contain six wires. the third.2. A rope stranded conductor is described by giving the number of groups laid together to form the rope and the number of wires in each group. each layer is usually applied in a direction opposite to that of the layer under it. If the core is a single wire and if it and all of the outer strands have the same diameter.1. etc.4–Sector Conductor 2.1.4 Sector Conductor A sector conductor is a stranded conductor whose cross-section is approximately the shape of a sector of a circle.3–Rope Strand 2. Except in compact stranding.1 Strand Types 2.5 Segmental Conductor A segmental conductor is a round.2–Bunch Strand 2. Figure 2.1. the second. A multiple conductor insulated cable with sector conductors has a smaller diameter than the corresponding cable with round conductors.2 Bunch Strand The term bunch stranding is applied to a collection of strands twisted together in the same direction without regard to the geometric arrangement. Conductors 2.5–Segmental Conductor 7 . Figure 2.1 Concentric Strand A concentric stranded conductor consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. Figure 2. stranded conductor composed of three or four sectors slightly insulated from one another. eighteen.1.1–Concentric Strand 2. twelve.3 Rope Strand A rope stranded conductor is a concentric stranded conductor each of whose component strands is itself stranded. Each layer after the first has six more wires than the preceding layer.

the smallest in diameter (except for a solid conductor.7 Compact Strand A compact stranded conductor is a round or sector conductor having all layers stranded in the same direction and rolled to a predetermined ideal shape.1. This results in a smaller diameter. Conductors 2. stranded conductor whose strands are laid around a suitable core. the conductor has been put through a die that “squeezes out” some of the space between wires. Figure 2. therefore. In a compact conductor each wire is preformed into a trapezoidal shape before the wires are stranded together into a finished conductor.1. Figure 2.1. Diameters for common conductor sizes are given in Table 2.7–Compact Conductor 2.2.2. of course).6–Annular Conductor 2. The finished conductor is smooth on the surface and contains practically no interstices or air spaces.8–Comparative Sizes and Shapes of 1. This construction has the advantage of lower total AC resistance for a given cross-sectional area of conducting material due to the skin effect. each individual wire is round and considerable space exists between wires. A compact conductor is. 8 . A comparison is shown below: Solid Compact Compressed Concentric Figure 2. In a compressed conductor.000 kcmil Conductors In a concentric stranded conductor.6 Annular Conductor An annular conductor is a round. This results in even less space between wires. The core is usually made wholly or mostly of nonconducting material.8 Compressed Strand Compressed conductors are intermediate in size between standard concentric conductors and compact conductors.

2–Diameters for Copper and Aluminum Conductors Conductor Size (AWG) 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – (kcmil) 16.332 0.225 0.283 0.6 133.6 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.24 41.877 0.2043 0.5916 0.520 0.184 0.570 0.829 0.2893 0.772 0.7746 0.8062 0.252 0.998 1.1285 0.789 0.9487 1.2294 0.3249 0.8660 0.62 66.866 0.659 0.4096 0.141 0.3648 0.558 0.4600 0.528 0.0000 Nominal Diameters (in.8367 0.146 0.813 0.456 0.700 0.6708 0.152 Sources: A  STM B8 and B496 ICEA S-95-658 (NEMA WC-70) 9 .736 0.336 0.169 0.1620 0.419 0.000 1.260 0.268 0.611 0.299 0.968 1.845 0.470 0.661 0.7071 0.093 1.74 52.475 0.178 0.322 0.893 0.406 0.51 26.901 0.2.616 0.8944 0.373 0.060 Class B Compressed 0.) Class B Compact 0.2576 0.929 0.1 167.238 0.935 0.5477 0.575 0.681 0.8 211.813 0.728 0.964 0.938 0.031 1.855 0.7416 0.423 0. Conductors Table 2.061 1.69 105.134 0.999 1.6325 0.630 0.908 0.36 83.213 0.5000 0.232 0.361 0.775 0.512 0.117 Class B Concentric 0.706 0.292 0.000 Solid 0.749 0.376 0.

280 825 530 335 215 135 85.530 4. solderability and to reduce friction between strands in flexible cables.2. Tin is the most common and is used for improved corrosion resistance. At these high temperatures.7 13.010 645 410 262 167 106 67.94 4.6 43.40 10 .140 6.730 3.720 5.2 27.5 49.010 2. Breaking Load (lb.47 3.000 4.25 0.3–Tensile Strength of Copper Wire Size (AWG) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Soft or Annealed Max.01 1. copper oxidizes rapidly if not nickel plated.5 31.600 3. It is also used for high-frequency applications where silver’s high conductivity (better than copper) and the “skin effect” work together to reduce attenuation at high frequencies.48 2. silver and nickel.435 1.7 7.02 4.64 5.930 1.5 54.990 1.) 8.520 3.450 1.) 6.79 Medium Hard Drawn Min.1 7. Conductors 2.90 1.82 1.970 5.970 1.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire Table 2.14 2.20 1.020 2.690 3. Nickel coatings are used for conductors that operate between 200°C and 450°C. One drawback of nickel is its poor solderability and higher electrical resistance. Silver-plated conductors are used in high-temperature environments (150°C–200°C).4 12. Breaking Load (lb.1 21.7 8. 2.3 17.215 765 480 315 200 125 78.2 Coatings There are three materials commonly used for coating a copper conductor: tin.985 2.660 4.53 2.99 3.765 2.16 Hard Drawn Min.440 1.5 11.2 34.535 1. Breaking Load (lb.0 19.580 1.750 3.) 6.

etc.4–Strand Classes ASTM Standard B8 Construction Concentric lay Class AA A B C D B173 Rope lay with concentric stranded members G Application For bare conductors – usually used in overhead lines. 10 10. 20 16. 14. Heater cord with greater flexibility than Class M.000. flexible cord and portable cord. 14. PVC. Very good flexibility. 20 18. For conductors where greater flexibility is required than is provided by Class B.000 Up to 1. Application H ASTM Standard B172 Construction Class Conductor Size (kcmil/AWG) Rope lay with bunch stranded members I Up to 2. 12. 20 16. 20 10. 18.1 Strand Classes Table 2. Typical uses are for rubber-jacketed cords and conductors where flexibility is required. 12.0201 0. F This is the most common class. 9. 20 0. XLP.000. Conductors 2.000 circular mils and employing 91 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No. Oscillating fan cord. Typical uses are for portable (flexible) conductors and similar applications. 16. 14. 12.0063 0.000 K M B174 Bunch stranded I J K L M O P Q Up to 2.000 circular mils and employing 61 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No. over sheaves and apparatus conductors.0080 0.0100 0. More flexible conductors than provided in preceding classes.0050 0.0063 0. Fixture wire and portable cord with greater flexibility than Class K. Individual Wire Size Diameter (in. 16. 14 AWG containing seven stranded members stranded members of seven wires each. 20 14. 18. 16. Fixture wire. 18.0040 0.4 Copper Strand Properties 2.000 7. N/A Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5. Typical use is for welding cable. Source: Compiled from ASTM standards listed 11 . Fixture wire. For bare conductors where greater flexibility than is afforded by Class AA is required. such as for use on take-up reels.) 0.0126 0. 18. 16. 18.4. 8.  or conductors insulated with various materials such as EP. 20 10.0201 (AWG) 24 Typical use is for special apparatus cable. 18.2. 9 AWG containing 19 stranded members of seven wires each. Rubber-covered conductors. Heater cord and light portable cord.0100 0. Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5.0031 30 34 24 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Typical use is for portable cord.

82 6.090 10.690 66.260 2.4 15.253 0.5 78.580 2.9 49.240 20.945 1.3 Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) 211.3 40.0 409.230 6.68 12.404 0.0 249.5 114.9 24.5–Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of Solid Copper Wire Size (AWG) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Diameter (mils) 460.380 8.180 4.360 52.000 ft.98 Continued on next page>> 12 .33 5.740 33.128 Weight (lb.202 0.7 80.43 24.98 6.110 3.3 22.9 289.0 28.8 324.5 25.800 133.0 144.8 72.610 0.9 15.43 9.4 204. Conductors 2.3 35.6 11.0 64.4 101.86 7.542 1.484 0.770 0.2 39.1 7.0 197.) – – – – – – – – – – – – – 314.4.3 128./1.050 1.0 30.640 0.92 19.9 32.600 83.820 16.1 17.384 Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lb.6 142.5 19.9 90.3 257.600 167.511 0.320 0.1 61.6 364.8 45.5 156.290 1.159 0.1 57.92 3.2 Solid Copper Table 2.4 12.970 0.9 14.90 3.3 181.) – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31.02 3.020 0.812 0.223 0.620 41.100 105.090 26.620 1.2.20 4.09 2.510 13.7 10.2 12.6 229.530 5.9 162.77 15.452 1.2 98.6 20.1 50.

0 4.2 2.5 2.2.50 1.494 – – – – – – – – Source: ASTM B258.241 0.3 5.0 8.0 1.0792 0.00961 0.6 5.00310 0.0202 0.0504 0.095 0. Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors 13 .0314 0.8 2.76 1.120 0.1 2.076 0.00484 0.1 6.00246 Weight (lb.0397 0.0160 0.58 1.990 0.060 0.25 0.16 2.0122 0.5 3.00784 0.) 0.0250 0.) 3.785 0./1.5–Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of Solid Copper Wire (Continued) Size (AWG) 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Diameter (mils) 10.57 Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) 0.0 7.0 3.100 0.623 0. Conductors Table 2.000 ft.152 0.0640 0.9 8.00400 0.048 – – – – – – – – Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lb.99 1.303 0.191 0.00625 0.5 4.

500 2.2.36 1.081 926.45 2.2 110.500 3.16 2.853 1.681 0.58 2.00 1.859 3.544 1.0 121.400 1.249 4.964 0.4 115.03 1. C and D Copper Strand Table 2.32 1.53 1.575 0.813 0.630 0.890 14.2 140.402 5.9 107.30 1.3 Class B.235 1.0 97.698 1.4./1.000 1.900 1.200 1.46 1.316 2.55 1.558 5.2 114.5 117.800 1.2 95.631 4.3 119.1 117.396 3.590 11.000 3.250 1.8 109.700 1.500 1.2 99.300 12.528 Continued >> 14 .000 2.893 0.772 0.600 1.000 4.9 653.866 5.8 143.855 0.470 2.794 6.728 0.3 90.50 1.0 116.3 125.21 1.3 711.750 1.929 0.59 1.705 3.0 82.500 4.5 Weight (lb.3 104.5 110.175 5.) 15.323 4.7 112.9 128.014 3.000 ft.09 1.389 1.940 4. Conductors 2.2 128.4 124.2 105.353 7.5 114.779 2.007 1.00 0.82 1.8 144 135.9 133.300 1.63 1.3 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.6–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmi) 5.100 1.15 1.5 122.0 119.26 1.020 9.31 2.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 217 217 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 Number of Wires Diameter of Each Strand (mils) 151.) 2.088 2.1 103.161 2.41 1.

0 83.2 15.0456 0.2 38.419 0.9 325.2.28 50.4 97.5 66. or Soft 15 .184 0.260 0.06 20.4 204. Conductors Table 2.0915 0.1 Weight (lb./1.8 258.164 0.9 162.154 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.373 0.8 61.5 24.) 518.2 19.5 48.232 0.05 64.2 68. Hard.470 0.2 12.5 30.974 5.332 0.2 54.0726 0.) 0.292 0.130 0.116 0.015 3.16 12. Medium-Hard.4 86.2 81.97 40.0363 Source: ASTM B8 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors.206 0.6–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmi) 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Number of Wires Diameter of Each Strand (mils) 94.42 32.7 77.146 0.68 7.000 ft.5 128.0576 0.9 102.7 74.1 410.6 43.

095 1.681 0.965 0.576 0.813 0.210 Class D Concentric (in.69 105.116 0.113 0.148 0.153 1.) 0.252 0.456 0.7–Copper Strand Diameters Conductor Size (AWG) 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – (kcmil) 4.) 0.164 0.999 1.146 0.130 0.893 0.263 0.406 0.74 52.11 5.0704 0.032 1.616 0.208 0.060 – Class B Compressed (in.000 1.576 0.520 0.682 0.938 0.729 0.908 0.23 10.418 0.631 0.132 0.09 16.855 0.336 0.209 0.706 0.528 0.472 0.292 0.423 0.153 1.333 0.681 0.126 0.260 0.700 0.611 0.845 0.117 0.0826 0.206 0.200 0.0792 0.24 33.82 26.736 0.630 0.0888 0.749 0.166 0.935 0.332 0.134 – 0.728 0.51 20.18 6.420 0.104 0.211 Continued >> 16 . Conductors Table 2.929 0.152 1.297 0.659 0.968 1.100 Class B Compact (in.093 1.186 0.235 0.570 0.0825 0.117 1.322 0.729 0.178 0.213 0.893 0.032 1.104 0.376 0.998 1.999 1.631 0.0727 0.) – – – – – – 0.53 8.) 0.789 0.117 0.173 Stranding Class B Concentric (in.0915 0.232 0.420 0.512 0.0735 0.773 0.855 0.061 1.661 0.225 0.829 0.999 1.36 83.62 66.1 167.930 0.0816 0.131 0.158 0.103 0.148 0.030 1.234 0.299 0.374 0.374 0.166 0.094 1.2.930 0.964 0.333 0.09 41.530 0.813 0.264 0.268 0.6 133.773 0.39 13.470 0.184 0.000 1.471 0.0931 0.362 0.965 0.283 0.877 0.529 0.0925 0.866 0.0998 0.775 0.814 0.) 0.901 0.0735 0.575 0.169 – 0.475 0.815 0.772 0.186 0.372 0.296 0.855 0.558 0.893 0.6 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.209 Class C Concentric (in.238 0.141 0.8 211.

600 1.526 1.) 1.590 1. (in.2.300 1.323 1.535 0.0223 Nominal O.000 ft.335 0.998 2.459 1.413 1.632 1. Conductors Table 2.251 1.314 1.237 0.) 1.424 0.460 1.316 1.200 1.378 0.0177 0.365 1.548 1.998 Class D Concentric (in.263 1.289 1.415 1.0158 0.188 0.591 1.) 1.0199 0.0255 0.0125 0.) 0./1.583 1.7–Copper Strand Diameters (Continued) Conductor Size (AWG) – – – – – – – – – – – – – (kcmil) 1.) 52 65 82 105 132 167 208 210 266 334 422 533 532 670 675 Continued >> 17 .527 1.400 1.0223 0.900 2.938 Stranding Class B Concentric (in.824 1.210 0.590 1.542 1.504 1.500 1.D.548 1.0198 0.290 1.) 0.632 1.601 0.370 1.800 1.998 Class C Concentric (in.0160 0.0286 0.824 1.0202 0.250 1.290 1.527 1.504 1.266 0.536 0.000 2.4.0180 0.275 1.549 1.700 1.4 Class H Copper Table 2.225 1.365 1.824 1.316 1.000 Class B Compact (in.602 Nominal Weight (lb.0111 0.412 1.336 0.0140 0.365 1.) 1.8–Class H Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 Number of Strands 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 259 259 259 259 259 427 259 427 Construction 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 19x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 37x7 61x7 37x7 61x7 Nominal Diameter of Each Strand (in.299 0.502 1.167 0.504 1.264 1.459 1.0227 0.413 1.477 0.480 1.460 1.) – – – – – – – – – – – – – Class B Compressed (in.750 1.769 1.632 1.264 1.500 3.

320 1.159 1.022 1. (in.0280 0.716 0.159 1.653 0.770 1.410 2.0430 0.159 1.085 2.0242 0.2.255 2.205 3.674 1.590 1.0383 0.110 1.500 1.625 5.) 0.000 Number of Strands 427 427 427 427 427 427 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 1.826 0.823 1.560 2.878 0.724 1.617 1.400 1.0337 0.0396 0.180 1.455 5.600 1.000 1.700 1.770 6.920 2.900 2.0327 0.980 1.505 1.0342 0.0292 0.064 1./1.0415 Nominal O.145 1.477 1.446 1.250 1.815 5.270 1.0462 0. Conductors Table 2.0286 0.895 3.159 1.435 1.8–Class H Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.) 795 953 1.100 6.845 4.0306 0.) 0.0389 0.400 Source: ICEA S-95-658 (NEMA 70) Appendix K 18 .0446 0.0413 0.200 1.0325 0.485 4.535 3.106 1.170 4.800 1.253 1.0422 0.772 0.750 1.159 Construction 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 61x7 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 37x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 61x19 Nominal Diameter of Each Strand (in.0405 0.773 1.100 1.868 Nominal Weight (lb.300 1.751 1.000 ft.D.015 4.0372 0.386 1.0358 0.0394 0.159 1.923 0.0304 0.0265 0.0316 0.561 1.145 5.0377 0.

800 1.225 1.138 0.600 1.152 1.894 0.522 4.921 1.000 Construction 1x26 1x33 1x41 1x52 7x9 7x12 7x15 7x19 7x23 7x30 19x14 19x18 19x22 19x28 7x7x13 7x7x15 7x7x18 7x7x20 7x7x23 7x7x25 7x7x28 7x7x30 19x7x12 19x7x13 19x7x14 19x7x15 19x7x17 19x7x19 19x7x21 19x7x22 19x7x23 19x7x24 19x7x26 19x7x28 19x7x30 19x7x32 19x7x33 19x7x34 19x7x36 19x7x37 Nominal Number of Strands 26 33 41 52 63 84 105 133 161 210 266 342 418 532 637 735 882 980 1.D.537 1.500 0.780 1.235 0.194 1.745 5.655 3.788 4.750 1.830 4.263 0.995 2.291 0.460 1.389 4.250 1.570 5.235 1.500 1.027 1.200 1.427 1.207 0.560 4.458 3.613 0.495 1.2.090 2.926 3.440 Source: ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC 58) Appendix K 19 .549 0.900 2.145 1.990 4.372 1.920 6.256 4.980 1.175 4.800 0.400 1.797 1.220 5.9–Class I (24 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1.852 1.367 0.715 1.976 2.831 0.941 0. Conductors 2.905 2.300 1.000 ft./1.372 1.590 1.260 2.270 1.290 1. (in.000 1.125 0.527 2.596 1.5 41 51 65 80 105 134 169 205 267 342 439 537 683 825 955 1.100 1.319 0.156 0.435 2.724 3.4.965 3.700 1.003 Nominal Weight (lb.674 1.564 1.305 3.185 0.610 2.441 0.470 1.192 3.059 3.000 4.5 Class I Copper Table 2.793 2.737 0.261 2.875 5.) 0.921 Nominal 0.) 32.127 1.265 6.862 1.880 1.682 0.729 1.605 1.

) 1.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 10.110 1.10–Class K (30 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 1.465 1.5 20.2.627 0.101 9.048 0.235 0.397 0.065 7.305 1.533 0.290 1.056 0.990 3.078 0.990 3.0 5.935 2.940 1.120 960 802 676 535 425 338 266 211 169 132 106 84 66 53 42 32.768 0.980 7.276 1.499 2.000 ft.878 0.453 5.522 3.6 Class K Copper Table 2.2 Sources: A  STM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC58) Appendix K 20 .933 0.581 6.985 5.D.809 0.107 1.451 0.916 6.765 1.146 0.453 5.470 0.125 1.458 2. Conductors 2.304 0.101 0.458 2.270 2.323 1.064 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 – – – – – – Strand Construction 37x7x39 37x7x35 19x7x60 19x7x57 19x7x52 19x7x49 19x7x45 19x7x41 19x7x38 19x7x34 1x7x30 19x7x26 7x7x61 7x7x51 7x7x43 7x7x34 7x7x27 19x56 19x44 19x35 19x28 7x60 7x48 7x38 7x30 7x24 7x19 – – – – – – Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 10.065 7.455 2.522 3.202 0.517 5.419 1.0 3.038 Weight (lb.989 2.323 1.166 1.635 1.) 3.499 2.338 0.581 6.054 4.916 6.179 0.989 2.3 12.985 5.126 0.980 7.666 1.8 8.060 0.323 1.207 1. O.240 2.064 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 104 65 41 26 16 10 Approx.517 5.054 4.101 9.585 2.988 0.272 0. (in.157 0.4./1.682 0.666 1.107 1.

664 12.085 1.130 975 821 684 547 427 337 268 212 169 134 105 84 67 53 42 32.404 1.064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 – – – – Strand Construction 61x7x59 61x7x53 61x7x47 61x7x44 61x7x41 61x7x38 61x7x35 61x7x32 37x7x49 37x7x44 37x7x39 37x7x34 19x7x57 19x7x48 19x7x40 19x7x32 19x7x25 7x7x54 7x7x43 7x7x34 7x7x27 19x56 19x44 19x35 19x28 7x60 7x48 7x37 7x24 – – – – Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 25.901 0.508 0.060 0.755 1.940 0.646 2.2.396 10.084 1.331 1.193 22.325 2.256 3.215 0.162 0. (in.920 1.126 0.4.825 0.0 3.000 ft.101 8.196 0.664 12.320 4.048 0.691 11.581 6.997 0.415 2.) 1.507 16.323 1.8 8.576 0.325 2.193 22./1.806 7.035 0.226 14.064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 104 65 41 26 Approx.107 1.300 1.256 3.581 6.910 2.645 0.631 20.507 16.396 10.2 Sources: A  STM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-75-381 (NEMA WC58) 21 .806 7.320 4.256 1.11–Class M (34 AWG Strands) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 1.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of Strands 25.666 1.) 3.423 0.146 0.945 13.666 1.101 8.107 1. O.069 18.337 0.323 1.646 2.133 1.630 1.0 5.0 12.788 17.5 21.580 2.713 0.240 2.226 14.768 0.376 0.384 5.038 Weight (lb.183 1.305 0.069 18.269 0.631 20.945 13.240 0.465 1.101 0.250 2.078 0.788 17.D. Conductors 2.7 Class M Copper Table 2.384 5.207 1.691 11.

13 15.0 64.5.3 257.35 30.7 80.090 10.020 0.1 57.0 28.740 33.100 Weight (lb.800 133.03 9.530 5.6 364.2944 0.91 60.620 41.3 128.159 0.36 38.542 7.) 194.9 289.511 0.6 20.3 40.8 45.9 90.000 ft.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2.640 0.2 12.6 229.380 8.5882 0.180 4.371 1.0 144.3 10.776 2.050 1.580 2.0 409.202 0.3713 0.2.4 204.9 15.260 2.30 97.559 5.40 24.4693 0.1173 0.999 4.8 324. Annealed and Intermediate Tempers 22 .1 17.290 1.40 154.230 6.360 52.492 1. Conductors 2.886 1.1459 0.98 48.600 83.812 0.600 167.8 72.12 19.320 0.12–Aluminum 1350 Solid Round Wire Size (AWG or kcmil) 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Diameter (mils) 460.128 0.240 20.7464 0.3 181.5 114.09189 Source: ASTM B609 Specification for Aluminum 1350 Round Wire.404 0.184 0./1.9 32.110 3.3 22.3 35.1 Solid Aluminum Table 2.820 16.1 50.090 26.2323 0.00 76.9410 0.1853 0.690 66.510 13.996 2.9 14.100 105.4 101.20 122.620 1.9 162.0 Cross-Sectional Area (kcmils) 211.764 3.6 11.5 25.253 0.17 12.

000 1.2 110.0 121.7 112.3 119.542 1.13–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Compressed. Conductors 2.500 3.512 0.9 128.415 1.0 119.968 0.4 115.2 105.502 1.250 1.600 1.3 125.370 1.8 143.060 1.829 0.117 1.275 1.866 0.000 0.1 103.250 1.2 95.611 0.9 107.2 140.583 1.789 0.2 128.480 1.5 94.2.706 0.900 1.000 3.225 1.935 0.750 1.7 Nominal Overall Diameter (in.558 0.405 Continued >> 23 .0 97.800 1.0 82.200 1.3 90.400 1.2 Class B Aluminum Table 2.749 0.323 1.173 1.1 117.901 0.2 99.9 133.3 104.4 124.0 83.100 1.5 122.5 114.0 116.5.5 117. Reverse-Lay Aluminum 1350 Conductors Size (AWG or kcmil) 4.5 110.8 109.661 0.000 2.459 1.2 114.700 1.500 2.300 1.500 1.456 0.) – – – – 1.000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 Number of Wires 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 19 19 Diameter of Each Wire (mils) 135.

4 86.255 1.1628 45/0.000 ft.225 0.1535 45/0.322 0.2 38.14–Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.5 24.3 ACSR Table 2.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.1329 7/0.089 0.1121 19/0.0 954.) 0.2 12.1716 45/0.434 1.0862 7/0.1456 Stranding Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.229 1.1783 54/0. Reverse-Lay Aluminum 1350 Conductors (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Number of Wires 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Diameter of Each Wire (mils) 74.2.) 19/0.1602 84/0.4 97.6 43.1189 19/0.5 48.2 19.2 15.1681 54/0.0921 7/0.0977 7/0.156 1.113 0.431 1.613 1.13–Class B Concentric-Lay-Stranded Compressed.0961 19/0.1030 7/0.0971 Weight (lb.113 1.590 1.044 1.0 84/0.0874 19/0.431 1.126 0.272 1.5 66.071 – – – Source: ASTM B231 Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors 2.431 1.283 0.1573 54/0.7 77.200 0.2 68. Conductors Table 2.5 30.252 0.1253 19/0.272 1.1 Nominal Overall Diameter (in./1.113 954.1329 45/0.2 54.840 1.142 0.511 2.1049 7/0.075 Continued >> 24 .635 1.178 0.590 1.5.8 61. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Size (AWG or kcmil) 2.159 0.) 2.362 0.074 2.1880 54/0.1436 45/0.780 1.792 1.1456 54/0.

1214 1/0.8 336.) 7/0.1059 26/0.0 134.1327 16/0.5 397.3 203.0940 1/0.8 476.6 2/0 110.1299 1/0.1137 18/0.0884 1/0.0886 7/0.6 145.0977 7/0.1523 18/0.1053 7/0. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) (Continued) Size (AWG or kcmil) 795.1287 18/0.1059 1/0.4 266.1261 26/0.0 556.4 336.1236 24/0.1354 24/0.1 527.1878 12/0.0834 1/0.1213 7/0.1758 7/0. Conductors Table 2.) 896 1.0 477.0788 1/0.1463 24/0.7 91.094 1.1059 7/0.1261 12/0.0 636.1151 12/0.1672 7/0.1216 7/0.1327 19/0.1059 6/0.2 254.8 266. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR) 25 .000 ft.1151 7/0.0961 1/0.1 276.1628 26/0.0661 Weight (lb.1029 1/0.0921 1/0.1749 24/0.1564 24/0.14–Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.023 875 819 690 766 717 604 747 657 615 518 547 512 432 527 463 365 367 290 291.1214 6/0.8 1/0 101.0 477.3 441.1489 12/0.0 183.9 3/0 159.0 636.0 57.4 336.1820 26/0.0 2 2 4 4 6 45/0./1.0 397.0921 8/0.1261 7/0.2.1261 7/0.5 336.1327 12/0.8 176.1138 7/0.5 477.5 397.5 676.1217 6/0.0 795.1489 7/0.1360 7/0.1329 26/0.1127 12/0.1015 1/0.1672 12/0.4 230.1 Source: ASTM B232 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.1013 18/0.1 149.4 36.1670 1/0.0961 6/0.2 190.1628 7/0.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.1000 7/0.5 556.1486 30/0.1217 1/0.1327 7/0.1878 7/0.1052 1/0.1628 18/0.0 795.0772 6/0.8 396.1085 1/0.0 106.0834 6/0.1486 7/0.1880 7/0.1367 7/0.0 477.0 636.1758 30/0.1880 26/0.1367 26/0.1052 7/0.0961 7/0.8 4/0 211.5 556.0974 6/0.8 80.3 67.1410 18/0.0858 1/0.0661 Stranding Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.

6 89.012 0.600 1. Diameter.7 28.3 15.024 0.019 0.32 1.5 81.2 25.7 54.015 0.426 2.023 0.093 0.914 1.27 1.322 0.081 0.8 37.355 0.0 448.1 Stranding.6 18.787 0.10 7.4 9.6.0 278.4 31.037 0.5 33.020 0.08 4.1 50.) 0.030 0.020 1.058 0.241 0.9 16.406 0.025 0.5 38.0 139.0 15.320 0.5 10.4 127.031 0.04 4.4 14.19 1.197 1.406 0./AWG) Solid 7/38 Solid 7/36 19/40 26 Solid 7/34 19/38 24 Solid 7/32 10/34 19/36 22 Solid 7/30 16/34 19/34 20 Solid 7/28 10/30 19/32 26/34 18 Solid 7/26 16/30 19/30 41/34 16 Solid 7/24 19/29 26/30 65/34 Conductor Diameter (in.47 1.050 0.940 1.828 2.580 2.032 0.046 0.900 1.038 0.6 Additional Conductor Properties 2.000 ft.32 Copper DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/1.326 0.965 0.0 182. Area and DC Resistance Size (AWG) 30 28 Stranding (No.6 253.128 0.533 0.8 24.77 6.5 58.43 1.381 0.089 0.227 0.635 0.0 159.813 0.9 27.821 0.824 1.8 14.060 (mm) 0.17 1.1 22.5 42.013 0.154 0.0 23.7 Continued >> 26 .8 67.1 37.607 0.0 700.0 475.032 0. Area and DC Resistance (32 Through 4/0 AWG) Table 2.29 1.057 0.254 0.523 0.02 1.52 1.051 0.517 0.0 397.762 0.6 232.016 0.3 6.7 16.2 21.627 2.0 112.2 23.2 14.9 44.580 (mm2) 0.3 146.5 10.15 6.8 54.9 34.113 1.48 11.82 4.5 193.040 0.201 0.205 0.7 13.963 0.3 94.021 0.8 315.23 1.048 0.5 59.057 0.584 0.050 0.2 84.0 754.040 0.305 0.) 106.0 304.3 221.15–Stranding.000 1.2 70. Conductors 2.0 1.051 0.45 6.5 20.811 0.771 1.141 0.02 0.016 0.600 2.010 0.39 4.0 475.22 1.6 96.036 0.507 0.483 0.31 1.620 1.45 1.3 11.025 0.047 0.0 635.0 175.813 0.897 0.2.635 0.47 4.610 0. Diameter.47 (ohms/km) 349.0 404.52 Conductor Area (cmils) 100.564 0.511 0.382 0.032 1.

05 2.690 81.100 211.090 0.700 105.5 53.068 0.410 0.7 42.7 15.08 3.53 6.459 0.4 41.59 2.0 84.4 9.289 0. Conductors Table 2.18 5.174 0.4 67.32 8.82 1.197 27 .120 0.080 6.142 0.055 0.96 2./AWG) Solid 19/27 41/30 12 Solid 19/25 65/30 10 Solid 37/36 105/30 8 Solid 133/29 168/30 6 Solid 133/27 266/30 4 Solid 133/25 420/30 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 Solid 665/30 Solid 817/30 Solid 1.081 0.05 2.951 0.3 13.360 66.33 8.380 9.6 10.18 6.290 0.180 0.38 1.08 3.0 67.838 4.275 0.258 0.27 12.210 0.36 8.15–Stranding.325 0.63 1.338 0.41 1.204 0.41 6.700 0.22 5.328 0.591 0.230 0.44 0.466 0.071 0.42 4.088 0.530 6.4 Conductor Area (cmils) 4.4 53.500 133.68 3.34 8.204 0.2 107 107 Copper DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/1.53 6.87 1.2.460 0.600 210.14 5.600 41.800 26.8 11.26 4.100 133.5 21.36 2.000 167.104/30 Conductor Diameter (in.289 0.280 0.80 1.79 10.31 2.) 0.902 0.000 ft.064 0.430 0.500 10.866 26.63 8.) 2.65 1.919 0.12 5.440 0.464 0.59 7.257 0. Diameter.394 0.33 2.564 0.162 0.54 8.440 0.1 21. Area and DC Resistance (Continued) Size (AWG) 14 Stranding (No.740 42.100 6.29 2.81 1.661/30 Solid 2.325 0.0 9.84 3.140 0.718 0.070 0.500 83.30 3.4 11.045/30 Solid 1.94 2.172 0.000 66.74 5.6 13.28 4.11 1.024 16.10 0.129 0.111 0.26 10.091 0.53 3.077 0.180 0.31 3.330/30 Solid 1.4 85.060 (ohms/km) 8.6 21.110 3.500 17.97 3.30 1.257 0.08 1.400 (mm2) 2.6 33.500 16.361 10.64 4.51 13.099 0.33 5.496 0.600 104.102 0.22 4.240 26.364 0.608 (mm) 1.365 0.3 33.410 0.560 42.29 5.710 0.223 0.44 1.130 0.800 166.112 0.61 2.166 0.

064 0.63 11.77 22.045 0.52 56.810 7.093 1.055 7/0.063 0.63 1.80 2.620 1.41 11.0242 1/0.75 89.021 1/0.067 1.80 95.32 2.0305 1/0.851 7.480 1.5167 0.0385 1/0.5217 0.05 23.488 1/1.573 2.755 1/2.034 1/0.000 kcmil) Table 2.970 1.109 0.90 60.2.97 38.061 2.978 1/2. DC Resistance and Weight (20 AWG Through 2.036 0.76 20.071 0.092 0.14 7/0.387 6.613 7/0.77 7/0.1285 7/0.71 19.06 2.800 13.122 9.5 2.43 31.061 0.102 0.695 1. Area.59 7/0.087 3.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.315 4.17 62.036 1/0.21 8.432 1/1.98 24.530 6.02 7/0.91 3.000 ft.917 4.51 18.277 3.864 2.403 7/0.603 4.1443 7/0.2 Stranding. Conductors 2.40 16.00 39.0508 7/0.59 2.803 2.91 0.510 16.55 58.820 6.99 1. Diameter.045 7/0.613 4.0192 1/0.417 2.130 6.130 0.000 ft.23 50.83 63.60 40.157 4.26 7/0.100 3.700 20.615 1/1.146 0.281 8.533 1/1.54 53.) 10.380 10.26 3.600 2.128 0.1019 7/0.80 17.77 47. Area.) 1/0.93 2.296 4.864 1/2.03 64.5 1.335 2.090 16.620 1.162 0.304 0.) 3.86 74.032 0.1144 0.0 – – 1.0121 1/0.430 3.5 – – 2.116 0.84 35. Diameter.10 1/3.41 29.890 10.999 1.77 3.16 1.081 0.277 3.711 1.67 4.309 1.91 31.44 12.60 1.980 6.58 4.59 2.33 33./ 1.81 0.126 0.84 1.14 18.820 Size (AWG) – 20 – 18 18 – – 16 16 – – 14 14 – – 12 12 – – 10 10 – – 9 9 8 8 – – 7 7 Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.027 1/0.22 6.040 0.700 19.0545 (mm) 1/0.039 0.5073 (ohms/km) 32.107 7/2.14 1.63 7/0.5 – – 4 4 – – 6 6 – – – – 10 10 – – (cmils) 987 1.91 7/1.68 37.11 13.523 5.386 1/1.6147 0.02 1.102 0.042 1/0.30 1.50 – 0.94 35.8543 0.70 3.00 (kg/km) 4.589 1.930 4.316 7.78 22.750 6.266 11.6380 0.800 11.524 2.29 7/0.110 4.144 0.649 2.8730 0.991 1/1.8073 0. Weight and DC Resistance Nominal Area (mm2) 0.58 7/1.29 1.127 5.073 0.13 10.75 – – 1.580 2.80 7/0.05 2.19 13.089 7/0.017 0.510 19.40 7/0.63 14.634 1.293 7.71 23.164 (mm) 0.93 59.032 7/0.0486 1/0.37 1/3.21 2.442 6.055 0.30 3.17 50.40 1.020 4.960 2.62 15.837 12.23 1/3.110 4.4980 0.057 2.51 93.12 3.1144 7/0.0152 1/0.580 2.05 7/0.25 11.058 0.054 1/0.6.38 Overall Diameter (in.890 7.141 7/0.15 Nominal Weight (lb.26 15.071 7/0.380 11.212 5.) 0.157 8.641 7/0.7923 0.046 0.090 13.307 1/0.782 5.820 20.54 93.960 4.26 2.26 7/1.098 6.0808 7/0.38 29.686 1/2.970 2.930 6.664 Continued >> 28 .213 4.530 7.67 7/1.82 13.020 1.0432 1/0.410 9.089 0.017 1/0.620 1.141 0.37 20.0 1.95 21.877 9.36 75.081 0.24 DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/ 1.08 46.051 0.46 1.109 7/0.

300 52.06310 0.54 19/1. Conductors Table 2.081 1.470 0.02857 0.1 148.3 17.1429 0.000 750.549 1.528 0.094 37/0.000 474.96 7/2.06943 0.681 0.18 5.39 37/1.1789 0.620 69.1 258.3288 0.95 61/2.365 0.300 0.801 0.09 37/2.6 10.4 970.2605 0.893 0.43 80.204 0.114 61/0.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.000 365.10020 0.000 700.000 Size (AWG) 6 6 – 6 4 – 3 – – 1 – 1/0 2/0 – 3/0 3/0 – 4/0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.73 7/1.06668 0.27 9.04230 0.964 0.75 8.06293 0./ 1.086 19/0.2 120.54 37/2.2528 0. Diameter.63 19/1.66 5.3 410.3 20.72 61/2.044 0.02117 0.100 138.000 211.419 0.11 4.0811 37/0.0745 19/0.85 19/1.3259 0.5 384.2065 0.000 400.4909 0.608 1.0772 7/0.9 12.446 DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/ 1.061 19/0.5 20.0 770.88 6.03018 0.998 (mm) 4.1639 0.9 11.04625 Continued >> 29 .) 1/0.090 37/0.51 61/2.7 324.1 645.3183 0.740 49.07940 0.373 0.6843 0.2467 0.24 5.6 16.728 0.069 1.000 300.0992 61/0.73 99.160 2.746 2.400 133.01511 0.142 1.491 1.13 19/2.814 0.0 12.000 500.0905 61/0.06 37/2.1044 0.7 241.20 7/2.089 37/0.567 0.1 611.02199 0.16 7/2.4139 0.000 ft.609 1.148 1.8 13.7 517.3 924.505 0.48 6.1157 0.853 2.700 0.1071 61/0.07214 0.6577 0.320 1.0 771.295 2.7 433.02102 0.02116 0.0 17.4 769.55 19/1.03527 0.89 19/2.1055 37/0.065 7/0.0867 7/0.162 0.4 155.842 1.000 592.67 102.8295 0.04959 0.68 37/2.0822 37/0.101 19/0.4 Nominal Weight (lb.0 215.06944 0.838 2.0612 7/0.57 19/2.3 325.05803 0.7 162.71 19/2.30 61/2.484 1.206 0.90 61/2.800 187.4 14.100 69.7 20.798 0.01410 (ohms/km) 1.) 0.1261 0.073 19/0.43 9.100 19/0.206 2.100 83.8 191.000 474.099 61/0.1507 0.09903 0.240 26.294 2.000 500.0688 7/0.0664 19/0.1 231.000 167.4023 0.04357 0.64 37/2.162 7/0.5 218.3 151. Area.04997 0.800 167.757 3.1495 0.219 2.260 0.0673 19/0.090 41.000 ft.3 20.0973 37/0.7 22.305 0.47 37/2.05453 0.2.235 1.02642 0.4 312. Weight and DC Resistance (Continued) Nominal Area (mm2) – – 16 – – 25 – 35 35 – 50 – – 70 – – 95 – 120 – 150 – 185 – 240 240 – – 300 – – – (cmils) 26.214 3.104 37/0.0 128.332 0.115 1.3 517.184 0.26 37/2.813 0.6 22.600 237.07181 0.100 37/0.1162 61/0.75 7/1.2176 0.55 7/1.000 600.1109 (mm) 1/4.52 61/2.1 320.2070 0.8 1.07520 0.8 484.18 19/2.7 1.600 33.61 7.232 0.82 Overall Diameter (in.700 105.630 0.46 10.) 0.4944 0.5 464.4 889.02189 0.699 1.376 1.3 749.01762 0.5 25.000 250.240 31.430 0.255 0.7 24.05780 0.) 79.2005 0.296 1.000 350.7 652.8 18.4 14.0837 19/0.316 (kg/km) 118.62 7.068 7/0.471 0.0 597.09375 0.690 98.891 0.575 0.11 7/1.29 37/2.3950 0.1388 0.3424 0.

) 91/0.000 2.3 32.008463 0.90 61/2.000 789.9 41.000.000 1.617 1.04338 0.289 1.3 29.008460 0.9 35.31 61/2.290 1.000 ft.19 169/2.91 91/2.4 26.02312 0. Diameter.678 4.38 61/3.98 127/2.007183 0.97 91/2.1088 (mm) 91/2.452 1.16–Copper Conductor Stranding.5 Nominal Weight (lb.000 1.132 91/0.5 41.26 127/2.005287 (ohms/km) 0.999 1.000 1.845 3.000 1.66 91/2.) 2.631 4.000 – – (cmils) 750.005380 0.2.153 1.007050 0.7 32./ 1.189 9.01765 0.000 800.590 4.005287 0.032 1.580.033 9. Area.117 91/0.73 127/3.632 1.147 127/0.1172 127/0.722 5.000.234.02313 0.02777 0.76 Overall Diameter (in.04625 0.00849 0.000 Size (AWG) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Number/Diameter of Individual Wires (in.412 1.152 1.000 1.01058 0.026 1.000 1.468 2.02188 0.447 3.01410 0.741 6.0992 91/0.413 1. Weight and DC Resistance (Continued) Nominal Area (mm2) – 400 – – 500 – 625 – – – – 800 1.25 91/2.8 35.01321 0.01735 0.175 6.085 3.1284 127/0.0938 61/0.02786 0.01735 Based on British (BSA).114 61/0.000 2.287 1.591 5.) 0.000.176 (kg/km) 3.858 4.1 41.673 3. Conductors Table 2.471 3.006670 0.7 32. Canadian (CSA).1048 91/0.000 1.01334 0.970.070 6.191 DC Resistance at 20°C (68°F) (ohms/ 1.01322 0.284 9.250.632 (mm) 25.000 ft.76 91/3.04377 0.892 6.316 2.500.1 26.0908 61/0.742 6.1255 169/0.02776 0.894 7.2 29.000 800.1280 91/0.031 1.1087 91/0.52 91/3.250.000 1.447 2.000 1.01058 0. American (ASTM and ICEA) and German (VDE) Standards 30 .) 0.894 6.000.9 36.085 3.500.03472 0.642 3.1145 91/0.35 91/3.858 3.632 4.2 26.03472 0.04334 0.

38 0.27 7/0. (mm) – – – – 7/0.05 256/0.1 64/0.41 2.70 7/2.43 7/0.51 614/0.69 189/0.51 1.21 24/0.16 192/0.10 42/0.1 42/0.41 19/0.41 280/0.89 61/3.30 7/0.85 7/1.05 512/0.0 1.16 19/0.5 0.58 133/0.31 990/0.51 765/0./Dia.035x0.16 28/0.41 200/0. 31 .30 7/0.05 128/0.37 7/0.64 49/0.67 7/0.69 336/0.21 32/0.07 131/0.41 128/0.07 – ­ – – – – – – – – – – – 25/0.07 1.05 768/0.25 0.51 944/0.41 1.10 21/0.31 84/0.65 84/0.05 7/1.37 7/0.1 1.07 195/0.21 800/0.13 7/2.1 192/0.31 1.560/0.1 512/0.16 42/0.70 790/0.51 485/0. (mm) – – – 14/0.280/0.41 – – – – 18/0.24 61/2.52 7/0.120/0.21 512/0.69 627/0.07 260/0./Dia.16 12/0.07 1./Dia.040/0.25 7/0.200/0.75 1.07 100/0.21 30/0.67 392/0.21 705/0.41 356/0.41 400/0.17–Typical IEC Stranding Cross Section (mm2) 0.52 61/2.26 50/0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 Ordinary Stranding (Class 2) No.16 140/0.21 320/0.61 – – 18/0.048/0.43 7/0.1 320/0.62 133/0.1 2.3 IEC Stranding Table 2.69 259/0.16 84/0.52 37/2.280/0.530x0.05 194/0.31 1.31 1.16 224/0.1 3.31 80/0.123/0.2.905/0. Conductors 2.31 2.03 37/2.1 48/0.70 – – Fine Wire Stranding (Class 5) No.52 19/0.385x0.07 392/0.6.07 651/0.34 0.52 19/1.1 – – – – – – – – – – – Extra-Fine Wire Stranding (Class 6) No./Dia.83 19/2.05 384/0.768x0.05 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Note: Additional information is available in IEC 60228.1 128/0.05 72/0.07 65/0.51 1.51 49/0.14 0.225/0.50 61/2.21 16/0.27 37/2.690/0.07 2.1 768/0.21 1.1 69/0.69 494/0.340/0.26 56/0.08 0.10 32/0. (mm) – – 36/0.05 174/0.17 19/2.16 56/0.51 1.23 Multi-Wire Stranding No.51 2.1 32/0.5 2.35 7/1.600/0.52 19/0.05 0. (mm) – – – – – – 7/0.470/0.05 41/0.05 1.07 88/0.

32 .

4.3 Color Coding 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.3.2 Thermosets 3.2 Belden Electronic Color Code 3.2.4.3.4.1 Thermoplastics 3.5 Halogen Content 3.3 Fibrous Coverings 3.4.2 Thermoset 3.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) 3. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 3.4 Thermal Characteristics 3.1 Purpose 34 34 34 36 37 37 3.2.4.2 Types and Applications 3.1 Power.2.3 Telecommunication Color Codes 38 38 43 46 3.3 EPR Versus XLPE 3.4 Properties 3.1 Thermoplastic 3.3. Control.3.2. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.4.7 Dielectric Constant 47 47 50 51 51 52 52 53 33 .4 Additional Information 3.4.

with the exception of PTFE Teflon. Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon PTFE include: • Nonflammability • Extremely high insulation resistance • Very low dielectric constant • Small size compared to elastomer insulated wires • Excellent lubricity for easier installation • Chemical inertness. heat. which have a high resistance to the flow of electric current. The nickel.2. Typical dielectric constant values range from 3. although some forms are translucent in thin sections. It is not suitable where subjected to nuclear radiation and does not have good high-voltage characteristics. Most wire and cable insulations consist of polymers (plastics). Maximum continuous service temperature of Teflon PTFE is 260°C (500°F). To coat wire for insulating purposes. The many varieties of PVC also differ in pliability and electrical properties. PTFE Teflon is only extrudable in a hydraulic ram type process. The most commonly used fluoropolymers are Teflon (PTFE.and silver-coated designs are rated 260°C and 200°C maximum. FEP Teflon is extrudable in a manner similar to PVC and polyethylene. acids. The cost of Teflon is approximately 8 to 10 times more per pound than PVC compounds. thermoplastic jackets of PVC provide cables with the ability to resist oils. PTFE must be extruded over a silver. PVC-based jacketing material with low smoke and low flame spread properties.” PVC does not usually exhibit extremely high.2 Types and Applications 3. temperature range and chemical resistance. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sometimes referred to simply as “vinyl. This means that long wire and cable lengths are available. Halar (ECTFE) and Kynar or Solef (PVDF). Teflon PTFE is the original Teflon resin invented by DuPont in 1938. which contributes to their excellent thermal. street lighting and cables for direct burial.5. FEP and PFA).3. Fluoropolymers contain fluorine in their molecular composition. aerial. This range of properties makes PVC a suitable outer covering for such cable types as underground feeders (Type UF). weathering and abrasion. Insulation is applied around a conductor to provide this isolation. thermoset formulations have better high-temperature properties than thermoplastics but are also higher in cost. chemical. Teflon PTFE is extruded around the conductor as a paste. Conductors can also be wrapped with tape of Teflon PTFE. Teflon has excellent electrical properties. 3. A jacket is the outermost layer of a cable whose primary function is to protect the insulation and conductor core from external physical forces and chemical deterioration. PVC is frequently used as an impervious jacket over and/or under metal armor where the installation requires PVC’s protective characteristics. Lengths are limited due to the amount of material in the ram. the thickness of the insulation and the preform size. It does not melt in the usual sense. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Flamarrest is a plenum-grade. white material. Certain formulations may have a –55°C to 105°C rating. Fluoropolymers Fluoropolymers. alkalis. respectively. Properties of both thermoplastic and thermoset CPE are given in Section 3. mechanical and electrical characteristics. Tefzel (ETFE).1 Thermoplastics Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) CPE is one of the few polymers available in both thermoplastic and thermoset (cross-linked) versions. The price range can vary accordingly.and low-temperature properties in one formulation.4.5 to 6. are extrudable thermoplastics used in a variety of low-voltage insulating situations. As a rule. Thermoplastic CPE is more common than thermoset CPE. When properly formulated. sunlight. It is an opaque. 34 . control.1 Purpose Conductors need to be electrically isolated from other conductors and from the environment to prevent short circuits and for safety.or nickel-coated wire. then sintered. while other common vinyls may have a –20°C to 60°C rating.

The UL maximum temperature rating may be 60°C or 80°C. It has a glossy surface and is transparent in thin sections. It has good abrasion resistance. Flame retardant formulations are available. It has a maximum operating temperature of 125°C (UL). oxidation and atmospheric ozone. sometimes called TPR (thermoplastic rubber).3. Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) TPE. Teflon PFA is a perfluoroalkoxy copolymer resin supplied by DuPont. These properties make TPE jackets an excellent choice for use in control cables that are dragged around or frequently moved. but because it is less expensive than Tefzel. low-temperature toughness and flame resistance. Tefzel (ETFE) is commonly used in computer backplane wiring and has the highest abrasion and cut-through resistance of any fluoropolymer. Teflon FEP is an excellent nonflammable jacketing material for multiconductor cables. Some formulations also have good flame resistance. making it an ideal jacket material for retractile cords. Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene has excellent electrical properties. It has excellent abrasion resistance. However. polyethylene is stiff and very hard. TPE compounds can be rated as high as 125°C (257°F).55 for cellular designs. Halar’s temperature rating is –70°C to 150°C. Typically. Teflon FEP is a true thermoplastic. The dielectric constant is typically 2. TPE compounds are used as insulating materials up to a 600-volt rating. Low density PE (LDPE) is the most flexible. This makes it suitable for thin wall insulations. The most common polyolefins used in wire and cable include polyethylene (PE). Kynar (PVDF) is one of the least expensive fluoropolymers and is frequently used as a jacketing material on plenum cables. heat resistance. chemical resistance. 35 . The dielectric constant is 2. this material is primarily used as an insulation material. It has a low dielectric constant. but they tend to have poorer electrical properties.25 for solid and 1. It has excellent oxidation. It has a tendency to swell in a hydrocarbon environment. a stable dielectric constant over a wide frequency range. high-molecular weight formulations being least flexible. Insulation and Jacket Materials Teflon FEP was also invented by DuPont and became commercially available in 1960. it tends to be a poor insulator. however. and very high insulation resistance. Tefzel is a thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. Properly formulated PE has excellent weather resistance. causing the material to degrade. toughness. Halar has excellent chemical resistance. with high-density.6 for cellular (foamed) insulation. It retains most of its physical and electrical properties in the face of many severe environmental conditions such as a salt water environment. polypropylene (PP) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Wire insulated with PFA is rated up to 250°C (482°F) and has excellent high-temperature creep resistance. It has outstanding “memory” properties. PVDF has a temperature maximum of 135°C (UL). depending on molecular weight and density. cutting and impact. It is resistant to aging from sunlight. making it an excellent insulating and jacketing compound in cold climates. Polypropylene (PP) Similar in electrical properties to polyethylene. TPE has good chemical resistance to all substances except hydrocarbons. Halar (ECTFE) is similar to Tefzel and is also used in wirewrap applications. It will resist wear. Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethane is used primarily as a cable jacket material. it is harder than polyethylene. radiation resistance and flame resistance. Tefzel’s temperature rating is –65°C to 150°C. but most UL styles call for 60°C maximum. Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon FEP include: • High current carrying ability (ampacity) • Easy color coding • Smallest diameter of any high-temperature wire • Nonflammability • Very low moisture absorption. Because of its high dielectric constant. Polyolefins (PO) Polyolefin is the name given to a family of polymers. Moisture resistance is excellent.3 for solid and 1. has excellent cold-temperature characteristics. electrical properties. thermal characteristics and impact resistance. Wire insulated with Teflon FEP can be melt extruded by conventional methods. it is often used as insulation on multipair plenum telephone cables. The most common cables using TPE insulation are portable control cables such as SEO and SJEO. Maximum continuous service temperature is 400°F (205°C). oil and ozone resistance.

neoprene is the jacketing material frequently used for mine trailing cables and dredge cables. mildew or fungus. Satisfactory performance at even higher temperatures is possible if the exposures are brief or intermittent. CPE is also often supplied in a thermoplastic (non-cross-linked) version. Neoprene-jacketed power cable can be flexed without damage to the jacket at –40°C (–40°F) and will pass a mandrel wrap test down to about –45°C (–49°F). Its low-temperature performance is also very good: down to –40°C and below. Neoprene jackets have excellent resistance to soil acids and alkalis. and does not embrittle at low temperatures.e. CSA and ICEA flame tests.3. They will maintain adequate flexibility after repeated aging at elevated temperatures. not combustible without directly applied heat and flame. so it is resistant to cutting. CPE’s resistance to oils and fuels is good. Neoprene (CP) Neoprene is a vulcanized synthetic rubber also referred to as chloroprene.. crushing and chipping. and is virtually immune to atmospheric ozone. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Its low temperature impact resistance is excellent. CPE maintains its flexibility at –18°C (0°F) and does not become brittle unless temperatures are below –40°C (–40°F). 36 . CPE compares favorably with most other synthetic elastomers currently used for cable jacketing. have remained tough. Because of these properties. It will not support combustion. fungus and other biological agents do not deteriorate properly compounded neoprene. It is most often used as the insulation of 600 volt building wire (e. is poor unless flame retardants are added. It is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation. Neoprene will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied.. It provides a resilient jacket that resists permanent deformation under heat and load.3). however. It also is a very tough material at temperatures below 100°C. uncracked and completely serviceable. resilient and have excellent resistance to abrasive wear. Samples of neoprene-jacketed cable. CPE will withstand prolonged immersion in water.g.2. XLP’s fire resistance. Neoprene jackets are “flame resistant. It is highly resistant to cold flow (compression set) and other forms of external loading as well as heat. Removal of the ignition source will extinguish the flame. impact. but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. They are tough. XLP is lower in cost than EPR. These jackets perform well in many chemical plants. Properly compounded. Neoprene jackets resist degradation for prolonged periods at temperatures up to 121°C (250°F). They are known for abrasion resistance and long life in mining cable applications. impact and other mechanical forces. CPE does not support the growth of mold. UL. CPE can be conveniently colored over a wide range and will maintain color upon aging. oxygen supply and flame source.” i. strong. It is particularly well-suited to chemical plant use where both above ground (ultraviolet and flame retardancy) and below ground (water and chemical resistance) properties are desired. it will burn slowly. Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLP or XLPE) Cross-linked polyethylene is a frequently used polymer in wire and cable. Type XHHW). tested outdoors under constant exposure for 40 years. resilient. as the insulation in 5 to 69 kV and higher rated power cables and as the insulation in many control cables. It is resistant to ozone and ultraviolet (sunlight) degradation. Mildew. but under the right conditions of excessive heat. CPE is resistant to most strong acids and bases and many solvents except for chlorinated organics. CPE jacketed cables pass the IEEE 1202. light and chemical attack. XLP has very high insulation resistance (IR). high dielectric strength and low dielectric constant (2.2 Thermosets Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Cross-linked chlorinated polyethylene is a material with outstanding physical and electrical properties for many cable jacket applications. CPE jackets are suited to 105°C (221°F) and intermittently to higher temperatures.

phenolic-based and fiberglass fibers. 3. oils. which would have previously utilized asbestos. It is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. DuPont has since discontinued Hypalon manufacturing. EPR is used as the insulation in 600 volt through 69 kV power cables. portable mining cables and control/instrumentation cables.. They are available as roving and yarn for insulating applications and as rope for use as fillers. abrasion-. polyamid.2 depending on the specific EPR formulation. flame. It will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. Instrumentation and Control Cables. To replace Hypalon after all existing supply is exhausted. non-melting insulating material for all applications requiring a 250°C (482°F) temperature rating.” 37 . EPR. Sheathing of CSPE provides high resistance to impact.and temperature-resistant. as an integral insulation/jacket on welding cables and as an insulation in many cords. K-fiber insulating materials are a blend of polyaramid. Its dielectric strength is good but not as high as that of PE or XLP. CSPE was formerly sold by DuPont under the trade name “Hypalon”. rubbery insulation that has a temperature range from –80°C to 200°C.4 Additional Information Additional information on the selection of cable jackets is available in IEEE 532 “Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Power. CSPE Chlorosulfonated polyethylene is a thermosetting. it is immune to attack by ozone. CSPE’s electrical properties make it appropriate as insulation for low-voltage applications (up to 600 volts) and as jacketing for any type of wire and cable. and it is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation. greases and fuels. CSPE surpasses most elastomers in resistance to abrasion. cable manufacturers are either changing jackets to a “performance-based” equivalent thermoset material like thermoset chlorinated polyethylene (TS-CPE) or searching for other global sources for CSPE resin. or EPDM) Ethylene propylene rubber is a common synthetic rubber polymer used as an insulation in electrical wire and cable. It is fairly flame retardant and can be made even more flame retardant by careful formulation. Bureau of Mines’ flame test for mining cable. Some formulations can withstand continuous temperatures as high as 150°C. crushing and chipping. CSPE sheathing will not support combustion. They provide a non-asbestos. 3. CSPE jacketed constructions pass both the Underwriters Laboratories’ vertical flame test and the U. It is particularly useful as a cable sheathing in plant processing areas. It is especially useful in contact with oils at elevated temperatures.3.” EPR’s high-temperature characteristics are very good. It is well-known for its resistance to chemicals. It typically has low mechanical strength and poor scuff resistance.g. Dielectric constant ranges from 2. CSPE will perform satisfactorily after short-term exposure at up to 148°C (300°F) – even higher if compounded for maximum heat resistance. EPR is used in many highly flexible cables.8 to 3.2. low moisture absorption. where airborne chemicals attack ordinary jacketing materials and metal conduit.3 Fibrous Coverings Fibrous coverings are commonly used on high-temperature cables due to their excellent heat resistance. Water absorption of properly compounded CSPE cable sheathing is extremely low. moisture-. Because of its rubber-like characteristics. Flame retardant versions are often referred to as “FREP” or “flame retardant EP. weather resistance. Silicone Silicone is a soft.2. It remains flexible at –18°C (0°F) and will not become brittle at –40°C (–40°F). and radiation resistance. It has excellent electrical properties plus ozone resistance.S. It is inherently resistant to cold flow (compression set) resulting from clamping pressures and other forms of external loading. Insulation and Jacket Materials Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EP. fiberglass or K-fiber) impregnated with a flame and heat-resistant finish. cross-linked material with many excellent physical and electrical properties. They are normally constructed of a textile braid (e. EPR is abrasion resistant and is suitable for use at temperatures down to –60°C. At high temperatures.

Instrumentation and Thermocouple ICEA standard S-73-532 (NEMA WC57-2004) contains eleven methods for providing color coding in multiconductor cables. then a repeat of the colors with a colored band or tracer.g. but in a different order so the tables did not match WC57. the white and green colors may only appear once. #14 (green/white). Table E-2 color coding.1 Power.3. Table 1) since they are not located within appendices in S-58-679 like in S-73-532. etc. Method 1 – Colored compounds with tracers Method 2 – Neutral colored compounds with tracers Method 3 –  Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers and color designations Method 4 –  Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers Method 5 – Individual color coding with braids Method 6 – Layer identification Method 7 – Silicone rubber insulated cables Methods 8. For applications where the NEC is applicable. this confusion no longer exists since the standards have been combined. 8A. the E-2 color sequence is normally used. and Instrumentation Wires. Thermocouple Extension. The old standard contained tables titled E-1 through E-4 as well. The corresponding tables can be found in this chart: S-82-552 (old) E-1 Color sequence without white and green (NEC Applications) E-2 Color sequence with white and green E-3 Shades of Color E-4 Thermocouple Extension Color S-73-532 (new) E-2 E-1 E-6 E-8 The ICEA has also published ICEA S-58-679 Control Cable Conductor Identification. In the latest ICEA standard the color sequences are located in Tables E-1 through E-8. The cables do not contain a white or green conductor. such as in industrial and commercial applications.1 through 3.3. 11A. The most popular multiconductor control cables in sizes 14 AWG–10 AWG have Method 1. This sequence of colors is referred to as K-1 color coding because it was formerly found in Table K-1 of many ICEA standards.8. Control. To address this issue. The electric utility industry often specifies control cables with the E-1 color coding sequence. The most popular control cables used in sizes 8 AWG and larger are three conductor cables having black insulation surface ink printed with the numbers 1. 3 and 4 are the most widely used. 11B. a different color coding sequence was developed by ICEA for cables that are used in accordance with the NEC. 11D – Thermocouple extension cables – color coding with braids Historically. 11C. (See Tables 3. this color may be introduced into Table E-2 as the second conductor in the sequence. it likewise can be introduced into the table. This standard was withdrawn in 2002 and instrumentation and thermocouple wires were moved into ICEA S-73-532 (NEMA WC57) Standard for Control. 10A and 11 – Thermocouple extension cables – color coding of braidless conductors Methods 11. ICEA has established the sequence of colors used for Method 1 color coding. This is Method 4 color coding in the ICEA standards. If a green insulated conductor is required. are energized. #9 (green/black). which consists of six basic colors.3 Color Coding 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Table E-2 (formerly K-2) of the ICEA standard provides this color sequence. 2 and 3. The ICEA standard provides further guidance stating that if a white conductor is required.) The National Electrical Code (NEC) specifies that a conductor colored white can only be used as a grounded (neutral) conductor and that a conductor colored green can only be used as an equipment grounding conductor. Methods 1. However. 38 . This standard includes the same seven tables as WC57 but without using the E or K designation (e. ICEA S-82-552 (NEMA WC55) Instrumentation and Thermocouple Wire formerly contained methods and color sequence tables for instrumentation and thermocouple cables. The use of Table E-1 (formerly K-1) color coding would therefore be in violation of the Code in a cable having more than six conductors if conductors #7 (white/black). 8B – Paired conductors Method 9 – Color compounds with numbers – paired conductors Methods 10.

K-1 then repeated. including White and Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Background or Base Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red First Tracer Color – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black Second Tracer Color – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green Conductor Number 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Background or Base Color Green Orange Blue Black White Orange White Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange First Tracer Color Black Black White White Red White Red White Black White White Red Red White Black White Orange Red Red Orange Black Orange Red Black Black Orange Orange Orange Black Green Second Tracer Color Orange Green Orange Orange Orange Blue Blue Green Green Green Blue Green Green Blue Blue Blue Red Blue Orange Red Orange Black Blue Blue Orange Green Green Green Blue Blue Note: The former K-1 color sequence was the same as E-1 through conductor number 21.1–E-1 Color Sequence. 39 . Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.3.

g. Narrow Tracer) – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green 40 .g.2–E-2 Color Sequence without White and Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Background or Base Color Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Tracer Color – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Table 3.3. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3..3–E-3 Color Sequence Including White And Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 First Tracer Color (e. Wide Tracer) Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Second Tracer Color (e..

.g.3.5–E-5 Color Sequence For Braids. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.g. Including White And Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Background or Base Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Orange White First Tracer Color – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black Black Black White White Red White Red Second Tracer Color – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green Orange Green Orange Orange Orange Blue Blue 41 . Wide Tracer) Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Second Tracer Color (e.4–E-4 Color Sequence Without White And Green Conductor Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 First Tracer Color (e. Narrow Tracer) – – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown Table 3..

5 YR Munsell Table 3.3.5/6 Black Black Black Black Red Red Green Green Blue Green * This conductor is on the inside of the assembly Table 3. 42 .8–Color Coding of Duplexed Insulated Thermocouple Extension Wire Extension Wire Type Type T J E K R or S B Positive TPX JPX EPX KPX SPX BPX Negative TNX JNX ENX KNX SNX BNX Overall Blue Black Purple Yellow Green Gray Color of Insulation Positive Blue White Purple Yellow Black Gray Negative* Red Red Red Red Red Red * A tracer having the color corresponding to the positive wire code color may be used on the negative wire color code. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3.5 R 2.5 G 2.7–Color Sequence for Silicone Rubber Insulated Cables Conductor Number 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Background or base color White White White White White White White White White White White White White White White White First Tracer Color Black Red Green Orange Blue Red Green Orange Blue Orange Blue Red Orange Orange Blue Second Tracer Color 4/12 4/10 5/12 6/14 8.5 YR 5Y 2.5 PB 2.5/12 3.6–Shades of Color Color Black White Red Blue Green Orange Yellow Brown Munsell N2 N9 2.

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Color Combination White and Yellow White and Brown White and Orange Blue and Yellow Blue and Brown Blue and Orange Brown and Yellow Brown and Orange Orange and Yellow Purple and Orange Purple and Red Purple and White Purple and Dark Green Purple and Light Blue Purple and Yellow Purple and Brown Purple and Black Gray and White Table 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.11–Belden Color Code Charts Nos. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Color Blue/Black/White Black/Red/Green White/Red/Green Red/Black/Green Green/Black/Orange Orange/Black/Green Blue/White/Orange Black/White/Orange White/Red/Orange Orange/White/Blue White/Red/Blue Black/White/Green White/Black/Green Cond. No. 2 (Spiral Stripe) and 2R (Ring Band Striping)* Cond.3. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Color Green/White Stripe Blue/White Stripe Black/Red Stripe White/Red Stripe Orange/Red Stripe Blue/Red Stripe Red/Green Stripe Orange/Green Stripe Black/White/Red White/Black/Red Red/Black/White Green/Black/White Orange/Black/White Cond. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Color Combination Black and Red Black and White Black and Green Black and Blue Black and Yellow Black and Brown Black and Orange Red and White Red and Green Red and Blue Red and Yellow Red and Brown Red and Orange Green and White Green and Blue Green and Yellow Green and Brown Green and Orange White and Blue Pair No. No. No.2 Belden Electronic Color Code Table 3. 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Color Red/White/Green Green/White/Blue Orange/Red/Green Blue/Red/Green Black/White/Blue White/Black/Blue Red/White/Blue Green/Orange/Red Orange/Red/Blue Blue/Orange/Red Black/Orange/Red * Based on ICEA Standard S-73-532/NEMA WC57 43 .3.10–Common Multipair Color Code (Belden Standard) Pair No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Color Black White Red Green Orange Blue White/Black Stripe Red/Black Stripe Green/Black Stripe Orange/Black Stripe Blue/Black Stripe Black/White Stripe Red/White Stripe Cond.9–Common Multiconductor Color Code (Belden Standard) Conductor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Color Black White Red Green Brown Blue Orange Yellow Purple Gray Pink Tan Table 3.

1 2 3 4 5 Color Combination White/Blue Stripe & Blue/White Stripe White/Orange Stripe & Orange/White Stripe White/Green Stripe & Green/White Stripe White/Brown Stripe & Brown/White Stripe White/Gray Stripe & Gray/White Stripe Pair No.3. 16 17 18 19 20 Color Combination Yellow & Blue Yellow & Orange Yellow & Green Yellow & Brown Yellow & Gray Pair No. 1 2 3 4 5 Color Combination White & Blue White & Orange White & Green White & Brown White & Gray Pair No. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. 6 7 8 9 10 Color Combination Red/Blue Stripe & Blue/Red Stripe Red/Orange Stripe & Orange/Red Stripe Red/Green Stripe & Green/Red Stripe Red/Brown Stripe & Brown/Red Stripe Red/Gray Stripe & Gray/Red Stripe Pair No.12–Belden Color Code Chart No. 21 22 23 24 25 Color Combination Purple & Blue Purple & Orange Purple & Green Purple & Brown Purple & Gray Table 3. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Color White/Orange White/Yellow White/Green White/Blue White/Purple White/Gray White/Black/Brown White/Black/Red White/Black/Orange White/Black/Yellow White/Black/Green White/Black/Blue Table 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 *Per ANSI/TIA 598-A Color Blue Orange Green Brown Gray White Red Black Yellow Purple Rose Aqua 44 .13–Belden Color Code Chart No. 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Black/Blue Stripe & Blue/Black Stripe Black/Orange Stripe & Orange/Black Stripe Black/Green Stripe & Green/Black Stripe Black/Brown Stripe & Brown/Black Stripe Black/Gray Stripe & Gray/Black Stripe Pair No. 4 Pair No. 21 22 23 24 25 Color Combination Purple/Blue Stripe & Blue/Purple Stripe Purple/Orange Stripe & Orange/Purple Stripe Purple/Green Stripe & Green/Purple Stripe Purple/Brown Stripe & Brown/Purple Stripe Purple/Gray Stripe & Gray/Purple Table 3. 16 17 18 19 20 Color Combination Yellow/Blue Stripe & Blue/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Orange Stripe & Orange/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Green Stripe & Green/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Brown Stripe & Brown/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Gray Stripe & Gray/Yellow Stripe Pair No. 6 7 8 9 10 Color Combination Red & Blue Red & Orange Red & Green Red & Brown Red & Gray Pair No. 9: IBM RISC System/6000 Cond No. 6 Position No.14–Belden Color Code Chart No. 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Black & Blue Black & Orange Black & Green Black & Brown Black & Gray Pair No.15–Belden Color Code Chart No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Color Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Gray White White/Black White/Brown White/Red Position No. 1 Color White over Blue & Blue over White White over Orange & Orange over White Table 3. 10: Fiber Optics* Cond No.16–Belden Color Code Chart No. 5 Pair No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Color White over Blue White over Orange White over Green White over Brown White over Gray White over Red White over Yellow 3 White over Green & Green over White 2 Pair No.

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Color Combination Gray/Yellow Stripe Gray/Green Stripe Gray/Blue Stripe Gray/Purple Stripe Gray/Gray Stripe Gray/White Stripe Gray/Black Stripe Gray/Tan Stripe Gray/Pink Stripe Blue/Brown Stripe Blue/Red Stripe Blue/Orange Stripe Blue/Yellow Stripe Blue/Green Stripe Blue/Blue Stripe Pair No.3. 16 17 18 19 20 Color Combination Yellow/Blue Stripe & Blue/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Orange Stripe & Orange/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Green Stripe & Green/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Brown Stripe & Brown/Yellow Stripe Yellow/Gray Stripe & Gray/Yellow Stripe Pair No. 8 for DataTwist Cables Pair No. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. 7 for Snake Cables Pair No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Gray White Black Tan Pink Gray/Brown Stripe Gray/Red Stripe Gray/Orange Stripe Pair No.17–Belden Color Code Chart No. 1 2 3 4 5 Color Combination White/Blue Stripe & Blue White/Orange Stripe & Orange White/Green Stripe & Green White/Brown Stripe & Brown White/Gray Stripe & Gray/White Stripe Pair No. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Color Combination Blue/Purple Stripe Blue/Gray Stripe Blue/White Stripe Blue/Black Stripe Blue/Tan Stripe Blue/Pink Stripe Lime/Brown Stripe Lime/Red Stripe Lime/Orange Stripe Lime/Yellow Stripe Lime/Green Stripe Lime/Blue Stripe Lime/Purple Stripe Lime/Gray Stripe Lime/White Stripe Pair No. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Color Combination Lime/Black Stripe Lime/Tan Stripe Lime/Pink Stripe Aqua/Brown Stripe Aqua/Red Stripe Aqua/Orange Stripe Aqua/Yellow Stripe Aqua/Green Stripe Aqua/Blue Stripe Aqua/Purple Stripe Aqua/Gray Stripe Aqua/White Stripe Aqua/Black Stripe Aqua/Tan Stripe Aqua/Pink Stripe Table 3. 6 7 8 9 10 Color Combination Red/Blue Stripe & Blue/Red Stripe Red/Orange Stripe & Orange/Red Stripe Red/Green Stripe & Green/Red Stripe Red/Brown Stripe & Brown/Red Stripe Red/Gray Stripe & Gray/Red Stripe Pair No. 11 12 13 14 15 Color Combination Black/Blue Stripe & Blue/Black Stripe Black/Orange Stripe & Orange/Black Stripe Black/Green Stripe & Green/Black Stripe Black/Brown Stripe & Brown/Black Stripe Black/Gray Stripe & Gray/Black Stripe Pair No.18–Belden Color Code Chart No. 21 22 23 24 25 Color Combination Purple/Blue Stripe & Blue/Purple Stripe Purple/Orange Stripe & Orange/Purple Stripe Purple/Green Stripe & Green/Purple Stripe Purple/Brown Stripe & Brown/Purple Stripe Purple/Gray Stripe & Gray/Purple 45 .

Bandmarking is used on inside wiring cable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Tip White-Blue White-Orange White-Green White-Brown White-Slate Red-Blue Red-Orange Red-Green Red-Brown Red-Slate Black-Blue Black-Orange Black-Green Black-Brown Black-Slate Yellow-Blue Yellow-Orange Yellow-Green Yellow-Brown Yellow-Slate Violet-Blue Violet-Orange Violet-Green Violet-Brown Violet-Slate Red-White Ring Blue-White Orange-White Green-White Brown-White Slate-White Blue-Red Orange-Red Green-Red Brown-Red Slate-Red Blue-Black Orange-Black Green-Black Brown-Black Slate-Black Blue-Yellow Orange-Yellow Green-Yellow Brown-Yellow Slate-Yellow Blue-Violet Orange-Violet Green-Violet Brown-Violet Slate-Violet White-Red 46 . The color combinations are such that each wire is banded with the color of its mate. Large Pair Count Cables In cables having more than 25 pairs. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. the pairs are arranged in groups. plenum cable and switchboard cable.19–Telecommunication Cable Color Code (Solid Colors) Table 3. Table 3. in a blue and white pair. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Tip White White White White White Red Red Red Red Red Black Black Black Black Black Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Violet Violet Violet Violet Violet Ring Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Pair No.18).3 Telecommunication Color Codes Individual telecommunication cable conductors are color-coded with solid colors (Table 3. For example. inside-outside station wire and distribution frame and jumper wire) that do not have paired constructions have solid color wires.3. Telephone wires (e. the blue wire has a white band and the white wire a blue band.20–Telecommunication Cable Color Code (Band Marked) Pair No.3.17) or by applying a colored band of contrasting color to solid colored wires (Table 3. All colors must be readily distinguishable and lie within the Munsell color standard.. each containing a maximum of 25 pairs and wrapped with distinctively colored binder threads to permit distinction between groups.g.

Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial E G-E F P-G G-E E F-G F-G E F F-G G-E G-E P Low-Density Polyethylene E G G-E E E E G E P G-E E G-E G-E G-E Cellular Polyethylene E G G E E E F E P G E G-E G-E G High-Density Polyethylene E E G-E E E E E E P G-E E E E G-E Polypropylene E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P-F P-F P P P P-F P-F G G G P G-E P-G E G E F E E E E P = Poor. E = Excellent. etc. kerosene.4.21–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials PVC Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. etc.3.4 Properties 3. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline. Source: Belden Continued >> 47 . F = Fair. toluol.1 Thermoplastic Table 3. G = Good.

sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline.3. F = Fair. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P Polyurethane E G E G G E O P P F P-G F F P-G Nylon E E E G E E E P P G P-F P-E E G CPE E E E E E E E-O E E F-G O E E E Plenum PVC E G-E F P-G G E F-G G E O F G G P P P-G G G-E P-F P P-G G E P-F E F P-G G P P E E-O G P P = Poor. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. G = Good. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. etc. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden Continued >> 48 . toluol. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. E = Excellent. kerosene.21–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials (Continued) Cellular Polypropylene Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather. etc.

O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. F = Fair. etc. Source: Belden 49 . kerosene. (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial O O O O O E E E O P-G E E E E Tefzel (ETFE) E E O E E E E E G E E E E E PTFE (TFE) Teflon O O E O O O O E E P E E E E Solef/Kynar (PVDF)/PVF O O E-O O E-O E E G-E E E E G-E E E Halar (ECTFE) O O E O O E E E E-O E E E E E E E E G-E E E E E G E E E E E E E E E E E P = Poor. etc. toluol. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding.21–Properties of Thermoplastic Insulation and Jacket Materials (Continued) FEP Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather.3. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline. Insulation and Jacket Materials Table 3. E = Excellent. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol. G = Good.

Source: Belden 50 . (aromatic hydrocarbons) resistance Degreaser solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons) resistance Alcohol resistance Underground burial G G G F-G G G G-E P G F-G E G G G XLPE E G G O G G F-G E P E G-E G-E G-E F CPE E E G-E F E G-E G-E F-G G G G-E E E F Silicone Rubber E O F-G O O O P G F-G E G-E F-G F-G P-F P-F F F F F P P P-F P F P P-G F G-E G E P E E E G-E E G G P = Poor. E = Excellent. F = Fair. etc. O = Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds.4. toluol. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding.3. etc.22–Properties of Thermoset Insulation and Jacket Materials Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE) E E G F E E G G G E E E E F EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) E E P G-E E E G E P G G-E G-E G-E P Neoprene Oxidation resistance Heat resistance Oil resistance Low-temperature flexibility Weather. sun resistance Ozone resistance Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Flame resistance Nuclear radiation resistance Water resistance Acid resistance Alkali resistance Gasoline. G = Good. kerosene. (aliphatic hydrocarbons) resistance Benzol.2 Thermoset Table 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.

4 Thermal Characteristics °C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 °C -20°C PVC (Standard) 80°C -55°C PVC (Premium) 105°C -60°C Polyethylene 80°C -40°C Polypropylene 105°C -40°C Cross-linked Polyethylene 130°C -60°C Ethylene Propylene Rubber 150°C -40°C CSPE 105°C -40°C Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) 105°C -40°C CPE 105°C -65°C Silicon Braidless 150°C -65°C Silicone with braid 200°C -70°C Teflon 260°C °C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 °C Figure 3.4. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.3 EPR Versus XLPE Table 3.1–Nominal Temperature Range of Cable Polymers 51 .3.23–Properties of EPR Compared with Those of XLPE Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Less deformation below 100°C Lower in cost Lower dissipation factor Lower dielectric constant Higher dielectric strength Physically tougher More resistant to chemicals More oil resistant Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) Less deformation above 100°C More heat resistance Less shrinkback Less thermal expansion More corona resistant More flexible More tree retardant More sunlight resistant 3.4.

Tests are usually conducted in accordance with ASTM D2863.02 <0. The above values should be used for general comparisons only. which finds the percentage of oxygen required to sustain combustion.02 7–13 9–14 13–16 11–17 16–26 16–18 14–28 18–33 22–29 NOTE: Halogen content can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.9 percent.25–LOI of Common Wire and Cable Materials Material Teflon PVDF (Kynar) Halar Plenum grade PVC FR-EP FR-XLP CPE Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) CSPE Percent Oxygen 93 43–85 55 38–42 30–40 30–40 28–36 32–35 34 Material Neoprene Tefzel PVC Kevlar NBR PVC XLP (Unfilled) PE (Unfilled) Percent Oxygen 32 30–32 28–32 29 28 20–23 20–23 52 .5 Halogen Content Table 3.3. The oxygen content of air is 20. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3. Table 3.02 <0.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) LOI values are used to determine the relative flammability of polymers.24–Halogen Content in Typical Insulation and Jacket Materials Material PE insulation or jacket XLP insulation 600 V (6 AWG and larger) XLP insulation 5-35 kV EPR insulation 5-35 kV Polyurethane jacket EVA jacket XLP insulation 600 V (14-8 AWG) FR-EPR insulation CSPE (insulation grade) FR-XLP insulation CSPE jacket (heavy duty) Neoprene jacket CPE jacket CSPE jacket (extra heavy duty) PVC jacket Typical Halogen Content Percent by weight <0. 3.02 <0.4.02 <0.02 <0.4. Typical values are shown below.

4.7 Dielectric Constant Table 3. PFA or TFE) Polypropylene Cross-linked Polyethylene Polyethylene TPE Halar (ECTFE) Tefzel (ETFE) EPR Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Dielectic Constant 2.8 3–4 3.6 2.5 3.9 3.3 2.2­–5 6.3–2.3–3.6 2.3.3 2.5 2.1 2.26–Dielectric Constant of Common Wire and Cable Materials Material Teflon (FEP.5–8 8–10 9–10 6–12 53 .8–3.3 2. Insulation and Jacket Materials 3.8 Material Polyester (Mylar) Silicone Nylon Mica PVC Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE) Neoprene (PC) Polychloroprene Kynar (PVDF) Dielectic Constant 3.2–2.

54 .

2.2 Outer Shield (Insulation Shield) 56 56 56 4.2.2 Copper Braid Shield 4.2.1 Power Cable 4.4.1. Shields 4.1. Shields 4.1 Conductor Shield (Strand Shield) 4.1 Foil Shield 4.2 Electronic Cable 4.3 Spiral (Serve) Shield 58 58 59 59 55 .

Thus.1 Conductor Shield (Strand Shield) The nonround geometry of stranded conductors permits air gaps between the outer surface of the conductor and the inner surface of the insulation. It too must remain in intimate contact with the insulation and be free of voids and defects. Though sometimes similar in appearance. Power cable shields. It is a material (either an extruded carbon black loaded polymer or carbon black impregnated fabric tape) with electrical conductivity midway between that of a metallic conductor such as copper and that of an insulation such as XLP. 4. transistors. which can harm the insulation. A uniform distribution of electrical stress extends the life of the cable by eliminating partial discharges. i. Microscopic channels called “trees” may form and ultimately cause premature failure of the insulation.4. The most popular type. The NEC requires most cable rated 2. break molecular bonds and degrade the insulation. is the conductive shield. cylindrical and clean as possible to avoid electrical stress concentrations that can lead to insulation damage. on the other hand. Electronic cable shields serve to both minimize the effect of external electromagnetic signals on the conductors in the cable and to reduce the radiated signal from the cable to an acceptable level. continuous and void-free interface between the conductor and insulation.1 Power Cable The use of shields in power cables reduces electrical shock hazard to people and provides uniform distribution of electrical stresses throughout the insulation. The various components of a power cable shield are discussed below. 56 . The insulation shield material is either electrically conductive or made of a high dielectric constant material and provides a uniform electrical field within the insulation.400 V or greater to be shielded.1. Volume resistivity of the insulation shield is normally less than 500 ohm-meters. Such a material is commonly referred to as a “semiconductive” shield (not to be confused with semiconductors.2 Outer Shield (Insulation Shield) The insulation shield plays much the same role as the conductor shield in protecting the insulation from the damaging effects of corona. 4. shields for electronic and power cables perform very different functions. the primary purpose of the conductor shield is to provide a smooth. help protect the user from shock hazards and increase cable reliability by preventing partial discharges (corona) in cables. used in the electronics industry). AEIC document CS8 and ICEA publication T-25-425 contain detailed specifications on the electrical and physical performance of the conductor shield.e. however. An emission shield uses a material with a high dielectric constant to do its job. The insulation shield also provides an important safety function at terminations and splices where the metallic part of the shield may not completely cover the cable insulation surface. Energetic ions bombard the insulation. Without a stress control layer.. Shields A shield is a metallic covering enclosing an insulated conductor or group of conductors.1. There are two basic types of conductor shields – “conductive” and “emission” shields. high electric fields cause partial discharges within these gaps. Semiconductive shields must be as smooth. but at the outside of the cable’s insulation. 4.

1–Power Cable Shielding Advantages • When properly grounded. In combination with the extruded insulation shield. Jacket Copper tape Insulation shield Insulation Conductor shield Figure 4. 57 . Power cables rated 5 to 35 kV and up frequently utilize copper tape as the metallic component of the metal/polymer shielding system.4. It is generally helically applied over a semiconducting polymer insulation shield. The wires can be used as “ripcords” to reduce termination time during installation. They are sometimes used in combination with copper tape to provide additional shield fault current capacity. Shields Copper Tape Shields The copper tape used in power cable shields is usually 5 mils thick and 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide. provides protection from electrical shock • Increases life of the cable insulation • Reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) Disadvantages • Must be terminated with a medium-voltage termination to control electrical stresses • Higher cost Wire Shields Metallic wire shields on power cables come in two basic types: helically applied copper wires and UniShield. Helically applied copper wire shields are sometimes used on 5 through 35 kV and higher rated power cables. a copper tape shield increases insulation life by maintaining uniform electrical stress throughout the cable insulation and provides low end-to-end resistance of the shield system.1–Typical Copper Tape Shielded Power Cable Table 4. UniShield cables have six corrugated copper wires longitudinally imbedded in a conducting CPE jacket.

2 Electronic CABLE Electronic cable shielding provides an efficient way to manage electromagnetic interference (EMI). mechanical. Shields 4. This overlap creates a slot where signal leakage through the shield can occur.3) construction provides the best electrical isolation between shields of adjacent pairs as well as 100 percent coverage.3–Z-Fold Foil Shield Table 4. 4. an interference current is induced in the shield. especially at high frequencies.4.1 Foil Shield Foil shields are usually constructed of aluminum foil with a 1/2-mil thick polyester backing. When a shielded cable is present in an ambient electromagnetic field. In addition to shielding effectiveness. A tinned copper drain wire is placed in contact with the foil side of the shield to provide easier grounding of the shield at the cable terminations. The “Z” fold (Fig. chemical and cost requirements. Foil shields provide excellent protection from electromagnetic interference.2. This backing provides mechanical strength. Figure 4. The small amount of energy that makes it all the way through the shield generates an interference voltage in the signal carrying conductors of the cable. The shield can be overlapped (Fig. As a result. The smaller the interference voltage.2–Foil Shielding Advantages • 100 percent coverage • Low cost • Ease of termination • Good flexibility • Excellent shielding at high frequencies • Poor mechanical strength • Short flex life • Less effective at low frequencies Disadvantages Foil facing out 58 . 4. The incident energy is partially reflected from the shield and partially absorbed by the shield and a small amount penetrates through the shield into the cable. the better the shield. a diversified line of shield designs has evolved in the wire and cable industry.2–Foil Shield Figure Foil facing in 4. 4.2) with the foil facing in or the foil facing out. electronic cable shields must satisfy a long list of electrical. Foil shields are most common in electronic and coaxial cables.

Braid shields are typically used on coaxial cables and on low-speed communication cables. Jacket Outer braid Inner braid Jacket Copper braid Insulation Figure 4.3 Spiral (Serve) Shield Spiral or serve shields.6–Spiral or Serve Shield Table 4. Spiral shields are used primarily in audio. microphone and retractile cord cables where extreme flexibility and a long flex life are required.2. Generally. Braid shields are also commonly used on cables where increased flex life and mechanical strength are required. as they are sometimes called. the higher the coverage the better the shield.2. Figure 4. 4.3–Copper braid shields Advantages • Best at low frequencies • Good mechanical strength • Increased flex life • Increased cost • More difficult to terminate Disadvantages 4. Typical coverage ranges from 60 percent to 90 percent.6).2 Copper Braid Shield A braid shield typically consists of copper wire ranging in size from 32 to 40 AWG braided into a mesh around the cable core. The tightness of the braid determines the percent coverage. are typically constructed with bare or tinned copper wires from 32 to 40 AWG in size that are helically applied in a flat or ribbon configuration (Fig.4–Dual Braid Shield Construction on a Multipair Cable Figure 4. Spiral shields range in coverage from 80 percent to about 97 percent. Spiral shields perform best when used at low (audio) frequencies. Braid shields are most effective at low frequencies. Shields 4.4.5–Copper Braid Construction on a Coaxial Cable Table 4.4–Spiral Shields Advantages • Excellent flexibility • Long flex life Disadvantages • Poor electrical performance at high frequencies 59 .

60 .

5 Lead Sheath Wire Serve 61 .2 Continuosly Corrugated and Welded (CCW) 62 62 63 63 63 5.3 Basket-Weave 5. Armor 5.5.1 Interlocked Armor 5. Armor 5.4 5.

Armor Cables often need to be placed in areas where they are subjected to harsh mechanical stresses. Table 5.500 1. The following are some frequently used armor types. Jacket Armor Figure 5.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) Continuously corrugated and welded armor is made by forming an aluminum strip into a circle along its length and then welding it at the seam. other metals are sometimes used for specialized applications. while improving the reliability. This type of sheath provides an impervious seal against moisture and other chemicals as well as physical protection.501 and larger Nominal Thickness (mils) Steel or Bronze 20 25 Aluminum 25 30 5.1 Interlocked Armor Interlocked armor typically uses galvanized steel or aluminum. The interlocking construction protects the cable from damage during and after installation.1). This smooth tube is then rolled or crimped to form ridges to prevent kinking while bending (Fig.1–Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) Armor 62 . The armor may be applied directly over the insulation or over an inner jacket. safety and performance of the cable core. The armor extends the life. 5. However.1–ICEA Recommended Thickness of Interlocked Armor Diameter of Cable (in. 5.) 0 to 1. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of UL. These stresses could damage the insulated conductors or the optical fibers in the cable if they are not properly protected.5. Armor (usually a metal) is frequently applied over the cable core to provide this protection. CSA and/or ICEA.

In locations where corrosive conditions may be encountered. containing added tin or antimony.5 Wire Serve Wire serve armor is most commonly found on submarine cable because it provides excellent physical protection from boat anchors. 63 . sharks. This type of armor is referred to as SWA (steel wire armor) in some international standards. Tar or asphalt (bitumen) is placed over and around the steel wires to reduce the effects of corrosion. yet is much lighter in weight than other types of armored coverings. a lead sheath may be used to protect insulated cables from moisture. Commercially pure lead is used on some lead-covered cables. The wires may be of galvanized steel. which conforms to the requirements of ASTM B29 and ICEA S-93-639 (NEMA WC74).3 Basket-Weave Basket-weave armor is constructed of metal wires forming a braided outer covering. a jacket over the lead sheath is recommended.5. ducts and raceways. are used where a harder sheath is desired or where vibration may be encountered. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of IEEE Standard 1580 and various military specifications. 5. Armor 5. This armor is generally used on shipboard cables because it provides the mechanical protection of an armored cable. This type of armor normally consists of 1/8. sharp rocks. etc. Lead alloy sheaths.4 Lead Sheath For underground installations in conduits. This type of armor is referred to as GSWB (galvanized steel wire braid) in some international standards. aluminum or bronze. which are laid helically around the circumference of the cable. 5.to 1/4-inch diameter solid steel wires.

64 .

3.7.1.4 High Temperature 6.2 6. Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6.1 Flexible Cords 6.5.3.2 Instrumentation Cable 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.5 Special Conditions 6.7.5 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 Power 6.4 Voltage Drop Considerations 6.5.3 Short Circuit Current 6.1 Control Cable 6.5.5.5.2 Mining Cable 67 67 68 6.7.1 Coaxial Cable 6.1.6.3 Construction and Building Wire Control.3 Thermocouple Wire 68 68 68 69 69 6.2 Twinaxial Cable (Twinax) 6.1 Voltage Rating 6.2 Conductor Size 6.6 Armored Power and Control 73 73 73 75 76 78 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.7.7 Electronic Cable 6.4 IBM Cabling System 65 .1 Portable Power and Control 6.3.3 100 ohm Twisted Pair Cable 6.

1 Fiber Types 6.8. MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915) 6.1 Outside Cables 6.11 Optical Fiber Cables 6.6.11. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.2 Fiber Selection 6.8.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection 80 81 81 81 82 82 6.8 Telephone 6.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials 78 78 79 79 6.8.11. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.11.9 Military 6.2 Indoor Cables 6.12 Tray Cables 84 66 .

SOOW. SOW. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.6. Insulation SPT-3 Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 3/64 in. Insulation SPT-2 Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 2/64 in. The temperature rating of these cables can range from –50°C to 105°C for SOOW and –40°C to 90°C for other thermoset cords.1 Portable Power and Control 6. SJOW. and OO = oil-resistant insulation and jacket. Table 6. For example: S = service.1. T = thermoplastic. SJO. Thermoset portable cords have excellent cold bend characteristics and are extremely durable. each letter of the cable type indicates the construction of the cable.1 Flexible Cords Flexible cords come in a number of UL and CSA types including SO.1–Flexible Cord Type Designations TST Tinsel Service Thermoplastic SPT-1 Service Parallel Thermoplastic – 1/64 in. Insulation SV Service Vacuum SVO Service Vacuum Oil-Resistant Jacket SVOO SVO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SVT Service Vacuum Thermoplastic SVTO SVT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVTOO SVTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SVE Service Vacuum Elastomer SVEO SVE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVEOO SVEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJ Service Junior SJO SJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJOO SJO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJOOW Weather Resistant SJOO SJT Service Junior Thermoplastic SJTO SJT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJTOO SJTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJTOOW Weather-Resistant SJTOO SJE Service Junior Elastomer SJEO SJE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJEOO SJEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SJEOOW Weather Resistant SJEOO S Service SO Service with Oil-Resistant Jacket SOO SO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SOOW Weather-Resistant SOO ST Service Thermoplastic STO ST with Oil-Resistant Jacket STOO STO with Oil-Resistant Insulation STOOW Weather-Resistant STOO SE Service Elastomer SEO SE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SEOO SEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation SEOOW Weather-Resistant SEOO HPN Heater Parallel Neoprene HSJ Heater Service Junior HSJO HSJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket 67 . Thermoplastic cords typically have temperature ratings that range from –20°C to 60°C. J = junior service (300 volts). SJ. W = weather resistant. O = oil-resistant jacket. STO and SJTO. Insulation SPE-3 Service Parallel Elastomer – 3/64 in. In portable cord terminology. Insulation SPE-1 Service Parallel Elastomer – 1/64 in. Insulation SPE-2 Service Parallel Elastomer – 2/64 in.

steel. THWN.1–A Typical 600 V Control Cable 68 . Instrumentation and Thermocouple 6. heat resistant.3. SHD cables are generally available with or without a ground check conductor. high heat resistant. nylon jacket THWN-2 – Thermoplastic. solvents and other chemicals (in chemical. In building wire terminology. Shovel (SHD) cables are generally used to power heavy-duty mobile mining equipment. commercial and industrial facilities. wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet) RHW-2 – Thermoset (rubber) insulation. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. high heat resistant. which generally require little power. Environmental Conditions Control cables are generally subject to rather severe environmental conditions.and 600-volt wire and cable including UL Types THW. are vital considerations. THWN-2. along with possible exposure to oils. wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet) USE-2 – Underground Service Entrance wire (-2 means 90°C wet) 6.3 Control. petroleum. thermostat wire. RHH. USE. MPF cables are flexible but are designed for only limited or occasional movement. SER. Therefore. USE-2. SHD cables are unique in that they not only carry voltage ratings up to 25 kV but also have great flexibility and incredible physical toughness. each letter of the wire type indicates something about the construction. 8. high heat resistant. RHW.6. UL types with a “-2” suffix are rated 90°C in both dry and wet locations. can withstand frequent flexing and carry a voltage rating of up to 2 kV.1 Control Cable Control cables differ from power cables in that they are used to carry intermittent control signals.2 Mining Cable Mine power cables are generally designed to be used as flexible feeder cables for circuits between the main power source and mine load centers or as equipment trailing cables. This category of wire is typically used as the permanent wiring in residential. wet and dry locations (-2 means 90°C wet). Mine power feeder (MPF) cables typically have voltage ratings of 5. current loading is rarely a deciding factor in the choice of control cable. there are a number of portable cables used by the mining industry. A ground check (GC) conductor is a separate insulated ground wire that is used to monitor the “health” of the normal ground wire. For low-voltage applications. TFFN. For example: THHN – Thermoplastic. SE-U. pulp and paper and cement plants). The voltage level for control circuits may range anywhere from millivolts up to several hundred volts. Like mine power cables. bare copper PVC Nylon jacket PVC jacket PVC insulation Nylon jacket Tape binder (optional) Figure 6. RHW-2. THHN. For this reason an examination of these conditions is at least as important as electrical considerations. High ambient temperature conditions (such as near boilers and steam lines). Among the most common are Type W and Type G. XHHW.2 Construction and Building Wire Construction and building wire encompasses a wide variety of 300.1. Stranded. 6. Primary criteria that are applied to the selection of control cable are voltage level and environmental conditions. XHHW-2 and others. TFN. 15 or 25 kV and are available with or without a ground check conductor. THW-2. Both cables are a heavy-duty construction. nylon jacket XHHW-2 – Cross-linked (X) insulation.

2 Instrumentation Cable Instrumentation cable is generally used to transmit a low-power signal from a transducer (measuring for example. Thermocouple Types Type J (Iron vs Constantan) is used in vacuum. as it is called. Must be protected from contamination.) to a PLC or DCS process control computer or to a manually operated control panel. Electronic equipment senses this voltage and converts it to temperature. Thermocouple wire or thermocouple extension wire of the same type must be used to extend thermocouples to indicating or control instrumentation. Type E (Chromel vs Constantan) may be used in oxidizing. Exposure to a vacuum should be limited to short time periods. Temperature range. Use thermocouple connectors if required. Produces the highest EMF per degree of any standardized thermocouple. inert or reducing atmospheres.3 Thermocouple Wire A thermocouple is a temperature measuring device consisting of two conductors of dissimilar metals or alloys that are connected together at one end.3. Source: PMC Corporation Figure 6. Note that thermocouple wire color codes can vary around the world. response and service life should be considered. At this thermocouple junction. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. Figure 6. The conditions of measurement determine the type of thermocouple wire and insulation to be used. wire insulation.2–Control Cable with Overall Shield Figure Figure 6. Hook up red color-coded wire to negative terminal of instrument. Type R and S (Platinum vs Rhodium) are used in oxidizing or inert atmospheres. Temperature limit of the thermocouple depends on the thermocouple wire: wire size.6. and therefore heavier gauge wire is recommended for longer life at these temperatures.000°F). Thermocouple wire can be fabricated into an accurate and dependable thermocouple by joining the thermoelements at the sensing end. or for short periods of time under vacuum. oxidizing. Type T (Copper vs Constantan) is used for service in oxidizing. etc. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. Thermocouple wire is available in either thermocouple grade or extension grade. voltage.or 600-volt constructions with a single overall shield. inert or dry reducing atmospheres.3. It is normally available in 300. inert or reducing atmospheres or in a vacuum. It is highly resistant to corrosion from atmospheric moisture and condensation and exhibits high stability at low temperatures. environment. flow. Type K (Chromel vs Alumel) is used in oxidizing. Iron oxidizes rapidly at temperatures exceeding 538°C (1. temperature. Red color code is negative throughout circuit. a small voltage is produced. inert or dry reducing atmospheres. or with individual shields over each pair (or triad) and an overall shield. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. it is the only type with limits of error guaranteed for cryogenic temperatures. insulation requirements. Extension grade wire is normally lower in cost and is recommended for use in connecting thermocouples to the sensing or control equipment. and environmental factors.4–A Typical Thermocouple Circuit 69 . They are made of the same alloys and have the same color codes as extension wire. pressure.3–Control Cable with Individually Shielded Pairs and An Overall Shield 6.

TGS and UL Styles 3212. 3213 and 3214 UL Style 3284 and CSA CL1254 Type 70 .1 Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys *Iron vs Constantan Chromel vs *Alumel Copper vs Constantan Chromel vs Constantan Platinum vs 13% Rhodium (2) Platinum vs 10% Rhodium (2) ANSI Symbol JX KX TX EX RX SX +/– Individual White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red Black/Red Black/Red Color Code Jacket Black Yellow Blue Purple Green Green *Magnetic 6.2–Color Code for Thermocouple Wire Per ANSI/ISA MC96.3–Color Code for Thermocouple Extension Wire Per ANSI/ISA MC96. 3075. TCGT (UL Style 5288) SRG (UL Styles 3071.4 High Temperature High temperature generally refers to wire or cable with a temperature rating of 125°C (257°F) or higher. The table below lists some of the most common high-temperature wire and cable types along with their temperature rating. 3125.4–High-Temperature Wire and Cable °C 538 450 250 200 150 125 °F 1.1 Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys *Iron (1) vs Constantan (2) Chromel (1) vs *Alumel (2) Copper (1) vs Constantan (2) Chromel (1) vs Constantan (2) Platinum (1) vs 13% Rhodium (2) Platinum (1) vs 10% Rhodium (2) ANSI Symbol J K T E R S +/– Individual White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red – – Color Code Jacket Brown Brown Brown Brown – – *Magnetic Table 6. 3172 and 3231).000 842 482 392 302 257 MG (Non-UL) MG (UL Style 5107) TGGT (UL Styles 5196 and 5214).6. SRK. SRGK and UL Types SF-2 and SFF-2 SRG. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Table 6. Table 6. TKGT (UL Style 5214) TMMG. 3074.

The temperature at which a particular cable will operate is affected by the ability of the surrounding material to conduct away the heat. Cables rated 5 kV and above are separated into two classifications: grounded systems (100 percent insulation level) and ungrounded systems (133 percent insulation level). the presence of the other cables effectively increases the ambient temperature. 71 . Similarly.2 Conductor Size Conductor size is based principally on three considerations: • Current-carrying capacity (ampacity) • Short-circuit current • Voltage drop The current-carrying capacity of a cable is affected primarily by the permissible operating temperature of its insulation.1 Voltage Rating The system voltage on which the cable is to operate determines the required cable voltage rating. adjacent sources of heat. etc. 6. proximity of other cables. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. Occasionally. It is apparent from the above that many conditions must be known before an accurate current-carrying capacity can be determined for a particular cable installation. as well as reduced cable diameter. For this reason each conductor of such a circuit must have additional insulation. This condition results in full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation of each of the other two conductors. The higher the operating temperature of the insulation. The current-carrying capacity is materially affected by the ambient temperature as well as by the installation conditions. when a cable is run close to other cables.6. flexibility and flame resistance 6. a cable installed in a 40°C ambient temperature has an ampacity that is only about 90 percent of the ampacity in a 30°C ambient.5. In case of a phase-to-ground fault in a three-phase system. Running a single-conductor cable through a magnetic conduit will increase the apparent resistance of the cable and will also result in a lower current-carrying capacity due to the additional resistance and magnetic losses. thermal conductivity of soil. which decreases the ability of the cable to dissipate its heat. The direct result of such a design is lower cost.5 Power Below are some of the key considerations when selecting a power cable: • System voltage • Current loading (ampacity) • External thermal conditions such as ambient temperature. it is possible to operate ungrounded systems for up to one hour with one conductor at ground potential. • Voltage drop • Special conditions. the higher the current-carrying capacity of a given conductor size. Cables designed for use on grounded systems take advantage of the absence of this full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation and use thinner insulation. such as the presence of corrosive agents. emergency overload conditions are also involved and may affect conductor size.5. For example.

Table 6.5–Thickness in Mils of Insulation for Medium-Voltage Cables 2. on short.001-28. even though the current load is adequately handled by a smaller size conductor. Due to voltage drop considerations.000 V PVC jacket Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield PVC jacket Binder tape Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield Copper conductor Copper shielding tape EPR insulation Copper conductor Copper wire shield XLP insulation Figure 6. low-voltage lines is governed by voltage drop.000 V 8. From a thermal standpoint there is a limit to the amount of short-circuit current that a cable can handle without damage.001-8.4 Voltage Drop Considerations Cable conductor size is sometimes governed by voltage drop rather than by heating. Generally. 72 .0015.3 Short Circuit Current A second consideration in selection of conductor size is that of the short-circuit current.6–Typical Wire Shielded 15 kV Power Cable 6.000 V Percent Insulation Level 100 90 90 90 90 90 100 – 115 115 115 115 133 – 140 140 140 140 100 – – 175 175 175 133 – – 220 220 220 100 – – – 260 260 133 – – – 320 320 100 – – – 280 280 133 – – – 345 345 100 – – – – 345 133 – – – – 420 25.000 V 15.5–Typical Tape Shielded 15 kV Power Cable Figure 6.5. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. conductor size on long.6.001-15. it might be necessary to increase conductor size. which the cable must be able to carry in an emergency.001-35.000 V Conductor Size (AWG or kcmil) 8 6-4 2 1 1/0-2000 5.5.001-25.000 V 28. high-voltage lines by heating.

steam lines. etc.7 Electronic Cable This category of wire and cable covers thousands of small gauge single-conductor wire types along with many types of multiconductor cables. 6. Some common types and key characteristics are described below.) • The effect of magnetic materials such as pipes or structural members close to large cables carrying heavy current loads • The presence of corrosive chemicals in the soil or other locations in which the cable is installed • The interference that may occur in telecommunication circuits because of adjacent power cables • Flame and radiation resistance • Mechanical toughness • Moisture resistance • Overload and fault current requirements All special conditions should be carefully investigated. For information on the various types and their applications.5. which separates the inner and outer conductors • Jacket. 6. conductor count.1 Coaxial Cable A coaxial cable consists of four basic parts: • Inner conductor (center conductor) • Outer conductor (shield) • Dielectric. These basic types come in various combinations of stranding. etc. before proceeding with an important cable installation.7–Typical Coaxial Cable 73 .7. jacket material. insulation material. see Section 5 – Armor. and the advice of competent engineers obtained.5 Special Conditions The following are only a few of the many special conditions that may affect cable selection: • The presence of large sources of heat (boilers. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6. which is the outer polymer layer protecting the parts inside Outer conductor Inner conductor PVC jacket PE dielectric Figure 6.6.6 Armored Power and Control Armored cables comprise a group of cables that are designed to withstand severe mechanical and chemical environments. 6.

For example. The most efficient transfer of energy from a source to a load occurs when all parts of the system have the same characteristic impedance. Coaxial Types The following paragraphs describe four common types of coaxial cable. depending on the dielectric constant of the material. a transmitter. 74 . Consequently. it does not provide complete shielding – energy (RF signals) can leak through the shield via minute gaps in the braid. a velocity of 65 percent means that the energy travels at 120. In addition. VSWR The voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) is a measure of the standing waves that result from reflections. One caution: Do not confuse a flexible cable having a multilayer outer shield with triaxial cable. This construction gives the cable a very uniform characteristic impedance (low VSWR) and excellent shielding. however. Operating Temperature Range These are the minimum and maximum temperatures at which the cable can operate. In free space or air. speedy transfer of energy. • Triaxial Cable (Triax) This coax has two outer conductors (shields) separated by a dielectric layer. While the braid makes the cable flexible. while the other serves as earth ground. This need for impedance matching is especially critical at higher frequencies. the quality of the dielectric is important to efficient. which is dependent on length. The greater the coverage. One outer conductor (shield) serves as a signal ground.6. flexible coax has a braided outer conductor (shield) of extremely fine wires. • Dual Coax This cable contains two individual coaxial cables surrounded by a common outer jacket. which is 186. similar to a pipe. The characteristic impedance of a cable should not be confused with the impedance of the conductors in a cable. Voltage Rating This is the maximum voltage the cable is designed to handle. electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light. the current associated with the energy travels primarily on the outside of the center conductor and the inside of the outer conductor (shield).900 miles per second – or 35 percent slower than in free space. Although the electromagnetic energy travels in the dielectric. but at the expense of flexibility. It expresses the uniformity or quality of a cable’s characteristic impedance.000 miles per second. where the consequences of mismatches are more severe. Characteristic impedance is independent of length and typically ranges from 35 to 185 ohms. The dielectric (insulation) separating the two conductors determines the velocity of propagation. the energy travels slower. providing better noise immunity and shielding. 75 and 93 ohms. tubular metallic outer conductor. thin foils are sometimes used to supplement the braid to provide better coverage for greater shielding effectiveness. interconnecting cable and receiver should all have the same impedance. Cable Types and Selection Criteria Characteristic Impedance The characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is a function of its geometry and materials. For example. the better the shield. To combat this. • Semirigid Coax Semirigid coax has a solid. The two conductors bind the energy within the cable. Velocity of propagation is expressed as a percentage of the speed of light. Velocity of Propagation Velocity of propagation is the speed at which electromagnetic energy travels along the cable. The most common values are 50. In other materials. Speed is important to engineers who must know the transit time of signals for digital transmission. Uniformity is also measured as structural return loss (SRL). many cables have several layers in the outer conductor. • Flexible Coax The most common type.

but it is held to the tighter tolerances common to fixed-impedance coaxial cable. A common use of twinax is high-speed.9–A Typical Twinaxial Cable 75 . Cable Types and Selection Criteria Flexible Coax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Semirigid Coax Outer conductor Inner conductor Inner conductor Dielectric Triax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor (braid) Jacket Dual Coax Outer conductor (braid) Dielectric Dielectric Inner conductor Dielectric Inner conductor Figure 6.2 Twinaxial Cable (Twinax) Twinax has a pair of insulated conductors encased in a common outer conductor (shield). which provides greater noise immunity.8–Common Types of Coaxial Cable 6. the cable is often similar to a shielded twisted pair. In appearance.7. The center conductors may be either twisted or run parallel to one another.6. balanced-mode multiplexed transmission in large computer systems. Balanced mode means that the signal is carried on both conductors. Jacket Twinax Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor Dielectric Figure 6.

3 PSNEXT (dB) 62.3 53.3 48.8 35.8 48.6 8.9 35.0 20.3 100 ohm Twisted-Pair Cable 100 ohm unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP) are low pair-count cables (usually 4 pairs) that have been designed for use in local area networks such as Ethernet.0 4.8 30.8 PSELFEXT (dB) 60.8 32.0 16. 6 and 6A.8 39. Insertion loss.3 10.0 10.9 24.7.7–Category 5e Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 1.5 9.7 34.2 PSNEXT (dB) 43 41 32 28 26 23 Maximum propagation delay: 545 ns/100 m at 10 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at 16 MHz Characteristic impedance: 10015 ohms from 1 to 16 MHz Table 6.7 13.8 51. 5e.0 4.7 40.8 6.0 25.4 35.3 27.6. crosstalk.5 20.8 44. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 6.0 4.5 25.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 2.1 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at 100 MHz 76 .3 56.3 32.9 23.4 11.0 24.4 32.2 and its related addenda.2 9.772 1.7 17.0 NEXT (dB) 65.8 26.1 NEXT (dB) 43.0 8.3 44.0 40.6 5. Table 6.0 10.0 23.3 23.6 21.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 2.6–Category 3 Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 0.8 41.5 8.1 5.9 27.0 31.8 33.3 23.2 42.5 100.7 37.2 2.9 20.0 24.25 62. Because of their relatively low cost these cable types are widely used and are available in several different performance categories (levels) – currently Categories 3.7 43.8 47.3 39.3 51.8 Return Loss (dB) 20.8 45.0 25.3 42. impedance and other electrical parameters are specified in ANSI/TIA-568-B.0 22.0 16.3 47.0 25.8 50.2 45.9 38. A summary of their electrical requirements are shown below.8 36.8 42.0 8.3 ELFEXT (dB) 63.

Cable Types and Selection Criteria Table 6.0 67.8 PSNEXT (dB) 72.8 39.4 19.3 16.8 49.8 43.0 4.8 43.8 57.3 58.7 44.3 NEXT (dB) 74.8 5.2 25.2 5.0 64.8 59.1 42.7 10.0 32.6 21.2 48.8 46.1 36.0 10.0 25.3 65.1 18.0 400.7 13.8 36.0 25.7 37.9 45.3 39.6 21.3 54.3 26.25 62.1 58.7 44.3 37.3 6.8 PSELFEXT (dB) 67.0 300.0 74.9 47.0 250.3 32.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 1.5 61.0 16.0 67.9 45.8 18.3 34.8 40.0 500.25 62.8 51.0 31.4 20.8 Return Loss (dB) 20.2 50.0 67.8 18.8 34.0 25.2 54.3 42.1 33.3 49.3 63.3 54.6.8 37.0 450.2 52.8 29.8 38.5 8.0 67.5 100.0 25.0 67.8 55.0 200.9 12.5 25.5 20.8 59.7 41.7 45.8 40.3 58.3 37.5 31.1 24.0 350.1 52.9 47.9 24.8 51.3 51.5 33.9 27.3 15.0 4.8 38.0 24.9 28.8 49.8 19.0 150.9 28.1 23.6 31.0 3.7 47.3 ELFEXT (dB) 70.1 35.0 7.0 64.2 34.2 60.7 27.8 52.4 42.0 200.1 18.2 30.0 67.8 16.3 PSNEXT (dB) 74.8 36.0 8.7 38.0 67.8 39.0 17.6 58.8–Category 6 Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 0.0 8.9 15.8 5.9 7.8 21.3 49.7 32.8 Return Loss (dB) 19.7 27.0 66.0 23.4 10.8 37.0 24.0 67.2 40.7 38.8 14.0 67.8 NEXT (dB) 76.3 23.3 65.8 16.3 21.5 62.0 20.8 34.8 ACRF (dB) 67.0 23.1 3.9 31.0 72.8 36.5 25.7 41.8 11.1 34.5 57.9 18.0 25.3 56.9 31.0 Insertion Loss (dB) 2.5 15.0 16.5 PSAACRF (dB) 67.0 59.3 39.0 25.8 16.3 41.8 46.3 13.9 27.4 44.4 56.2 54.9 15.8 2.0 31.3 51.3 16.8 24.5 100.3 35.5 9.5 10.3 38.8 55.3 56.0 24.0 67.9 24.9–Category 6A Performance (100 meters) Frequency (MHz) 1.6 8.8 15.4 9.2 PSANEXT (dB) 67.3 23.7 47.0 20.8 52.8 19.3 18.0 10.6 21.3 60.5 20.7 39.0 17.0 250.3 37.0 24.8 53.2 52.8 PSACRF (dB) 64.2 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at all frequencies 77 .4 44.0 67.2 28.3 63.1 34.8 57.8 53.3 Maximum propagation delay: 538 ns/100 m at 100 MHz (536 at 250 MHz) Maximum delay skew: 45 ns/100 m at all frequencies Table 6.2 54.8 36.4 42.0 19.772 1.7 15.3 60.5 15.

Emissions refer to energy that is radiated by the cable that might affect the proper operation of a neighboring circuit or system. Exchange cables. careful design of the cable and the associated electronic equipment results in a “balance” of the currents in the two conductors of a pair. the interstices between insulated conductors are filled with a waterproofing gel to prevent the ingress and longitudinal movement of water. Exchange cables are manufactured in “filled” and “unfilled” (aircore) versions. When properly grounded (connected) to the associated electronic equipment. In an unshielded (UTP) cable. 78 .. mechanical damage and lightning induced voltages. Some aircore cable designs are kept dry by pressurizing the core of the cable with dry air or nitrogen. Wire or cable used indoors. up to large 1. copper and optical fiber cables provide the communication links that have become essential to society. or sometimes called black cable. inside homes and commercial buildings.8.” which is a 2-pair DGM cable with smaller conductors (26 AWG instead of 22 AWG).1 Outside Cables Outside cables typically range in size from small (2 to 6 pair) constructions. 6. Many high pair-count copper cables have been replaced by optical fiber cables. Electromagnetic interference is present in all types of cabling to some degree. Water is the “Achilles’ heel” of outdoor telephone cable because it increases capacitance (normally 0. the other to the ring of the plug. which are usually referred to as “service drop” or “buried distribution” wire (the cable installed in many residential backyards). Immunity is the ability of the cable to reject outside signals that might interfere with the proper operation of the circuit or system to which the cable is attached. there is very little radiation of EMI since the external field from one conductor is effectively canceled by the external field from the other conductor of the pair. which are typically installed between central offices of the telephone company. Shielded cables generally use an aluminum or copper shield to provide protection. are designed with various combinations of polyethylene (PE) jackets and aluminum.083 µF per mile) between the “tip” and “ring” conductors and compromises crosstalk (pair-to-pair signal coupling) performance of the cable.5 (Token Ring) networks and equipment. e. Cable types include “Type 1. 6. With the advent of optical fiber cables in the early 1980s. Generally. The PE jacket and metal armoring isolate signal-carrying conductor pairs from moisture. “Type 2.8 Telephone Telephone cables play a major role in modern communications.” which is a 2-pair DGM cable. because they are often installed in underground ducts or directly buried in the earth. is referred to as premises distribution wiring or more simply as inside cable. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 100-ohm Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) vs Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) There are two basic types of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that cable engineers worry about – EMI emissions and EMI immunity. the shield acts as a barrier to incoming as well as outgoing EMI. One conductor was attached to the tip. offers better protection from EMI problems. For example. Telephone cable is usually classified according to its location of use. Category 5e cable has more twists per foot than Category 3 cable and. 6. the more twists per foot of the cable.7. the better the cable is electrically balanced. Cable types consist of various combinations of shielded data grade media (DGM) and non-shielded voice grade media (VGM).4 IBM Cabling System The IBM Cabling System is a structured building wiring system that is compatible with IEEE 802. In a balanced system. therefore. Cable used outdoors between the telephone company’s central office and the building being served is referred to as outside cable. The terms tip and ring are carryovers from earlier days when each twisted pair was terminated with a 1/4-inch diameter plug at a manually operated switchboard. With filled cables.g.” which contains two DGM pairs plus four VGM pairs and “Type 6. failure to properly manage EMI can have an adverse effect on the integrity of the transmitted information. That is. In conjunction with microwave and satellite transmission. In local area networks (LANs). telephone wire and cable has generally been grouped into three broad categories: 1) fiber.500 pair “exchange” cables.6. copper or steel sheaths. 2) copper and 3) hybrid (composite) cable with both fiber and copper components under one jacket. the currents in the two conductors are equal in magnitude but flowing in opposite directions.

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.8.2 Indoor Cables Inside wire and cable is usually divided into 1) station wire and 2) inside cable (sometimes called IC). Station wire is usually 2 to 4 pair, 22 or 24 AWG wire and is typically installed in residences. While station wire is one type of inside wire, it is usually designed for both indoor and outdoor use because it often extends to the exterior of the building. True inside cable, on the other hand, is typically larger (25 to 200 pair) 22 or 24 AWG cable, which is installed exclusively indoors in larger public and commercial buildings. Station wire and inside cables are usually used in plenum, riser, and general purpose versions. The plenum version is a highly flame retardant construction that is capable of passing the Steiner Tunnel Flame Test (NFPA-262). Article 800 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that telephone wire and cable be plenum rated when installed indoors in plenums (air handling spaces) without conduit, i.e., it must carry the marking CMP (CM for communication and P for plenum). When installed in vertical risers in multistory buildings, a riser rating, i.e., Type CMR, is required. General purpose communication cables must be labeled Type CM. Cables installed in one- and two-family dwellings must be identified as Type CMX. 6.8.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials Two thermoplastic polymers are generally used to insulate the conductors of outdoor telephone wire and cable: polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE). These polymers are used primarily because of their low dielectric constant, high dielectric strength (to withstand lightning induced overvoltages), excellent moisture resistance, mechanical toughness, extrudability in thin walls and low cost. Indoor dielectrics include PP and PE but, in addition, include FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene or Teflon), ECTFE (ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene or Halar) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride). FEP and ECTFE are used in plenum cables to provide the necessary flame retardancy and are extruded on the wire in either solid or foamed (expanded) versions. The most important telephone wire and cable electrical characteristics and their usual units of measurement include capacitance (microfarads per mile), conductor resistance (ohm per loop-mile), crosstalk (decibel isolation between pairs) and attenuation (decibels per mile). When used for high-speed digital applications, characteristic impedance (ohm) and structural return loss (decibels) also become important. The mechanical and chemical characteristics of telephone cable insulation are as important as the electrical characteristics. Several important mechanical and chemical characteristics include compression cut resistance, low-temperature brittleness, resistance to the base oils used in filling gels, adequate tensile and elongation properties, and acceptable long-term aging characteristics.

79

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.9 Military
The U.S. military has developed extensive specifications for many wire and cable types used in military applications. This includes hook-up and lead wire, airframe wire, control cable and coax. A MIL-Spec wire or cable must meet rigorous performance requirements. Tests that prove the wire or cable meets the specified requirements must be conducted by the manufacturer and must be carefully documented. Following is a partial list of military wire and cable types.
Type MIL-C-5756 MIL-C-7078 MIL-C-13294 MIL-DTL-915 MIL-DTL-3432 MIL-DTL-8777 MIL-DTL-13486 MIL-DTL-16878 MIL-DTL-24640 MIL-DTL-24643 MIL-DTL-25038 MIL-DTL-23053 MIL-DTL-27072 MIL-DTL-27500 MIL-DTL-49055 MIL-DTL-55021 MIL-I-22129 MIL-W-76 MIL-W-5845 MIL-W-5846 MIL-W-81822 MIL-W-47206 Cable, aerospace vehicle (replaced by NEMA WC27500) Field wire (replaced by MIL-DTL-49104–inactive) Shipboard cable (inactive for new design except outboard types) Power and special purpose cables used for ground support systems (“CO” types), 300 and 600 V Aircraft wire, silicone insulated, 600 V, 200˚C (inactive for new design) Cable, special purpose, low tension, single and multiconductor, shielded and unshielded General purpose hook-up and lead wire Shipboard cable, lightweight Shipboard cable, low smoke Aircraft wire, inorganic fibrous/Teflon insulation, high temperature and fire resistant, engine zone wire Tubing, heat shrink (replaced by SAE-AMS-DTL-23053) Cable, power and special purpose, multiconductor and single shielded Aerospace and other general application wire (replaced by NEMA WC27500) Cable, power, flat, unshielded Cable, shielded singles, twisted pairs and triples, internal hook-up Tubing, PTFE, nonshrink General purpose hook-up wire Thermocouple wire, iron and Constantan (cancelled with no replacement) Thermocouple wire, chromel and alumel Solderless wrap (wire wrap), insulated and uninsulated (replaced by SAE-AS81822) Cable, single conductor, twisted pairs; and multiconductor, high temperature (replaced by MIL-DTL-27500) Description Cable and wire, portable power, rubber insulated (replaced by SAE-AS5756)

80

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-DTL-24643, MIL-DTL-24640 and MIL-DTL-915)
Due to concern about flammability, smoke and toxicity, the U.S. Navy introduced the MIL-DTL-24643 cable specification. Generally, this document provides low-smoke, fire-retardant cables that are approximately equivalent in size, weight and electricals to many of the older MIL-DTL-915 constructions. In consideration of circuit density, weight and size, the U.S. Navy produced the MIL-DTL-24640 cable document. The cables covered by this specification are also low-smoke, fire-retardant constructions, but they are significantly lighter in weight and smaller in diameter. MIL-DTL-24640 cables are used to interconnect systems where weight and space savings are critical; however, they are not direct replacements. Because the overall diameters have been reduced and electrical characteristics may have been changed, they should not be used to replace existing MIL-DTL-915 or MIL-DTL-24643 constructions unless a comprehensive electrical and physical system evaluation or redesign has been completed. For many years, most of the shipboard power and lighting cables for fixed installation had silicone-glass insulation, polyvinyl chloride jacket, and aluminum armor and were of watertight construction. It was determined that cables with all of these features were not necessary for many applications, especially for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas above the watertightness level. Therefore, for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas, a new family of non-watertight lower cost cables was designed. This family of cables is electrically and dimensionally interchangeable with silicone-glass insulated cables of equivalent sizes and is covered by Military Specification MIL-DTL-915.

6.11 Optical Fiber Cables
In all types of optical fiber cables, the individual optical fibers are the signal transmission media that act as individual optical wave guides. The fibers consist of a central transparent core region that propagates the optical radiation and an outer layerµm that completes the guiding structure. 125 µm The core 50 or 62.5 125 µm cladding 8 µm core and the cladding are typically made of pure silica glass, though other materials can be used. To achieve high signal bandwidth capabilities, the core region diameter core diameter diameter diameter sometimes has a varying (or graded) refractive index. Multimode Fiber Single-mode Fiber 6.11.1 Fiber Types
In pulse Out pulse

Multimode 125 µm 50 or 62.5 µm diameter core diameter Multimode Fiber In pulse 8 µm core diameter 125 µm diameter Single-mode

Single-mode Fiber

Out pulse Figure 6.10–Optical Fiber Types

There are two basic fiber types – single-mode and multimode. Single-mode has a core diameter of 8 to 10 microns and is normally used for long distance requirements (e.g., interstate) and high-bandwidth (information carrying capacity) applications. Multimode, on the other hand, has a core diameter of 50 orMultimode 62.5 microns and is usually used intrabuilding. Laser-optimized fibers are a fairly recent development in which 50-micron multimode fibers are optimized for 850 nm VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting laser) sources and can provide significantly increased bandwidth performance when compared with standard multimode fiber types. The added bandwidth of laser-optimized 50-micron fiber allows for distance support up to 550 meters for 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks as well as providing a lower overall Single-mode system cost when compared with single-mode systems utilizing higher cost 1300 or 1550 laser sources. Laser-optimized fiber is referred to as “OM3” fiber in ISO/IEC-11801. OM3 fibers are also referenced by other industry standards, such as the ANSI/TIA-568 wiring standards and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). OM1 and OM2 designations are specified for standard 62.5 and 50 micron multimode fibers, respectively.

81

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.11.2 Fiber Selection The three major fiber parameters used in selecting the proper fiber for an application are bandwidth, attenuation and core diameter. Bandwidth The bandwidth at a specified wavelength represents the highest sinusoidal light modulation frequency that can be transmitted through a length of fiber with an optical signal power loss equal to 50 percent (-3 dB) of the zero modulation frequency component. The bandwidth is expressed in megahertz over a kilometer length (MHz-km). Attenuation The optical attenuation denotes the amount of optical power lost due to absorption and scattering of optical radiation at a specified wavelength in a length of fiber. It is expressed as an attenuation in decibels of optical power per kilometer (dB/km). The attenuation is determined by launching a narrow spectral band of light into the full length of fiber and measuring the transmitted intensity. This measure is then repeated for the first 1.5 to 2.5 meters of the same fiber cable without disturbing the input end of the fiber. The dB/km attenuation is then calculated and normalized to 1 km. Core Diameter The fiber core is the central region of an optical fiber whose refractive index is higher than that of the fiber cladding. Various core diameters are available to permit the most efficient coupling of light from commercially available light sources, such as LEDs or laser diodes.

Ray outside acceptance cone Acceptance cone

Cladding

Core

Ray lost in cladding by absorption
Figure 6.11–Optical Fiber Attenuation 6.11.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection Another important consideration when specifying optical fiber cable is the cable construction. Proper selection depends on the environment in which the cable will be installed. One of two different types of cable construction are generally employed to contain and protect the optical fibers. Loose Buffer The first is a loose buffer tube construction where the fiber is contained in a water-blocked polymer tube that has an inner diameter considerably larger than the fiber itself. This provides a high level of isolation for the fiber from external mechanical forces that might be present on the cable. For multifiber cables, a number of these tubes, each containing one or more fibers, are combined with the necessary longitudinal strength member. Loose buffer cables are typically used in outdoor applications and can accommodate the changes in external conditions (e.g., contraction in cold weather and elongation in warm weather).

82

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

Tight Buffer The second cable construction is a tight buffer tube design. Here, a thick buffer coating is placed directly on the fiber. Both constructions have inherent advantages. The loose buffer tube construction offers lower cable attenuation from a given fiber, plus a high level of isolation from external forces. This means more stable transmission characteristics under continuous mechanical stress. The tight buffer construction permits smaller, lighter weight designs and generally yields a more flexible cable. A comparison of these two cable constructions is shown below.

Fiber

Loose buffer tube

Tight buffer tube

Figure 6.12–Optical Fiber Cable Designs Table 6.10–A Comparison of Loose Tube and Tight Buffer Optical Fiber Cable
Cable Parameter Bend radius Diameter Tensile strength, installation Impact resistance Crush resistance Attenuation change at low temperatures Cable Construction Loose Tube Larger Larger Higher Higher Higher Lower Tight Buffer Smaller Smaller Lower Lower Lower Higher

Strength Members Once the optical fiber is surrounded with a buffer, either loose or tight, strength members are added to the cable structure to keep the fibers free from stress and to minimize elongation and contraction. Such strength members provide tensile load properties similar to electronic cables and, in some cases, are used as temperature stabilization elements. Jacket As with conventional metallic cables, the jacket protects the core from the external environment. With optical fibers, however, the selection of materials is influenced by the fact that the thermal coefficient of expansion of glass is significantly lower than that of the metal or plastic used in the cable structure. Installation Normal cable loads sustained during installation or environmental movements first stress the strength members without transferring the stress to the optical fibers. If the load is increased, the fiber may ultimately be placed in a tensile stress state. This level of stress may cause microbending losses that result in attenuation increase and possibly fatigue effects.

83

6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria

6.12 Tray Cables
Tray cables are a special class of cables designed to meet stringent flame test requirements. A tray cable rating is given to a cable if it can meet the UL or CSA Standard for the rating. To obtain the rating, a cable must pass the 70,000 BTU, UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame test or the Vertical Flame Test described in CSA C22.2 No. 0.3 (See Section 11.2 Fire Safety Tests for additional information). In effect, a cable does not have a tray cable rating unless it is so marked, for example “for CT use” or “Type TC.” Electrical inspectors will usually reject a cable even if it is capable of passing the tray cable fire test unless it is clearly marked on the cable as being a tray-rated cable. A summary of applicable UL Standards, listings and markings is shown in Table 6.11. Note that, in some cases, the tray rating is an optional marking and is not an inherent part of the listing. Other UL and CSA Types that can be installed in tray in accordance with the NEC include CL2, CL2R, CL2P, CL3, CL3R, CL3P, OFN, OFNR and OFNP. Table 6.11–Tray Cable Listings and Markings for Cable Allowed in Tray
Standard UL 4 UL 13 UL Listings (Types) AC PLTC Optional Markings For CT use Low Smoke Direct burial ER (Exposed Run) Wet locations For CT use (1/0 and larger) Sunlight resistant Oil resistant Pump cable (LS) Limited smoke (LS) Limited smoke For CT use Direct burial Sunlight resistant Oil resistant Direct burial Sunlight resistant Oil resistant ER (Exposed Run) LS (Limited Smoke) Direct burial Sunlight resistant CI (Circuit Integrity) Limited combustible Wet location Direct burial Sunlight resistant CI (Circuit Integrity) Limited combustible Wet location For CT USC Sunlight resistant Direct burial (LS) Limited smoke Direct burial Wet location ER (Exposed Run)

UL 44

XHHW-2 RHW-2, RHH, RH SIS, SA

UL 444 UL 1072

CM, CMR, CMP, CMG MV

UL 1277

TC

UL 1424

FPL, FPLR, FPLP

UL 1425

NPLF, NPLFR, NPLFP

UL 1569

MC

UL 2250

ITC

84

6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance 7.10 Resistance and Ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz 7. Electrical Characteristics 7.8 7.7. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 7.11 7.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors 7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz 86 89 91 92 93 94 95 96 99 100 101 102 102 7.9 Voltage Drop Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current 7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz 7.12 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables Ampacity of Power Cables 7.7 7.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings 85 .2 DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors 7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors 7.

025 0.453/30 1. 7.028 0.200 448.500 551.404 599.0184 0.0146 0.0218 0.127/24 4.372/24 5.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) 777 750 750 750 700 700 700 650 650 650 646 600 600 600 550 550 550 535 500 500 500 450 450 450 444 400 400 400 373 No.141 449.406 593.0158 0.0169 0.729/24 6.302 545.596/24 6.0139 0.019 455.0200 0.470/24 5. The following sections provide information on some of the most frequently requested electrical parameters.517/30 1.862/24 7. physical.0316 1.125/24 5.319 452.533 691.0165 0.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors Table 7.0200 0.988 698.0171 0.895 598.448/30 703/0.0304 1.916/30 703/0.0183 0.000 ft.684 644.0185 0.000 373.7.029 Continued >> 86 .800 701.728 751.267 744. the wire or cable must be selected so that its many electrical.0157 0. chemical and thermal properties match those of the application.647/24 703/0.028 0. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Nickel Plated – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Tin Plated 0.709 Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1. safely and efficiently.0146 0.0222 0.0165 0.985/30 703/0.0243 0.0169 0.0244 0.700 665.826 395.0306 980/24 3.930 399.522/30 1.0327 1.400 451.110/24 427/0.600 649.800 651.0342 1. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.451 399.152 554.0148 0.436 494.0292 1.0241 0.300 538.028 0.054/30 427/0. Electrical Characteristics For a wire or cable to perform its intended function reliably.0220 0.028 1.952/24 703/0.0204 0.0200 0.912 505.0325 1.332/24 427/0.) 1.711 752.990/30 925/24 Strand Class AAR H I K H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K AAR Nominal Area (cmils) 788.

0385 19/0.069 0.165 0.989/30 646/24 427/0.0202 817/30 259/0.103 0.045/30 259/0.068 257.10 1.134 0.0286 882/24 3.052 0.13 1.18 1.043 0.02 1.20 1.775 104.164 0.067 0.035 0.337 345.137 0.084 0.404 9.900 210.016 133/0.000 ft.0211 133/29 7/0.500 105.0199 133/25 133/0.393 0.116 0.137 0.682 81.202 26.052 0.03 1.654 1.665/30 427/0.088 0.0265 735/24 2.500 66.990 250.165 0.00 1.0242 637/24 2.535 16.458/30 777/24 427/0.900 212.031 0.) 427/0.343 166.031 0.168 0.499/30 2.10 1.140 52.107 0.628 0.376 10.689 0.0223 133/0.354 6.947 298.082 0.249 0.409 0.330/30 427/0.916 299.259 0.0158 133/27 19/0.818 16.65 Continued >> 87 .640 0.0305 Strand Class H I K AAR H I K AAR H I K K H K H K H K H K H K H H H H H H C D H B C D B Nominal Area (cmils) 349.700 83.800 313.269 356.134 0.018 665/30 259/0.916 66.983 10.042 0.264 0.037 0.037 0.043 0.032 0.861 296.000 133.473 16.105 0.249 0.168 0.401 133.642 1.044 0.052 0.066 0.354 249.165 0.052 0.500 167.692 0.053 0.616 1.59 Nickel Plated – – – – – – – – – – – 0.109/30 427/0.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors (Continued) Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) 350 350 350 313 300 300 300 262 250 250 250 4/0 4/0 3/0 3/0 2/0 2/0 1/0 1/0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 12  No.083 0. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated – – – – – – – – – – – 0.669 42.417 0.655 0.7.512 Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.165 0.0177 1.053 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.0234 37/26 7/0.066 0.066 0.304 66.084 0.168 0.630 0.205 0.164 0.900 260.177 0.107 0.037 0.0295 37/0.0198 1.083 0.00 1.168 0.0223 1.75 Tin Plated 0.067 0.325 0.129 0.615 33.144 0. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.105 0.259 0.

41 4.60 90.60 6.62 2.60 24.38 6.28 4.0 244.65 – 9.0242 19/27 19/0.503 5.079 4.71 1.608 1.20 4.28 10/30 19/32 7/30 19/34 7/34 19/36 7/0.90 34.50 33. I and K per ASTM 88 .580 2. H.70 1.426 2.000 1.831 4.500 4.769 1.99 6.86 5.58 4.18 9.111 1.600 1.088 6.07 15.59 2.30 82.216 700 754 448 475 314 277 304 175 182 112 118 67 43 28 Nominal DC Resistance ohms/1.50 58.10 33.0192 19/29 19/0.87 2.40 39.600 2.22 6.61 5.75 1.67 6.1–DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors (Continued) Wire Size (AWG/kcmil) 12 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 24 24 25 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 34 36 No.62 2.27 – 8.00 99.10 6.0185 37/28 65/30 7/0.60 14.10 36. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.80 1.099 3.70 2.14 6.65 4.86 5.60 1.39 4.23 4.49 4.53 14.2 Note:  AAR – American Association of Railroads Strand Classes B.100 2.10 21.) 19/25 19/0.62 4.53 2.00 163.0117 26/30 7/0.40 54.10 60.81 1.0 Nickel Plated 1.10 5.86 2.14 4.874 6. C.69 2.617 1.0147 37/0.900 1.60 13.30 58.70 66.27 4.80 35.61 2.70 148.65 2.105 4.81 2.63 2.58 9.0105 41/30 7/0.0067 7/34 19/38 7/36 19/40 7/38 19/42 7/40 7/42 7/44 Strand Class C C D K B C C D K B C C K B B K C C B K C B C B C B B C B C B C B B B Nominal Area (cmils) 6.69 9.600 1.20 88.000 ft.02 4.20 14.82 9.0 241.0 256.0 225.15 15.60 96.60 22.65 2.0152 7/26 16/30 19/30 19/0.50 36.5 369.77 7.0 Tin Plated 1.60 62.87 1.20 6.00 37.80 159.80 39.0 391.84 10.0092 7/.80 2.58 5. of Wires/Size (AWG or in.70 23.70 24. at 20°C (68°F) Silver Plated 1. D.78 2.78 1.91 1.7.20 94.07 6.80 23.

1 332.0579 †MultiCond.07 1.9 164.118 0.1 16.194 0.203 0.0671 Size Note: 40 AWG through 26 AWG values are for solid conductors.073 0. 20°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/ kcmil) 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 1.822 0. Nominal ohms Per 1.7 31.3 131.1 302.0807 0.0 12.17 0.0950 0.073 0. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.8 52.0839 0.14 1.325 0.154 0.0 750.8 209.744 0.0579 DC 60°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.07 1.88 1.124 0.23 3.0769 0.2 30.62 1.159 0.0 189.0971 0.99 3.162 0.0971 0.250. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.325 0.97 1.96 4.147 0. Continued >> 89 .18 0.102 0.105 0.515 0.9 40.6 317.822 0.196 0.000 ft.1 0.1 0.9 119.14 1.783 0.195 0.491 0.8 20.57 4.0639 DC 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond. Electrical Characteristics 7.6 125.783 0.31 0.314.515 0.466 0.31 0.205 0.57 1.07 1.97 1. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.0794 0.0 789.0629 0.05 1.128 0.14 1.061 †MultiCond. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2.0799 0.466 0.147 0.3 20.310 0.29 2.75 2. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.154 0.0807 0.3 529.0769 0.2–DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors.4 10.97 1.325 0.98 1.122 0.1 47.783 0.128 0.295 0. *One single conductor in air.155 0.9 13.0923 0.102 0.126 0.0 49.491 0.5 7.5 79.491 0.122 0.185 0.98 1.0 648.98 1.1 103.13 0.466 0.184 0.744 0.4 75.4 199.31 0.116 0.116 0.064 1.515 0. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.88 1.403 0.0 827.34 5.0 11.1 504. – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3.822 0.0639 †MultiCond.54 4.18 0.6 82.295 0.253 0.744 0.7.6 414.2 64.1 33.295 0.18 0.2 19.9 7.1 2.24 0.88 1.3 6.29 2.163 0.080.24 0. all others are for ASTM Class B stranded conductors.203 0.061 DC 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.8 260.0608 1.162 0.310 0.31 0.24 0.1 8.148 0.378.0759 0.638 0.7 480.184 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.2 DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors Table 7.29 2.8 26.0923 0.

0170 0.0215 0.00454 0.00265 DC 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0199 0.0387 0.0217 ohms per 1. 0.0262 0.000 ft.0205 0.0117 0. 0.0208 0. 0.0262 0.822 0.0145 0.881 = 0.000 ft.00917 0.0125 0.00604 0.0307 0.031 0.0108 0.0106 0. (Continued) 20°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/ kcmil) 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0113 0.2–DC and AC Resistance of Copper Conductors.00496 0.500 3.00705 0. 0.016 0.0373 0.0291 0. all others are for ASTM Class B stranded conductors.00356 0.0181 0.00677 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.500 1. 90 . 0.0518 0.00428 0.00847 0.0418 0.0238 0.250 1.0131 0.864 0.0390 0.0519 0.0326 0.0123 – – – Size Note: 40 AWG through 26 AWG values are for solid conductors.0258 0.0353 0.0398 0.00904 0.838 0.0177 0.00874 0.0175 0.0338 0.021 0.0219 0.0302 0.0275 0.0431 0.0117 – – – 0.0483 0.000 1.0547 0.0164 0. The resistance at 25°C would be 0.0103 0.800 Example: The DC resistance of a 500 kcmil copper conductor at 60°C is 0.0339 0.0132 0.881 0.0516 0.000 2.0172 0.00521 0.0246 × 0.0492 0.00252 DC 60°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.0135 0.0129 0.0461 0.0178 0. Nominal ohms Per 1.0231 0.0249 0.00774 0.0433 0.0184 0. 0.0411 0.0229 0.0278 0.0144 0.000 0.00795 – – – †MultiCond.00982 0.0409 0.00218 0.019 0.00278 DC 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC *Single Cond.784 Multiplying Factors for Correction To: 25°C 0.00701 0.01030 0.0452 0.00983 0.0437 0.0193 0.035 0.0138 0.0246 ohms per 1. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.0137 0.0226 0.0355 0.0212 0.0181 0.0246 0.0353 0.022 0.0108 0.00934 0.00818 0.0323 0.0123 0.3–Temperature Correction Factors for Copper DC Resistance Temperature (°C) 20°C 60 75 90 0.00433 0.0369 0.0138 0.0264 0.0175 0.00645 0.025 0.00738 0.0271 0.0378 0.00755 – – – †MultiCond. *One single conductor in air.0423 0.0541 0.0111 – – – 0.0342 0.0151 0.0543 0.0129 0.0219 0.00412 0.0167 0.0454 0.0123 0.0188 0.00529 0.0119 0.00835 – – – †MultiCond.0208 0.049 0.00546 0.0306 0.00613 0.000 5.750 2.0372 0.7.0573 0.0152 0.0198 0.0141 0.00861 0.0083 0. Table 7. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.000 ft.

0228 0.0186 0.93 1.40 2.0557 0.0450 0.127 0. 3.132 0.0131 0.40 2.0756 0.253 0.0963 0.0307 0.0357 0.0336 0.21 0.0269 0.133 0.0203 0.201 0.0578 0.93 1.0954 0.0500 0.253 0.0374 0.0808 0.08 1.13 1.0135 0.0222 0.0593 0.0533 0.0822 0.0472 0.335 0.0708 0.0575 0.0865 0.0228 0.303 0.0340 0.167 0.0741 0.507 0.0608 0.0193 0.808 0.0448 0.0215 0.0744 0.0184 0.0623 0.101 0.21 0.0445 0.08 1.0322 0.0507 0.0186 0.253 0.0370 0.422 0.24 2.0381 0.03 1.848 0.382 0.151 0.120 0. 3.507 0.000 ft.382 0.0216 0.240 0.0265 0.0706 0.0173 Size *One single conductor in air.0137 0.0525 0.422 0.0317 0.0142 0.0292 0.0403 0.0953 0.0848 0. 60°C Conductor Temperature DC (AWG/ kcmil) 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1. 91 .303 0.0117 75°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC †MultiCond. 3.808 0. †Multiconductor cable or two or three single conductors in one metallic conduit.0177 0.0635 0.93 1.0654 0.0177 0.0428 0.402 0.500 1.382 0.119 0.0552 0.0212 0.765 0.0318 0.24 2.335 0.533 0.40 2.0201 0.28 0.0124 0.303 0.0605 0.0504 0.0288 0.34 0.0337 0.0333 0.159 0.0303 0.000 1.132 0.191 0.102 0.167 0.0158 3.21 0.0111 DC *Single Cond.28 0.34 0.0297 0.750 2.0406 0.0273 0.28 0.0427 0. ohms Per 1.266 0.765 0.151 0.0353 0.0580 0.319 0.0176 0.7.0150 0.0158 0.106 0.0207 0.0239 0.0127 0.507 0.483 0.0302 0.0111 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.167 0.0288 0.08 1.0370 0.240 0.250 1.126 0.533 0.13 1.4–DC and AC Resistance of Class B Aluminum Conductors.201 0.191 0.211 0.0892 0.240 0.848 0.0424 0.119 0.0143 0.402 0. 3.211 0.0165 3.0218 0.0686 0.0806 0.319 0.0400 0.211 0. 3.126 0.319 0.151 0.422 0.0162 0.335 0.34 0.0115 0.0672 0.0302 0. Electrical Characteristics 7. 3.808 0.0720 0.266 0.483 0.0638 0.107 0.0179 0.402 0.106 0.765 0.0121 0.201 0.0674 0.0908 0.0353 0.03 1.0560 0.191 0.03 1.533 0.0170 0.000 3.159 0.159 0.0149 0. buried or in nonmetallic conduit.0283 0.0320 0.3 DC and AC Resistance of Aluminum Conductors Table 7.0168 0.0106 DC *Single Cond.0122 90°C Conductor Temperature 60 Hz AC †MultiCond.101 0.483 0.266 0.848 0.13 1.24 2.0101 *Single Cond.0253 0.0850 0.0890 0.

661 0.0710 0.0481 0.0621 0.0514 0.000 Reactance 0.818 0.0760 0.0593 0.1025 0.0732 0.255 0.000 1.0741 0.0296 0.0588 0.1135 0.160 0.0772 0.156 0.0661 0.659 0.0640 0.181 0.0539 0.0622 0.000 ft.0670 0.0842 0.000 ft.0880 0.1082 0.0918 0.0518 8 in.0440 0.0660 0.0445 0.0764 0.228 0.0695 0.0605 0.0840 0.0884 0.0598 0.0546 0. Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance 0.0403 × 0.0779 0.0853 0.0566 0.878 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.1070 0.000 ft.0585 For equations that can be used to calculate inductive reactance for other conductor spacings.0619 0.0815 0.0934 0.0869 0.500 1.0687 0.127 0.0380 0.216 0.0706 0.0789 0.0652 0.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz Table 7.0773 0.0512 0.0472 0.0412 0.0974 0.0376 0.0574 0.0636 0.0581 0.0826 0.796 Example: The DC resistance of a 500 kcm aluminum conductor at 60°C is 0.0619 0.250 1.0557 0.189 0.0645 0.0673 0.0633 0.118 0.0582 Impedance 0.0285 0.0954 0.878 = 0.109 0.0462 0.151 0. The resistance at 25°C would be 0.0370 0.6–Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hz for Single Copper Conductor Cables Installed in Air.1016 0.0750 0.0561 0.0753 0.0962 0. Buried or in Separate Nonmetallic Conduits Conductor Size 2 in.0534 0.835 0.108 0.0307 0.0527 0.0709 0.0798 0.0682 0.0354 0.417 0.0434 0.0460 0. per Conductor at 25°C (77°F) Distance Between Centers of Conductors 4 in.0718 0.0376 0.0680 0.0481 0.0710 0.0816 0.0453 0.0700 0.0656 0.133 0.0976 0.0926 0.261 0.0718 0.0396 0.0819 0.780 Multiplying Factors for Correction To: 25°C 0.0554 0.0276 0.0866 0.0272 Approximate ohms per 1.1000 0.0597 0.0427 0.0734 0.267 0.0632 0.0573 0. Reactance 0.0982 0.0922 0.0685 0.0559 0. see Section 18.0780 0.0422 0.420 0.0701 0.0600 0.0500 0.0328 0.0621 0.0602 0.221 0.121 0.264 0.0532 0.0945 0.662 0.225 0.0400 0. 6 in.0799 0.0512 0.0715 0.0840 0.0876 0.0850 0.5–Temperature Correction Factors for Aluminum DC Resistance Temperature (°C) 20°C 60 75 90 0.861 0.0614 0.116 0.0476 0.0548 0.0403 ohms per 1.0926 0. (AWG/kcmil) 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.0639 0.0766 0.103 0.0787 0.10.0441 0.0500 0.0652 0.0740 0.424 0.0908 0.0594 0.0892 0.0606 0.750 2.0660 0.0694 0.0527 0.137 0.0993 0.0732 0.0678 0.0814 0.0360 0.0628 0.0527 0.0664 0.0816 0.0700 0.0554 0.0314 0.0868 0.0404 0.0422 0.0674 0.143 0. 7. 92 .0728 0.175 0.0522 0.0627 0.664 0.0354 ohms per 1.186 0.0606 0.422 0.0520 0.0264 Impedance 0.0342 0.7.

06 1.08 1. (d) Three-conductor shielded cable.00 1.00 1.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz Table 7.039 1.009 1.01 1. one cable in metal conduit. (c) Three-conductor nonshielded cable. multiply DC resistance values corrected for proper temperature by the AC/DC resistance ratio given below.067 1.00 1. For larger conductor sizes the short-circuited sheath losses increase rapidly and the table above does not apply.00 1.034 1. The multiple-conductor column in the table above covers the following conditions: (a) Single-conductor cable. Electrical Characteristics 7. (b) S  ingle-conductor shielded cable.7. two or three cables in the same metallic or nonmetallic duct or conduit.04 1. Conductor Size (AWG/kcmils) Up to 3 2 and 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 1. 1957.000 1.005 1.16 1.07 1.03 1. all conditions of use in air. but only with conductor sizes up to 250 kcmils.025 1.250 1. The single-conductor column in the table above covers single-conductor nonshielded cable having spacing of six inches or more including all conditions of use except when two or more cables are pulled into the same metallic or nonmetallic conduit.185 1.750 2. two or three cables in the same metallic conduit.02 1.00 1.044 1.00 1.500 1.13 1.00 1.011 1.19 1.000 Single Copper Conductors in Air.7–AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hz To determine effective 60 Hz AC resistance.142 1.05 1. Edison Electric Institute. or in Individual Nonmetallic Conduits 1. The table represents maximum AC losses for the conditions outlined.006 1.21 – – – – – – Source: Underground Systems Reference Book.233 Multiple Copper Conductor Cable or Two or Three Single-Conductor Cables in Same Metallic Conduit 1.102 1. 93 .018 1.10 1. in ducts and in conduit.

231 1.096 1.116 1.212 1.058 1.154 1.674 The DC resistance of copper wire increases with increasing temperature in accordance with the formula: R =R [1 + a (T – T )] t o o Where: R =Resistance at temperature T t R =Resistance at temperature T o o a =Temperature coefficient of resistance at To [at 20°C (68°F) the temperature coefficient of copper is 0.385 1.173 1.308 1.135 1.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance Table 7. Electrical Characteristics 7.00393 per degree Celsius 94 .289 1.000 1.250 1.404 1.482 1.8–Temperature Correction Factors for the Resistance of Copper Conductors Temp°C 25 40 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 100 105 125 130 150 200 Multiplying Factor 1.7.193 1.

0210 0.0510 0.0062 0.0050 In Non-Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0190 0.0073 0.0023 80 0.0210 0.0160 0.155 for single-phase line-to-line and by 0.0220 0.or three-phase line-to-neutral.0078 0.0260 0.0067 0.0066 0.0720 0.3030 0.0840 0.0045 0.0085 0.7 Voltage Drop The values in Tables 7.0035 0.0110 0.0080 0.0110 0.0073 0.0066 In Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0140 0.0130 0. of Circuit for a Three-Phase.0059 0.0340 0.0062 0.0067 0.0081 0.0076 0.0330 0.0064 0. Voltage drop = Table value 3 Current in amps 3 Length of circuit in feet 100 Voltage drop in percent = Voltage drop in V 3 100 Circuit voltage in V Table 7.0078 0.0110 0.0097 0.1300 0.0050 0.1100 0.0840 0.0120 0.0790 0.0066 0.0150 0.2710 0.0220 0.0330 0.1090 0.3330 0. Electrical Characteristics 7.0120 0.105 for aluminum.0059 0.0260 0.0120 0.2080 0.0093 0.0470 0.1300 0. 60 Hz System Operating at 60°C with Copper Conductors Size (AWG/kcmil) 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0120 0. For 90°C multiply by 1.0140 0.0088 0.0800 0.0530 0.1910 0.0340 0.0033 0.0085 0.0730 0.0054 0.0190 0.0160 0. They may be used without significant error for conductor temperatures up to and including 75°C.0230 0.0160 0.0520 0.0170 0.577 for single.0100 0.0210 0.10 for aluminum conductors are calculated at 60°C.1720 0.0140 0.2720 0.0260 0.3320 0.9–Phase-to-Phase Voltage Drop Per Amp Per 100 ft. the estimated average temperature that may be anticipated in service.0170 0.0088 0.0023 95 .0055 100 0.102 for copper and by 1.0530 0.0130 0.0180 0.0043 100 0.9 for copper conductors and 7.7.0095 0.000 80 0.2080 0.0029 0.0270 0.0095 0.0088 0. multiply by 1.0037 0.0310 0.0100 0.1910 0.3030 0.0095 0.0055 0.0260 0.0073 0.0055 0.1210 0.0071 0.0320 0.0038 0.0280 0.0061 0.0480 0. To obtain values for other circuits.0042 0.0110 0.1200 0.0074 0.0110 0.1710 0.

0052 0.10–Phase-To-Phase Voltage Drop Per Amp Per 100 ft.0470 0.0790 0.1 and 7.0120 0.0076 0.0048 0.0091 0.4260 0. respectively.0140 0.0140 0.0120 0.2.3290 0.0089 0.2990 0.0059 0.0170 0.0079 0.0500 0.0780 0.0460 0.0074 0.0840 0.0120 0.0260 0.0062 0.0083 0.0095 0.0150 0.0055 0.0110 0.0330 0.0100 0. 60 Hz System Operating at 60°C with Aluminum Conductors Size (AWG/kcmil) 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1.0510 0.0420 0.0520 0.0230 0.1890 0.0110 0.1120 0.2680 0.0099 0.0120 0.0071 0.0400 0.4750 0.5230 0.0270 0.0073 0.0330 0.0260 0.0099 0.0068 In Non-Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0130 0.1330 0.4760 0.0310 0.0100 0.1230 0.0220 0.0087 0.0150 0.0260 0.0420 0.0079 0.000 80 0.2070 0. A cable’s maximum short circuit current rating is the maximum allowable current that the cable can withstand without damage.0077 In Magnetic Conduit Percent Power Factor 90 0.0410 0.0710 0.0092 0.0220 0.1910 0.0088 0.0730 0. The maximum allowable short circuit current for copper and aluminum conductors can be determined with the aid of Figures 7.1700 0.0140 0.0070 0.0210 0.0330 0.1230 0.0180 0.0082 0.0069 100 0. 96 .0120 0.0210 0.0210 0.0390 0.0068 0.5230 0.1110 0.0180 0.0120 0.0260 0.0063 100 0.0130 0.0050 0.0180 0.0520 0.0160 0.0160 0.2140 0.2690 0.0340 0.0088 0.0250 0.0042 7.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current Because of the high kilovolt-ampere (kVA) capacity of many power systems. of Circuit for a Three-Phase.0140 0.0085 0.3290 0.4240 0.0130 0.0170 0.2070 0. possible short circuit currents must be considered in power system design.0170 0.0320 0.0830 0. Electrical Characteristics Table 7.1320 0.7.1720 0.0130 0.0380 0.0042 80 0.

8 0.13 7 sec nd 33 Cyc –0 ond 60 s .1–Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current for Copper Cables 97 . Curves based on formula: [] I --A 2 T2 + 234 t = 0.0 ycl 10 Short Circuit Current–Thousands of Amperes 8 6 5 4 3 2 8C 4C ycl es– es– 0.1 10 8 6 4 AWG 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 Conductor Size 500 kcmil 1000 Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7.6 0.0297 log ---------------T1 + 234 [ ] I = Short circuit current – amperes A = Conductor area – circular mils t = Time of short circuit – seconds T1 = Maximum operating temperature – 90˚C (194˚F) T2 = Maximum short circuit temperature – 250˚C (482˚F) 0.5 0.7. Insulation cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber.4 0.6 00 s cond e 66 7 s cond eco nd s 16 ycl es– 0.3 0.0 16 7s 1 0. l Cyc es–0 2667 econ 10 d .0 66 33 3s 30 20 e– ycl 1C 2C 0.2 Conductor copper.5 le se 0C ycl s–1. Electrical Characteristics 100 80 60 50 40 eco nd e co Cyc 30 les 0. 000 s cond 00 es– e 1.

2 [] I --A 2 T2 + 228 t = 0. Curves based on formula: 20 1 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 000 66 sec 7 s on eco d nd s Conductor aluminum.2–Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current for Aluminum Cables 98 .7.1 nd 7s 30 Cycle 3 e 3 Cyc s– 3 s con les 0.0125 log ---------------T1 + 228 [ ] I = Short circuit current – amperes A = Conductor area – circular mils t = Time of short circuit – seconds T1 = Maximum operating temperature – 90˚C (194˚F) T2 = Maximum short circuit temperature – 250˚C (482˚F) 0.26 eco d 60 –0 nd 10 Cyc .8 0.01 4C y 0.4 0.0 sec d ond 1.066 0.50 67 se 0 C le 00 con ycl s–1 es– .1 10 8 6 4 AWG 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 Conductor Size 500 kcmil 1000 Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7. Insulation cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber. Electrical Characteristics 100 80 60 50 40 30 10 Short Circuit Current–Thousands of Amperes 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 C Cycle ycl –0 es– .0 67 c 8 C les 33 sec –0 ycl 3 s on e 16 eco d s– .

008 3.065 7.844 2.723 6.122 11.051 6.484 11.696 4.137 Source: ICEA P-45-482 Information in this chart is based on initial temperature of 65°C.075 30 733 1.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current Table 7.708 7.107 10.) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 Effective Shield Area (cmils) 7.061 5.004 1.11–Maximum Short Circuit Current for Copper Shielding Tape (Amperes) Shield Dia.157 7.130 14.828 2.289 5.215 2.187 18.955 3.875 3.568 6.090 2.036 5.511 2.604 26.044 18.264 15.066 4.284 1 4.585 2.326 3.101 12.880 14.474 1. final temperature of 200°C. 99 .183 Short Circuit Time (Number of Cycles at 60 Hz) 4 2.042 1.591 16 1.352 2.047 4.7.006 5.215 20.073 10.137 2.824 22. (in.540 4.274 5.554 5.854 3.150 8 1.158 16.079 8.384 30.446 12.571 4.016 6.022 4.314 15.304 1.577 10.525 3.136 12.044 8.5 percent overlap.300 2 2.093 9.437 60 518 780 1.613 2. Electrical Characteristics 7.749 17.504 45.018 2.420 2.724 41.243 22. 5 mil copper tape with 12.011 11.944 37.143 8.164 33.840 4.874 8.566 1.440 7.032 3.104 1.272 24.

0767 0.097 0.80 0.70 0.12 1.98 0.00 1.05 2.70 1.470 0.116 0.00 1.0368 0.372 0.50 0.194 0.00 1.75 0.93 0.) 3.54 Source: ICEA P-43-457 * These derating factors do not apply to cables with metallic sheath or armor.681 0.14 1.69 0.77 0.97 1.16 1.0608 0.62 1.780 0.08 1.0172 0.310 0.39 0.93 0.32 0.00 1.84 0.000 ft.) 0.146 0. Ampacity equals the 60 Hz ampacity multiplied by the derating factor.92 1.84 0.00 0.23 0.74 0.00 1.418 0.94 0.05 1.813 0.24 0.57 0.00 0.00 1.40 1.00 1.292 0.05 1.092 0.00 1.332 0.528 0.10 Resistance and Ampacity At 400 AND 800 Hz Table 7.98 0.08 1.44 0.03 1.22 1.54 DC Resistance 75°C (ohms/1.000 Conductor Diameter (in.) 0.90 0. nor to cables installed in conduit or adjacent to steel structures.54 3.00 1.65 0.56 1.40 1.61 0.00 1. Electrical Characteristics 7.81 0.98 0.152 Cable Diameter (in.12–400 and 800 Hz Ampacity Factors for 600 V Copper Cables with Class B Strand.0515 0.25 0.96 0.38 1.00 1.490 0.89 0.7. 100 .72 0.06 3.21 0.998 1.90 2.82 2.00 1.122 0.16 1.00 1.87 0.15 1.0258 0.184 0.60 1.154 0.0129 800 Hz ac/dc Ampacity ac/dc Ampacity Resistance Ratio Derating Factor* Resistance Ratio Derating Factor* 1.81 0.25 1.00 1.00 1. Installed with Minimum Triangular Spacing in Air or in Nonmetallic Conduit 400 Hz Conductor Size (AWG/kcmil) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 1.232 0.00 1.66 0.44 1.575 0.00 1.63 0.073 0.30 2.53 1.33 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.

5 * Do not count shields unless used as a conductor. Next.3). 10° m C Te tu pera re R 1 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 Conductor Size (AWG) 14 12 10 8 Figure 7.15 0. Electrical Characteristics 7. multiply the chart value by the appropriate conductor factor. ICEA.30 0. IEEE and IEC. The chart assumes the cable is surrounded by still air at an ambient temperature of 25°C.0 4-5 0.6 2-3 1. temperature rating and number of conductors for the cable of interest. To calculate the maximum current rating per conductor. Current values are in RMS amperes and are valid for copper conductors only.8 6 . NEMA. To use the current capacity chart (Figure 7. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Current (Amperes) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 35° m C Te tu pera re R ise ise No.3–Current Ratings for Electronic Cables 101 . Note:  Current ratings are intended as general guidelines for low power.7.7 16 . first determine conductor gauge. number of conductors contained within the cable.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is limited by conductor size. Current ratings for power applications are published by codes and standards groups including NEC. maximum temperature rating of the cable and environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and airflow. of Conductors* Factors 1 1. CSA. find the current value on the chart for the applicable temperature rise (temperature rating of cable minus ambient temperature) and conductor size. electronic communications and control applications. UL.

including wire and cable.0 69.0 15.7. Because so many external conditions affect ampacity.13–Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings System Voltage Rating (kV) 2. Table 7. conductor material (e. However.g. These “spikes. typically have a risetime in the range of 1. Electrical Characteristics 7.5 5. installed cable configuration and other factors.0 35.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings Electrical equipment. is designed to withstand short-term.0 138.0 Basic Impulse Level (kV) 60 75 95 110 150 200 350 650 Source: IEEE 82 Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors 102 .5 microseconds and a falltime around 40 microseconds. copper or aluminum)..” as they are sometimes called. Common BIL ratings are shown below. but very high-voltage pulses such as those sometimes caused by lightning and switching surges.0 25. Frequently used ampacity tables are contained in the following publications: NFPA Standard 70 National Electrical Code CSA Standard C22. temperature rating. tables covering many common situations are available.0 8. The basic impulse level (BIL) is the maximum impulse voltage that a cable is designed to withstand. ambient temperature.12 Ampacity of Power Cables The ampacity of a power cable depends primarily on its conductor size. tables covering all situations are not possible.1 Canadian Electrical Code IEEE Standard 835 Power Cable Ampacity Tables ICEA P-53-426 (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities Including Shield Losses for 15 Through 69 kV Cables ICEA P-54-440 (NEMA WC 51) Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays IEEE Standard 45 Recommended Practice for Installations on Shipboard 7.

3.3.5 Pulling Lubricants 8.3.5 Overhead Messengers 8. Installation and Testing 8.1. Installation and Testing 8.7.1 Test Equipment 8.1 Receiving 8.3 Test Voltage 8.4 Evaluation of Results 122 122 122 124 124 103 .3 Pulling 8.2 Test Procedure 8.3.1.2 Handling 8.6.1.7 Minimum Bending Radii 8.6.7.2 Suspended by Conductor 8.3 Storage 105 105 105 105 8.6 116 119 121 121 121 Vertical Suspension 8.4 Pulling Tension Calculations 8.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) 8.1 Receiving.7 Hipot Testing 8.2 Tension Limitations 8.8.3 Helpful Hints 8.1 Suspended by Clamping Around Cable 8.2 Conduit Fill 106 111 111 111 112 113 114 114 115 8.7. Handling and Storage 8.1 Methods of Gripping Cables 8.3.7.3.3.4 Installation Methods 8.

Installation and Testing 8.10 Fault Locating Megger Testing Moisture Removal 8.12 Fiber Optic Testing LAN Cable Testing 127 127 104 .9 8.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield 124 125 126 126 8.11 8.10.8 8.8. Installation and Testing 8.

The information has been obtained from many sources and covers some of the major considerations when installing and testing power. the use of a lifting yoke is recommended to prevent reels from slipping or tipping during lifting. With heavy reels or reels that may be unbalanced.1 Receiving Before accepting any shipment. Steel lifting bars of a suitable diameter and length should be used when lifting cable reels by crane or other overhead lifting devices.3 Storage Where possible. which may cause problems during installation. If the roll direction is not indicated.2 Handling Cable reels should always be rolled in the direction of the “roll this way” stenciled on the flanges. control. • Each reel should be aligned flange to flange.8. dry surface. Cable reels should only be lifted by forklift trucks from the sides and only if the forks are long enough to cradle both flanges. When cable lengths are cut from a master cable reel. instrumentation. 105 . 8. rotate the reel in the same direction it was rotated when the cable was wound onto the reel. 8. all exposed cable ends should be resealed with plastic weatherproof caps or tape to prevent the entrance of moisture.1. Installation and Testing This section is intended as a guide for the installer’s use in the field. fiber and communication cable. • Reels should be stored to allow easy access for lifting and moving. all reels should be visually inspected for both hidden and obvious damage.1 Receiving. 8. Handling and Storage The following guidelines are recommended to prevent possible deterioration or damage of cable during handling or storage prior to installation. reels should be stored indoors on a hard.1. This prevents loosening of the cable turns. 8. Be especially alert if: • A reel is lying flat on its side • Reels are poorly stacked • Protective covering (packaging material) is removed or damaged • Cable end seals are removed or damaged • Reel flanges are broken • A reel has been dropped • Cable ties are loose • Nails or staples have been driven into the reel flange. • Each reel should be chocked. If reels must be stored outside they should be supported off the ground and covered with a suitable weatherproof material.1.

The table is based on Table 1.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) Type Conductor Letters Size (AWG/kcmil) RHH.) ½ 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 ¾ 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 8 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 13 10 6 4 3 1 1 1 1¼ 20 17 13 7 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 23 18 10 8 6 2 1 1 1½ 27 23 18 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 39 31 24 14 11 8 3 3 2 2 46 38 30 16 13 10 9 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 64 51 40 24 18 13 6 5 4 2½ 80 66 53 28 22 17 15 13 9 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 90 70 42 32 24 10 9 7 3 120 100 81 42 34 26 23 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 169 136 106 63 48 36 16 13 11 3½ 157 131 105 55 44 34 30 26 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 221 177 138 83 63 47 20 17 15 4 201 167 135 70 56 44 38 33 22 19 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 282 227 177 106 81 60 26 22 19 Continued >> 106 . Table 8.000 THHW. TW THW-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 1/0 2/0 3/0 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in. Installation and Testing 8. RHW 14 RHW-2 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1. refer to Tables C1 through C12 in Annex C of the 2011 NEC. For installation in other types of conduits.8. THW.2 Conduit Fill Below is a table of the maximum number of conductors that can be installed in electrical metallic tubing (EMT). Chapter 9 of the National Electrical Code. for other wire types or for installation of compact stranded conductors.

000 107 . Installation and Testing Table 8. 4/0 TW THW-2 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) (Continued) Type Conductor Letters Size (AWG/kcmil) THHW. THWN. THWN-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1. THW.8.) ½ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ¾ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 26 16 9 7 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1¼ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 61 45 28 16 12 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1½ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 84 61 38 22 16 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 138 101 63 36 26 16 13 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2½ 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 241 176 111 64 46 28 24 20 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 364 266 167 96 69 43 36 30 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 3½ 12 10 8 7 7 6 4 4 4 3 3 3 476 347 219 126 91 56 47 40 29 25 20 17 14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 608 443 27 16 11 71 60 51 37 32 26 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 Continued >> THHN.000 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in.

Table C.) ½ 22 17 8 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ¾ 38 29 15 11 8 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 63 48 25 19 14 8 6 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1¼ 108 83 43 33 24 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1½ 148 113 58 45 33 18 14 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 244 186 96 74 55 30 22 16 14 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2½ – – 168 129 96 53 39 28 24 20 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 – – 254 195 145 81 60 43 36 31 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 3½ – – 332 255 190 105 78 56 48 40 30 25 21 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 – – 424 326 243 135 100 72 61 51 38 32 27 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 6 6 5 5 4 4 XHHW. Annex C. XHHW-2 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1.8.1 108 . TFFN 16 Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (in.1–Maximum Number of Conductors in Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) (Continued) Type Conductor Letters Size (AWG/kcmil) 18 TFN.000 Source: 2011 NEC. Installation and Testing Table 8.

356 0.589 0.543 0.640 0. Chapter 9.394 0.654 0.212 1.443 1.161 0. of Wires or Cables Conduit Trade Size (in. Diam.226 1.075 0.917 0.534 0.102 ¾ 0.750 0.197 0.067 1.321 1.210 0.225 1.) ½ 0.385 0.453 0.349 0.383 0.390 0.2–Maximum Cable Diameters for Permissible Conduit Fill No.135 1 1.791 0.708 Actual ID of Conduit (in.990 0.119 0.184 0.583 1.446 3 3.339 0.282 0.509 0.706 1.049 0.363 0.462 0.291 0.436 0.309 0.371 1.139 0. of Wires or Cables in Conduit (in.413 0.197 0.834 2.671 0.165 0.213 0.301 0.174 0.334 3.509 1.626 4 4.733 0.272 0.061 0.150 0.252 0.200 0.192 0.114 0.622 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.307 0.755 0.705 0.149 0.588 0.499 0.005 0.332 0.914 0.330 0.) Max.221 0.119 1.263 0.360 0.462 0.708 0.184 0.177 0.988 1.548 3½ 3.479 0.271 0.576 0.969 0.521 0.767 0.436 0.251 0.61 1.109 0.764 0.760 0.546 0.791 1.455 0.613 0.826 0.233 0.8.504 0.864 0.867 0. Installation and Testing Table 8.867 0.731 1.700 0.172 0.772 0.731 0.802 0.824 0.324 0.857 0.356 2.242 0.084 0.245 0. Table 1 109 .322 0.131 0.145 0.227 0.997 0.) Source: Based on 2008 NEC.261 0.808 0.416 0.338 2½ 2.494 0.139 0.233 0.235 0.505 0.585 0.611 0.567 0.400 1.225 1½ 1.653 0.814 0.124 0.38 1.413 0.377 0.634 0.155 1.949 0.171 1¼ 1.105 0.276 0.648 0.600 0.036 0.157 0.297 0.263 2 2.176 0.294 0.673 0.

74 3.) ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 Internal Dia. (in.63 1. please refer to Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC.12 7.58 4.62 5.) 0.82 2.824 1. in.9 Source: 2011 National Electrical Code.78 3.5 2.38 1.09 0.20 inches.34 3.356 3. Installation and Testing Table 8.8.08 1.69 6. 31 percent Fill 0.86 8.3 0.46 0.86 1. 40 percent Fill 0.28 0. Chapter 9.04 1.17 0.2 = 3. in.14 OD = overall diameter of each single-conductor wire or multiconductor cable n = number of wires or cables of that diameter Example: Pulling (3) 2/0 15 kV cables.731 3.14 3 1. 2 Using the formula.79 1. The general equation for calculating wire or cable area is: 2 Area in square inches 5 p 3 OD 3 n 4 Where: p = 3.12 0.36 5.21 0. each cable has an overall diameter of 1.85 11.27 0.54 4. Table 4 For other conduit types.61 2. 110 .39 sq.81 1.1 4.16 0.) 0.46 0.067 2. 4 Referring to the table.35 0. in.34 2.04 3.622 0.834 4.53 0. minimum conduit size would be 4 inches.3–Dimensions and Maximum Allowable Percent Fill of Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) Trade Size (in.55 14.57 Over 2 Cond.6 0.75 1 Cond. solve as follows: 3.334 Total Area (sq.) 2 Cond. 53 percent Fill 0.82 Allowable Fill (sq.049 1.

To limit the sidewall pressure to a safe value at bends in duct and conduit runs. Heavier pulls usually require connecting directly to the conductor either by means of pulling eyes or by forming a loop with the conductor itself. per circular mil area of cross-section for copper and 0. it is possible to damage cables while applying lower tensions if. The insulation on each conductor is removed before the loop is formed. when pulling eyes are used or when the conductor is formed into a loop) it should be limited to 0. 111 . One method requires that a portion of the armor be removed.g. the ends should be bound together with electrical tape before applying the grip overall. In some instances it is desirable to use a grip over the outer covering in addition to the conductor connection to prevent any slippage of one with respect to the other. Long. 8. Larger sizes are more easily handled by applying a pulling grip over the cable or cables provided the pull is not too severe. The above limits are maximum values that should not be exceeded. Preassembled Aerial Cable This type of cable should always be gripped by the messenger that is usually attached to a pulling swivel. hard pulls will necessitate the use of pulling eyes.006 lb.000 pounds provided this is not in excess of the force calculated above using the 0. Electrical tape is then applied over the armor and down over the conductors and a long basket-weave grip is applied such that it grips both the armor and the conductors.3 Pulling 8. However.1 Methods of Gripping Cables In general. This can be accomplished in a number of ways.3.3. Another method requires that two holes be drilled through the cable (armor and conductors) at right angles to each other and a loop formed by passing steel wires through the holes and out over the end of the cable. insulated cables may be gripped either directly by the conductors or by a basket-weave pulling grip applied over the cables. When a grip is applied over nonmetallic sheathed cables. A third approach is to use a pulling eye and a grip together. This latter approach provides the greatest strength. the pulling force should be limited to 1.. When pulls are relatively light a basket-weave grip can often be used. Every installation detail cannot be covered here but staying within the above tension limits will help ensure a successful installation. Installation and Testing 8. Nonmetallic Sheathed Cables Smaller sizes of nonmetallic sheathed cables can usually be gripped directly by the conductors by forming them into a loop to which the pull wire or rope can be attached.8. there are sharp projections in a poorly constructed duct bank. Interlocked Armor Cables When pulling interlocked armor cable it is usually necessary to grip both the armor and the conductors. or if an interlocked armor cable is pulled around too small a sheave. for example. In addition.2 Tension Limitations When the pulling force is applied directly to the conductor (e. the pulling force in pounds should not exceed 300 to 500 times the radius of the bend in feet.006 factors.008 lb. the grip being applied over the armor to prevent it from slipping back. per circular mil for aluminum. If more than one cable is involved.008 or 0. The appropriate method to use depends on the anticipated maximum pulling tension. a basket grip should be applied over the conductors to prevent any slippage and to facilitate guiding the conductors through the pulleys.

1–How to Calculate Clearance 112 . Do not exceed recommended “conduit fill” requirements. Use the triplexed configuration formula if you are in doubt. Installation and Testing 8.366+ D d 2 2  ( ) 2  d 1– (D –d ) Cradled 3 – Clearance= D – d + D d 2 2 2  ( ) 2  d 1– 2(D –d ) Triplexed Figure 8. of Conductors/Cables 1 Configuration Formula Clearance=D2d 3 – Clearance= D – 1.8. Clearance refers to the distance between the uppermost cable in the conduit and the inner top of the conduit.1 where “D” is the inner diameter of the conduit and “d” is the outer diameter of the cable. (1)  Be sure there is adequate clearance between conduit and cable. When calculating clearance. It is calculated as shown in Figure 8. The cables may be of single or multiple conductor construction.3 Helpful Hints The following suggestions – though not all-inclusive – will give greater assurance of success. No. ensure all cable diameters are equal. Clearance should be 1/4 inch at minimum and up to one inch for large cable installations or installations involving numerous bends.3.

jamming is impossible.006 times the circular mil area. With pulling eye attached to aluminum conductors.0. and are designed to have no deleterious effect on the cable. (7)  Keep adequate tension on the messenger in aerial cable installations to prevent sharp bends at pulleys. Below is an overview of the basic calculations. serious jamming is probable. Because there are manufacturing tolerances on cable. check that end seals are still intact and have not been damaged to the point where water could enter. There are a number of commercially available wire pulling compounds (many of which are UL Listed) that are suitable for use with polymer jacketed cables.3.5.008 3 n 3 CM CM 5 circular mil area of each conductor 113 . These programs are recommended over manual methods. Apply plastic or rubber tape to help protect against invisible damage if the cable will be subjected to immersion or rain.05D/d is between 2. Example: For copper TM Where: T M n 5 maximum tension. 5 number of conductors 5 0. b. Additional information is available in IEEE 1185. jamming is impossible but clearance should be checked. A value of 1.008 times the circular mil area. (6)  When installing interlocked armor cables in cable tray. These materials can lead to tracking of the cable jacket. • If 1. (3)  Use adequate lubrication of the proper type to reduce friction in conduit and duct pulls. IEEE 576 and AEIC CG5. Installation and Testing (2)  Jamming is the wedging of three cables lying side by side in a conduit. the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0. 8. With pulling eye attached to copper conductors. lb. which might result in excessive tension.05D/d is larger than 3.4 Pulling Tension Calculations Pulling tension calculations are recommended in the design stage of all cable installations that are expected to fall in the moderate to difficult category. This usually occurs when cables are being pulled around bends or when cables twist. This is particularly important if there will be a delay of some time between the pulling operation and splicing and terminating.and 90-degree bends. the actual overall diameter should be measured prior to computing the jam ratio.05D/d is less than 2. The jam ratio is calculated by slightly modifying the ratio D/d. (4)  Avoid sharp bending of the cable at the first pulley in overhead installations by locating the payoff reel far enough away from the first pulley that the lead-in angle is kept relatively flat.05D is used for the inner diameter of the conduit because bending a cylinder creates an oval cross-section in the bend.8. They usually consist of soap. use a sufficient number of rollers to prevent the cable from dragging on the tray. Software programs are commercially available that can perform sophisticated modeling of expected pulling tensions and sidewall pressures. (5)  After installation. mica or the like. (1) Maximum Pulling Tension a. IEEE 971. the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0.0.8 and 3. • If 1. Avoid sharp bends in the cable by using a conveyor sheave with multiple small rollers at all 45. Graphite and other electrically conducting lubricants should not be used on nonshielded cables rated 2 kV and above. • If 1. Do not release the tension on the messenger until it is secured to poles on both ends. Grease and oil type lubricants should not be used on nonmetallic sheathed cables. talc.

4–Bend Multipliers for Pulling Tension Calculations Bend Angle Degrees 15 30 45 60 Multiplier 1. The quantity of lubricant required depends on various factors: The pull length.75.30 1.5. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the conditions affecting each pull. The recommended average quantity of lubricant per pull is equal to: Q 5 0. L is the length of the pull in feet and D is the inner diameter of the conduit in inches.70 Bend Angle Degrees 75 90 105 120 Multiplier 1. The appropriate quantity to use can vary by 6 50 percent from the average depending on installation conditions.3.5 Pulling Lubricants Many commercial lubricants are available and may be employed to reduce pulling tensions provided they do not affect electrical or mechanical characteristics of the cable.. i.5. If the coefficient of friction were 1.8.3.0015 3 L 3 D Where Q is the quantity of lubricant needed in gallons.5 but can vary from 0. the multipliers given below are applied to the tension calculated for the straight section preceding the bend.2 to 1. M W C 5 weight of cable per foot.20 2.14 1. This is accomplished by reducing the friction (technically the coefficient of friction) between the cable and the inside surface of the conduit. not degrade the cable jacket and be easy to work with. lb. Sidewall pressure = tension out of the bend divided by the radius of the bend. the multipliers would have to be squared.94 2. the condition and size of the conduit and the difficulty of the pull./ft. Cable pulling lubricants should be formulated for the conditions of the pull.e.0 depending on condition of the duct and the amount of lubricant used) (3) Bend Multipliers For a curved section. be safe for the environment. If the coefficient of friction were 0.48 1. the multipliers would be raised to the one and one-half power. it makes the cable more slippery.86 Note:  These multipliers are based on a coefficient of friction of 0.0 instead of 0.50 2. lb. 5 coefficient of friction (typically 0. 114 . Some LSZH (low smoke zero halogen) cables require special pulling lubricants such as Polywater LZ to prevent chemical damage to the jacket.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) To prevent damage to a cable from pressure that develops when a cable is pulled around a bend under tension. for most 600 V and medium-voltage power cables. the pressure must be kept as low as possible and should not exceed specified values. The primary function of a pulling lubricant is to reduce the tension on the cable as it is installed in a duct. 8. feet (valid only for straight sections) T 5 maximum tension. Cable manufacturers generally recommend a maximum SWP of 500 lb. 8. Table 8. Installation and Testing (2) Maximum Permissible Pulling Length: LM 5 TM C3 W Where: LM 5 maximum pulling length.

0" Cable Diameter 90° 180° Figure 8. Installation and Testing 8.00 and less 4 5 Minimum Bending Radius as a Multiple of Cable Diameter Overall Diameter of Cable in Inches 1.00 5 6 2. For flat twin cables.D.000 volts use eight times the cable diameter.7 Minimum Bending Radii Power Cables without Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radii for both single. For multiconductors. IEEE 1185. For cables rated over 5. Interlocked Armor or Corrugated Sheath (Type MC) Cables The minimum bending radius for Type MC cable is seven times the external diameter of the metallic sheath.8.3.000 volts and less. NEMA WC74 (ICEA S-93-639).01 to 2. the minor diameter is used to determine the bending radius. it is seven times the overall diameter or 12 times the individual conductor diameter.24. is 2. and cable O. the minimum bending radius is 12 inches (minimum bending diameter is 24 inches).0 inches.34. Portable Cables The minimum bending radius for portable cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cables rated 5. 330.01 and Greater 6 7 Example: If minimum bending radius is six times cable O. 336. NEMA WC58 (ICEA S-75-381). whichever is greater.and multiple-conductor cable without metallic shielding are as follows: Table 8. The manufacturer should be consulted for specific product limits.24 and 727.5–Minimum Bending Radii for Cables without Metallic Shielding Thickness of Conductor Insulation (mils) 169 and less 170 and larger 1.10.D.2–Calculating Minimum Bending Radius Power Cables with Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radius for all single-conductor cables with metallic shielding is 12 times the overall diameter of the cable. Fiber Optic Cables Minimum bending radius for fiber optic cable is typically 10 times the cable diameter when under no tension and 15 times diameter at rated maximum tension. Sources:  NEC Articles 300. NEMA WC70 (ICEA S-95-658) 115 . 0° 270° Radius 12" 2.

3–Cable Pulling Setups Continued >> 116 . Installation and Testing 8. Figure 8.8.4 Installation Methods Apply lube at entrance of guide-in tube Setup for duct close to floor Setup for overhead into tray (a) Proper (b) Improper The feed-in setup should unreel the cable with the natural curvature (a) as opposed to a reverse “S” curvature (b).

4 Installation Methods (Continued) Capstan Pulling rope A setup with timbers because pulling eyes were not available Figure 8.3–Cable Pulling Setups Continued >> 117 .8. Installation and Testing 8.

use multisheave assemblies (also called conveyor sheaves) of the appropriate radius. Sheave assembly For pulling around bends. A 10-inch cable sheave typically has an inside (bending) radius of 3 inches! Figure 8.4 Installation Methods (Continued) Single sheave Single sheaves should be used only for guiding cables.8. Arrange multiple blocks if necessary to maintain minimum bending radii whenever cable is deflected. Never allow a polygon curvature to occur as shown. Radius The fit of the pulley around the cable is also important when the pulling tension is high (for example. The pulleys must be positioned to ensure that the effective curvature is smooth and deflected evenly at each pulley. pulleys at the top of a vertical drop). Remember to use the radius of the surface over which the cable is bent. not the outside flange diameter of the pulley.3–Cable Pulling Setups 118 . Installation and Testing 8.

2 3.700 * Extra-High Strength Table 8. at 60°F in a 150 ft.500 13.300 Type 302 Stainless Steel 8.650 11.1 6.7 5.9 2.400 20.6 High-Strength Galvanized Steel 1.750 8.900 16.8–Maximum Core Weight in lb.890 20.6–Messenger Breaking Strength in lb.9 4. (7310 AWG) 3/8 in. 5/16 in.282 9.200 15.301 10.1 3./1. (738 AWG) 7/16 in.800 14.500 18.8 2.4 3. 1/2 in. 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel 1. (Based on Final Sag of 30 in.400 30.5 2. Installation and Testing 8.5 2.930 19.4 119 . 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel 139 204 324 408 515 Aluminum Clad Steel 104 165 262 330 416 EHS* Galvanized Steel 121 205 273 399 517 High-Strength Galvanized Steel 121 205 273 399 517 Type 316 Stainless Steel 136 208 278 405 525 Type 302 Stainless Steel 132 208 278 405 525 Table 8. 3/8 in.6 2. 7/16 in. 1/2 in.800 26. Span.000 33. (736 AWG) 30 percent EHS* Copper-Clad Steel 6.000 26.000 10. 30 Percent of Breaking Strength) Nominal Messenger Size 1/4 in.8 5.9 5.7 3.4 Type 316 Stainless Steel 1.5 6.060 22.730 EHS* Galvanized Steel 6.8.196 13.900 High-Strength Galvanized Steel 4. Nominal Messenger Size 1/4 in.020 15.650 11.4 4.8 7.3 4. (7312 AWG) 5/16 in. 3/8 in.200 18.200 23.7–Messenger Weight in lb.3 4.9 3.9 Aluminum Clad Steel 1.6 3.5 Overhead Messengers Table 8.5 Type 302 Stainless Steel 2.800 Type 316 Stainless Steel 7.000 ft. Nominal Messenger Size 1/4 in.6 EHS* Galvanized Steel 1./ft.1 1.460 Aluminum Clad Steel 6.0 4.5 8.890 16. 5/16 in. (737 AWG) 1/2 in. 7/16 in.

Additional information on overhead messengers is available in ICEA P-79-561 Guide for Selecting Aerial Cable Messengers and Lashing Wires. Class C: Three times the amount of zinc coating as Class A. Installation and Testing Table 8.000 Class A: Minimum amount of zinc coating.800 25.000 11.350 6.650 3.500 10./1.400 1.200 5.400 9.350 14.800 15. 120 .200 4.000 ft.750 6.100 18.) 3/16 3/16 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 5/16 5/16 5/16 5/16 5/16 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 7/16 7/16 7/16 1/2 1/2 1/2 Grade Common Utility 2. Class B: Twice the amount of zinc coating as Class A.500 18.950 11.900 3.000 8.000 12.2 M Common Siemens Martin High Strength Extra High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utilities Grade 6 M High Strength Extra High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utility 10 M High Strength Extra High Strength Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 16 M Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 25 M Weight lb. 1.250 6.9–Galvanized Steel Strand/Physical Specifications Nominal Messenger Size (in.150 2. 73 73 121 121 121 121 205 205 225 205 205 273 273 273 273 273 399 399 399 517 517 517 Minimum Strength lb.8.150 4.

6 Vertical Suspension 8.8.000) 470 If the suspended cable is installed in a conduit elbow at the top.8 (OK) (1. Source: 2011 NEC.19 8. 35 ft. in.080/1. 135 ft. of cable having three 4/0 AWG (211.1. in. 80 ft. 85 ft.10–Spacings for Conductor Supports Maximum Support Spacing for Conductors in Vertical Raceways AWG or Circular Mil Size of Wire 18 AWG through 8 AWG 6 AWG through 1/0 AWG 2/0 AWG through 4/0 AWG over 4/0 AWG through 350 kcmil over 350 kcmil through 500 kcmil over 500 kcmil through 750 kcmil over 750 kcmil Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum 100 ft. L 5 length in feet F 5 safety factor (must be at least 7. 120 ft. per conductor. Copper 100 ft.6.080 lb.600 circular mils each) soft-drawn copper conductors.240 lb. 121 . 100 ft./1.000.000 511. 200 ft.4.6. 40 ft. W3L T 5 conductor tensile strength in lb. 95 ft. 180 ft./1.000 ft.000 ft. F5 A3T Where A 5 conductor area in sq. each conductor is supported at the top with a full tension terminal: F 5 [(211. W 5 cable weight in lb. or 1./ft.1 Suspended By Clamping Around Cable Table 8. Installation and Testing 8./sq. total cable weight is 3.600) (p/4) /1.1 and in NEMA WC 74 (ICEA S-93-639) Section 7. 50 ft.4.2 Suspended by Conductor Additional information on vertically suspended cables is available in NEMA WC 70 (ICEA S-95-658) Section 4. check sidewall loading. 60 ft. Article 300.000] 36.0 unless otherwise required by appropriate authority) Example: Suspend 470 ft.

• Maintain the test voltage at the prescribed value for the time designated in applicable specifications.7. It is a good safety practice to maintain these grounds longer and while reconnecting circuit components. • Consult termination manufacturer for maximum test voltage recommendations and time limitations. Acceptance Testing – After installation and before the cable is placed in regular service the specified test voltage is applied for 15 consecutive minutes. A constant or decreasing leakage current with respect to time at maximum test voltage is the usual acceptance criterion for DC hipot testing. • At the end of the test period. Installation and Testing 8. the cable circuit may be removed from service and tested at a reduced voltage (normally 65 percent of the original acceptance value) for five consecutive minutes. 122 . disconnect transformers. For more details. • Establish adequate clearance between the circuit test ends and any grounded object.25 inches per kV). see IEEE Standards 400 and 400. IEEE 400. surge arrestors. set the test set voltage control to zero.3 contain additional details. Record the leakage current at one minute intervals for the duration of the test. Proof Testing – At any time during the period of guarantee. • Ground all circuit conductors not under test and all cable shields as well as nearby equipment..” Before performing any DC overpotential tests: • All equipment must be disconnected from the cable circuit. etc. e.2 Test Procedure Refer to IEEE Standard 400. motors. to the maximum specified.7 Hipot Testing Overview This section provides an overview of high-potential DC testing of power cables. whichever is less.g. rubber gloves and nonconducting hard hats. although varying slightly in technique. Normally this requires only a few seconds unless cable circuits of high capacitance are involved. Allow sufficient time at each step for the leakage current to stabilize. Read and understand and follow the operator’s manual for the particular test set being used. • Step Method – Apply test voltage slowly in five to seven increments of equal value. Acceptable procedures. Record leakage current at each step.2 and 400. Allow the residual voltage on the circuit to decay then ground the conductor just tested. circuit breakers. Always consult an appropriate safety officer. 8. switch taps. have more or less been standardized as either a “withstand test” or a “time-leakage current test. This will preclude damage to such equipment and will prevent test interruptions due to flashovers and/or trip-outs resulting from excessive leakage current. It should be also noted that other field tests are growing in popularity–including VLF (very low frequency) and PD (partial discharge) test methods. The direct current test may be applied either continuously or in predetermined steps to the maximum value in accordance with applicable specifications: • Continuous Method – Apply test voltage at an approximate rise rate of 1 kV per second or 75 percent of the rated current input of the equipment.8. Some equipment will take longer to reach the maximum test voltage because of the amount of charging current. All tests made after cable installation and during the manufacturer’s guarantee period should be made in accordance with applicable specifications. • Caution – It should be recognized that DC charges on cable can build up to potentially dangerous levels if grounds are removed too quickly.1. Maintain solid grounds after the test on the cable for at least four times the duration of the test.7.1 Test Equipment Direct current test equipment is commercially available with a wide range of voltages. and to other equipment not under test (approximately 0. Accessory equipment is necessary to safely conduct high-voltage tests such as safety barriers. All safety precautions must be observed during testing at high voltage. 8.

Routine periodic DC maintenance testing of cable for the evaluation of the insulation strength is not a common practice. One advantage of DC high-voltage testing is that it can detect conducting particles left on the creepage surface during splicing or termination. 123 . Test equipment should be supplied from a stable. depending on the model). wind. This may be accomplished by covering these areas with plastic envelopes. plastic wrap (e. IR in general has little or no direct relationship to breakdown strength. these tests can result in damage to the cable insulation. The environment must be carefully considered or test results may not be significant. The output voltage of the test set must be filtered and regulated. An arbitrary test voltage level could break down a cable circuit that would otherwise render long trouble-free service at normal operating AC voltage. nonmetallic sheathed cable is dependent upon the environment in which it is installed because the characteristics of the return circuits are unknown. Common Testing Problems High-leakage current can be caused by: • Failure to guard against corona • Failure to clean insulation surface • Failure to keep cable ends dry (high relative humidity. Wind prevents the accumulation of space charges at all bare energized terminals. Installation and Testing Additional Considerations High-potential testing of medium-voltage power cables is usually performed with negative polarity connected to the conductor. It is desirable to reduce or eliminate corona current at the bare metal extremities of cable or terminations. This results in an increase of corona. Erratic readings can be caused by: • Fluctuating voltage to test set • Improper test leads. constant voltage source.. dampness.8. Humidity. Humidity also increases the termination leakage current. Do not use the same source that is supplying arc welders or other equipment causing line voltage fluctuations. Saran® or Handiwrap®) or suitable electrical putty. dew. Restated another way the relation is: Kilovolts 3 1. Effective insulation resistance of the cable system may be calculated by means of Ohm’s Law: R 5 V/I. which is included in the total leakage current. It is nearly impossible to recommend test voltage values for maintenance. plastic or glass containers. High-potential testing is a tool for determining insulation resistance at high voltages. Consider using a portable motor driven alternator to energize the test set. The significance of conducting DC high-voltage tests on nonshielded.g. condensation or actual precipitation on the surface of a cable termination can increase the leakage current by several orders of magnitude. Some power cable users have adopted a program of testing circuits during planned outages. preferring possible breakdowns during testing rather than experiencing a service outage. In fact. snow) • Failure to provide adequate clearance to ground • Improper shield termination.000 Megohms 5 Microamperes Insulation resistance (IR) may also be measured with instruments that give a direct reading at 500 volts (or higher. fog.

applied for five consecutive minutes. the current starts to increase slowly at first but at an increasing rate. If. This process will probably continue until eventual failure of the cable unless the voltage is rapidly reduced. The device can usually locate faults within 6 2 percent of the cable length. TDRs are only capable of locating breaks or shorts having an impedance different than that of the cable. However. other insulations rarely exhibit this type of failure. Installation and Testing 8.4 Evaluation of Results The test current will momentarily increase for each voltage increment due to the charging of capacitance and dielectric absorption characteristics of the cable–ultimately leaving only the conduction current plus any external surface leakage or corona currents. 8. Nevertheless. the device functions much like radar. • After the cable has been completely installed and placed in service. a DC proof test may be made at a voltage not exceeding the test voltage specified below. without any increase in applied voltage. commercially available devices that can be used in the field to locate some types of conductor breaks or shorts. taps.7. These units are portable. After that time. Connected to the end of a cable. A failure can be confirmed by the inability to sustain the second application of the test voltage. short or tap is encountered.. Table 8. Splices. etc. DC testing is not recommended. a DC proof test may be made at any time within the first five years at the test voltage specified below. 124 .7. applied for five consecutive minutes. failure or flashover has probably occurred in the cable. sending out low-voltage pulses that travel the length of the cable and echo back when an open.8 Fault Locating One of the many types of fault locating equipment is the time domain reflectometer (TDR). Rubber and nonpressurized impregnated paper insulations will usually exhibit this type of insulation failure. sometimes distort the echo and can mask the fault. The time required to reach steady-state current depends on insulation temperature and material. a violent increase in current occurs accompanied by tripping of the test set. gradual insulation failure may be in progress.3 Test Voltage DC hipot test voltages are specified by ICEA and NEMA for tests conducted during and after installation as follows: • At any time during installation. If at any time during the test.8. a splice or termination. this includes shorts having a resistance of less than a few ohms and opens having a resistance greater than several hundred ohms. For most cables.11–Maximum DC Test Voltages for Shielded Power Cables Rated Voltage Phase-to-Phase (kV) 5 8 15 25 28 35 46 Maximum DC Field Test Voltages in kV During Installation 100 Percent (Grounded) 28 36 56 80 84 100 132 133 Percent (Ungrounded) 36 44 64 96 100 124 172 9 11 18 25 26 31 41 First Five Years 100 Percent (Grounded) 133 Percent (Ungrounded) 11 14 20 30 31 39 54 Sources: ICEA S-94-649 Appendix E. the method is nondestructive and is used successfully on faults having characteristics within the capabilities of the method. NEMA WC 74 (ICEA S-93-639) Appendix F and ICEA S-97-682 Appendix E 8.

The readings obtained from such testing on nonshielded. Note Use of the Guard (G) Connection G L E Megger insulation tester Figure 8.6 to 2.5–Connections for Testing Insulation Resistance Between One Wire and All Other Wires. Without Being Affected by Leakage to Ground 125 . nonmetallic-sheathed cable is very dependent upon the environment because the environment determines the characteristics of the return circuit. Low-voltage IR tests are particularly useful in detecting shorts due to installation or handling damage to 600-volt-rated cables. Refer to the figures below for suggested hook-up.4–Connections for Testing Insulation Resistance Between One Wire and Ground.5 kV). the test is often referred to as a “Megger” test.9 Megger Testing If the DC voltage applied during an insulation resistance (IR) test on power cables is relatively low (0. An inherent limitation of low-voltage IR tests is their interpretation. etc. Without Being Affected by Leakage to Other Wires. • Voltages – Check cable and termination manufacturer’s guidelines.8. Failure to clean water-based cable pulling lubricants from the cable test ends has caused erroneous rejection of good cable. Be sure shields are grounded! Remember that insulated conductors are capacitors. Reminders: • Safety – Follow the test equipment supplier’s instructions. G L E Megger insulation tester Figure 8. • Records – Keep detailed records and provide a copy to the owner. Low resistance readings may be caused by contaminated or moist cable ends. Installation and Testing 8. Stay clear of energized cable. high humidity. Operators must know the equipment.

8. Maintain gas flow for at least eight hours after all indications of moisture have stopped. Installation and Testing 8. The cable can then be purged as described above.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield Cables Not Yet Installed: Remove end seals. apply two layers of half-lapped HV insulating tape to act as a sealing cushion. fittings and flow regulators as shown in Figure 8. valves. supply hose Reducing coupling Clamps Cable Figure 8. Make a small vent hole by clipping one bag corner. Apply 15–25 psi (gauge). As shown. Secure the bag with tape or clamps.10 Moisture Removal 8. Water vapor may be readily detected by sprinkling one tablespoon of anhydrous cupric sulfate in the plastic bag. Position one cable end to its lowest possible elevation.10. Attach a one-gallon plastic bag to the exhaust end of the cable. Installed Cables: The splices and terminations must be removed if they interfere with the flow of air or nitrogen. The sulfate is available from scientific laboratory supply houses.6. A hardware store humidity gauge may also be used. several cables may be connected to the gas supply. Dry nitrogen is available from welding gas suppliers. Pressure regulator Dry air or nitrogen Clamp Hose adapter Threaded nipple Hose 1/2 in. All Cables: Purge the shield separately from the insulated strands. otherwise the nitrogen gas will only flow through the path offering the least resistance. Connect the cable ends to a dry nitrogen or dry air supply using hoses. which turns blue instead of “off” white when wet. At the cable end having the highest elevation.6–Moisture Removal Equipment 126 .

Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are devices used to locate faults. Low-cost handheld LAN cable testers are available to certify the electrical performance. the ability to maintain proper system operation is extremely important. TDRs analyze the reflections and report the magnitude of the impedance mismatch and the location of faults. 8. A light pulse is sent down the fiber and as it encounters a fault. attenuation. connector. impedance and other parameters. With this method the light source injects light with a known signal level (brightness) into one end of the fiber. Category 3. a broken fiber. Attenuation is the parameter most frequently measured and includes the attenuation of the cable as well as that of attached connectors.. e. etc. Cable attenuation can be caused by microbending of the fiber. Installation and Testing 8.12 LAN Cable Testing With society’s dependency on data networks around the world. opens or severely deformed cable. of newly installed LAN cable.g.8. The difference is the attenuation and is usually reported in decibels. splice. decrease the amount of downtime and reduce costs for the system owner. 127 . 5 or 6. OTDRs work on a radar-like principle. There are several types of test equipment that are commonly used to evaluate local area network (LAN) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling. These devices typically characterize the installed system with regard to crosstalk. The power meter is attached to the other end of the fiber and measures the light output at a specific wavelength. Small optical microscopes are used to visually inspect the workmanship of installed fiber optic connectors. The TDR sends a low-voltage pulse along the cable and then “looks” for reflections that result from impedance mismatches that are caused by shorts.11 Fiber Optic TestinG Testing a newly installed fiber optic system can increase the overall performance of a system. An OTDR is able to determine the distance to the reflection and the amount of signal loss at that point. 4.. of course. impurities in the fiber. a portion of the optical pulse is reflected back to the source. Optical time domain reflectometers (OTDRs) are used to locate faults and to measure attenuation of cables and connectors. excessive mechanical force on the cable or. Handheld optical power meters and light sources are used to determine the total attenuation of the fiber including any splices or connectors. determine length and measure attenuation of the cable.

128 .

2 Stud Sizes 134 134 136 9.1.2 SC Connector 9.4 MT-RJ Connector 9.1.4.4.1.4.1 Types of Fiber Optic Connectors 9.1 ST Connector 9.8 SMA Connector 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 139 139 139 129 .1.1.5 MTP/MPO Connector 9.1.1.1 Selection 9.4 SHV 9.1.1 Coaxial Connectors 9.1.2 RJ11 and RJ45 Modular 133 133 9.1.8 F Series 131 131 131 131 131 132 132 133 133 9. Cable Accessories 9.1.3.7 FDDI Connector 9.1.1.3 Power Connectors 9. Cable Accessories 9.3 LC Connector 9.4.6 FC Connector 9.4.4.1.1.3.6 UHF 9.4.4.2 BNC 9.3 TNC 9.2 Data Connectors 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors 9.1 Selection 9.9.7 N Series 9.5 SMA 9.1.4.

2 Mode of the Fiber 9.5.4.2.5.1 Type and Construction of Connector 9. Cable Accessories 9.4.2.5 Nomenclature 9.3.5.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.2.9.2 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Heat-Cured) 9.5.1 No-Epoxy/No-Polish Connectors (Mechanical Splice Type) 9.3 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (UV Cured) 9.4 Installation Environment 9.5.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations 130 .2.3 Additional Load Considerations 9.4.1 Support Span 9.3 Connector Termination Methods 9.4.5.4.3.3.2 Considerations for Selecting Fiber Optic Connectors 9.3 Fiber Cable Construction 9.4. Cable Accessories 9.6 Additional Information 143 143 143 143 143 144 144 145 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors (Continued) 9.4.2 Working Load 9.4.4 Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Anaerobic) 140 140 140 140 141 141 142 142 142 142 9.4.

the TNC is the obvious choice.2 BNC By far. is usable to 11 GHz. Figure 9. The nominal impedance of the connector indicates its basic match to the nominal impedance of the cable.3 TNC A TNC connector is virtually identical to a BNC connector.1 Selection Just as MIL-DTL-17 covers the main types of coaxial cables. Coupling method determines the procedure for joining two mating connectors. a BNC connector uses bayonet coupling. screw and snap-on. while the BNC is limited to 4 GHz. allows the connector to maintain a low VSWR up to 11 GHz with flexible cable and up to 15 GHz with semirigid cable. In most versions. miniature. 9. Connectors can be used at frequencies below this range but are not recommended at frequencies above this range where performance (especially VSWR) becomes degraded. The TNC connector.1. they should connect to the cable with as little disruption of the electrical signal as possible.9. BNC connectors are the most common for miniature cables because of the easy connection/disconnection offered by their bayonet coupling. They have bayonet coupling but do not have a constant impedance. 4 GHz connectors are now available to meet the demand and usage of 75-ohm coax cable. however. Cable size determines the connector series as subminiature.1. except it has a threaded rather than a bayonet coupling. The three common types are bayonet. Cable Accessories 9. either connector can be used.4 SHV For medium-size cables. materials. 131 . Frequency range determines the upper frequency limit of the application. frequency range and coupling method. If the highest frequency is 8 GHz. a connector is usually specified by its nominal impedance and its allowable voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). Often the coupling method is the main difference between two series of connectors. They were originally designed for high-energy physics applications. MIL-PRF-39012 covers many popular types of coaxial connectors. SHV connectors are high-voltage connectors rated to 5.1–BNC Connectors 9. but with a threaded coupling. 75-ohm. a TNC connector is essentially the same. The VSWR indicates the quality of the match. users generally consider cable size. performance and testing procedures for each connector. The tight interface of the threads.000 volts (rms). especially when subjected to vibration. Both BNC and TNC series connectors.1. (This is due to the difference between bayonet and screw couplings. 9. 9.1. Thus. medium or large. in other words. for instance.) If the highest frequency of the application is 2 GHz. In selecting a connector. For example. BNC connectors are 50-ohm connectors rated to 4 GHz. can be used with miniature cable.1 Coaxial Connectors Coaxial connectors should appear electrically as extensions to the cable. It includes mating and overall dimensions.

4–UHF Series Coax Connectors 132 .6 UHF The first coaxial connectors.9. Figure 9. 2 GHz for the miniature version. UHF connectors exhibit nonconstant impedance and a low upper-frequency limit of only 500 MHz. SMA connectors are the most popular type for subminiature cable and offer the highest performance in their class. designed in the 1930s. military and high-performance test equipment applications. radar.5 SMA Widely used in avionics. Figure 9.2–SMA Series Coax Connectors for Semirigid Cable Figure 9.3–SMA Series Coax Connectors for Flexible Cable 9. Cable Accessories 9.1.1. Their main application is in cost-sensitive consumer applications. They meet MIL-PRF-39012 requirements up to 12.4 GHz when used on flexible cable and up to 18 GHz on semirigid cable.

the conductors are inserted into the rear of the plug in a specific pattern. It is the standard coaxial connector for many coaxial cable-based local area networks. it is still widely used. others for stranded wire. and RG-11 type coaxial cables and are the standard for cable television systems.7–RJ45 (8 pin) Modular Plug 133 . Most connectors are terminated to the cable by a single crimp on the attached ferrule. developed during World War II to handle microwave frequencies up to 11 GHz. Despite the connector’s age. The most used standards are ANSI/TIA-568-B (wiring methods “A” or “B”). Figure 9. economical and meets the specifications of CATV/MATV systems. With the locking tab down. screw threaded couplers for RG-59. Some are designed for use with wires with solid conductors. depending on the wiring method selected for the system.1. The wiring configuration varies. Cable Accessories 9. including Ethernet and other IEEE 802 networks using medium-size coaxial cable. Figure 9. RG-6.1 RJ11 and RJ45 Modular RJ11 and RJ45 modular plugs and jacks are widely used in communication applications. Rear View Front View 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Side View Figure 9.1. low-cost commercial and 75-ohm versions in a variety of styles and materials.8 F Series The F type connectors are 75-ohm.2 Data Connectors 9. The pins of the plug are numbered 1 through 8 as shown in Figure 9.6–F Series Coax Connector 9.2.9.5–N Series Coax Connectors 9. offering dual-crimp.7.7 N Series These screw thread connectors were the first true RF connectors. The F type connector is simple to install.

Selection and Use Copper compression connectors are recommended for use on copper conductors. for a wide variety of applications. They are designed with sufficient mass and are electro-tin plated to minimize corrosion due to galvanic action between dissimilar metals. Connector designs are engineered to match the cable size to provide the necessary physical strength requirements for reliable electrical performance. The connectors are normally tin-plated. high-purity wrought aluminum.9–Typical Compression Connector Compression Connectors Compression connectors are designed for reliable and controllable electrical connections. Aluminum compression connectors are usually manufactured from high-conductivity. lead-plated. Cable Accessories The individual pairs of 100-ohm UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cabling are usually connected using one of the two pair assignments shown in Figure 9. Connectors must withstand a wide range of electrical and environmental conditions including current surges.8–Front View of 8 Position Jack with Pair Assignments A (left) and B (right) for an RJ45 Modular Jack 9. The connector barrels are typically prefilled with oxideinhibiting compound.9.1 Selection Figure 9.8. Dual-rated aluminum compression connectors may be used on both copper and aluminum conductors. 8 Position Modular Jack Pair Assignments for UTP Figure 9. Oxide-inhibiting compound usually contains homogeneously suspended metallic particles that penetrate the wire’s oxides to establish continuity between the individual strands and the connector barrel for a low-resistance connection. Copper compression connectors are normally manufactured from high-conductivity electrolytic copper.3 Power Connectors 9. 134 . temperatures.3. corrosion and vibration. or plated with a proprietary finish to provide corrosion resistance. Aluminum compression connectors are recommended for use on aluminum conductors.

D. I. B L C' P C W W One-hole lug B= C= C1= I. Since connectors and dies are designed as a unit for specific wire sizes. = P= W= Length of barrel Edge of tongue to center of stud hole Stud hole spacing (two-hole lugs only) Inner diameter Length of lug Outer diameter Tongue length Tongue width Two-hole lug Figure 9. Manufacturers publish extensive tables of suitable connector. Inc.) Some have permanent die grooves or adjustable dies. Battery-operated crimping tool Hand-operated crimping tool Figure 9. only the recommended tools and dies should be used.D. tool and die combinations to ensure a quality splice or termination.11). Industry Standards Compression terminals (Figure 9.10.10–Typical Compression Tools O. virtually all the air is removed leaving a tight homogeneous mass of connector and conductor. while others require a change of die sets or nest die for each connector size. Many aluminum and copper terminals and splices are marked with a die index number and are color-coded to identify the correct installation die.9.D. Many have also received CSA approval and are approved under SAE AS7928 (formerly MIL-T-7928) and other standards. splices and tap connectors requiring third-party testing and approval are listed by Underwriters Laboratories. hydraulically-powered heads and battery actuated tools.D. I. B L P C O. The tools include small plier types.11–Typical Compression Terminals (Lugs) 135 .D. All conform to applicable sections of the National Electrical Code.D. Cable Accessories Tooling Tooling systems are essential for proper installation of a compression connector. Dies marked with the matching die index number and color can be used to install the connector. When properly installed. full-cycle ratchet designs. = L= O. (See examples in Figure 9.

190 .138 .2 Stud Sizes Hole diameter English Bolt Size #2 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4" 5/16" Bolt Diameter Inch .7 13.500 5/8" .0 M10 10.0 3.0 Hole Diameter mm 2.265 .0 5. Note: Bolt illustrations not drawn to scale.5 M4 M5 M6 M8 Bolt Size Metric Bolt Diameter mm 2.4 10.112 .1 Source: ISO 263 for English stud sizes and ISO 262 for metric stud sizes.5 4. Cable Accessories 9.0 3.12–Terminal Stud Size Chart in English and Metric Units 136 .0 2.148 .8 16.164 .8 3.1 11.095 .0 19.515 .4 3.0 8.375 7/16" .5 3.0 M16 16.5 M3 M3. Figure 9.656 .9.1 6.0 M18 18.450 .0 M12 12.3.328 M2 M2.200 .397 M10 10.125 .3 3/8" .148 .625 3/4" .8 4.120 .250 .0 6.086 .174 .750 .3125 Hole Diameter Inch .7 8.4 5.4375 1/2" .781 .

For higher multi-fiber terminations (up to 12 fibers) there is the MTP/MPO connector. Two common SFF connector types are the LC and the MT-RJ. consumable items and training) required to install them.1 Types of Fiber Optic Connectors The larger standard-size fiber connectors.4 Fiber Optic Connectors Fiber optic connectors are used at the ends of optical fiber. cross-connect and breakout applications. It was developed in Japan by NTT (the Japanese telecommunications company) and is believed to be an abbreviation for Subscriber Connector. It is non-optically disconnecting and has a “keyed” insertion for performance reliability and to prevent tip rotation.2 SC Connector The standard-size SC connector also has a round 2. such as the ST and SC.1 ST Connector The standard-size ST connector was one of the first connector types widely implemented in fiber optic networking applications. Originally developed by AT&T. The connector body of an SC connector is square. 9. The ST is still very popular for building applications but it is slowly being replaced by the SC and the smaller. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so that light can pass through with a minimum amount of attenuation (loss). have been around for many years and are still the most widely used. methods of mechanical coupling. Because of their small size. They allow fiber optic equipment and patching connections to be made easily and quickly.1. and two SC connectors are often held together with a plastic clip making this a “duplex” connection. The SC utilizes a push-on/pull-off mating mechanism. The connector has a bayonet style “twist-on/twist-off” mechanism.13–ST Connector 9. small form factor (SFF) connectors. denser. The main differences among the types of connectors are their dimensions. Figure 9.4. they allow a higher fiber port density on optical equipment and patch panels. Figure 9. which is easier to use than the twist-style ST connector when in tight spaces.5 mm ferrule to hold a single fiber. Many types of fiber optic connectors are available. There are several varieties of newer small form factor (SFF) connectors that are much smaller than the ST and SC.4.14–SC Connector 137 . Cable Accessories 9. the number of fibers they contain and the particular termination methods (including tooling. it stands for Straight Tip connector.1. ST connections use a 2.5 mm ferrule with a round plastic or metal body that holds a single fiber. 9.4. This is the recommended standard-size fiber connector for enterprise cabling installations.9. It is usually used with ribbon cable for high-density backbone.

MTP/MPO applications include horizontal zone cabling systems as well as high-density backbones and cross-connects used in large buildings. The ferrule of an LC connector is 1.1. The joined duplex LC connector only takes as much space as one SC connector. The MTP connector contains up to twelve optical fibers within a single ferrule and is available in both multimode and single-mode versions. This connector is used with fiber ribbon cable to achieve very high density. The connector locks into place with a tab (just like a modular RJ-style plug).5 MTP/MPO Connector The MTP is a high-density multifiber optical connector. In addition. It utilizes a push-pull mechanism. Each connector holds one fiber. Figure 9.1. it is used at one end of cable assemblies that “break out” multi-fiber cables into separate single fiber connectors at the other end. The MTP connector is often used on both ends of preterminated cable assemblies to facilitate the quick and easy interconnection of preconnectorized patch panels. It was developed by AMP/Tyco and Corning and MT-RJ stands for Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack.16–MT-RJ Connectors 9. similar to the SC. It is a trademark of US Conec and is an improvement on the original MPO (multi-fiber push-on) connector designed by NTT. Two LC connectors are normally held together in a duplex configuration with a plastic clip.25 mm.9. The connection is held in place by a push-on/pull-off latch and has a pair of metal guide pins that protrude from the front of the connector for alignment. disaster recovery and industrial operations. Figure 9. Cable Accessories 9. It was developed by Lucent Technologies and it stands for Lucent Connector.17–MTP/MPO Connector 138 . and the connector body resembles the square shape of SC connectors but it is much smaller.4.4. The MT-RJ connector closely resembles an RJ-style modular plug and terminates two fibers in a single ferrule so it is always “duplex.4 MT-RJ Connector The MT-RJ is another small form factor (SFF) connector.1.3 LC Connector The LC connector is the most commonly used small form factor (SFF) connector. Figure 9.15–LC Connector 9.4. data centers.” This connector fits an adapter with the same footprint of a standard single-fiber connector.

SC or other SFF connectors. The termination on the fiber optic cable itself is called an FDDI connector also known as an MIC (media interface connector) connector.9. The FDDI connector is designed to mate to its specific network. It was the dominant connector in data and closed-circuit video applications. There are two types used: SMA 905.4. which has a ferrule that is the same diameter from the base to the tip.4. the use of the SMA connector is diminishing.5 mm ferrule tip with a threaded screw-on mechanism.1. bulky plastic housing that uses a squeeze-tab retention mechanism.” It was originally designed for the military and was in use before the ST connector.8 SMA Connector This connector was designed by Amphenol and stands for “Subminiature A. and SMA 906. B. which has an indented (smaller diameter) section on the tip side of the ferrule. While it is still found in predominantly military and industrial applications.20–SMA Connector 139 . Figure 9. Figure 9.6 FC Connector The FC connector has a 2. One is the primary and one is for backup. It is generally used to connect to equipment from a wall outlet while the rest of the network will have ST. These connectors are typically used for single-mode applications but multimode connectors are available.7 FDDI Connector FDDI stands for fiber distributed data interface. The FDDI connector has a keying system to prevent connections of incompatible network nodes. Most SMA 906 type connectors come with a plastic ring on the tip so they can be used as a SMA 905 connector.1. M and S. Figure 9. Cable Accessories 9. It is keyed to prevent tip rotation and damage to mated fiber. There are four receptacle keys: A.1.19–FDDI Connector 9. Not as popular as it once was. It contains two ferrules in a large. It is actually a fiber-based network access method based on the Token Ring protocol and utilizes two fiber rings.18–FC Connector 9. it is slowly being replaced by SC and LC connectors.4. It is rarely used in building network applications.

However. 9. MTP etc. The three most common form factors (sizes) are “standard” size. no epoxy/no polish. at 125 µm. generate more debris during re-mating and do not perform well during thermal cycling or vibration testing.) • Mode of fiber being connectorized (single-mode or multimode) • Construction of fiber (tight buffer. small form factor (SFF) and the high-density multi-fiber type connector. therefore. Some considerations are: • For new installations. durable material that does not wear down even after a high number of reconnections. • When adding fiber and connectors to an existing facility. it has the same overall diameter of 125 µm as the 62. it is more expensive than other materials. It is a hard. Fibers are either multimode or single-mode. • Fiber patch cords with different connector types at each end can be used where the opto-electronic equipment connector does not match the connector on the fiber distribution equipment. Cable Accessories 9. anaerobic. loose tube. • The MPO/MTP type connector is used for high-density fiber applications usually with ribbon fiber.5/125 µm. ST.5 µm multimode cores. This indicates a core diameter of 62. etc. SC is the recommended standard-size connector followed by the ST in popularity (other types are available). it might make sense to use the same type of connector on the fiber infrastructure and distribution cabinets. however. 140 . UV cure. Connectors with stainless steel ferrules (when compared to ceramic or composite). • LCs are the most common small form factor (SFF) connector (other types.4. etc. • Composite (polymer) – Connectors with composite tips are not as durable as those made from ceramic or stainless steel but offer a cost-effective solution and are suitable for many applications where a high number of reconnections are not anticipated. the specific style and in some cases the type of material used. they are generally more expensive. Another type of multimode fiber gaining popularity is 50/125 µm.5 µm fiber but provides a greater bandwidth.2. LC..5 µm surrounded by a cladding layer of glass making the overall diameter of the fiber 125 µm. • Single-mode – The typical fiber size is 8/125 µm which indicates a core diameter of 8 µm surrounded by a cladding layer of glass making the overall diameter of the fiber 125 µm. jumper cordage.4. breakout. • If most opto-electronic equipment in a facility has predominantly one connector type. one should consider using the same type of connectors throughout the facility.) • Termination method (heat cure. • Many projects have a written specification that defines the particular type of fiber connector required. such as the MT-RJ connector.2–Mode of the Fiber The mode of the fiber is important when selecting a fiber connector.e. Single-mode connectors must be manufactured to more precise tolerances. • Stainless steel – Stainless steel tips offer durability. MT-RJ.9.1–Type and Construction of Connector Choosing the right fiber connector means selecting the proper form factor. This is because the proper alignment of the 8 µm single-mode core is more critical than on the larger 50 or 62.4. are also available). the following must be taken into consideration: • Type and construction of connector (SC. These are commonly used materials: • Ceramic – Connector tips made from ceramic are preferred because ceramic closely matches the thermal characteristics of glass.2.) 9. is the same as for multimode. however. have higher typical insertion loss.5 µm core because cladding layer of glass is thicker. FC.2 Considerations for Selecting Fiber Optic Connectors When selecting fiber optic connectors. • Multimode – The most common size for multimode fiber is 62. SC single-mode or SC multimode connector). Polymer materials have the advantage of a lower cost without sacrificing performance. Note that the overall fiber diameter. Even though the overall fiber diameter size (core plus cladding) may be the same between single-mode and multimode fibers there is typically a different connector required for each within the same type (i. The type of material used in the tip (ferrule) of the connector is also important. Note that the core size of the 50 µm fiber is smaller than the 62.

9. each fiber is a simplex jumper cord (patch cable). It is in direct contact with the fiber and surrounds it bringing the O.3 Connector Termination Methods The final step in choosing a fiber connector. Multi-fiber building cable has multiple tight-buffered fibers under a common jacket. that contain several fibers each or there may be one “central” tube that contains all the fibers in the cable.D. These cables are water-blocked utilizing gel and/or dry water-swellable tapes or yarns within and around the buffer tube(s) inside the cable. zipcord. there are now tight-buffered outdoor versions available. however. fiber mode and cable construction are known. ribbon cable. Inside the cable the fibers are typically laid out in rows of 12 fibers each. connect. polishing films.2. • Loose tube (loose buffer) cable – Loose tube cables are used for outdoor applications and contain multiple bare fibers that float freely within larger buffer tubes. accessories and in some cases consumable items. Loose-tube cable is available in single-mode or multimode versions. In effect. once the connector type. SC. of the building entrance point if run exposed. loose tube (loose buffer). With technical specifications being equal. polishing. there are different termination methods to choose from based on the connector manufacturer’s design and the particular methods used to to prepare. A connector can be installed directly on each jacketed fiber and the connectorized fibers can be patched directly into electronic equipment or patch panels etc.4.) • What is the cost of labor? (curing. Connectors can be directly installed on the ends of 900 µm tight-buffered fibers without the use of a fan-out or breakout kit. most loose-tube cable was not UL Listed for indoor use so it had to be terminated or transitioned to an inside-rated cable within 50 ft. Traditionally. setup and tear-down) 141 . building. • Tight-buffered cable (Tight buffered multi-fiber distribution cable) – This type of fiber is used mainly indoors.4. dual subunit duplex. and data-center backbones where high-density fiber counts are needed. etc. tooling etc. It is available in both single-mode and multimode versions. necessary for proper installation.9. of the fiber up to 900 µm. It is important that the proper cable be selected based on the environment and application needed.D. fan-out/breakout cable and jumper cordage. Each type of connector has its own procedures and requirements for the tools.) • What are the consumable costs? (adhesive/epoxy. and dual subunit cordages can be directly connectorized.3–Fiber Cable Construction The construction of the fiber cable needs to be considered when selecting fiber optic connectors. called subunits. There are now versions available that are indoor/outdoor rated making it allowable to extend the cable further than 50 ft. • Ribbon cable – A type of cable construction that provides the highest fiber density in the most compact cable size. Simplex. in duct or in direct buried applications. These cables can be single-mode or multimode are available in both indoor and outdoor versions. Loose tube cables require a buffer tube fan-out or breakout kit in order to connectorize the fibers. Cable Accessories 9. of the jacket on the cable. It is ideal for mass-fusion splicing and for use with multi-fiber connectors such as the MTP/MPO. one row on top of the other. Within the same connector types (ST. etc. •J  umper cordage (patch cable) – Jumper cordage is divided into four construction types: simplex. Primary construction types are tight buffered. the termination method chosen usually comes down to a matter of cost based on the following considerations: • Is a specific termination method specified? • Is the installer already equipped with the tool kits and accessories needed for use with a particular type of connector termination method? • How many connectors are being installed? • What is the training and experience level of the installer? • What are the material costs? (connector itself. Tight-buffered cable has a “buffer” layer of plastic coating extruded onto the fiber. These vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and even within connector types from the same manufacturer. They come in various constructions depending on whether they will be installed aerially. Choose a connector that matches the breakout kit subunit type for a proper fit. and round duplex. It is available in both single-mode and multimode versions and in indoor and outdoor constructions. hold and terminate the fibers within the connector itself.). LC. They may contain multiple small tubes. Ribbon fiber cable has become very popular as the cable of choice for deployment in campus. zipcord duplex. from the building entrance point within buildings. Connectors must be selected that fit the O. Round duplex usually requires a breakout kit. • Fan-out/breakout cable – Each fiber in a fan-out/breakout cable is jacketed and protected with strength members. is to select the desired termination method of the connector.

• No oven or lamp needed • No electrical source required • Requires polishing • Faster installation time than heat-cured 142 .4.4.4.3.) • Requires polishing • Longer installation time than no epoxy/no polish 9. This causes the primer and adhesive to mix and curing occurs.2–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Heat-Cured) The fiber is secured in the connector using epoxy. • Epoxy cured by UV lamp – no heat generated • Lower connector cost • Lower consumables cost • Requires polishing (easier polish than heat-cure) • Faster cure and overall installation time than heat-cured connectors • Higher yields/less scrap 9.4. This type of connector is a cost-effective way to make cable assemblies or to install in locations where a large number of fibers are terminated at one time. Single-mode.4–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (Anaerobic) No ovens or UV lamps are needed for curing.3–Epoxy and Polish Connectors (UV Cured) This connector uses UV light to cure the epoxy. etc. Cable Accessories The following explains the most common termination methods: 9.1–No Epoxy/No Polish Connectors (Mechanical Splice Type) This type of connector has become very popular.9. • Heat-cured in an oven • Batch termination • Low connector cost • Consumables required (epoxy and polishing paper.3. The bare fiber is dipped into a primer and then pushed through the ferrule. these type connectors are often the most cost-effective solution.3. Usually a more cost-effective solution than heat-cured connectors. An adhesive is injected into the connector ferrule and it will not harden until mixed with a curing agent. When taking into account the material.5 /125 µm multimode versions are available for each connector. 50/125 µm multimode. • No epoxy or polishing • No consumables and few tools needed • No power source required • Minimal setup required • Connectors cost more • Faster installation • Reduced labor cost 9. labor and consumables costs of termination. laser-optimized 50/125 µm multimode and 62.3. It is a connector with a polished fiber already factory-installed in the tip along with a mechanical splice type alignment system to facilitate attaching the connector to the end of a fiber.

power plants): aluminum. • Indoor dry (institutional. pregalvanized steel.2 Working Load The working load depends on tray size (width. possibly hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication (HDGAF) • Outdoor industrial (petrochemical.to 8-foot support spacing (use 12-foot sections) • Intermediate span: 8. office. pulp and paper.1 Support Span The support span length is an important consideration as it affects the strength of the system and the length of the straight sections required.to 20-foot support spacing (use 20-foot sections) • Extra long span: over 20-foot to 30-foot support spacing (use 24. power plants): aluminum.5 Cable Tray Systems 9.9.5.5. Typical tray types used in various environments are shown below. fiberglass • Special (petrochemical. automotive. hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication (HDGAF) • Outdoor marine (off shore platforms): aluminum. per linear foot [lb. Installation Environment Tray material and finish have a significant impact on tray performance in any given environment.5.5.to 12-foot support spacing (use 12-foot sections) • Long span: 16. wind. stainless steel.3 Additional Load Considerations • 200-lb. light industrial): aluminum. pulp and paper. environmental air): contact manufacturer 143 . pregalvanized steel • Indoor industrial (automotive. 9. 9. Tray types typically used for various span lengths include: • Short span: 6.4. loading depth and strength).]) • Power cables in a single layer – width is key issue (refer to applicable electrical code) • Low-voltage cables in a stacked configuration – key issues are loading depth and width (refer to applicable electrical code). concentrated load – industrial installations • Ice./ft. commercial. snow loads – outdoor installations 9. Considerations include: • Types and numbers of cables to support (total cable load in lb.or 30-foot sections). Cable Accessories 9.

90 degrees horizontal bend. Solid flanged tray cover 17. Ventilated channel straight section 18. Horizontal tee. Ventilated trough-type cable tray 3.21–Cable Tray System 9.” Article 392 of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) and on the Cable Tray Institute Web site at www. ladder-type cable tray 9. Frame type box connector 15.” NEMA VE-2 “Cable Tray Installation Guidelines. 30 degrees vertical inside bend. ladder type cable tray 14. ladder-type cable tray 5. Cable Accessories 6 8 5 1 10 3 13 9 11 12 2 7 16 4 18 14 17 15 Figure 9. Ladder-type cable tray 2. ventilated-type cable tray 10. ventilated trough-type cable tray 13. Channel cable tray.5. Barrier strip straight section 16. 144 . Straight splice plate 4.5 Nomenclature The following items are keyed by number to the parts illustrated in Figure 9. Vertical tee down.cabletrays. 90 degrees vertical outside bend.6 Additional Information Additional information on cable tray systems is contained in NEMA VE-1 “Metal Cable Tray Systems.21: 1. ladder-type cable tray 11. 90 degrees vertical outside bend 9.9. 45 degrees vertical outside bend. Horizontal cross. ladder-type cable tray 8. Left-hand reducer. Vertical bend segment (VBS) 12.5. ladder-type cable tray 7. ladder-type cable tray 6.com. 45 degrees horizontal bend.

Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V X W G Y Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 3-Phase 250 V X Y Z 3-Phase 250 V X G 1-15 5-15 6-15 7-15 20 AMP 11-15 14-15 15-15 18-15 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V G W 2-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V Z X W G Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 250 V 120/208 V 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Phase 250 V X 3-Phase 250 V X Y G Z W X Y Z 2-20 5-20 6-20 7-20 10-20 30 AMP 11-20 14-20 15-20 18-20 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V G W 2-Pole. 4-Wire. 4-Wire.9. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y Y 3-Pole. 4-Wire. 3-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V Z X W G Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 250 V 120/208 V W X Y Z 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Phase 250 V X 3-Phase 250 V X Y G Z 2-30 5-30 6-30 7-30 10-30 11-30 14-30 15-30 18-30 Continued >> 145 . Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G W 3-Pole. Cable Accessories 9.6 NEMA Plug and Receptacle Configurations Table 9. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G 3-Pole 3-Wire 1-Phase 277 V G 3-Pole. 3-Wire. 3-Wire 1-Phase 125/250 V W W X Y Y 3-Pole.1–NEMA Non-Locking Plug Configurations 15 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 125 V 1-Phase 125 V G W W 2-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G 3-Pole. 3-Wire.

Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G X W Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W Z X Y Z 3-Phase 250 V X Y G 14-60 15-60 18-60 Note: Receptacle configurations are a mirror image of the plug configurations shown.1–NEMA Non-Locking Plug Configurations (Continued) 50 AMP 2-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V G W 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V G Z X W Y X Y 4-Wire 3-Phase 120/208 V W X Y Z 1-Phase 250 V G 1-Phase 125/250 V W Y 3-Phase 250 V X Y 3-Phase 250 V G Z 5-50 6-50 60 AMP 7-50 10-50 11-50 14-50 15-50 18-50 3-Pole.2–NEMA Locking Plug Configurations 15 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 125 V 1-Phase 125 V W G 2-Pole. Cable Accessories Table 9. 4-Wire.9. 4-Wire. 3-Wire 1-Phase 277 V G W X 3-Pole. Table 9. 3-Wire. 3-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V X Y G 1-Phase 277 V W G L1-15 L5-15 L6-15 L7-15 Continued >> 146 .

Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y G 4-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 125/250 V W X Y G Y 4-Pole. Grounding 3-Phase 347/600 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 250 V X Z G 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 277/480 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 120/208 V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 277/480 V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 347/600 V Y G X Z W L14-20 L15-20 L16-20 L18-20 L19-20 30 AMP L20-20 L21-20 L22-20 L23-20 2-Pole. Cable Accessories Table 9. 3-Wire 1-Phase 600 V X Y Y Z X W 1-Phase 277 V G W 1-Phase 480 V W X 1-Phase 125/250 V G Y 3-Phase 250 V X Y G Z 3-Phase 480 V W X Y Z 2-20 5-20 6-20 7-20 10-20 20 AMP 11-20 14-20 15-20 18-20 3-Pole. 4-Wire. 4-Wire 3-Phase 600 V G Y X Z G 4-Pole.9. 5-Wire. 147 . 3-Wire. Grounding 3-Phase 277/480 V 3-Phase 120/208V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 250 V Y X Z G Y 3-Phase 480 V X Z 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 120/208 V Y X Z W 3-Phase 277/480 V Y G X Z W 3-Phase 347/600 V Y G X Z W Y X Z W L14-30 L15-30 L16-30 L17-30 L18-30 L19-30 L20-30 L21-30 L22-30 L23-30 Note: Receptacle configurations are a mirror image of the plug configurations shown. 5-Wire. 4-Wire 3-Phase 480 V Y X Z G 4-Pole.2–NEMA Locking Plug Configurations (Continued) 20 AMP 2-Pole 2-Wire 1-Phase 250 V 1-Phase 125 V G W 2-Pole. 3-Wire. Grounding 1-Phase 125 V W G 3-Pole. Grounding 1-Phase 250 V G 3-Pole. 4-Wire. 3-Wire 1-Phase 480 V X Y G 1-Phase 250 V X Y G 1-Phase 277 V W G 1-Phase 600 V X Y G 1-Phase 125/250 V X Y W 3-Phase 250 V Y Z X 3-Phase 480 V Y Z X 3-Phase 600 V Y Z X L5-30 L6-30 L7-30 L8-30 L9-30 30 AMP L10-30 L11-30 L12-30 L13-30 3-Pole.

148 .

3 Capacities (ft.2 Reel Handling 10.) and Dimensions of Shipping Reels 150 150 150 152 10.10.2.2.2 Moving and Lifting 157 157 157 149 . Packaging of Wire and Cable 10.1.1.2 Minimum Drum Diameter 10. Packaging of wire and cable 10.1 Reel Size 10.1 Storage and Shipment 10.1 Reel Terminology 10.1.

Over 2. Tubular metallic sheathed a. 0–2.000 volts b. If cable is subjected to bends sharper than the minimum radius. and larger 2. Interlocked armor Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable 10 12 14 14 20 14 14 25 30 16 16 14 14 Continued >> 150 . damage to the material is likely. Longitudinally applied corrugated tape B.1 Reel Terminology W T B H C D A A = Flange diameter B = Arbor hole diameter C = Clearance D = Drum diameter H = Height T = Traverse W = Overall width Figure 10. Single. The minimum drum (hub) diameters given in Section 10. Corrugated metallic sheath 5.1.750 in.and multiple-conductor nonmetallic-covered cable 1.2 should be observed. Wire armored 3. Single.1–Minimum Drum Diameter for Wire and Cable Type of Cable A. A reel not matched to the weight of the cable wound on it may be damaged during shipment. Aluminum (1) Outside diameter – 1.10.D.1–Reel Terminology 10.1.) of the cable or wire to be rewound. Helically applied b.1. Tape shielded a. All wire and cable has a minimum safe bending radius.000 volts (1) Nonjacketed with concentric wires (2) All others 2. Lead b. Flat tape armored 4. Longitudinally applied flat tape c. and less (2) Outside diameter – 1.and multiple-conductor metallic-covered cable 1.751 in.2 Minimum Drum Diameter Table 10.1 Reel Size Selection of proper reel (spool) size depends on the length and overall diameter (O. including cable with concentric wires a. 10. Nonshielded and wire shielded. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10.

E.10.25 1. inches –  0.50 0.01–1.26–1. the highest factor for any component type shall be used.50 F. the minor outside diameter shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor to determine the minimum drum diameter. B and C. Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.  When metallic-sheathed cables are covered only by a thermosetting or thermoplastic jacket. Fiber optic cables (in no case less than 12 inches) G. including self-supporting cables – the circumscribing overall diameter shall be multiplied by the factor given in item A or B and then by the reduction factor of 0. In all other cases. C  ombinations – For combinations of the types described in items A. 3. Sources: NEMA WC 26 (EEMAC 201) Binational Wire and Cable Packaging Standard 151 . The multiplying factors given for item E refer to the outside diameter of the duct. Bare conductor 26 24 22 21 19 20* 20 Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable Notes to Table: 1.50 Over 1.75. the outside diameter is the diameter outside of all the material on the cable in the state in which it is to be wound upon the reel.  Multiple single conductors cabled together without common covering.0–0. * Some manufacturers recommend 30.00 1.51–1. 2.and multiple-conductor cable in coilable nonmetallic duct Outside diameter of duct.1 Minimum Drum Diameter for Wire and Cable (Continued) Type of Cable C.  For “flat-twin” cables (where the cable is placed upon the reel with its flat side against the drum). the outside diameter is the diameter over the metallic sheath itself. D. S  ingle.

297 1.80 0.120 3.464 2.490 1.776 5.) Drum Dia.855 7.115           30 18 12 2   27.036 6.681 10.724 11.207 998 838                 24 12 12 1 26.306 1.25 0.10.414 7.890 20.) of Typical Shipping Reels per NEMA WC 26 Flange Dia.65 0.15 0.742 1.243 17.144 2.742 1.320 1.280 1.207 The following formula from NEMA WC 26 can be used to calculate approximate cable capacity per reel: Footage = 0.485 1.097 2.270 2.576 5.073 1.149 1.610 1.60 1.036 6.877 6.75 0.55 0.354 2.439 4.70 0.70 16 10 12 1 16 12 6 1 12.546 4.009 817                     24 12 10 1 30.45 0.099 3.277 1.280 9.886 1.490 1.15 1.1.182 13.509 2.10 1.920 3.877 15.097 2.109 3.) 1.) and Dimensions of Shipping Reels Table 10.750 13.35 1.515 1.45 1.) Traverse (in.546 5.681 4.25 1.60 0.083 5.668 1.120 3.681 10.320 2.10 0.330 1.115           32 24 16 2   36. (in.012 1.397 1.920 3.464 1.744 2.95 1.30 0.987 1.05 Cable O.3 Capacities (ft.222 6.073 1.589 3.182 1.471 3.280 1.027                           20 12 8 1 20.)2 152 .858 2.) Clearance (in.35 0.317 13.670 1.30 1. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10.877 15.354 2.829 3.962 4.D. (in.414 9.146 1.886 10.694 1.969 5.40 1.276 2.886 1.55 1.285 2.D.188 4.) 0.2–Capacities (ft.338 1.965 1.20 1.65 1.069 883 742 633 545 475           24 16 10 1 40.476 1.061 6.271 1.90 0.118                 28 18 12 1   27.485 1.969 2.509 2.182 19.50 0.969 5.40 0.671 1.829 3.262 × T × (H–C) × (D+H–C) (Wire O.991 3.85 0.436 9.50 1.00 1.025 920 830 36 24 16 2     30.20 0. (in.

803 7.756 5.10. Packaging of Wire and Cable 40 30 16 2 42 26 24 2 48 36 24 2 54 32 24 3 60 28 28 3 66 36 36 3 72 36 36 3 78 48 42 3 84 54 48 3 90 54 48 3 96 54 56 3 32.049 10.853 20.926 10.958 8.814 13.145 1.262 23.130 7.519 6.370 12.275 11.506 14.951 6.239 7.779 4.237 10.721         44.198 37.439 5.439 3.650 2.097 35.890 18.557 7.488 11.910 3.362 5.510 13.118 1.636 1.624 16.486 5.963 5.945 9.987 8.043 15.505 16.782 34.558 15.981 2.682 12.996 1.634 8.415 2.723 1.110 5.590 6.944 19.207 2.223 4.106 3.632 28.471 4.525 1.336 6.207 3.011 4.942 5.955 26.816 48.891 12.264 2.773 3.829 2.412 4.302 29.949 3.091 12.359 5.222 8.886 8.677 4.092 8.880     45.222 1.489 7.350 33.497         43.490 4.433 4.995 7.110 9.027 946 875 811 754 703 657   35.960 15.353     44.052 1.825 1.957 2.003 2.425 2.898 1.301 21.868 25.011 4.575 7.914 10.436 1.243 29.862 23.285 8.515 2.698 22.523 2.601 8.143 1.200 3.925 14.882 13.078 14.633 3.449 6.801 14.987 1.731 17.928 4.499 3.450 21.750 18.919 24.819 2.836 12.392 6.438 19.476 4.709 11.573 7.861 9.341 1.913 4.859 11.227 2.270 3.911 4.274 9.067 9.215 6.640 12.618 4.087 9.676 19.565 5.738 1.046 1.044 23.314 2.672 10.300 5.502 2.650 2.139 31.425   40.075 Continued >> 153 .584 2.832 31.882 6.638 1.827 4.739 2.837 4.424 12.310 2.285 23.881 26.773 10.908 7.114 4.772 2.752 9.808 15.628 2.908 7.610   43.174 6.757 9.389 9.061 8.122 1.318 2.707 16.828 10.179 20.309 15.215 2.255 7.626         46.456 5.108 3.658 8.858 6.214 27.760 1.547 3.860 1.909 2.174 5.231 2.566 22.769 20.245 13.454 17.171 3.725 12.013 3.707 6.771 41.263 20.017 2.828 11.013 4.628 1.637 17.193 11.557 35.043 17.434 24.959 3.659 5.701 5.127 11.467 6.980 6.973 10.995 1.848 1.645 27.470 6.911 7.351 7.445 31.688 39.566 6.020 5.527 1.478 1.622 3.632 26.285 2.545 5.996 6.886 14.993 2.432 3.333 3.010 35.276 12.900 5.753 8.261 2.681 3.545 5.651 16.116 16.193 2.545 29.994 7.829 21.959 3.477 3.715 2.553 3.308 6.821 6.887 4.

80 1.60 2.) of Typical Shipping Reels per NEMA WC 26 (Continued) Flange Dia.75 1.45 2.10.05 2.10 2.20 2. (in.15 2.05 3.45 3.65 2.35 3.00 2.35 2.90 2.25 2.30 2.)2 154 .262 × T × (H–C) × (D+H–C) (Wire O.95 3.2–Capacities (ft.) 1.) Clearance (in.40 2.85 2.90 1.55 2.50 2.30 3.15 3. (in.70 2.40 3.85 1.75 2.95 2. (in.80 2.) Traverse (in.00 3.25 3.) Drum Dia. Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.) 16 10 12 1 16 12 6 1 20 12 8 1 24 12 10 1 24 12 12 1 24 16 10 1 28 18 12 1 30 18 12 2 32 24 16 2 36 24 16 2 The following formula from NEMA WC 26 can be used to calculate approximate cable capacity per reel: Footage = 0.D.D.50 Cable O.20 3.10 3.

762 2.999 3.366 4.715 1.999 1.774 1.898 1.179 3.142 2.887 1. Packaging of Wire and Cable 40 30 16 2 42 26 24 2 48 36 24 2 54 32 24 3 60 28 28 3 1.032 2.500 2.232 1.688 2.597 2.223 2.511 3.587 1.925 2.591 84 54 48 3 4.358 1.804 1.188 4.069 1.628 3.979 2.056 1.127 3.798 3.565 1.108 1.342 3.981 3.585 2.222 2.293 1.918 2.10.033 1.689 2.505 1.733 5.911 4.951 1.904 1.322 2.700 2.044 2.306 2.433 155 .202 3.827 1.636 3.791 1.612 1.828 2.356 2.177 3.769 1.393 2.181 3.475 1.488 5.527 2.811 3.867 1.048 2.636 1.438 2.892 2.641 2.429 1.178 3.834 1.130 4.864 4.947 1.277 66 36 36 3 1.239 2.768 1.408 2.419 5.162 2.646 1.321 2.473 3.088 2.656 4.491 78 48 42 3 3.319 3.122 72 36 36 3 2.931 96 54 56 3 5.320 3.319 3.617 4.978 1.720 1.654 1.486 2.389 4.809 2.420 4.677 1.175 1.561 1.536 90 54 48 3 5.326 2.705 1.717 1.139 2.999 1.519 1.227 2.590 1.018 1.704 3.468 3.906 3.421 2.516 3.227 2.662 1.124 2.144 2.559 2.800 2.

3–Typical Small Reel Dimensions Reel dimensions (See Figure 10.) 6 123⁄4 12 14 14 35⁄8 31⁄4 11⁄2 2 31⁄4 71⁄2 23⁄4 8 W Overall Width (in.2–Reel Dimension 156 . Packaging of Wire and Cable Table 10.) 21⁄2 33⁄4 41⁄2 11 21 2 41⁄4 1⁄2 1⁄2 1⁄2 3⁄4 11⁄4 13⁄4 Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plastic Fiberboard Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Approx.2 below) Reel A Flange Diameter (in.10.) 6 5 5 12 12 8 12 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 31⁄2 31⁄2 T Traverse (in. Reel Weight Material W T B H C D A A = Flange diameter B = Arbor hole diameter C = Clearance D = Drum diameter H = Height T = Traverse W = Overall width Figure 10.) 11⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄2 2 2 2 2 3⁄4 3⁄4 3⁄4 3⁄4 15⁄8 15⁄8 D Drum Diameter (in.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 13 16 24 30 115⁄8 16 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 101⁄2 101⁄2 B Arbor Hole (in.) 63⁄4 123⁄4 123⁄4 15 15 4 3 3⁄4 13⁄4 21⁄4 3 1⁄2 73⁄4 3 81⁄4 (lb.

2 Moving and Lifting Yes No Cradle both reel flanges between forks. hoist or fork lift.3–Proper Handling of Cable Reels 157 .2. reels should be stored and shipped upright. Storage or shipment of the reel while lying on its side greatly increases the likelihood of tangling and damage to the cable. Both cable ends should be sealed against the entrance of moisture.. Figure 10.2 Reel Handling 10. Reels can be hoisted with a shaft extending through both flanges. Caution must also be used to prevent damage to the cable end as it is frequently utilized for hipot. they should be protected from rain and direct exposure to sunlight to maximize service life. Cables or reel will be damaged. continuity. Be sure all staples and nails that might damage the cable are removed. i. duct tape may be used in emergencies but not for long term sealing as it’s prone to deterioration. 10. If reels of cable will be stored for longer than one month. Do not lift by top flange. Always load with flanges on edge and chock and block securely.2. Wooden reels may have nails or bolts come loose if racked during rough handling which may result in cable damage. CAUTION: Make sure staples are shorter than flange thickness so that they cannot extend through the flange and damage the cable. Never allow fork to touch cable surface or reel wrap. or other tests. Lower carefully. Never drop reels.10. Packaging of Wire and Cable 10. Lower reels from truck using hydraulic gate.e. Do not store or ship reels on their side. Care should be taken so as not to “rack” the reel. resting on both flanges. Smaller diameter cables should be sealed with PVC tape such as 3M Scotch 33 or with end caps (end caps preferred). Upended heavy reels will often arrive damaged. Refuse or receive subject to inspection for hidden damage. Cables larger than 1⁄2 inch in diameter should be sealed with tight-fitting heat-shrinkable or hot-dipped (peel coat) end caps designed for the purpose.1 Storage and Shipment Except for reels less than two feet in diameter and weighing less than 200 pounds.

158 .

14 ISO 11.1 AAR 11.1.6 CANENA 11.15 ITU-T 11.1.1. Industry Standards 11.1.23 U.21 TIA 11.S.1.1.1.1.1 Industry Standards List 11.2 AEIC 11.1.19 RUS 11.1.4 ASTM 11.7 ECA 11.1.5 Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) 11.1.1.11 IEC 11.1.1.13 ISA 11.12 IEEE 11.3 ANSI 11.1.16 MSHA 11.8 EIA 11.1.1.9 FAA 11.17 NEMA 11.1.22 UL 11.1.10 ICEA 11. Industry Standards 11.1.1.20 SAE International (formerly Society of Automotive Engineers) 11.1.18 NFPA 11.11. Government Specifications 161 161 161 162 162 164 165 165 166 166 166 167 169 170 170 170 170 171 171 172 172 173 173 175 159 .

8 UL VW-1 (Vertical Specimen) Flame Test 176 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 181 11.2.2.2.3.4 NFPA 262 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable 11.2.2.2 NEC Fire Test Summary 11.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies 11.3 International 182 182 183 185 160 .1 Underwriters Laboratories 11.1 Fire Safety Test Methods 11.7 ICEA T-29-520 11.2.3.11.2.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) 11.3.6 UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame Test 11. Industry Standards 11.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests 11. Industry Standards 11.2.

Section 10. 125°C Cable for High  Temperature Use on Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor.3 S-501 S-502 S-503 S-506 S-4210 – Title  pecification for Single Conductor. Neoprene Jacketed Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment S Wiring and Cable Specification Specification for Single Conductor. Liquid-Filled Cable Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulated Shielded Power Cables. CG1 CG3 CG4 CG5 CG6 CG7 CG8 CG9 CG11 CG13 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS7 CS8 CS9 CS31 Title Guide for Establishing the Maximum Operating Temperatures of Impregnated Paper and Laminated Paper Polypropylene Insulated Cables Installation of Pipe-Type Cable Systems Installation of Extruded Dielectric Insulated Power Cable Systems Rated 69 kV through 138 kV Underground Extruded Cable Pulling Guide Guide for Establishing the Maximum Operating Temperatures of Extruded Dielectric Insulated Shielded Power Cables Guide for Replacement and Life Extension of Extruded Dielectric 5 through 35 kV Underground Distribution Cables Guide for Electric Utility Quality Assurance Program for Extruded Dielectric Power Cables Guide for Installing. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jacketed Cable  for Locomotive and Car Equipment ECP Brake System Cable Communications and Signals Manual.aeic. 0–300 Volt.arema.1 AAR Association of American Railroads www. Metallic-Sheathed.1. Low Pressure. 0–300 Volt. 0–600 Volt. Silicone Rubber Insulation.org Document No.11. Industry Standards 11.1. Clean Stripping Rubber Insulated.aar. 581.2 AEIC Association of Edison Illuminating Companies www. Gas-Filled Impregnated Paper-Insulated Low and Medium-Pressure Self-Contained. High-Pressure Pipe Type Impregnated Paper-Insulated. 0–600 Volt Cable for Locomotive  and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor. Clean Stripping Ethylene Rubber Insulated. 0–600 Volt. Operating and Maintaining Lead Covered Cable Systems Rated 5KV through 46KV Reduced Diameter Extruded Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Guide for Testing Moisture Impervious Barriers Made of Laminated Foil Bonded to the Jacket of XLPE Transmission Cables Impregnated Paper-Insulated.1 Industry Standards LIST 11. 69 through 138 kV (replaced by CS9) Extruded Dielectric Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Extruded Insulation Power Cables and Accessories Rated Above 46 kV through 345 kV Electrically Insulating Low Viscosity Pipe Filling Liquids for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cables 161 . Wire and Cable 11.org or www.org Document No. Glass Polyester Braided. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Integral Insulated-Jacketed. 0–600 Volt. Metallic-Sheathed Cable Solid Type Impregnated Paper-Insulated Cable.

184 Title Local Distributed Data Interface (LDDI) Network Layer Protocol Data-Link Layer Protocol for Local Distributed Data Interfaces Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Network Layer Protocol Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Station Management Standard FDDI—Media Access Control Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cables Intelligent Peripheral Interface (IPI) Enhanced Physical Interface (withdrawn) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Physical Layer (replaced by document #INCITS 148) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Single-Mode Fiber Physical Layer Medium Dependent  (replaced by document #INCITS 184) 11. for Electrical Purposes Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)  Aluminum 1350 Drawing Stock for Electrical Purposes Tinned Hard-Drawn and Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Continued >> 162 . Medium-Hard.148 X3.11.1.ansi. or Soft Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Copper Trolley Wire Hot-Rolled Copper Rods Hard-Drawn Copper Alloy Wires for Electrical Conductors Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Bunch Stranded Members) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Concentric Stranded Members) Bunch-Stranded Copper Conductors Lead-Alloy-Coated Soft Copper Wire Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials Hard-Drawn Copper Clad Steel Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper-Clad Steel Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper and Copper-Clad Steel Composite Conductors  Aluminum 1350-H19 Wire.org Document No. Industry Standards 11. Hard. B1 B2 B3 B8 B33 B47 B49 B105 B172 B173 B174 B189 B193 B227 B228 B229 B230 B231 B232 B233 B246 Title Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors.1.astm.3 ANSI American National Standards Institute www. 0337-D 0338-D 0382-D 0503-D 0684-D 719 X3.129 X3.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials www.org Document No.

Aluminum Clad Steel Reinforced (ACASR/AW)  Copper-Clad Aluminum Wire Aluminum 1350 Round Wire.11.000 V Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 2. Copper-Clad Stainless Steel and Strip for Electrical Cable Shielding Aluminum.001 V to 35 kV  Test Methods for Heat-Shrinkable Tubing  General-Purpose Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resisting Ethylene Propylene Rubber Integral Insulation and Jacket for Wire Ozone Resistant Ethylene-Alkene Polymer Insulation for Wire and Cable Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index) Track-Resistant Black Thermoplastic High Density Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Local Distributed Data Interface (LDDI) Network Layer Protocol Data-Link Layer Protocol for Local Distributed Data Interfaces Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Network Layer Protocol Continued >> 163 . 60°C Operation Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable. Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors. Aluminum Alloy. Industry Standards 11. B258 B263 B298 B324 B399 B400 B401 B452 B496 B500 B549 B566 B609 B624 B694 B736 B800 B801 D470 D866 D1047 D1351 D1523 D1929 D2219 D2220 D2308 D2655 D2656 D2671 D2768 D2770 D2802 D2863 D3554 0337-D 0338-D 0382-D Title  tandard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wire Used as Electrical Conductors S Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Stranded Conductors Silver-Coated Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Aluminum Rectangular and Square Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Alloy 6201-T81 Conductors Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors Compact-Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors.1. Aluminum Clad Steel Cable Shielding Stock 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Conductors of 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy Test Methods for Cross-Linked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable Styrene-Butadiene (SBR) Synthetic Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyvinyl Chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyethylene-Insulated Wire and Cable Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable. 75°C Operation Polyethylene Jacket for Electrical Insulated Wire and Cable Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 0 to 2.4 ASTM (Continued) Document No. Copper-Clad Bronze. Copper Alloy Wire Copper. Copper Alloy. High Conductivity. 90°C Operation Test for Ignition Temperature of Plastics Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable. Steel Reinforced (ASCR/COMP) Copper-Clad Steel Wire for Electronic Application Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Metallic Coated Stranded Steel Core for Aluminum Conductors. Annealed and Intermediate Tempers High Strength.

Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty Cross-linked Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jackets for  Wire and Cable Test Methods for Physical and Environmental Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications  Wire and Cable Test Methods for Electrical Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable Heat Release.com Document No.11. 90°C Operation Specification for General Purpose. Base Metal Thermocouple Wire with Glass Fiber or Silica Fiber Insulation Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter  11.5 Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) www.4 ASTM (Continued) Document No.1. Industry Standards 11. STALPETH and Bonded PASP) Generic Requirements for Network Outdoor Customer Premises and Universal Cross-Connecting Wire Generic Requirements for Miniature Ribbon Connector and Cable Assembly Generic Requirements for Distributing Frame Wire Generic Requirements for Central Office Cable Generic Requirements for Central Office Coaxial Cable Generic Requirements for Singlemode Optical Connectors and Jumpers Generic Requirements for Telecommunications Power Cable Generic Requirements for Optical Cable Innerduct Generic Requirements for Premises Optical Fiber Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunications Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunication Wire Generic Requirements for Coaxial Drop Cable Generic Requirements for Coaxial Distribution Cable Single Pair Buried Distribution Wire Multiple Pair Buried Wire Generic Requirements for Network Plenum Cable/Wire Generic Requirements for Network Shielded Station Wire Generic Requirements for Inside Wiring Cable (3 to 125 Pair Sizes) Continued >> 164 . Flame Spread and Mass Loss Testing of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables When Burning  in a Vertical Cable Tray Configuration Duplex.telcordia.1. D3555 D4244 D4245 D4246 D4314 D4565 D4566 D5537 E574 E662 E1354 Title Track-Resistant Black Cross-linked Thermosetting Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable General Purpose. Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty NBR/PVC Jackets for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable. AASP Bonded. GR-20 GR-63 GR-78 GR-110 GR-111 GR-115 GR-126 GR-135 GR-136 GR-137 GR-139 GR-326 GR-347 GR-356 GR-409 GR-421 GR-492 GR-1398 GR-1399 TR-NWT-000123 TR-NWT-000124 TR-NWT-000131 TR-NWT-000132 TR-NWT-000133 Title Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cable Network Equipment-Building System Requirements: Physical Protection Generic Physical Design Requirements for Telecommunication Products and Equipment Generic Requirements for Thermoplastic Insulated Steam Resistant Cable Generic Requirements for Thermoplastic Insulated Riser Cable Inner-City PIC Screened Cable (Filled. 90°C Dry–75°C Wet Operation Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable.

6 CANENA Council for the Harmonization of Electrical Standards of the Americas www.org THC (Technical Harmonization Committee) #20 is responsible for wire and cable products. Undercarpet Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 9.7 ECA Electronic Components. Riser Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1. Industry Standards 11.1.1. ECA-199-A ECA-215 ECA-230 ECA-280-C ECA-297-A ECA-364 ECA-403-A ECA-IS-43 ECA-IS-43AA ECA-IS-43AB ECA-IS-43AC ECA-IS-43AD ECA-IS-43AE ECA-IS-43AF ECA-IS-43AG ECA-IS-43AH ECA-IS-43AJ Title Solid and Semisolid Dielectric Transmission Lines Broadcast Microphone Cables Color Marking of Thermoplastic Covered Wire Solderless Wrapped Electrical Connections Cable Connectors for Audio Facilities for Radio Broadcasting Electrical Connector Test Procedures Precision Coaxial Connectors for CATV 75 Ohms Omnibus Specification–Local Area Network Twisted Pair Data Communication Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1.org Document No.canena.1. Assemblies and Materials Association www. Outdoor Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1. TR-NWT-000134 TR-TSY-000103 TR-TSY-000104 TR-TSY-000105 TA-TSY-000120 TA-TSY-000121 TA-TSY-000122 TA-TSY-000125 TA-TSY-000127 TA-TSY-000128 TA-TSY-000129 TA-TSY-000140 TA-TSY-000141 TA-TSY-000142 Title Generic Requirements for Two Pair Station Wire Pulp Bonded STALPETH Cable Pulp Bonded PASP Cable Pulp Bonded Steam Resistance Cable Customer Premises or Network Ground Wire Generic Requirements for One-Pair Aerial Service Wire Generic Requirements for Multiple-Pair Aerial Service Wire Rural Aerial Distribution Wire Network Aerial Block Wire Bridle Wire Tree Wire Standard Shielded Polyethylene Insulated Twisted Pair Cable Terminating Cable Central Office Hook-up Wire 11. Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2. 11. Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 6. Office Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 8. Plenum Cable 165 .5 Telcordia (Continued) Document No.ec-central. Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1.11. Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2.

869 (a)(4) Title Fire and Smoke Protection Underground Electrical Cables for Airport Lighting Circuits (L-824-A. Inc.com Document No.net ICEA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents.global. 25. Bare and Weather Resistant Ampacities. C) Airport Lighting Certification Program Airport Construction Standards Control Cable.com Document No.icea.faa.eia.ihs.org EIA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents. Industry Standards 11. S-56-434 S-61-402 S-81-570 P-32-382 P-43-457 P-45-482 P-46-426 P-51-432 P-53-426 P-54-440 P-56-520 S-65-375 S-70-547 Title Polyolefin Insulated Communication Cables for Outdoor Use Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 5) (withdrawn) 600 V Direct Burial Cable Single Electrical Conductors and Assemblies with Ruggedized Extruded Insulation Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable Conductor Resistances and Ampacities at 400 and 800 Hz Short Circuit Performance of Metallic Shields and Sheaths on Insulated Cable Power Cable Ampacities (Replaced by IEEE 835) Copper Conductors.1. Exterior.ihs. AC 25.1. 5 to 25 kV Rubber-Insulated Cable (0–8.8 EIA Electronic Industries Alliance www.9 FAA Federal Aviation Administration www. EIA-492A000 EIA-359-A Title Specification for Multimode Optical Wave Guide Fibers Standard Colors for Color Identification and Coding (Munsell Color) 11.gov Document No.1.869-1 AC 150/534-7 AC-150/5345-53 AC-150/5370-10 FAA-E-2042 FAA-E-2793 FAA-701 FAR 14. www. Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor Solid-Dielectric Power Cable 15 kV Through 69 kV (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays (NEMA WC 51) Cable Tray Flame Test Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 4) (rescinded) Weather-Resistant Polyethylene Covered Conductors Continued >> 166 . Inc.global. B. Exterior Power Cable.10 ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association www.000 Volts) Fire Retardance of Wire and Cable 11.11. www.

iec. Control. S-73-532 S-75-381 S-80-576 S-82-552 S-83-596 S-87-640 S-94-649 S-97-682 S-104-696 S-110-717 T-22-294 T-25-425 T-26-465 T-27-581 T-29-520 T-30-520 T-31-610 T-33-655 Title Standard for Control Cables (NEMA WC 57) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (NEMA WC 58) Category 1 and 2 Unshielded Twisted Pair Communications Cable for Wiring Premises Instrumentation Cables and Thermocouple Wire (NEMA WC 55) (withdrawn. Control. Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test (NEMA WC 54) Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power. see S-73-532) Optical Fiber Premises Distribution Cable Fiber Optic Outside Plant Communications Cable Concentric Neutral Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Utility Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Indoor-Outdoor Optical Fiber Cable Optical Fiber Drop Cable Test Procedures for Extended Time-Testing of Insulation for Service in Wet Locations Guide for Establishing Stability of Volume Resistivity for Conducting Polymeric Components of Power Cables Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power.10 ICEA (Continued) Document No.000 BTU/Hour) Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (70. Paper-insulated metal-sheathed cables for rated voltages up to 18/30 kV (with copper or aluminum conductors and excluding  gas pressure and oil-filled cables) Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres (hazardous locations) Electrical installations in ships Radio-frequency cables Tests on oil-filled and gas-pressure cables and their accessories Radio-frequency connectors Colors of the cores of flexible cables and cords Guide to selection of high-voltage cables Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath Safety of machinery–electrical equipment of machines (industrial) PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Conductors of insulated cables Tests on cable oversheaths which have a special protective function and are applied by extrusion Continued >> 167 . Chapter 461.ch Document No. Halogen-Free (LSHF) Polymeric Cable Jackets 11. 24764 60050-461 60055-2 60079 60092 60096 60141 60169 60173 60183 60189 60204 60227 60228 60229 Title Information Technology–Generic Cabling for Data Center Premises International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.1. Sealed Conductor Low-Smoke. Instrumentation and Portable Cables (NEMA WC 53) Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (210. Electric cables.000 BTU/Hour) Water Penetration Resistance Test. Industry Standards 11.11.1.11 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission webstore.

1. definitions Identification of conductors by colors or alphanumeric Rigid precision coaxial lines and their associated precision connectors Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables for rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV Comparative information on IEC and North American flexible cord types Calculation of maximum external diameter of cables for indoor installations Fire hazard testing Mineral insulated cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 750 V Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath Calculation of the lower and upper limits for the average outer dimensions of cables with circular copper conductors  and of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages 1 kV and 3 kV Cable networks for sound and television signals Tests on gases evolved during combustion of electric cables Code for designation of colors Heating cables with a rated voltage of 300/500 V for comfort heating and prevention of ice formation Common tests methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables Performance and testing of teleprotection equipment of power systems Tests for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30 kV up to 150 kV Winding wires–test methods Electrical test methods for electric cables (including partial discharge) Calculation of thermally permissible short-circuit currents Radio-frequency and coaxial cable assemblies Measurement of smoke density of cables burning under defined conditions (3 meter cube smoke apparatus) Fieldbus for use in industrial control systems Consumer audio/video equipment–Digital interface Power installations exceeding 1 kV AC Part 1: Common rules 168 . 60230 60245 60230 60245 60287 60304 60331 60332 60339 TR60344 60364-1 60446 60457 60502 60541 TR60649 60695 60702 60708 60719 60724 60728 60754 60757 60800 60811 60834 60840 60851 60885 60949 60966 61034 61158 61883 61936-1 Title Impulse tests on cables and their accessories Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Impulse tests on cables and their accessories Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Calculations of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) Standard colors for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires Tests for electric cables under fire conditions–circuit integrity Tests on electric and optical fiber cables under fire conditions General purpose rigid coaxial transmission lines and their associated flange connectors Calculation of DC resistance of plain and coated copper conductors of low-frequency cables and wires Low-voltage electrical installations–Part 1: Fundamental principles.11. assessment of global characteristics.11 IEC (Continued) Document No.

Industry Standards 11. Inc. Termination.11.1.5 kV through 500 kV Guide for Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Power Generating Stations (withdrawn) Recommended Practices for Safety in High Voltage and High Power Testing Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Underground Cables Definitions of Terms Relating to Corona and Field Effects of Overhead Powerlines G  uide for the Application of Sheath-Bonding Methods for Single Conductor Cables and the Calculation of Induced Voltages and Currents in Cable Sheaths Recommended Practice for Installation.ieee.5 kV through 765 kV Test Procedure for Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors Guide for the Statistical Analysis of Thermal Life Test Data Master Test Guide for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Qualifying Class 1E Electric Cables.92 1580 Title Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard Test Procedures and Requirements for AC Cable Terminations 2.org Document No. and Testing of Insulated Power Cable as Used in Industrial and Commercial Applications  Standard Cable Penetration Fire Stop Qualification Test Guide for Selection and Design of Aluminum Sheaths for Power Cables Standard for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems for Class 1E Circuits in Nuclear Power Generating Stations Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature of Bare Overhead Conductors Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Overview and Architecture Guide for Determining the Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Used for Insulations and Coverings of Electrical Wire and Cable (withdrawn)  Power Cable Ampacity Tables Standard Procedure for the Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire-Protected Cables Statistical Analysis of Electrical Insulation Breakdown Data Field Testing Electric Submersible Pump Cable Specifying Electric Submersible Cable-Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulation Specifying Electric Submersible Pump Cable-Polypropylene Insulation Guide on Shielding Practice for Low Voltage Cables Guide for Installation Methods for Generating Station Cables Standard for Propagation Flame Testing of Wire and Cable Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus Guide for Accelerated Aging Test for MV Power Cables Using Water-Filled Tanks Marine Cable For Use on Shipboard and Fixed or Floating Facilities National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage (1.000 V and less) AC Power Circuits Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems Marine cable for use on shipboard and fixed or floating facilities 169 .12 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.41 C62. 45 48 82 101 120 323 383 400 404 422 510 524 525 532 539 575 576 634 635 690 738 802 816 835 848 930 1017 1018 1019 1143 1185 1202 1394 1407 1580 C2 C62. Field Splices and Connections for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Guide for Field Testing and Evaluation of the Insulation of Shielded Power Cable Systems Standard for Extruded and Laminated Dielectric Shielded Cable Joints Rated 2. www.

Blue Book.isa.org Document No.msha.01 50. RP 12.1.14 ISO International Organization for Standardization www.gov Document No. 30 CFR 7.iso. Systems and Automation Society www.int Document No.1.itu.1.3 Title Transmission Media Characteristics 11. Industry Standards 11.16 MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration www.407 Title Flame Tests 170 .06.13 ISA Instrumentation.org Document No. Facicle III.1.15 ITU-T International Telecommunication Union/Telecommunications Sector www.11.02 Title Wiring Methods for Hazardous (Classified) Locations Instrumentation Part 1: Intrinsic Safety Fieldbus Standard for Use in Industrial Control Systems 11. 4589 5657 TR9122 Title Oxygen Index Test Radiant Cone Flame Test Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents 11.

18 NFPA National Fire Protection Association www. HP 3 HP 4 HP 100 HP 100.0 kHz Insulation Continuity Proof Testing of Hookup Wire Standard for Control Cables (ICEA S-73-532) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (ICEA S-75-381) Transfer Impedance Testing Repeated Spark/Impulse Dielectric Testing Twisted Pair Premise Voice and Data Communications Cables Coaxial Premise Data Communication Cable Category 6 and Category 7 100 Ohm Shielded and Unshielded Twisted Pair Cables Uninsulated Conductors Nonshielded Power Cables Rated 2. Control.1.1 WC 63. Industry Standards 11.17 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association www.1 HP 100.001–5.000 Volts) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cable High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with FEP Fluorocarbons High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ETFE Fluoropolymers High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with Cross-Linked (Thermoset) Polyolefin (XLPO) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ECTFE Fluoropolymers Wire and Cable Packaging Ampacities.000 Volts) Electrical and Electronic FEP Insulated High Temperature Hook-up Wire: Types KT (250 Volts).1.org Document No. E (600 Volts) and EE (1. 70 75 79 99 130 258 262 Title NEC® (National Electrical Code) Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery Health Care Facilities Handbook Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems Recommended Practice for Determining Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Test for Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces 171 .000 Volts Aerospace and Industrial Electrical Cable 11. Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor Solid-Dielectric Power Cable 15 kV through 69 kV (ICEA P-53-426) Ampacities of Cables Installed in Cable Trays High-Temperature and Electronic Insulated Wire Impulse Dielectric Testing Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power.000 Volts or Less Nonshielded Cables Rated 2. Instrumentation and Portable Cables (ICEA T-27-581) Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power.2 WC 66 WC 67 WC 70 WC 71 WC 27500 Title Electrical and Electronic PTFE Insulated High Temperature Hook-up Wire. Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test 3.3 HP 100.org Document No.4 WC 26 WC 50 WC 51 WC 52 WC 53 WC 54 WC 56 WC 57 WC 58 WC 61 WC 62 WC 63. Types ET (250 Volts).nfpa.nema.2 HP 100.11. Control. K (600 Volts) and KK (1.

Copper or Copper Alloy 172 .usda. Electric. or Polyarylene Insulated.rurdev. Cross-linked Alkane-Imide Polymer. Copper or Copper Alloy Wire Wiring Aerospace Vehicle Wire. Truck-Tractor.1.11. 1753F-150 1753F-151 1753F-152 1753F-204 1753F-205 1753F-206 1753F-208 1753F-601 Title Construction of Direct Buried Plant Construction of Underground Plant Construction of Aerial Plant Aerial Service Wires (PE-7) Filled Telephone Cable (PE-39) Filled Buried Wires (PE-86) Filled Telephone Cable with Expanded Insulation (PE-89) Filled Fiber Optic Cables (PE-90) 11. and Motor Coach Wiring High Voltage Primary Cable Low Voltage Ultra Thin Wall Primary Cable Serial Control and Communications for Vehicle Network Seven-Conductor Cable for ABS Power Single Conductor Cable for Heavy Duty Application Fluoropolymer Insulated Electrical Wire PVC Insulated. J156 J378 J1127 J1128 J1292 J1654 J1678 J1939 J2394 J2549 AS22759 AS50861 AS50881 AS81044 Title Fusible Links Marine Propulsion System Wiring Low Voltage Battery Cable Low Voltage Primary Cable Automobile Truck.sae. Cross-linked Polyalkene. Industry Standards 11.1.org Document No.gov Document No.19 RUS Rural Utilities Service (formerly REA) www.20 SAE International (formerly Society of Automotive Engineers) www. Trailer.

THW. CL2R. UF-B) Continued >> 173 . TIA-225 TIA-232-F TIA-259 TIA-422-B TIA-423-B TIA-440-B TIA-485-A TIA-455-B TIA-492AAAA-A TIA-568-B. THW-2. TFE. CMP) Wire Connectors Splicing Wire Connectors Sealed Wire Connector Systems Equipment Wiring Terminals for Use with Aluminum and/or Copper Conductors Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables (Types UF. CL3R. SOW-A. FEPB) Manufactured Wiring Systems Communication Cables (Types CMX. TA. RHH. CL3. Graded-Index Optical Waveguide Fibers Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces Residential Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Industrial Premises Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Premises Distribution Cables Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Cables for Outside Plant Use Specification for Fiber Optic Type FSMA Connectors Specification for Optical Fiber Cable Splice Closures 11. THWN. PLTC) Thermoset-Insulated Wires & Cables (Types XHHW. 75 Ohms Electrical Characteristics of Balanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Electrical Characteristics of Unbalanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Fiber Optic Terminology Generators and Receivers for Balanced Digital Multipoint Systems Standard Test Procedures for Fiber Optic Fibers. THHN. Transducers. SPT-1. CM.11. RHW-2. TFFN. CL3X.ul. www. SIS) Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire (Types SO. TFN. etc. RH.21 TIA Telecommunication Industries Association www.org Document No. Connecting and Termination Detail Specification for 62. Inc. THHW. THWN-2. SA. RHW.1 TIA-569-B TIA-570-B TIA-606-A TIA-942 TIA-100S TIA-472C000 TIA-472D000 TIA-475C000 TIA-515B000 Title Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines 50 Ohms Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines and Connectors.5 µm Core Diameter/125 µm Cladding Diameter Class 1a Multimode. 4 13 44 62 66 83 183 444 486A-486B 486C 486D 486E 493 Title Armored Cable (Type AC) Power-Limited Circuit Cable (Types CL3P.com Document No. SJ.22 UL Underwriters Laboratories. FEP. CMR. XHHW-2.1. CL2P. TBS.1. SOW. Cables.) Fixture Wire Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables (Types TW.tiaonline. SJO. Industry Standards 11.

W. SE-U. SE. Cables. and Class III Hazardous (Classified) Locations Portable Power Cable (Types G. USE-2) Machine Tool Wires and Cables (Type MTW) Medium Voltage Power Cable (Type MV) Welding Cables Power and Control Tray Cables (Type TC) Marine Shipboard Cable Cables for Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits Cables for Non-Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits Electric Cables for Boats Telephone Equipment Positioning Devices Reference Standard for Electrical Wires.11. PPE) Optical Fiber Cable Standard Test for Flame Propagation Height of Electrical and Optical Fiber Cables Installed Vertically in Shafts Stage Lighting Cables Vertical-Tray Fire-Propagation and Smoke-Release Test for Electrical and Optical-Fiber Cables Data-Processing Cable (Type DP) Industrial Robots Communication Circuit Accessories Fire Resistive Cables (“CI” Rated) Cables for Use in Hazardous Locations (Type MC-HL) Instrumentation Tray Cable (Type ITC) Wire and Cable Test Methods (Trinational) Cables for Network-Powered Broadband Systems Festoon Cable Recreational Vehicle Cable Limited-Combustible Cable Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres 174 . 497 719 723 758 814 817 854 1063 1072 1276 1277 1309 1424 1425 1426 1459 1565 1581 1604 1650 1651 1666 1680 1685 1690 1740 1863 2196 2225 2250 2556 2261 2273 2276 2424 60079 Title Protectors for Communication Circuits Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables (Types NM-B. Industry Standards 11. Division 2. and Flexible Cords Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II. G-GC. NMC-B) Tests for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials Appliance Wiring Material (Type AWM) Gas-Tube-Sign Cable Cord Sets and Power-Supply Cords Service Entrance Cables (Types USE.22 UL (Continued) Document No.1. SE-R.

Portable (replaced by Qualified Products Database) 175 . Electric.dla. Radio Frequency. Electrical (Flexible. Flat. Electrical (300–600 Volts) Wire. Insulated. Insulated Wire. Fire Resistant and Flight Critical Special Purpose. Special Purpose. Power. Foam Dielectric General Specification for Cable. Round Conductor General Specification for Cables Twisted Pairs and Triples. Polymide-Insulated Copper or Copper Alloy General Specification for Connectors. Environmental Resistant. Electrical. Coaxial. Cross-Linked.S. 200°C General Specifications for Cable. Electrical. for Shipboard Use Cable (Power & Special Purpose) and Wire. Internal Hookup Wire-Electric. Corrugated Outer Conductor Cable. Semirigid. Circular. Unshielded).23 U. Electrical General Specifications for Wire. Multiconductor and Single Shielded Power Cable General Specification for Cable.11. Crimp Style. Electrical. Hermaphroditic Cable Comparison Handbook Data Pertaining to Electric Shipboard Cable Splices. Electrical. High Temperature. Hookup. Airport Lighting. Semirigid. Electrical. Fiber Optic. Uninsulated Weather-Resistant Power & Cable Flexible Cord and Fixture Wire (Replaced by UL 62) General Specifications for Cables. Environment Resistant (replaced by SAE-AS 81824) Wire and Cable. Electric. Electrical. Single Terminus General Specifications for Connectors. AA-59544 A-A-59551 J-C-145C J-C-580B MIL-DTL-17H MIL-DTL-915G MIL-DTL-3432H MIL-DTL-8777D MIL-DTL-13777H MIL-DTL-16878G MIL-DTL-23806B MIL-DTL-24640G MIL-DTL-24643B MIL-DTL-25038H MIL-DTL-27072F MIL-DTL-28830D MIL-DTL-38359C MIL-DTL-49055D MIL-DTL-55021C MIL-DTL-81381C MIL-C-83522D MIL-DTL-83526C MIL-HDBK-299 MIL-S-81824 MIL-W-76D MIL-W-5846C QPL-AS5756-I Title Wire & Cable Electrical Power Electrical Copper Wire. Insulated General Specification for Cable. Electrical. Radio Frequency. Silicone-Insulated. Polyethylene XLP General Specifications for Cables. for Shipboard Use Wire.daps. Industry Standards 11. Chromel and Alumel Thermocouple Cable and Wire. Fiber Optic.mil/quicksearch Document No. Flexible and Semirigid General Specification for Cable and Cord. Low Smoke. Copper. Lightweight for Shipboard Use General Specification for Cable and Cord.1. Power. Coaxial. Power. Government Specifications http://assist. Electrical. Electrical. Radio Frequency. Copper. 600 V. Electrical.

1–Fire Safety Test Methods Some common fire safety test methods used in the wire and cable industry are listed below: Fire Hazard North America Worldwide Ignitability Propagation Smoke Toxicity Corrosivity Halogen Content 11. Riser Test Vertical Tray. CSA FT1 176 .2–NEC Fire Test Summary National Electrical Code Article 645 Under Raised Floor of IT Room 725. VW-1. Steiner Tunnel. IEEE 1202. AC CL2 CL3 PLTC ITC FPL NPLF OFN or OFNG OFC or OFCG CM or CMG No listing CATV Flame Energy 300. Class 3 Power-Limited 725 Power-Limited Tray Cable 727 Instrumentation Tray Cable 760 Fire Protective Power-Limited 760 Fire Protective Non-Power-Limited 770 Optical Fiber Nonconductive 770 Optical Fiber Conductive 800 Communication 800 Undercarpet Communication 820 Cable TV Cable Application Plenum Space Riser Shaft General Use Limited Use ASTM D2863 UL 1685 and IEEE 1202 UL 1685 and ASTM E662 University of Pittsburgh IEC 60754 MIL-DTL-24643 IEC 60332 IEC 60332 IEC 61034-2 ISO TR 9122 IEC 60754-2 IEC 60754-1 Plenum (NPFA 262) All types shown below CL2P CL3P No listing No listing FPLP NPLFP OFNP OFCP CMP No listing CATVP Common Names Riser (UL 1666) All types shown below CL2R CL3R No listing No listing FPLR NPLFR OFNR OFCR CMR No listing CATVR General Use (Vertical Tray) DP. MC.2. UL 1685 Vertical Wire. Industry Standards 11. Class 2 Power-Limited 725.2.000 Btu/hr 527.2 NEC Fire Test Summary Table 11. CSA FT4.000 Btu/hr Limited Use (Vertical Wire) – CL2X CL3X No listing No listing No listing No listing No listing No listing CMX CMUC CATVX NFPA 262.000 Btu/hr 3.000 Btu/hr 70.11.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.1 Fire Safety Test Methods Table 11. CSA FT6 UL 1666.

3 2. =Depends on amount j of cable loading =IEEE 383 now directly references IEEE 1202 Source: NIST Technical Note 1291 Total smoke released N/A N/A N/A (m2) a 177 .3 0.15 No No CSA FT4 20 20 No 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 3. =Not applicable in the UL 1581/2556 version.1 N/A N/A 1.4 0.4 N/A 1 3. from bottom) Peak smoke release rate (m2 s-1) 62 20 No 300 mm 200 mm in back Horiz. =Time is 20 minutes for Category C. =This dimension is 457 mm in the UL 1581/2556 version. b=Version with CSA FT-4/IEEE 1202 flame exposure. c=Height above bottom of tray and distance from d e f specimen surface. 2.30 front or front +back Mounted flush.25 front only if D< 13 mm Yes >0.3 2.5 0.3 2. 2.4 0. 40g No 600 mm 75 mm in front Horiz.786 0.) Alternate source Burner placements Angle of burner Tray length (m) Tray width (m) Sample length (m) Width of tray used for cables (m) Thin-size cables to be bundled Test enclosure specified Test runs needed Max.0 0. with no spaces Yes h 0.65 m3/s 2X2 f J UL 1685 /UL 21 20 No 457 mm 75 mm in back Horiz. 3.4 a UL 1685 /IEEE 21 20 No 457 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2.4 Full front only if D< 13 mm Yes 5m3/s 1 1.786 N/A IEEE 1202 20 20 No 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2. 40 minutes for Categories A and B.786 N/A =Version with UL 1581/2556 flame exposure.25 95 Required air flow rate N/A 2 2.2.3 2.3 Full front only if D< 13 mm Yes 0. Industry Standards 11.11.4 0. =Not yet specified.3 2. =Two each g h i on two different sizes of specimens.4 0. respectively.4 0.5 3.17 m3/s 2 1.4 0.40 150 b IEC 60332-3 20 20.15 front only No Yes 5 m3/s 1 2.3–Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests ICEA T-29-520 Burner power (kW) Time of flame (min.5 0. char length (m.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests Table 11.

62 m) Cables Burners Figure 11.1–NFPA Steiner Tunnel Flame Test 178 . with intake and exhaust ducts and a means of regulating flow velocity of air through the tunnel. and optical density is less than 0. The output of the burner is 300. Windows at 1-foot intervals allow for flame spread measurements./min. and 0. and the flame is extinguished.000 Btus. Industry Standards 11. Two circular burners are mounted vertically at the intake end of the tunnel just in front of the cable tray. A cable is listed for plenum use if flame spread is less than 5 feet from the end of the ignition flame.4 NFPA 262 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable The NFPA 262 “Steiner Tunnel” Flame Test (formerly UL 910) measures flame spread and smoke generation in a simulated air handling plenum.5 maximum peak. A 25-foot long Steiner Tunnel is used for the test. Flame spread and smoke density are monitored throughout the test. The Canadian version of this test is known as the CSA FT6 fire test. and an optical device in the exhaust of the chamber measures smoke density.2. forced draft through the tunnel for twenty minutes.15 maximum average. Photocell Air Flow 25 ´ (7.000 Btu/hr and the energy consumed for the test is 100. along with a 240 ft.11. The cable samples are mounted in a cable tray in one layer in the tunnel and the tunnel is sealed. Methane is burned.

A cable may be listed as riser cable if the flame does not propagate up to the floor of the third level. extinguishing the burner flame. the test is not complete until the cable stops burning.333 Btus for the test. A cable passes the vertical tray test if it does not propagate flame to the top of the tray (6 ft. The energy output of the burner is 527.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test The Riser Flame Test. A 6 to 1 mixture of air to propane is burned using a 10-inch wide ribbon burner. however.750 Btus.).6 UL 1685 Vertical Tray Flame Test The Vertical Tray Flame Test is used as a good approximation of flame spread in cables run in groups.11.44 m) Figure 11. 179 .500 Btu/hr. Steel fire doors provide access to the second and third levels for installing cables. or a consumed test energy of 263.66 m ) Burner 4´ (1.13 m) Cable Tray Air Flow Block Wall 12´ (3. The flame is applied for twenty minutes and then removed. The burner is mounted on the edge of the riser hole on the floor of the second level. was developed to test cable flammability in riser applications. The 1685 standard also includes the CSA FT4/IEEE 1202 Flame Test.22 m) 8 ´(2. The UL 1685 test was formerly in the UL 1581 standard. as described in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1666. and 1-foot x 2-foot rectangular holes in both the second and third level floors allow cable to be installed in racks extending between the first and third levels. This test simulates a fire in a nonflame stopped riser within a high-rise building. 7´(2.2–UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11.2. The energy output of the burner is 70.000 Btu/hr and the cable is subjected to 23. Industry Standards 11. A burner is made up of a 1⁄4 in. The center 6 inches of the tray is filled with cable samples in one layer spaced 1/2 cable diameter apart. The burner is placed horizontally 3 inches from the back of the tray. A steel ladder type tray 12 inches wide x 3 inches deep and 8 feet long with 1-inch x 1/2-inch rungs spaced 9 inches apart is mounted vertically on the floor of the test chamber. 2 feet from the floor and midway between two rungs. The chamber for the test is a three-story block construction design. A mixture of air and propane is burned for thirty minutes and then shut off. gas pipe with 90 degree elbow mounted below a 1-foot square drilled steel plate. A cable may continue to burn after the burner is shut off.2.

000 Btu test except the gas flow is increased to generate 210.30 m) 96˝ (2.2. In the 210.000 Btu/hr of flame energy and the burner-to-cable spacing is increased to 200 millimeters.000 Btu flame test specified in ICEA Standard T-29-520. See Section 11. Industry Standards 1 ´ (0.000 Btu/hr instead of 70. 180 .46 m) Figure 11. IEEE 1202 or CSA FT4 are often used instead.3–UL Vertical Tray Flame Test 11.44 m) 18˝ (0.11. the setup is essentially the same as with the 70.000 Btu test. This test method appears to be losing favor in the industry.7 ICEA T-29-520 A variation on the UL 1581 (UL 1685) Vertical Tray Test is the 210.3 for more details.2.

The flame is applied to the sample for 15 seconds five times (total 75 seconds) with a minimum 15 seconds between flame applications or until burning ceases. but is now in UL 2556. The burner is placed so the inner cone meets the test sample surface. A Tirrill burner (similar to a Bunsen burner) is mounted on a 20-degree angle block and has a flame 4 to 5 inches high with a 1/2-inch inner blue cone. and cotton batting covers the floor of the chamber to a height 9 inches below the point. Ten inches above this point a kraft paper “flag” is placed on the sample facing away from the burner.25 m) Cotton Figure 11.000 Btu/hr and the test energy is less than 65 Btus.8 UL VW-1 (Vertical-Specimen) Flame Test The VW-1 Flame Test was the first flame test developed for studying flame spread on wire and cable.4–UL VW-1 (Vertical Specimen) Flame Test (formerly UL 1581 VW-1 Flame Test) 181 .2. 14-inch deep and 24-inch high steel box open at the front and top. the cable doesn’t burn longer than 60 seconds after any flame application. and the cotton batting is not ignited by dripping particles. Industry Standards 11.11. The fixture used is a bench-mountable 12-inch wide. Indicator Flag 10˝ (0. A general overview of the test is as follows. A sample passes VW-1 if less than 25 percent of the flag is burned away. The energy output of the burner is less than 3. Clamps hold a single specimen vertically in the center of the box. The VW-1 test is very similar to CSA’s FT1 flame test. The test measures relative flame propagation of a single wire or cable. whichever is longer. The test procedure was formerly detailed in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1581.

G.3. and Flexible Cords Portable Power Cables UL Listing(s) Covered in the Standard AC CL3P. Industry Standards 11. ZW CMP.1 Underwriters Laboratories Table 11. THNN. GT0-10. FEPB. SEO. SIS. STOO. STO. G-GC.5–Typical UL Marks 182 . TST. RH. USE-2 MTW MV WELDING CABLE TC Boat Cable MC – W. CMR. TFE. Z. PPE Typical examples of UL’s mark appear below: ® Figure 11. CL2R. STOOW THW. ST. TS. Cables. CM. THHN. SOO. STOW. CL2.4–Summary of Wire and Cable Types Covered by UL Standards UL Standard 4 13 44 62 83 444 493 719 758 814 854 1063 1072 1276 1277 1426 1569 1581 1650 Armored Cable Power-Limited Circuit Cable Rubber Insulated Wires & Cables Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire Thermoplastic Insulated Wires Communication Cables Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables Appliance Wiring Material Gas-Tube-Sign Cable Service-Entrance Cables Machine-Tool Wires & Cables Medium Voltage Power Cable Welding Cable  lectrical Power & Control Tray Cables with E Optional Optical-Fiber Members Electrical Cables for Boats Metal Clad Cables Reference Standard for Electrical Wires.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies 11. RHH. CL3. PLTC XHHW. FEP. SA. TFFN. RHW. S. THW-2. RHW-2. CL3R. SE. SE. GTO-15 USE. NMC AWM and all UL “Styles” GTO-5. CMX UF NM. XHHW-2 TFN. CL2P.11. THWN-2. TPT. SO.

architectural and other interested parties. The National Electrical Code is divided into approximately 120 articles. Enforcement and interpretation of the Code is ultimately the responsibility of “the authority having jurisdiction.60 (B) Article 320 Article 324 Article 328 Article 330 Article 332 Article 334 Article 336 Article 338 Article 340 Article 344 Article 350 Article 356 Article 358 Article 362 Article 392 Article 396 Article 400 Definitions Requirements for Electrical Installations Use and Identification of Grounded Conductors Branch Circuits Feeders Branch-Circuit. It does not attempt to ensure the reliability. National Electrical Code Articles related to the wire and cable industry include: Article 100 Article 110 Article 200 Article 210 Article 215 Article 220 Article 225 Article 230 Article 250 Article 300 Article 310 Article 310. The Code is published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) as a “recommended standard” and does not become law until it is officially adopted by state or local governments.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) History and Articles The first NEC document was written in 1897 at the insistence of various insurance. Metal-Sheathed Cable: Type MI Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Types NM.3. Industry Standards 11. Flexible Metal Conduit: Type LFMC Liquid-Tight. The intent of the Code is to ensure the electrical and fire safety of electrical equipment.11.15 Article 310. the local inspector. Up to and including 2008. there have been a total of 51 editions.000 Volts Armored Cable: Type AC Flat Conductor Cable: Type FCC Medium Voltage Cable: Type MV Metal-Clad Cable: Type MC Mineral-Insulated. performance.e. NMC and NMS Power and Control Tray Cable: Type TC Service-Entrance Cable: Types SE and USE Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit Cable: Type UF Rigid Metal Conduit: Type RMC Liquid-Tight. Feeder and Service Calculations Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders Services Grounding and Bonding Wiring Methods Conductors for General Wiring Ampacities for Conductors Rated 0–2000 Volts Ampacities of Conductors Rated 2001 to 35. electrical.” (AHJ) i. It is revised on a regular three-year schedule.. Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit Type: LFMC Electrical Metallic Tubing: Type EMT Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing: Type ENT Cable Trays Messenger Supported Wiring Flexible Cords and Cables Continued >> 183 . proper operation or long life of equipment – these considerations are beyond its scope.

Zone 0. Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits Instrumentation Tray Cable: Type ITC Fire Alarm Systems Optical Fiber Cables and Raceways Communication Circuits Community Antenna Television (CATV) and Radio Distribution Systems Network-Powered Broadband Communication Systems Premises-Powered Broadband Communications Systems Tables (Conduit fill.005 amps 10 amps Note: The above is a highly simplified overview only. Divisions 1 and 2 Article 501 Article 502 Article 503 Article 504 Article 505 Article 590 Article 604 Article 610 Article 645 Article 690 Article 694 Article 725 Article 727 Article 760 Article 770 Article 800 Article 820 Article 830 Article 840 Chapter 9 Class I Locations Class II Locations Class III Locations Intrinsically Safe Systems Class I. Industry Standards 11.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) (Continued) Article 402 Fixture Wires Article 409 Industrial Control Panels Article 500 Hazardous (Classified) Locations. Classes I.) Table 11. Class 3. but may not be so marked. 184 .3. II. Remote-Control. Class 2. Class 2 cables must be rated at least 150 volts and Class 3 cables must be rated at least 300 volts. conductor properties.5–NEC Article 725 – Summary of Remote Control. See Article 725 of the NEC for complete requirements. and 2 Locations Temporary Installations Manufactured Wiring Systems Cranes and Hoists Information Technology Equipment Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems Small Wind Electric Systems Class 1. etc. and III. Signaling and Power-Limited Circuit Types Circuit Type Class 1 Remote Control and Signaling (Not Power-Limited) Class 1 Power-Limited Class 2 Power-Limited (Fire and Shock Safe) Class 3 Power-Limited (Fire Safe Only) Circuit Voltage 0 through 600 0 through 30 0 through 30 30 through 150 30 through 150 Maximum Current Unlimited 33 amps 8 amps 0. 1.11.

11. More than 60 around the world More than 60 around the world Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland USA France Germany V D E CEBEC Country(ies) Represented Symbol ® Note 1: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 185 . KEUR (NV tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen) NEMKO (Norges Electriske Materallknotroll) SEMKO (Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten) SEV (Schweizerischen Electrotechnischen Verein) UL (Underwriters Laboratories) UTE (Union Technique de L’Électricité) VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechnischer) Canada Belgium Denmark Finland See Note 1.3 International Table 11.6–Symbols of International Organizations Agency CSA (Canadian Standards Association) CEBEC (Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque) DEMKO (Danmarks Electriske Materailkontrol) SETI (Electrical Inspectorate Sakiniementie) CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standards) IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) ISO (International Standards Organization) IMQ (Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualità) KEMA.3. Industry Standards 11.

186

12. Continental Europe

12. Continental Europe
12.1 European Union (EU) Standards
12.1.1 CENELEC 12.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification 12.1.3 CENELEC Color Codes 12.1.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors 12.1.5 CEN 12.1.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

189
189 191 193 193 196 196

12.2

Austrian Standards
12.2.1 ÖVE 12.2.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 12.3.1 CEBEC 12.3.2 NBN 12.3.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 12.4.1 DEMKO 12.4.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration

197
197 197

12.3 Belgian Standards

198
198 198 198

12.4 Danish Standards

199
199 199

12.9 Dutch Standards
12.9.1 KEMA 12.9.2 NEC 12.9.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

199
199 199 199

12.5

French Standards
12.5.1 UTE 12.5.2 AFNOR 12.5.3 CIGRE 12.5.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

200
200 200 200 200

12.6

German Standards
12.6.1 DIN 12.6.2 VDE 12.6.3 DKE 12.6.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

202
202 203 204 204

187

12. Continental Europe

12. Continental Europe
12.7 Irish Standards
12.7.1 NSAI 12.7.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

204
204 204

12.8 Italian Standards
12.8.1 IMQ 12.8.2 CEI 12.8.3 CESI 12.8.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

205
205 205 205 205

12.10 Norwegian Standards
12.10.1 NEMKO 12.10.2 NPT 12.10.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

206
206 206 206

12.11 Portuguese Standards
12.11.1 IPQ 12.11.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

207
207 207

12.12 Spanish Standards
12.12.1 AENOR 12.12.2 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

208
208 208

12.13 Swedish Standards
12.13.1 SEMKO 12.13.2 ITS 12.13.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

209
209 209 209

12.14 Swiss Standards
12.14.1 SNV 12.14.2 ESTI 12.14.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

210
210 210 210

188

12. Continental Europe

12.1 European Union (EU) Standards
12.1.1 CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization www.cenelec.org
Document No. EN 50143 EN 50173 EN 50214 EN 50395 EN 50396 EN 60079-11 EN 60079-14 EN 60228 EN 61138 HD 21 HD 22 HD 308 HD 359 HD 505 HD 586 HD 603 HD 604 Title Cables for Signs and Luminous–Discharge–Tube Installations Rated 1 through 10 kV Information Technology–Generic Cabling Systems Flat PVC Sheathed Flexible Cables Electrical Test Methods for Low Voltage Cables Non-electrical Test methods for Low Voltage Cables Intrinsically Safe Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Conductors of Insulated Cables Cables for Portable Earthing and Short-Circuitting Equipment PVC Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages up to and Including 450/750 V Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Identification and Use of Cores of Flexible Cables Flat PVC Sheathed Cables for Lifts and Similar Applications Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing Materials of Electric Cables Mineral Insulated Cables with Rated Voltage Not Exceeding 750 V Distribution Cables of Rated Voltage 0.6/1 kV 0.6/1 kV Power Cables with Special Fire Performance for Use in Power Stations

CENELEC has adopted common standards for the European community. CENELEC adopts existing IEC standards whenever possible. As a result, HD 21 and HD 22 CENELEC documents are based on relevant IEC specifications. The member countries adopt these standards without any fundamental changes. Each country’s testing authority can do its own testing for a manufacturer to obtain HAR (Harmonized) approval. Additional information is available at www.eepca.org. The countries in Table 12.1 are CENELEC members that recognize the HAR mark. When wire and cable is manufactured in a CENELEC country and is marked with the HAR approval on the jacket, it may be used interchangeably in the member countries. The HAR identification mark is applied along with the marks of origin and testing authority, to at least one conductor or the outer jacket. For example, Siemens products are marked: SIEMENS ¡vVDEx vHARx. In addition, there are country identification threads that are colored black, red and yellow. The different lengths of the colors indicate the nationality of the testing authority. For example, black 3 cm (1.2 inches) long, red 1 cm (0.4 inches) long, and yellow 1 cm (0.4 inches) long, indicates Germany.

189

12. Continental Europe

Table 12.1–CENELEC Harmonized Approvals in the European Union
Member Country Licensing Body/ Certification Agency Imprint or Embossing on Jacket or Insultation Black in. cm in. Red cm in. Yellow cm

Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Ireland Italy Netherlands

Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik (ÖVE) Comité Electrotechnique Belge (CEBEC) Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontroll Union Technique de l’Electricité (UTE) Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI) Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita (IMQ) N.V. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen (KEMA) Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll (NEMKO) Asociación Electrotécnica y Electrónica Española (AEE) Svenska Elektriska Materielkontrollanstalter (SEMKO) British Approvals Service for Cables

vÖVEx vHARx CEBEC vHARx vDEMKOx vHARx UTE vHARx vVDEx vHARx vIIRSx vHARx IMQ vHARx KEMA vHARx

1.181 0.394 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 0.394 0.394

3 1 3 3 3 3 1 1

0.394 1.181 0.394 1.181 0.394 1.181 1.181 1.181

1 3 1 3 1 3 3 3

1.969 0.394 1.181 0.394 0.394 1.969 1.969 1.181

5 1 3 1 1 5 5 3

Norway Spain Sweden

vNEMKOxvHARx eUNEe vHARx vSEMKOx vHARx

0.394 1.181 0.394

1 3 1

0.394 0.394 0.394

1 1 1

2.756 2.756 1.963

7 7 5

United Kingdom

BASEC vHARx

0.394

1

0.394

1

1.181

3

­

190

12. Continental Europe

12.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification

Type of Cable H Harmonized standards A Recognized national standards N Non-authorised national standards Rated Voltage U0/U 01 100 V 03 300/300 V 05 300/500 V 07 450/750 V Insulating and sheathing material B EPR (ethylene propylene rubber) E4 PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) E6 ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) E7 PP (polypropylene) Q4 PA (polyamide) Special constructions H Flat construction - divisible H2 Flat construction - nondivisible Conductor form U Rigid, round conductor, solid (Class 1) R Rigid, round conductor, stranded (Class 2) K Flexible conductor for fixed installations (Class 5) F Flexible conductor of a flexible cable (Class 5) H Highly flexible conductor of a flexible cable (Class 6) Y Tinsel conductor Number of conductors Green/yellow conductor for earthing X Without earthing conductor G With earthing conductor Nominal cross section of the conductors

Figure 12.1–CENELEC Cable Identification Code

191

450/750 V. flexible 3 conductors With protective ground conductor Conductor size 2. 450/750 V PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 3 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 2 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V. 450/750 V. Continental Europe Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Harmonized type Rated voltage 450/750 V Rubber insulated Neoprene jacketed Fine-stranded. 300/500 V.5 mm 2 Figure 12.12.2–Example of a CENELEC Cable Identification Code Below are CENELEC identification codes for some common cable types: Cenelec Harmonized ID Code H03VH-H H03VV-F2 H03VV-F3 H03VVH2-F2 H05RR-F2 H05RR-F3 H05RR-F4 H05RR-F5 H05V-U H05VV-F2 H05VV-F3 H05VV-F4 H05VV-F5 H07V-K H07V-R H07V-U H05VVH2-F PVC Flexible Figure “8” Cable PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 2 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 300/500 V. 2 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300 V. 300/500 V. 3 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 300 V. 300/500 V. Single Conductor PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. 4 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 3 Core PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 5 Core PVC Single Conductor Building Wire. Solid Copper Flat Flexible Elevator Cable 192 . 300/500 V. 300/500 V. 2 Core Oval Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 300 V. 4 Core Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable. 450/750 V PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable. 5 Core PVC Appliance Wire. 300/500 V.

white or grey • 2 conductor Not specified • 3 conductor Green/yellow.10 7.76 3.1. black and grey • 5 conductor Green/yellow.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors In the EU.0 16.5 conductors All conductors black with white numbers • For cables WITH a green/yellow earth conductor: • 1 conductor All colors except yellow.5 2. green. “Green/yellow” indicates green insulation with a yellow stripe. others black with white numbers Reference: CENELEC HD 308 12.1.60 Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/km) 12.0 25. For example.0 6.727 0.65 6. the number of wires in a conductor (the fineness of the strand) is indicated by a numeral instead of by a letter as with the U. brown.5 conductors One conductor green/yellow.83 1.0 35.5 give the DC resistance for some common conductor sizes and stranding types.78 2. black and grey • 5 conductor Blue. system.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Minimum Number of Wires Approximate Diameter of Wire (mm) 1.50 5.25 2. green.15 0.2–DC Resistance of Class 1 (Solid) Copper Conductors Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 1.2 through 12.3 CENELEC Color Codes Through CENELEC.5 4. black and grey • 4 conductor Blue.12. CENELEC standard EN 60228 contains additional information. white or grey • 2 conductor Brown and blue • 3 conductor Brown. blue. brown and blue • 4 conductor Green/yellow. Table 12.57 4. • For cables WITHOUT a green/yellow earth conductor: • 1 conductor All colors except yellow.524 193 . a Class 6 conductor has more wires than a Class 5. Tables 12.0 10. brown. the EU countries have established the following color code for flexible cables as of 2006. grey and black • . Continental Europe 12.61 3.38 1.41 4. black and grey • .08 1. brown.S. black. brown.

000.12.124 0.524 0.5 4.0 70.0 50.61 3.0 25.0221 0.0 6.0 185.0176 194 .0601 0.193 0.0 120.0 95.83 1.0 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 37 37 37 61 61 61 61 91 91 91 – – – – – 6 6 6 6 12 15 18 18 30 34 34 53 53 53 53 53 2 Circular Compact Circular or Sector Shaped Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C (ohms/km) 12.0 800.0754 0.08 1.0283 0.0 500.0 10.10 7.268 0.727 0.0 630.41 4.0 16.387 0.153 0.0 400.0 240. Continental Europe Table 12.3–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 2 Copper Conductors Minimum Number of Wires Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 1.0366 0.0991 0.15 0.0470 0.0 35.0 1.0 150.5 2.0 300.

0391 195 .1 26.0 19.0 6.0495 0.31 0.0 25.132 0.4–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 5 (Flexible) Copper Conductors Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 0.277 0.0 16.0 150.5 2.51 0.7 20.5 0.164 0.75 1.0 300.0 2 Maximum Diameter of Wires (mm) 0.795 0.41 0.24 0.51 0.386 0.31 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.41 0.7 8.0654 0.3 7.51 0.26 0.0 185.206 0.0 10.51 0.98 4.61 Plain Copper (ohms/km) 39.21 5.41 0.30 1.0 400.0 35.5 13.0817 0.39 1.129 0.51 0.0 13.41 0.106 0.161 0.51 0.12.21 0.0 50.272 0.41 0.0 26.26 0.51 0.210 0.0 120.95 1.0641 0.0486 0.780 0.95 3.0801 0.0384 Tinned Copper (ohms/km) 40.91 1.5 4.565 0.393 0.0 500.0 70.09 3.0 1.0 95.0 240.108 0.554 0. Continental Europe Table 12.51 0.

31 0.16 0.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.0654 0.0 35.272 0.106 0.51 0.0 185.3 7.31 0.0 300.5 13.1.16 0.16 0.161 0.0 400.0 500.0 6.0801 0.0 120.0 16.1.75 1.5 2.129 0.0 50.61 Plain Copper (ohms/km) 39 26 19.31 0.0 10.0 2 Maximum Diameter of Wires (mm) 0.0641 0.21 5.91 1.108 0.21 0.0817 0.164 0.95 3.0 95.5 CEN European Committee for Standardization www.0 240.31 0.16 0.0495 0.21 0.0486 0.0 1.0391 12.565 0.21 0.393 0.1 26.95 1.7 8.5 0.31 0.eu 12.6–EU Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 220 250 196 .206 0.554 0.24 0.21 0.cen.0384 Tinned Copper (ohms/km) 40.09 3.386 0.31 0.98 4.7 20 13.16 0.16 0.0 25.21 0.277 0.780 0.210 0.5–DC Resistance and Stranding of Class 6 (Highly Flexible) Copper Conductors Maximum DC Resistance at 20°C Nominal Conductor Size (mm ) 0.0 70.795 0.31 0.21 0.39 1.5 4.30 1.132 0.0 150.31 0.Table 12.

at 12.8–Austrian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.7–EU Power Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 12. Continental Europe Table 12.2. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated.9–Austrian Plug Configuration Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug PlugDescription Description Description Description “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 197 .2 Austrian Standards 12.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 12.1 ÖVE Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik www.12. Table 12.2.ove.

6.be Document No.nbn.3 Belgian Standards 12. NBN C 33-111 NBN C 33-121 NBN C 33-211 NBN C 33-221 NBN C 33-321 NBN C 33-322 NBN 759 Title Armored Cables Insulated with Impregnated Paper for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy Armored.10–Belgian Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 127/220 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.11–Belgian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug PlugDescription Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 Belgium Socket Belgium SocketBelgium Socket CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug 198 . Aluminum Conductor Cables Insulated with Impregnated Paper for 1. and 15 kV Power Cables Power Cables–Insulated Overhead Transmission Lines Rated 0.3. Continental Europe 12.cebec.2 NBN Bureau de Normalisation www.com 12.1 CEBEC CEBEC Comité Electrotechnique Belge www. PVC Insulated Cables for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy Armored.3. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Table 12. 12.3.sgs.12.6/1 kV Underground Power Cables Rated 1 kV Power Cables 12.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.

Continental Europe 12.com Document No.V.6/1 kV Screened flame retardant EMC cables with XLP insulation and halogen-free thermoplastic sheaths rated 0.2 NEC Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee www.dk 12.kema.1 KEMA N.4.12–Danish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 Table 12.9.14–Dutch Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. 199 .3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen www.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 12. screened and PVC sheathed EMC cables rated 0. KEMA 157 KEMA 149 KEMA 250 Title Cables for temporary installations rated 450/750 kV Cross-linked polyethylene insulated.9.nen.13–Danish Plug Configuration Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug PlugPlug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 12.9.6/1 kV 12.4.nl 12.1 DEMKO Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol www.12.4 Danish Standards 12.demko.9 Dutch Standards 12.

2 AFNOR Association Française de Normalisation www.5.16–French Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 220/230 127/220 200 .3 CIGRE Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension www.org 12.15–Dutch Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug DescriptionDescription Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.1 UTE Union Technique de l’Electricité www.cigre.12.com Document No.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.afnor.5 French Standards 12. NF C32-207 NF C33-209 Title Insulated Cables Covered with a Light PVC Sheath and Rated 300/500 V Bundle Assembled Cores for Overhead Systems Rated 0. Continental Europe Table 12.ute-fr.5.6/1 kV 12.org 12.5.5.

17–French Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 French Socket French Socket French Socket CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug CEE 7/7 plug “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 British Standard British Standard British Standard BS 1363 BS 1363 BS 1363 201 .12. Continental Europe Table 12.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 * Standard withdrawn in 1998 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Color White Brown Green Yellow Grey Pink Blue Red Black Violet Grey/Pink Red/Blue White/Green Brown/Green White/Yellow Yellow/Brown White/Grey Grey/Brown White/Pink Pink/Brown White/Blue Brown/Blue Conductor No. Continental Europe 12.18–DIN 47100* Color Code for Single Conductors (WITH Color Repetition Above 44) Conductor No. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Color White/Red Brown/Red White/Black Brown/Black Grey/Green Yellow/Green Pink/Green Yellow/Pink Green/Blue Yellow/Blue Green/Red Yellow/Red Green/Black Yellow/Black Grey/Blue Pink/Blue Grey/Red Pink/Red Grey/Black Pink/Black Blue/Black Red/Black 202 .de Document No.din.12.1 DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung www. VDE 0888 (EN 60793) Title Optical Fibres–Measurement Methods and Test Procedures Table 12.6 German Standards 12.6.

0250 0265 0266 0271 0281 0282 0293 0295 0472-815 Title Insulated Power Cables Polymer Insulated Lead Sheathed Power Cables Power Cables with Improved Behavior in Case of Fire Rated 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 * Standard withdrawn in 1998 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Wire A White Green Grey Blue Black Grey/Pink White/Green White/Yellow White/Grey White/Pink White/Blue White/Red White/Black Grey/Green Pink/Green Green/Blue Green/Red Green/Black Grey/Blue Grey/Red Grey/Black Blue/Black WIre B Brown Yellow Pink Red Violet Red/Blue Brown/Green Yellow/Brown Grey/Brown Pink/Brown Brown/Blue Brown/Red Brown/Black Yellow/Grey Yellow/Pink Yellow/Blue Yellow/Red Yellow/Black Pink/Blue Pink/Red Pink/Black Red/Black 12.6/1 kV High voltage cable for special applications rated 0.000 V Conductors of cables. wires and flexible cords Tests for halogen content of wires and cables V D E 203 .6/1 kV Wire and cable for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation rated to 450/750 V Wire and cable for power circuits with rubber insulation rated to 450/750 V Identification of conductors in cables and flexible cords used in power installations rated up to 1.6.2 VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (German Electrotechnical Society) www. Continental Europe Table 12.19–DIN 47100* Color Code for Paired Conductors (WITH Color Repetition Above 22) Pair No.12.vde-verlag.de Document No.

2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.de 12.7. 204 .3 DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Informationstechnik www.nsai.ie 12.7 Irish Standards 12.22–Irish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.1 NSAI National Standards Authority of Ireland www.dke. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Continental Europe 12.12.7.20–German Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 Table 12.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.6.6.21–German Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Description Plug Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.

voltage tolerance: 610 percent.1 IMQ Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita www.8.cesi.it 12.2 CEI Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano www.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.8. 205 .12.8.ceiweb.it 12. Continental Europe Table 12.23–Irish Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 British Standard British Standard British Standard BS 1363 BS 1363 BS 1363 12.24–Italian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Frequency tolerance: 62 percent.it 12.8. The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.3 CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano www.imq.8 Italian Standards 12.

npt.nemko.25–Italian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Description Plug Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.10.10 Norwegian Standards 12.12.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.26–Norwegian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 230 206 .1 NEMKO Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll www.com 12.10.no 12.10. Continental Europe Table 12.2 NPT Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority www.

ipq.28–Portuguese Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 207 .12.pt 12.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.1 IPQ Instituto Portugues da Qualidade www.27–Norwegian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Description Plug Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.11.11.11 Portuguese Standards 12. Continental Europe Table 12.

29–Portuguese Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 Old British Standard Old British Standard Old British Standard BS 546 BS 546 BS 546 12. 208 .2 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations Table 12.aenor. Continental Europe Table 12.30–Spanish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 127/220 220/380 A grounding conductor is required for the 220/380 voltage.es Document No. UNE 20432 UNE 21172 Title Tests on Electrical Cable Under Fire Conditions Measurement of Smoke Density of Electric Cable Burning in Defined Conditions UNE 12.1 AENOR Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación www.12 Spanish Standards 12.12.12.12.

13.13 Swedish Standards 12.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12.its.31–Spanish Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description Ungrounded Ungrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 Old British Standard Old British Standard Old British Standard BS 546 BS 546 BS 546 12.1 SEMKO Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten www.se 12.se 12.2 ITS Informationstekniska Standardiseringen www.12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.32–Swedish Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.13.semko. 209 .13. Continental Europe Table 12.

1 SNV Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung www.12.33–Swedish Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 12.14.2 ESTI (formerly SEV) Eidgensisches Starkstrominspektorat www.esti.14 Swiss Standards 12.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 12. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.14. Continental Europe Table 12.ch 12.14.34–Swiss Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 220/380 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded.ch 12.snv. 210 .

35–Swiss Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description UngroundedUngrounded Eurocord Eurocord Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 CEE 7/16 “Schuko” European “Schuko” European “Schuko” European CEE 7 CEE 7 CEE 7 211 .12. Continental Europe Table 12.

212 .

6 British Telecom (BT Group) 13.4 BNFL 13.1. 13.1.1.9 ERA Technology Ltd.8 Department for Transport 13.1 Standards 13.5 BRB 13.1 BSI 13.1.1.1.1.1.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 213 .1.13.10 ENA 13.1. United Kingdom 13.1.7 Department of the Environment 13.1.12 London Underground Limited 13.1.1.1.13 Ministry of Defense (MODUK) 13. United Kingdom 13.2 BASEC 13.14 Network Rail 13.15 RIA 214 214 216 216 216 216 216 217 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 13.11 IET (Formerly IEE) 13.3 BBC 13.

com Document No. BS 6004.1 BSI British Standards www. steel-reinforced. United Kingdom 13.13.bsi-global. for overhead power transmission Welding cables Bare fine resistance wire for precision electrical equipment Radio frequency cables Wrought aluminum wire for electrical purposes Polyethylene-insulated copper conductor telecommunication distribution cables Tin or tin-lead coated copper wire PVC-insulated split concentric cables with copper conductors for electric supply L.000 V Insulated flexible cords Specification for trailing cables for mining purposes Thermoset insulated.1 Standards 13.F.1. BS 3G 210 BS 115 BS 183 BS 215 BS 638-1 BS 1117 BS 2316 BS 2627 BS 3573 BS 4393 BS 4553 BS 4808 BS 5099 BS 5308 BS 5467 BS 6004 BS 6007 BS 6141 BS 6195 BS 6207 BS 6231 BS 6500 BS 6708 BS 6724 BS 6746C Title PTFE insulated equipment wires with silver-plated conductors Metallic resistance materials for electric purposes General purpose galvanized steel wire strand Aluminum conductors and aluminum conductors. armored cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases Color chart for insulation and sheath of electric cables Continued >> 214 . BS 6007 and BS 7919 Insulated flexible cables and cords for coil leads Mineral-insulated cables PVC-insulated flexible cables for switchgear and controlgear wiring rated 600/1. cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath for telecommunication Spark testing of electric cables Instrumentation cables Specification for armored cables with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply PVC-insulated cables for electric power and lighting Single core heat resisting cables Replaced by specifications BS 6500.

bar and wire Copper and copper alloys.1 BSI (Continued) Document No.13. vertical flame spread Flat Polyvinyl Chloride sheathed flexible cables Test methods for cables under fire conditions. evolved gases Conductors of insulated cables Tests on electric and optical cables under fire conditions Test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables Mechanical and compression connectors for power cable Cancelled 215 . drawn. United Kingdom 13. round copper wire for electrical conductors Specification for coaxial cables for wired distribution systems Cables for signs and luminous-discharge-tube installations Copper and copper alloy grooved contact wire for electric traction Conductors for overhead lines: aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy wires Conductors for overhead lines: zinc coated steel wires Test methods for cables under fire conditions.1. BS 6883 BS 6899 BS 6977 BS 7655 BS 7671 BS 7884 BS 7919 BS EN 10244-2 BS EN 10257 BS EN 12166 BS EN 13601 BS EN 13602 BS EN 50117 BS EN 50143 BS EN 50149 BS EN 50183 BS EN 50189 BS EN 50266 BS EN 50214 BS EN 50267 BS EN 60228 BS EN 60332 BS EN 60811 BS EN 61238 PD 6455 Title Elastomer insulated cable for fixed wiring in ships Replaced by specification BS 7655 Replaced by specification BS EN 50214 Insulating and sheathing materials for cables IEE Wiring Regulations Copper and copper-cadmium conductors for overhead power transmission  lectric Cables-Flexible cables rated up to 450 V/750 V for use with appliances and equipment intended for industrial E and similar environments Zinc or zinc alloy coatings on steel wire Galvanized steel wire for armoring land and submarine cables Copper and copper alloys. rod. wire for general purposes Copper and copper alloys for electrical purposes.

com Document No. twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (above 100 pairs) Self-supporting aerial telephone cable Jumper wire Internal telephone cable PVC-insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use Telephone cordage Undercarpet telephone cable Drop wire no. United Kingdom 13.uk BASEC is a product marking and certification agency similar to UL and CSA in North America.4 BNFL British Nuclear Fuels (inactive) Document No. twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (up to and including 100 pairs) External telephone cable Coaxial cable Polyethylene insulated and sheathed.brbr. 10 “LFH” insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use 216 .1.3 BBC British Broadcasting Company www. PM73479 Title Cables for electricity supply and control having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire (see Section 13. CW1109 CW1128 CW1198 CW1229 CW1236 CW1252 CW1257 CW1293 CW1308 CW1311 CW1316 CW1378 CW1600 Title Single. twin and triple jumper wire for electronic equipment Polyethylene insulated and sheathed.uk (inactive) Document No.basec.org.btplc.co. 13.2 BASEC British Approvals Service for Cables www.1. TDE/76/P/16 Title Single core cables for traction and rolling stock (cross-linked polyolefin types) 13. jelly-filled.1.uk Document No.co.bbc.6 British Telecom (BT Group) www.1. PSF 1/2M PSF 1/3M PSF 1/9M PSF 4/1M Title Video cable (similar to Belden 8281) Video cable Flexible camera cable Microphone cable 13.5 BRB British Railways Board www. jelly-filled.1 “BS 6724” for additional information) 13.1.13.1.

13. United Kingdom

13.1.7 Department of the Environment www.doeni.gov.uk
Document No. M&E 42 Title Aviation ground lighting. Single core 6 mm2 (2,000 V) PVC-sheathed cable

13.1.8 Department for Transport www.dft.gov.uk
Document No. TR 1173 TR 1238 TR 2029 Title Multipair communications cable, polyethylene-insulated, polyethylene-sheathed, armored Power cable for motorway communication systems (split concentric, armored) Inductive loop cable for vehicle detection systems

13.1.9 ERA Technology Ltd. www.era.co.uk
Document No. ERA 69-30 Part I ERA 69-30 Part III ERA 69-30 Part V ERA 93-0233R ERA 98-0668 Title Sustained current ratings for paper-insulated, lead-sheathed cables Sustained current ratings for PVC insulated cables Sustained current ratings for cables with thermosetting insulation User’s guide to power cable fault location Cabling installations: user friendly guide (EMI separation recommendations)

13.1.10 ENA www.energynetworks.org
Document No. 09-6 09-7 09-8 09-12 43-13 Title Auxiliary multicore and multipair cables PVC-insulated concentric service cables with stranded copper conductors and copper concentric conductors Impregnated paper insulated 600/1,000 V cable with three solid aluminum phase conductors and aluminum sheath/neutral conductor (CONSAC) Impregnated paper insulated corrugated aluminum sheathed 6,350/11,000 V cable (PICAS) Aerial bundled conductors (ABC) insulated with cross-linked polyethylene for low voltage overhead distribution

13.1.11 IET (formerly IEE) www.theiet.org
Document No. BS7671 Title IEE Wiring Regulations

217

13. United Kingdom

13.1.12 London Underground Limited www.tfl.gov.uk/tube
Document No. G4727 G4726 RSE/STD/024 part 6 Title 2, 3 and 4 core SWA cable low voltage, limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated), 2.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Single core cable insulated nonsheathed, limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated), 1.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Cables for use on rolling stock (“LFII” types)

13.1.13 Ministry of Defense (MODUK) British Defense Standards www.dstan.mod.uk
Document No. DEF STAN 02-525 DEF STAN 02-526 DEF STAN 02-527 DEF STAN 02-711 DEF STAN 02-713 DEF STAN 61-12 part 1 DEF STAN 61-12 part 2 DEF STAN 61-12 part 4 DEF STAN 61-12 part 5 DEF.STAN 61-12 part 6 DEF STAN 61-12 part 8 DEF STAN 61-12 part 9 DEF STAN 61-12 part 18 DEF STAN 61-12 part 25 Title Requirements for electric cables, thin-wall insulated, limited fire hazard Requirements for cables, electric, rubber insulated, limited fire hazard, sheathed for general services Requirements for cables, electric, fire survival, high temperature zones and limited fire hazard, sheathed Determination of the smoke index of the products of combustion Determination of the toxicity index of the products of combustion Cables, electrical (insulated flexible cords and flexible cables) Cables, electrical (for power and lighting) Cables, special purpose, electrical (subminiature electric cables) Cables, special purpose, electrical, and cables, power, electrical (small multicore cables) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, or silicone rubber insulated equipment wires PTFE insulated equipment wire Cables, radio frequency (coaxial) Equipment wires, low toxicity Cables, electrical, limited fire hazard, up to conductor size 2.5 mm2

13.1.14 Network Rail www.networkrail.co.uk
Document No. NR/PS/SIG/00005 Title Flame retardant compound insulated cables for railway signalling

13.1.15 RIA Railway Industry Association www.riagb.org.uk
Document No. NBRB/RIA 10 BRB/LUL/RIA 21 Title Twin and multicore jumper cables for diesel and electric vehicles Single-core cables for installation on traction and rolling stock (rubber types)

218

13. United Kingdom

13.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 13.1 – United Kingdom Supply Voltage
Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 230/400

Table 13.2–United Kingdom Plug Configurations
Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

British Standard BS 1363

219

220

14. Latin and South America

14. Latin and South America
14.1
222 14.1.1 ANCE 222 14.1.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 223

Mexican Standards

14.2

Venezuelan Standards
14.2.1 FONDONORMA

223 223

14.3 Brazilian Standards

224 14.3.1 ABNT 224 224 14.4.1 ICONTEC 224 224 14.5.1 IRAM 224

14.4

Colombian Standards

14.5

Argentine Standards

221

14. Latin and South America

14.1 Mexican Standards
14.1.1 ANCE Asociación de Normalización y Certificación www.ance.org.mx
Document No. NOM-001-SEDE NMX-E-034-SCFI NMX-J-008-ANCE NMX-J-010-ANCE NMX-J-012-ANCE NMX-J-013-ANCE NMX-J-014-ANCE NMX-J-032-ANCE NMX-J-036-ANCE NMX-J-040-ANCE NMX-J-066-ANCE NMX-J-177-ANCE NMX-J-178-ANCE NMX-J-186-ANCE NMX-J-190-ANCE NMX-J-191-ANCE NMX-J-192-ANCE NMX-J-193-ANCE NMX-J-212-ANCE NMX-J-294-ANCE NMX-J-312-ANCE NMX-J-417-ANCE NMX-J-437-ANCE NMX-J-451-ANCE NMX-J-498-ANCE NMX-J-556-ANCE Title Mexican Code Standard for Electrical Installations Plastics Industry–Carbon Black Contents on Polyethylene Materials–Test Method Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes Conductors with Thermoplastic Insulation Rated 600 V Concentric Lay Stranded Copper Conductors for Electrical Purposes Rope Lay Stranded Copper Conductors Having Concentric Stranded Members for Electrical Purposes Rope Lay Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch Stranded Members for Electrical Purposes Concentric Lay Stranded Aluminum Cable for Electrical Purposes Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes Determination of Moisture Absorption in Insulations and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Determination of Diameters of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Determination of Thickness in Semiconductive Shielding, Insulations, and Jackets of Electrical Conductors– Test Method Ultimate Strength and Elongation of Insulation, Semiconductive Shielding, and Jackets of Electrical Conductors– Test Method Accelerated Aging in Forced Air Convection Oven of Semiconducting Shields, Insulations and Jackets of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Thermal Shock Resistance of PVT Insulations and PVT Protective Coverings of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Heat Distortion of Semiconductive Shielding, Insulations and Protective Coverings of Electrical Conductors–Test Method Flame Test on Electrical Wires–Test Method Cold Bend of Thermoplastic Insulation and Protective Jackets, Used on Insulated Wire and Cable–Test Method Electrical Resistance, Resistivity and Conductivity–Test Method Insulation Resistance–Test Method Tensile Strength and Elongation by Strain of Wires for Electrical Conductors–Test Method Convection Laboratory Ovens for Evaluation of Electrical Insulation–Specifications and Test Methods Determination of Light Absorption Coefficient of Polyethylene Pigmented with Carbon Black–Test Method Power Cables with XLP or EP Insulation Rated 600 V Vertical Tray–Flame Test–Test Method Wire and Cable Test Methods

222

2.org Document No.1 FONDONORMA Fondo para la Normalización y Certificación de Calidad www. Determination of the level of extinction of partial discharges Compacted concentric round aluminum cables Round aluminum wire 1350.codelectra. 0200 0397 0457 0468 0529 0530 0533 0534 0541 0555 0556 0557 0558 0777 1110 2570 2644 2645 3198 3484 Title Venezuelan National Electrical Standard (Código Eléctrico Nacional) (Based on the U.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration Table 14. Specifications and methods test. rectangular Aluminum conductors with aluminum alloy reinforcement (ACAR) Wires and Cables.2 Venezuelan Standards 14. reinforced with steel Insulated wires and cables for distribution of electrical energy up to 2.org. annealed and of intermediate tempers Multi-pair telephone cables for external plant Enameled coil wire 223 .S. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70]) Wires and single-conductor cables with thermoplastic insulation Calculation of the permissible current in cables Sampling and methods of test to determine the cross-sectional area of conductors Bare copper cables. Aluminum 1350/1370 for manufacture of electrical conductors Aluminum conductors 1350 with concentric stranding Conductors with twisted concentric aluminum layers.fondonorma.2–Mexican Plug Configuration Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description North American Ungrounded 14.14.1–Mexican Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 127/220 Table 14.000 V and control cables Compacted bare aluminum conductors for electrical use Round aluminum alloy 6201-T 81 wires for electrical use Conductors with aluminum alloy 6201 T-81 wires Flexible cords and wires Bare soft copper wires.ve or www.1. Latin and South America 14.

NTC 2050 Title Colombian National Electrical Standard (Based on the U.1 ICONTEC Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas www.5.0 kV to 36.3.1 IRAM Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación www. Latin and South America 14.abnt.4.4 Colombian Standards 14. NM 247 NM 274 NM 280 2214 62266 Title PVC Insulated Cables Rated up to 450/750 V Silicone Insulated Cables Rated up to 450/750 V Conductors of Insulated Cables Cathodic Protection Cables Power and Control Cables with Low Smoke Emission and No Halogen (LSZH) Rated 1 kV 224 .com.S.org. NBR 5410 NBR 11301 NBR 14039 Title Low Voltage Electrical Installations Calculation of the Continuous Current Ratings of Cables at 100 percent load factor Installation of Electrical Systems Rated 1.3 Brazilian Standards 14.org. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70]) 14.1 ABNT Associação Brazileira De Normas Técnicas www.br Document No.co Document No.icontec.5 ArgEntine Standards 14.2 kV 14.iram.14.ar Document No.

4.4 Designations 232 232 232 232 232 233 15.2 SCC 226 226 227 228 231 15. Canada 15.15.1.1 “FT1” Fire Test 15.1.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 15.2 Cable Types 15.4.3 “FT6” Fire Test 15. Canada 15.2 “FT4” Fire Test 15.1 CSA 15.4 Fire Ratings 15.4.1 Standards 15.4.5 Single Conductor Teck 90 Terminations 225 .

0.org Document No.2 No.2 No. 35 C22.2 No.2 No. 48 C22. 127 C22. 129 C22.2 No.1 C22. 38 C22.2 No. Part II Test Methods for Electrical Wire and Cables Safety Functions Incorporating Electronic Technology Wiring Space and Wire Bending Space in Enclosures for Equipment Rated 750 V or Less Outlet Boxes.csa.2 No. Low-Energy Control Cable and Extra-Low-Voltage Control Cable Thermoset-Insulated Wires and Cables Grounding and Bonding Equipment General Use Receptacles.2 No. 138 C22. 18 C22. 49 C22.2 No. 96 C22.2 No.1. Part I General Requirements—Canadian Electrical Code. 52 C22. Canada 15. Auxiliary Gutters and Associated Fittings Extra-Low-Voltage Control Circuit Cables. 75 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.2 No. 21 C22. Attachment Plugs and Similar Wiring Devices Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Flexible Cords and Cables Armored Cables Service-Entrance Cables Flexible Metal Conduit and Liquid-Tight Flexible Metal Conduit Surface Raceway Systems Wire Connectors Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables Portable Power Cables Aluminum-Sheathed Cables Mineral-Insulated Cable Cable Tray Systems Equipment and Lead Wires Neutral Supported Cable Heat Cable Systems Type TECK 90 Cable Heat Tracing Cable and Cable Sets for Use in Hazardous Locations Cables and Cable Glands for Use in Hazardous Locations Airport Series Lighting Cables Splicing Wire Connectors 226 . C22.2 No.1 Standards 15. 41 C22. 26 C22.2 No. 174 C22.2 No. 0.8 C22. 62 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.12 C22. Conduit Boxes and Fittings Cord Sets and Power Supply Cords Wireways.2 No.ca and www. 42 C22. 131 C22. 123 C22. 56 C22. 126 C22. 51 C22.2 No.15. 124 C22.1 CSA Canadian Standards Association www.2 No. 65 C22.3 C22. 0.2 No.csa-international.2 No.2 No.2 No.2 No. 179 C22. 0 C22. 188 Title Canadian Electrical Code. 130 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.

1.2 SCC Standards Council of Canada www.2 No. All Tempers for Electrical Purposes Compact Round Concentric-Lay Aluminum-Stranded Conductors (Compact ASC) Electrical Power Connectors for use in Overhead Line Conductors Paper-Insulated Power Cable Concentric Neutral Power Cable Rated 5-45 kV Communication and Power Line Hardware Information Processing Systems 15. 227 . 208 C22.2 No. It also represents Canada’s interests on standards-related matters in foreign and international forums. 245 C22. Standards help ensure better. 239 C22. 198 C22.2 No. 214 C22.3 C49.2 No.2 No. services and systems.1 C68.15. 232 C22.3 C83 Z243 Title PVC Insulating Tape Sealed Wire Connector Systems Fire Alarm and Signal Cable Appliance Wiring Material Products Non-Metallic Conduit Communications Cables Type FCC Under-Carpet Wiring Systems Tray Cables Optical Fiber Cables Control and Instrumentation Cables Marine Shipboard Cable Optical Fiber Cable and Communications Cable Wire and Cable Test Methods Compact Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Aluminum Alloy 1350 Round Wire. C22.2 No.2 C49.2 No. 556 C49.ca Standardization is the development and application of standards – publications that establish accepted practices. and are an essential element of technology. 211 C22. innovation and trade. 262 C22. 222 C22.2 No.2 No.2 No.2 No.scc. Canada Document No. The Standards Council carries out a variety of functions intended to ensure the effective and coordinated operation of standardization in Canada.2 No. 197 C22. 210 C22. safer and more efficient methods and products. technical requirements and terminologies for products.2 No.5 C57 C68. 230 C22.

(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Neutral-supported cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable For concealed wiring in dry locations only For concealed wiring in dry and damp locations For concealed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations where not exposed to mechanical injury Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable 228 .2 Cable Types Table 15. TWU TWU75 NS-75 NS-90 NMWU TECK90 AC90 NMD90 NMW.15. NMWU 90 60 Rubber.(thermoset-) insulated cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable For exposed wiring where subjected to the weather Armored cable Rubber. LWMI TW TW75. where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry or damp locations Trade Designation Armored cable Armored cable CSA Type Designation TECK 90 AC90 TECK 90 Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 90 90 90 Non-metallic-sheathed cable Non-metallic-sheathed cable NMD90 NMW. if suitable for corrosive conditions encountered For exposed wiring in dry locations where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations. NMWU 90 60 90 90 90 90 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 60 90 75 90 60 75 75 90 60 90 90 90 60 Continued >> For exposed wiring in wet locations Armored cable Rubber. RW90 TW. Canada 15.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nylon jacketed thermoplastic-insulated cable Non-metallic-sheathed cable R90 TW T90 NYLON NMD90 TECK90 ACWU90 RW75 RL90.1–CSA Cable Types Conditions of Use For exposed wiring in dry locations only For exposed wiring in dry locations where exposed to corrosive action. RW90 RA75 RA90 MI. TWN75 NMWU TECK90 RW75 R90.

(thermoset-) insulated cable Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Rubber.(thermoset-) insulated cable Aluminum-sheathed cable For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority) Mineral-insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Airport series lighting cable Tray cable Armored cable TECK90 ACWU90 RA75 RA90 MI. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations Armored cable CSA Type Designation TECK90 ACWU90 NMWU RA75 RA90 MI. except cable trays. RWU90 TW.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable For use in ventilated. RWU90 RA75 RA90 MI. in wet locations For use in ventilated and nonventilated cable trays in vaults and switch rooms For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority) For service entrance above ground Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Neutral supported cable 229 . except cable trays. RWU75 RW90. TWU TW75.(thermoset-) insulated lead-sheathed cable Rubber. TWU75 AC90 TECK90 Armored cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Rubber. LWMI RL90 RW75 RW90 ACWU90 TECK90 NMWU RWU75 RL90. LWMI R90 TW T90 NYLON RW75. LWMI TWU TWU75 ASLC TC AC90 ACWU90 TECK90 RA75 RA90 MI NS-75 NSF-90 Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 60 90 75 90 60 75 90 90 90 90 75 90 90 90 75 90 90 90 60 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 90 90 75 90 90 75 90 Continued >> For use in raceways. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in dry locations only For use in ventilated.(thermoset-) insulated cable Thermoplastic-insulated cable Nylon jacketed thermoplastic-insulated cable Rubber. in dry or damp locations For use in raceways.15. Canada Table 15.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use For concealed wiring in wet locations Trade Designation Armored cable Nonmetallic-sheathed cable Aluminum-sheathed cable Mineral-insulated cable Rubber. TWN75.

or in plenums Extra-low-voltage control cable Flat conductor cable Communication cable FCC CMP. where exposed. indoors in dry or damp locations For use in raceways including ventilated. indoors in dry or damp locations. GTOL – LVT ELC Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 75 90 90 60 75 75 90 90 90 75 90 60 60 60 60 For use in Class 2 circuits. concealed or used in raceways including cable trays. concealed or used in raceways. OFC. OFNG. or in ceiling air handling plenums For use in fire alarm. in exposed or concealed Extra-low-voltage control cable wiring or use in raceways. concealed or used in raceways. OFCR.(thermoset-) insulated cable Armored cable Aluminum-sheathed cable For high-voltage wiring in luminous-tube signs For use in raceways in hoistways Luminous-tube sign cable Hoistway cable TWU TWU75 RWU75 RWU90 TECK90 ACWU90 RA75 RA90 GTO. OFCG.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use For service entrance below ground Trade Designation Service-entrance cable CSA Type Designation USEI75 USEI90 USEB90 Thermoplastic-insulated wire Rubber. CMH FAS FAS 90 FAS 105 FAS 200 60 60 Fire alarm and signal cable 60 90 105 200 As marked on cable Tray cable TC Tray cable Non-conductive optical fiber cable TC OFNP. signal and voice communication circuits where exposed. CMX. OFCH As marked on cable As marked on cable Conductive optical fiber cable As marked on cable Continued >> 230 . CMR.15. OFN. OFNR. CM. nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations and where exposed to weather For use in cable trays in Class I Division 2 and Class II on cable Division 2 hazardous locations For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. in dry or damp locations For use in Class 2 circuits in dry locations in concealed wiring or exposed wiring where not subject to mechanical injury For use when concealed indoors under carpet squares in dry or damp locations For use in communication circuits when exposed. where exposed. concealed or used in raceways including cable trays. or in plenums For use in buildings in dry or damp locations. OFNH OFCP. Canada Table 15. CMG.

Canada Table 15. where exposed or concealed Trade Designation Hybrid conductor cable CSA Type Designation NMDH90 CIC Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C 90 250 (dry or damp locations) 90 (wet locations) For use in ventilated non-ventilated and ladder type Control and instrumentation Cable (without armor) trays.2–Canadian Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 60 Voltage 120/240 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. for exposed or concealed wiring (or damp or dry) locations For use in ventilated non-ventilated and ladder type Armored control and instrumentation cable trays. direct earth burial. 4-wire systems such as 120/208 volts are available as well as 347/600 volts for commercial establishments. in ceiling air handling plenums.1–CSA Cable Types (Continued) Conditions of Use For use in buildings in dry or damp locations.1.3–Canadian Plug Configurations Jack Jack Jack Jack Plug Plug Plug Plug Description Description Description Description North American North American Ungrounded NorthUngrounded American Ungrounded North American North American North American NEMA 5-15 NEMA 5-15 NEMA 5-15 231 . Table 19) 15.15. Table 15. direct earth burial.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 15. for exposed or concealed (other than steel wire armor) wiring in wet (or damp or dry) locations in ceiling air handling plenums ACIC 250 (dry or damp locations) 90 (wet locations) Source: Canadian Electrical Code (CSA C22. Three-phase.

the resulting char distance must not be greater than 1. 15 second duration applications of a specified flame.11. 0. or ceiling and roof.2 “FT4” Fire Test The FT4 test procedure is known as the Vertical Flame Test – Cables in trays (published in CSA Standard C22.4. 15. and FT4 – W  ires and cables that are suitable for installation in: (a) buildings of noncombustible and combustible construction. para 4.2 No.4 Designations The markings for wires and cables meeting the flame spread requirements of the National Building Code of Canada (without additional fire protection) are: FT1 – Wires and cables that are suitable for installation in buildings of combustible construction. para 4. 0. and not more than 25 percent of the extended portion of the indicator can be burned.11. 232 .6).” depending on which of the specified flame test requirements they fulfill. For the cable to pass the test.3 “FT6” Fire Test The FT6 test procedure is known as the Plenum Flame Test (published in CSA Standard C22.2 No.000 Btu/hr flame. 15.2 No. Cables are subjected to five.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables.5 meters from the point of flame application. masonry walls or concrete slabs. and (b) s  paces between a ceiling and floor.4.4. para 4.1 “FT1” Fire Test The FT1 test procedure is known as the “Vertical Test” (published in CSA Standard C22. 15. 0. burning must cease within 60 seconds after removal of the flame source. 15. For the cable to pass the test. that may be used as a plenum in buildings of combustible or noncombustible construction. published by the Canadian Standards Association. is the national safety code for electrical installations that is adopted into law by each province and territory with amendments or local rules. Cables are marked from “FT1” to “FT6.4 Fire Ratings The Canadian Electrical Code. Canada 15.11. The Code includes references to a stringent series of tests developed for flame testing of wires and cables.15.4). Wires and cables with combustible outer jackets or sheaths that do not meet the above classifications should be located in noncombustible raceways.4.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables. Cables are mounted on a vertical tray and exposed for 20 minutes to a 70.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables.1).

Connectors and lock nuts of nonmagnetic materials Nonferrous metal Insulating material Supply end Ground wires and armor are connected to panel body and earthed Separate ground conductor Ground wires cut off inside and isolated.1. Canada 15.5 Single Conductor Teck 90 Terminations Single-conductor high-current armored cables require special termination methods to prevent excessive heating caused by induced “circulating currents” in nearby conductors and “eddy currents” in nearby magnetic materials.15. Armor and ground wires are isolated from each other Load end Figure 15.1–Termination of Single-Phase Single-Conductor Teck 90 Cables for Circuit Ampacity Over 425 Amps 233 . One acceptable method is shown in Figure 15.

234 .

2. Asia Pacific 16.1.1.4.1 CQC 16.1.4 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables 236 236 236 236 237 16.3 Japanese Standards 16.1 SAA 16.2 Plug Configuration 239 239 239 16.2.1 Australian Standards 16.1 JSA 16.2 ACMA 16.1.2 Singapore Standards 16.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration 16.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 238 238 238 16.1 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB) 16.3.4 Chinese Standards 16.2 CNIS 240 240 240 235 .16. Asia Pacific 16.3.4.

standards.2 AS/NZS 5000.6/1 kV Cables for High-Voltage Luminous Discharge Tube Installations Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For Distribution and Service Applications Electric Flexible Cords Electric Cables — Aerial-Bundled Voltages Up To and Including 0.3 AS/NZS 60702 AS/ACIF S008 AS/ACIF S009 Title Impregnated Paper Insulated Cables for Electricity Supply at Working Voltages Up To and Including 33 kV (Metric Units) Conductors in Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cords Welding Cables Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Explosion Protection Techniques Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Selection.au or www.1 SAA Standards Australia www.1.1 Australian Standards 16. AS/NZS 1026 AS/NZS 1125 AS/NZS 1995 AS/NZS 2380 AS/NZS 2381 AS/NZS 2430 AS/NZS 3000 AS/NZS 3008.16.acma.2 ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority www.com Document No.gov.1–Australian Supply Voltages Frequency (Hz) 50 50 Voltage 240/415 250/440 The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. Socket-Outlets and Couplers for General Industrial Application Fibrous-Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cables for Working Voltages of 0.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration Table 16.1 AS/NZS 5000.saiglobal. Asia Pacific 16.au 16.org.6/1 kV Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For working voltages Up To 450/750 V Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — Multicore Control Cables Mineral-Insulated Cables and Their Terminations Up To 750 V Requirements for Authorized Cabling Products Installation Requirements for Customer Cabling (Wiring Rules) 16.6/1 kV Mining Cables Other Than Reeling and Trailing Electric Cables — Polymeric Insulated — For Working Voltages Up To and Including 0.1 AS/NZS 3112 AS/NZS 3123 AS/NZS 3158 AS/NZS 3166 AS/NZS 4961 AS/NZS 3191 AS/NZS 3560 AS/NZS 1972 AS/NZS 5000. 236 .6/1 kV Plugs and Socket-Outlets Plugs.1.1. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated. Installation and Maintenance Classification of Hazardous Areas Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules Electrical Installations — Selection of Cables: Cables for Alternating Voltages Up To and Including 0.

16. Asia Pacific Table 16.1.2–Australian Plug Configuration Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description Australian Standard AS/NZS 3312 16.3–Limiting Temperatures for Australian Insulated Cables Type of Cable Insulation Cable Operating Temperature. °C Normal Use Minimum -40 -20 -20 -20 -50 -50 0 -20 0 -20 0 0 0 0 -70 -70 Elastomer compounds Type R-EP-90 Type R-CSP-90 Type R-CPE-90 Type R-HF-90 Type R-S-150 Type R-S-200 90 90 90 90 150 200 75 75 75 75 75 150 200 350 90 90 Thermoplastic compounds Type V-75 Type HFI-75-TP Type V-90 Type HFI-90-TP Type V-90-HT Heat-resisting fibrous insulation Type 150 Type 200 Type 350 Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) Type X-90 Type X-HF-90 Source: Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules (AS/NZS 3000) 237 .4 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables Table 16.

Asia Pacific 16. IEC 60331 and IEC 60502.spring. BS6500.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations Table 16. 16.2 Singapore Standards 16. Table 16. SS254 SS299 Part 1 SS300 SS358 Title Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Fire Resistant Circuit Integrity Power Cables Methods of Test for Gases Evolved During Combustion of Electric Cables PVC Insulated Power Cables up to and Including 450/750 V The following British and international cable standards are also used in Singapore: BS6004.2.16.sg Document No.1 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB) www.2.gov. BS6346.4–Singapore Supply Voltage Frequency (Hz) 50 Voltage 230/400 A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.5–Singapore Plug Configurations Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description Ungrounded Europlug CEE 7/16 British Standard BS 1363 238 .

or.16.jsa. No.2.2 Plug Configuration Table 16.3. Asia Pacific 16.3. JIS C3307 JIS C3316 JIS C3401 JIS C3406 JIS C3605 JIS C3606 JIS C3609 JIS C3612 JIS C3621 JIS C3650 JIS C3653 JIS C3660 JIS C3662 JIS C3663 Title 600 V PVC Insulated Wires PVC Insulated Wire for Electrical Apparatus Control Cables Low Voltage Cables for Automobiles 600 V Polyethylene Insulated Cables High-Voltage Cross Linked Polythylene Insulated Cables High-Voltage Drop Wires for Pole Transformers 600 V Flame Retardant Polythylene Insulated Wires 600 V Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulated Cables Installation Methods of Cables Embedded in Concrete Installation Methods of Cables Buried Underground Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing Materials of Electric Cables PVC Insulated Cables Rated Up To 450/750 V Rubber Insulated Cables Rated Up To 450/750 V 16.jp Document No.1 JSA Japanese Standards Association www.3 Japanese Standards 16. 42) 239 .6–Japanese Plug Configuration Jack Jack Plug Plug Description Description Japanese Standard JIS C 8303 (Same as NEMA 5-15 and CSA 22.

GB 5013 GB 5023 GB 12528.4.gov. Asia Pacific 16.1 GB 12972 GB 15934 Title Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated Cables for Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Insulated Cables (Wires) for Railway Vehicles of Rated Voltage Up To and Including 3 kV Flexible Rubber-Sheathed Cables for Mining Purposes Cord Sets 240 .com.4.2 CNIS Chinese National Institute of Standardization www.cqc.cnis. CQC Chinese Quality Certification Center www.cn 16.4 Chinese Standards 16.16.cn Document No.

1 17. Circumference and Area Length.17.5 kVA to Amperes 17. Conversion Tables 17. Weight.4 Temperature Conversion 17. Power and Energy 242 244 246 248 249 249 17.3 Metric to English Conductor Size Circular Measurements – Diameter.6 Horsepower to Amperes 241 . Conversion tables 17. Area.2 17.

000 Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 120 119 107 100 95 85 72 70 67 60.600 101.500 86.700 Continued >> 242 .000 789.000 1.000 1.000 300.620 49.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 1.128 41.000 211.024.1 16 13.780.000 133.000 365.000 884.3 27 25 22.000 276.250.660 52.4 21 19 17 16.5 10.5 10.100 83.233.9 54 51. Conversion Tables 17.000 1.000 – – 1.820 19.800 138.800 141.17.000 350.700 72.1 Metric to English Conductor Size Table 17.740 37.900 105.580.000.240 22.000 474.000.600 197.000 537.000 325.00 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) 120 – – – 95 – – 70 – – – – 50 – – – 35 – – – 25 – – – – – 16 – – – – 10 Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) – – 4/0 – – 3/0 – – 2/0 – 1/0 – – – 1 – – 2 – 3 – – 4 – 5 – – – 6 – 7 – English Conductor Area (cmil) 237.360 61.750.000 1.100 119.6 50 43.000 592.000 187.792 26.000 – – – 750 – – 600 – – 500 – – 400 – – 350 – 300 – – 250 English Conductor Area (cmil) 2.000 987.970.655 20.000 455.000 634.500.100 66.000 748.000 250.000 400.000 750.000 1.000 1.000 234.000 296.430 33.000 1.000 500.000 1.600 26.300 44.240.000 900 888 800 761 635 630 626 520 508 500 449 400 381 380 322 305 300 273 254 240 231 230 195 185 178 165 152 150 140 127 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) – 1.250 – – – 1.000 384.000 1.000 600.900 69.600 98.500 1.000 1.750 – 1.3 11.7 42 37 35 34 31.717 31.000 167.6 13.000 – – 800 – – 630 – – – 500 – 400 – – – – 300 – – 240 – – – 185 – – – 150 – – Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) 2.015 1.090 31.

18 2.620 1.644 3.246 16.31 2.68 0.00 5.0032 0.58 0.020 987 965 640 404 Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 0.081 0.7 9.57 1.800 11.33 1.5 – – – – 1.60 3.95 0.56 Reference: IEC 60228 243 .082 4.0020 0.50 – – 0.5 – – – 1 – – 0.08 1.930 4.17.960 2.82 0. Conversion Tables Table 17.31 1.0 15.38 8.090 11.61 6.871 1.0080 0.50 0.25 4.2 9 – – 10 – – – – 12 – – – 14 – – – – 16 – – – 18 – – – 20 – – 22 24 Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) – 8 – – English Conductor Area (cmil) 19.294 4.8 25.580 2.013 0.25 4.020 0.85 1.110 3.1–Conductor Size Conversion: Metric to English and English to Metric (Continued) Metric Conductor Area (mm2) 9.12 1.50 2.00 3.50 1.75 – – – 0.092 6.510 16.682 10.324 0.2 39.292 13.051 0.52 0.02 4.58 2.620 2.093 2.00 6.790 13.128 0.93 5.0050 0.0013 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) – – – – – – – – – – – Standard English Sizes (kcmil/AWG) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 English Conductor Area (cmil) 253 159 100 63.00 0.75 0.205 Standard Metric Sizes (mm2) – – – – – 6 – – – – 4 – – – 2.49 0.77 8.00 2.27 7.339 1.64 6.889 8.380 9.970 1.480 1.26 5.206 1.372 7.142 1.032 0.890 7.530 5.

500000 2.9761 4.187500 1.937500 0.12962 0.294524 0.17257 0.437500 0.000000 (in.49779 5.22843 9.125000 2.86532 1.99402 1.250000 2.312500 1.85398 8.6664 4.687500 1.812500 2.08684 6.562500 1.37122 0.04909 0.625000 2.750000 2.750000 0.343750 0.24850 0.250000 1.4053 2.01917 0.17.147262 0.) 0.392699 0.196350 0.7612 2. Circumference and Area Diameter Fractional (in.94524 3.71239 4.63938 8.500000 0.406250 0.531250 0.51849 0.7671 1.83573 9.76715 1.718750 0.06858 7.687500 0.12334 4.6230 1.187500 2.500000 1.06167 2.00019 0.593750 0.14159 3.875000 0.1572 5.47262 1.875000 1.312500 2.37445 1.07670 0.15984 2.2000 4.156250 0.046875 0.981748 1.69029 0.468750 0.1416 3.281250 0.875000 2.2126 6.27688 0.00019 0.27627 1.437500 1.812500 0.) 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 Circumference (in.6727 5.687500 2.9175 2.88664 0.47953 6.906250 0.87223 7.098175 0.33824 0.2272 1.5466 3.2365 2.375000 0.30144 5.9483 3.049087 0.589049 0.45437 2.66897 1.35619 2.06213 0.44179 0.812500 1.7771 7. Conversion Tables 17. in.9396 6.15033 0.4849 1.09281 0.031250 0.74889 2.51604 4.750000 1.4978 6.5802 2.) 0.47937 0.25802 2.490874 0.968750 1 1 1/16 1 1/8 1 3/16 1 1/4 1 5/16 1 3/8 1 7/16 1 1/2 1 9/16 1 5/8 1 11/16 1 3/4 1 13/16 1 7/8 1 15/16 2 2 1/16 2 1/8 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 5/16 2 3/8 2 7/16 2 1/2 2 9/16 2 5/8 2 11/16 2 3/4 2 13/16 2 7/8 2 15/16 3 Diameter Fractional (in.60132 0.01227 0.1075 1.093750 0.125000 0.656250 0.22166 0.90874 5.2 Circular Measurements – Diameter.437500 2.19635 0.785398 0.53429 3.312500 0.96350 2.687223 0.28319 6.78540 0.937500 3.125000 1.04342 (sq.781250 0.84707 2.69414 5.250000 0.) Circumference (sq.562500 2.) 3.26493 7.187500 0.0686 Continued >> Decimal (in.4119 5.625000 0.73064 3.02761 0.24668 8.843750 0.218750 0.562500 0.625000 1.4301 4.00690 0.30680 0. in.44303 8.9087 5.015625 0.0739 2.73708 0.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.64504 0.375000 2.000000 1.67588 6.03208 9.375000 1.89049 6.05033 8.65072 2.42478 244 . Circumference and Area Table 17.3530 1.33794 3.46128 7.10509 5.55254 2.17810 1.) Decimal (in.) 0.7583 3.00307 0.) 1.55914 0.40574 0.3410 3.92699 4.062500 2.062500 1.07992 1.57080 1.31969 4.65763 7.937500 2.11045 0.000000 2.00173 0.883573 0.062500 0.03758 0.

566 12.2788 17.088 56.562500 4.625000 3.687500 5.8496 19.183 34.250000 6.033 15.) 21.0277 20.062500 3.125000 4.250000 7.282 42.625000 5.) 9.109 27.3518 13.4889 Circumference (sq.629 21.2605 18.875000 3.687500 3. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.125000 3.000000 6.1327 25.456 55.257 17.5481 13.8678 18.312500 5.2102 10.) 3 1/16 3 1/8 3 3/16 3 1/4 3 5/16 3 3/8 3 7/16 3 1/2 3 9/16 3 5/8 3 11/16 3 3/4 3 13/16 3 7/8 3 15/16 4 4 1/16 4 1/8 4 3/16 4 1/4 4 5/16 4 3/8 4 7/16 4 1/2 4 9/16 4 5/8 4 11/16 4 3/4 4 13/16 4 7/8 4 15/16 5 5 1/16 5 1/8 5 3/16 Decimal (in.375000 3.9181 26.349 16.500000 5.635 20.437500 3.2058 21.4943 16.) 16.1767 12.967 26.000000 8.750000 7.625000 7.6532 18.437500 5.680 31.3473 24.4065 10.721 18.3206 10.17.01380 10.9591 13.562500 5.2970 Circumference (sq.7035 27.5254 25.6796 11.179 45.937500 5.687500 4.6897 16.1554 13.364 13.3662 7.772 14.500000 6.9043 16.6029 10.875000 4.426 60. in.) Decimal (in.648 22.9226 15.) 5.6715 17.312500 3.3335 14.7810 11.800 17.1737 12.750000 5.250000 3.062500 4.81748 10.750000 4.8131 21.3700 12.4202 20.) 7.875000 7.9956 11.7932 12.250000 5.937500 4.274 29.9678 10.750000 (in.187500 (in.812500 3.132 Continued >> 245 .9773 12.3883 11.625000 4.375000 4.500000 4. Conversion Tables Table 17.919 33.) 3.849 53.812500 4.9911 22.9798 8.750000 6.312500 4.500000 3.750000 3.125000 7.375000 6.2806 9.147 19.6699 7.785 37.745 58.437500 4.535 27.562500 3.607 15.3153 15.221 23.871 41.406 25.665 19.500000 8.122 38.625000 8.500000 7.125000 8.5984 21.875000 8.3838 22.5116 15.7992 10.472 35.173 48.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.375000 7.962 13.0447 11.691 23.7765 23.812500 5.375000 8.1007 16.250000 4.166 22.3108 26.1189 15.000000 4. in.1372 14.2423 19.187500 3.0824 17.664 47.190 18.1692 23.5619 23.5299 14.466 15.758 24.301 24.250000 8.375000 5.8861 17.718 44.7050 15.62113 9.062500 5.9546 24.7445 13.1919 11.707 50.0962 27.125000 6.2958 8.850 25.135 5 1/4 5 5/16 5 3/8 5 7/16 5 1/2 5 9/16 5 5/8 5 11/16 5 3/4 5 13/16 5 7/8 5 15/16 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 3/8 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 7 3/8 7 1/2 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 8 8 1/8 8 1/4 8 3/8 8 1/2 8 5/8 8 3/4 Diameter Fractional (in.000000 7.7627 12.6350 20.129 20.4159 11.875000 5.0642 18.6211 9.937500 6.485 39.265 51.904 16.7262 14.625000 6.9462 9.5664 12.4589 18.465 30.9408 14.000000 5.7400 25.6179 8.125000 5.4751 17.688 28.187500 4.186 14.5846 11.

000.3701 1.3048 2.240. Multiply inches by 1.03281 30.6214 3.000000 (in.0929 1. Area.0936 1.250000 9.875000 10.750000 9.029 91⁄2 95⁄8 93⁄4 97⁄8­ 10 Diameter Fractional (in.4524 2 Circumference (sq. Multiply square inches by 645.625000 9.882 72. Power and energy Table 17.7854 0.03937 39. Circumference and Area (Continued) Diameter Fractional (in.760 74.875000 9.16 1.000001 To Multiply By To Convert From Length Centimeters Centimeters Feet Feet Inches Inches Inches Inches Kilometers Meters Meters Meters Miles Millimeters Millimeters Mils Mils Yards Inches Feet Centimeters Meters Centimeters Meters Millimeters Mils Miles Feet Inches Yards Kilometers Inches Mils Inches Millimeters Meters 0.6093 0.48 0.17.125000 9.4 1.00155 1.397 67.) 27.862 63.0254 0.) 8 7/8 9 9 1/8 9 1/4 9 3/8 Decimal (in. Conversion Tables Table 17.0000007854 0.3–Conversion Factors Note: Frequently used conversions are shown in bold type.273. 2. in.0005067 0.3 Length.764 0.000.001 0.0232 31.540 29.0597 29. To convert in the reverse direction.201 69.973.00 6. 17.4159 Notes:  1.00 0.2808 39.) 9.617 65.6305 31.2378 30.6670 29.375000 (in. Weight.) 8.589 78.500000 9.000000 9.54 0.2743 28. in.8451 30.) 61.2–Circular Measurements – Diameter.4516 645.16 to calculate mm .53 1.0254 25.) Circumference (sq.9144 To Multiply By Continued >> 246 .000. To Convert From Area Circular mils Circular mils Circular mils Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square inches Square inches Square inches Square meters Square millimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square mils Square inches Square mils Square millimeters Square inches Square meters Circular mils Square centimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square feet Square inches Circular mils Circular mils Square inches 0.) 70. 3.155 0.) Decimal (in. divide by the factor given in the table.662 76.4 to calculate mm.000 to calculate mils.3937 0.00 10.3701 0.2732 0.8816 28. Multiply inches by 25.

205 0.2808 1.000 feet Ohms per 1.33 62.0226 0.000 feet Ohms per 1.4126 Multiply By To Multiply By 247 . gallons U.000 feet Pounds per 1.10198 7.356 0.186 0.S.000 feet Ohms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Kilograms per kilometer Pounds per kilometer Pound-force Newtons 2.356 33. gallons U.3048 3.4482 To Multiply By To Convert From Miscellaneous Diameter circle Diameter circle Diameter sphere cubed U.1337 8.1383 4.4336 0.00 0.000 yards Pounds per 1.S.7375 0.6719 0. Watts Watts Watts Watts Horsepower Watts Horsepower Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec. 0.000.000 yards Newtons Pound-force Pounds Pounds per 1.2388 0.1020 To Multiply By To Convert From Energy British thermal units British thermal units British thermal units Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Gram calories Joules Joules Joules Joules Joules Kilogram-meters Kilogram-meters Watt-hours To Convert From Weight Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Ohms per 1.4912 1.0936 0.7375 0.055.4960 1. Conversion Tables Table 17.0936 0.807 44.25 0.488 0.0000303 0.8117 3.293 0.00 746 9.000 yards Pounds Pounds per 1.1416 0.427 0.233 9.00 0.3–Conversion Factors (Continued) To Convert From Power Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Foot-pounds per second Horsepower Horsepower Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec.001818 1.8862 0.S.001285 1.2248 4.4536 1.8327 0.1516 Foot-pounds Joules Watt-hours British thermal units Joules Kilogram-meters Joules British thermal units Ergs Foot-pounds Gram-calories Kilogram-meters Foot-pounds Joules British thermal units To 778.00 550.000947 107.00 1. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) Inches of mercury (0°C) Knots Circumference Side of equal square Volume of sphere Imperial gallons (British) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Miles per hour 3.001341 0.17.5236 0.

4 -25.2 -36.0 141.4 102.8 8.192 2.0 294.6 37.6 100. Degrees Fahrenheit Conversion Formula: °  F=9/5°C+32°C °C=5/9 (°F .0 249.8 278.4 156.0 24.600 1.4 273.8 206.4 255.6 235.0 -38.8 170.4 201.4 48.8 287.832 2.6 19.0 -29.4 -7.0 -40.0 114.300 1.8 143.8 269.6 109.4 291.0 -2.8 -4.6 217.4 3.8 -13.2 †212.0 186.000 – – – – – – – – °F 1.0 159.0 267.2 °C 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 300 350 400 500 °F 275.0 -20.4 30.8 -31.8 53.2 86. Conversion Tables 17.0 42.2 266.6 -23.8 116.2 77.4 228.500 1.292 1.8 107.2 131.2 °C 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 °F 59.632 – – – – – – – – *Freezing †Boiling 248 .800 1.092 3.4 21.900 2.0 105.6 64.0 51.0 222.0 240.4–Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) vs.0 285.6 154.4 246.6 73.000 1.32) °C -80 -70 -60 -50 -45 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 °F -112.0 33.4 300.4 147.6 289.6 172.0 96.0 276.6 181.6 46.0 -58.6 -32.6 127.200 1.4 Temperature Conversion Table 17.6 280.6 163.0 15.8 26.6 199.0 -94.2 41.4 282.0 374.2 122.8 44.8 152.0 258.0 356.2 104.4 129.8 215.0 60.2 176.8 62.6 226.6 244.8 188.0 213.4 219.8 134.4 210.2 149.0 -49.8 98.2 -27.472 1.0 150.6 10.6 -14.2 239.552 2.4 120.4 84.8 35.0 195.2 284.8 -22.2 293.2 *32.0 177.4 1.4 111.8 197.4 138.6 253.372 2.4 -16.8 179.0 69.400 1.2 -18.4 165.0 -11.8 17.2 °C 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 °F 113.6 136.6 298.012 2.2 158.0 -76.4 93.6 262.912 3.0 78.2 °C 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 †100 101 102 103 104 °F 167.0 392 410 428 446 464 482 572 662 752 932 – – – – – – – – – – – – °C 600 700 800 900 1.2 -9.6 145.8 80.8 242.4 39.4 57.8 251.2 °C 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 °F 221.2 185.0 6.4 237.6 271.8 296.6 28.8 260.8 233.6 55.6 91.2 257.4 174.2 -0.0 123.652 1.2 68.6 82.6 118.2 140.272 3.8 161.6 190.2 194.2 230.2 302.2 203.0 168.8 224.8 71.4 264.4 -34.732 2.0 320.452 3.4 75.4 183.2 248.8 89.4 66.700 1.17.2 95.112 1.0 132.0 87.2 14.2 °C -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 *0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 °F 5.0 204.000 1.4 192.2 23.0 231.4 12.8 125.0 338.6 208.2 50.6 -5.

5 2 3 5 7.17.110 1.24 8.200 1.4 21.0 41.2 14.2 10.660 240 V 4.380 2.16 6.8 43 72 108 144 192 216 288 384 480 720 249 .6 25.5 150 200 225 300 400 500 750 120 V 8.08 3.8 8. Conversion Tables 17.4 28.5 21 31 42 62 104 156 208 312 415 695 833 480 V 2.1 10.390 1.080 Three-Phase Circuits Current in Amperes at: 240 V 7.6 36 72 108 180 270 360 480 540 720 960 1.33 12.33 12.8 18 36 54 90 135 180 240 270 360 480 600 900 600 V 2.3 16.5–kVA to Amperes Single-Phase Circuits kVA Rating 1 1.6 83.0 125 208 312 415 554 625 830 1.5 10 15 25 37.4 15.5 16.800 480 V 3.5 50 75 100 167 200 Current in Amperes at: 120 V 8.6 21 31 52 78 104 156 207 348 416 kVA Rating 3 6 9 15 30 45 75 112.66 25 41 62 83 124 208 312 416 624 830 1.9 5.7 14.16 6.5 KVA to Amperes Table 17.6 7.12 4.

0 12.8 57.8. Above values are theoretical values based solely on numerical calculations.5 5.5 25.5 6.2 2.4 125 250 624 Note: Based on a motor efficiency of 90 percent and system power factor of 0. 250 .4 28.6–Horsepower to Amperes Three-Phase Circuits Horsepower Rating 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 300 Current in Amperes at: 208 V 2.9 5. For example.6 144 288 576 – 240 V 2.8 14.250 of the National Electrical Code.5 25. Check with applicable codes for specific ampere values to size overcurrent protective devices or conductors.9 125 250 500 – 480 V 1.6 Horsepower to Amperes Table 17.2 12.0 62.0 49.17. see Table 430.

6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables 18.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits 18. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits 18.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices 18.10 Inductive Reactance 251 . Formulas and Constants 18.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors 18.9 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter Coaxial Capacitance 252 252 253 253 254 255 255 256 256 257 18.5 Engineering Notation 18.8 18. Formulas and Constants 18.3 Resistance.4 Series and Parallel Connections 18.18.

73 x V IxV 1. in.73 x V x cos q x Eff. Formulas and Constants 18.73 x I x V x cos q x Eff. = Efficiency of motor I= Current (amperes) kw = Kilowatts kVA = Kilovolt–amperes hp = Horsepower 18. x 3.000 IxV 1.000 V Direct Current cos q = Power factor of load (pf) V = Volts between conductors Eff.000 I x V x Eff.000 1.1–Electrical Properties of Circuits Alternating Current Desired Data Kilowatts (kw) Kilovolt–amperes (kVA) Horsepower output Amperes (I) when horsepower is known Amperes (I) when kilowatts are known Amperes (I) when kilovolt-amperes are known Single Phase I x V x cos q 1.18. kw x 1.000 1.000 1.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors The resistance and weight of any uncoated copper wire at 20°C (68°F) having a conductivity of 100 percent IACS may be calculated from the following formulas: ohms per 1.176 Cross-sectional area in cmils Area in sq.000 1. kw x 1.73 x V x cos q kVA x 1. 746 hp x 746 V x Eff.09 or area in cmils x 0.000 V Three Phase 1. 10371.000 feet = pounds per 1.73 x I x V 1.000 V kVA x 1. kw x 1.854.000 IxV 1.000 V x cos q kVA x 1. in.73 x I x V x cos q 1. 746 hp x 746 1.000 feet = 0.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits Table 18.000 I x V x cos q x Eff.0030269 252 .0081455 or Cross-sectional area in sq. 746 hp x 746 V x cos q x Eff.

Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits Table 18. Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits If Circuit Contains Resistance (R) Only Inductance (L) Only Capacitance (C) Only Resistance and Inductance in Series (R and L) Resistance and Capacitance in Series (R and C) Resistance.18.4 Series and Parallel Connections Table 18.3 Resistance. Inductance and Capacitance in Series (R.2–Resistance.1416 f = Frequency in cycles per second 18. L and C) Reactance O 2pfL 1 2pfC 2pfL 2 Impedance R 2pfL 1 2pfC “V” for Current “I” IR I2pfL I 2 Power Factor 1 O O 1 2pfC 2 2 2  R + (2pfL) R2 + 1 2pfL I 2  R + (2pfL) R2 +  R + (2pfL) 2 R 2 1 2pfC  x c x 1 2pfL – 2pfC 2 I  x c  x c 1 2pfL R + 2 R 1 2pfL 2 2pfL – 1 2pfC c  x 2 R + 2pfL – 1 2pfC c x 2 R 1 2pfC R2 + 2pfL – c 2 V = Voltage in volts R = Resistance in ohms I= Current in amperes C = Capacitance in farads L = Inductance in henries p = 3.3–Series and Parallel Connections Resistance (R) Series R=R +R +R +… 1 2 3 1=1+1+1+ R R1 R2 R3 … Inductance (L) L = L1 + L2 + L3 + … 1=1+1+1+ L L1 L2 L3 … Capacitance (C) 1=1+1+1+ C C1 C2 C3 … C=C +C +C +… 1 2 3 Parallel 253 . Formulas and Constants 18.

000 1.1416  2 = 1.000 1. less than $ greater than or equal to 254 .000 100 10 0.001 0.01 0.000.000.000.18.7854 1/C = one conductor 3/C = three conductor .7183 p = 3.000000000001 0.000.1 0.4142  3 = 1.4–Engineering Notation Multiplying Factor Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Symbol T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a Scientific 10 12 Conventional 1.000001 0.5–Engineering Notation Engineering Notation e = 2.5 Engineering Notation Table 18.000.000 1.7321 p/4 = 0.000000000000000001 109 106 10 10 3 102 1 10-1 10 -2 10-3 10-6 10 10 -9 10-12 -15 10-18 Table 18.000000000000001 0. greater than # less than or equal to . Formulas and Constants 18.000000001 0.000.

7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices The following factors permit the calculation of the maximum size conductor that will fit into the interstices (open spaces) of various conductor configurations.000 3.667 0.414 0.6–Diameter of Multiconductor Cables Number of Conductors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Factor 1.310 3.7–Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices Number of Conductors 2 3 4 5 6 Factor 0.610 18.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables To calculate the overall diameter of a group of round conductors of uniform diameters twisted together.000 3.18.483 0.700 3.354 255 . Multiply the diameter of one main conductor by the factor from the chart below to obtain the largest diameter that will fit into the interstices. Formulas and Constants 18. Table 18. multipy the diameter of an individual conductor by the applicable factor below.000 2.155 2. while keeping within a circumscribing circle. Table 18.000 2.414 2.377 0.

18.000 7.8–Concentric Stranded Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter Number of Wires in Conductor 3 7 12 19 37 61 91 127 169 217 271 Factor to Calculate Conductor Diameter 2.00 13.155 3. multiply the diameter of an individual wire by the applicable factor below: Table 18. C2 is capacitance in microfarads per kilometer e is the dielectric constant D is diameter over the insulation d is diameter under the insulation 256 .000 11.000 4.00 15.9 Coaxial Capacitance C= 7.0556e Ln d Ln d xDc xDc Where: C1 is capacitance in microfarads per 1.0169e or C = 1 0.00 19. of Wires 18.354e Log10 (1 + 2t /d) C e t d Where: is capacitance in picofarads per foot is the dielectric constant (also known as SIC) is insulation thickness in mils is diameter over the conductor (diameter under the insulation) in mils C = 2 Other forms of this equation include: 0.00 17.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter To calculate the nominal diameter of any concentric-lay-stranded conductor made from round wires of uniform diameters.332 x No.00 For a greater number of wires use the formula: Conductor Diameter = Wire Diameter x 1. Formulas and Constants 18.000 9.155 5.000 ft.

concentric stranded conductors.386d for a 61-wire strand where “d” is the diameter of the conductor.18. L GMR or X = 0.000 ft. GMD is equal to the center-to-center spacing.363d for a 7-wire strand up to 0.10 Inductive Reactance The inductive reactance of a shielded three-conductor medium-voltage power cable at 60 Hz can be calculated with the following formulas: X = 0. Formulas and Constants 18.023 Ln ( GMD ) ohms/1. 257 . For round.0754 Ln ( GMD ) ohms/km L GMR Where: GMD = geometric mean distance (equivalent conductor spacing) GMR = geometric mean radius of conductor For conductors in a triplexed configuration. GMR ranges from 0.

258 .

Glossary GLOSSARY 259 .

4–20 mA—A common analog process control signal current range. AEIC—Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. steel reinforced. Contains a ceramic strength member to reduce sag at high temperatures (up to 210°C). AGC—Automatic gain control. ACSR/AW—Aluminum conductor. steel reinforced using Class B zinc-coated ACSR/GC—Aluminum conductor. A type of cable sheath consisting of interlocked pieces of aluminum armor. ACSR/AZ—Aluminum conductor. AL—Aluminum ALLOY—A substance (usually metallic) composed of two or more ALS—Aluminum sheathed. steel wire. signals to digital signals. tape armor. converting it into heat. using Class C zinc-coated steel wire. b) power loss. AMBIENT—Conditions existing at a location prior to energizing of equipment (example: ambient temperature). A A—Common abbreviation for ampere (see AMPERE). ADHESIVE-BONDED—Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components. steel reinforced using aluminum clad steel wire. AC—(1) Alternating current. aluminum-reinforced cable. ABRASION RESISTANCE—Ability of a material to resist surface wear. Used in overhead transmission and distribution. AIA—Aluminum interlocked armor. See ELFEXT. steel reinforced. ACSS—Aluminum conductor steel supported. A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous. AGING—The irreversible change of material properties after exposure to an environment for an interval of time. composite reinforced aerial cable. A or B. AFCI—Arc fault circuit interrupter. Alternating current is generally abbreviated AC. Communications cable specification.) of airborne equipment. A bare composite of aluminum and steel wires. AB SWITCH—A coaxial cable switch capable of switching one cable to one of two branch cables. closely fitting aluminum tube. AIR SPACED COAX—A coaxial cable in which air is basically the dielectric material. steel reinforced using Class A zinc-coated ACSR/GB—Aluminum conductor. Absorption results from impurities and defects in the glass structure. See BONDED CABLE. ADDRESS—The digital location of a terminal. The conductor may be centered by means of a spirally wound synthetic filament. etc. AAR—American Association of Railroads. AMPACITY—The rms current that a device can safely carry within specified temperature limitations in a specified environment: dependent upon a) temperature rating. fuels. ACRF—Attenuation to crosstalk ratio far-end. A method of adding information to an electronic signal where the amplitude of the wave is changed to convey the added information. ACSR—Aluminum conductor. individual substances. solvents. or process control system. a peripheral device. steel wire. A feedback circuit that automatically adjusts the system gain. or any other unit or component in a network. A special high-strength aluminum alloy. steel reinforced using aluminum coated steel wire. ALTERNATING CURRENT—Electric current that periodically reverses direction. ACCELERATED LIFE TEST—A test in which a cable is subjected to extreme conditions to determine the life of a cable. Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance. AIR CORE CABLE—A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled AIRCRAFT WIRE—An electrical wire primarily designed for the extreme conditions (temperature. AF—Audio frequency. This transmission line has fully annealed A/D CONVERTER–ANALOG/DIGITAL—An circuit device that converts analog 260 . ABSORPTION—Physical phenomenon that attenuates light traveling in fibers by ADMITTANCE—A measure of how easily alternating current flows in a circuit. and d) applicable codes. altitude. AM—Amplitude modulation. a node. thereby raising the fiber’s temperature. Listed type in the Canadian Electric Code. c) heat dissipation. usually aluminum around steel. with a moisture barrier. AERIAL CABLE—A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure. beads or braided filaments. AAAC—All-aluminum alloy conductor. ACCR—Aluminum conductor. A protective device that detects arcing and breaks the circuit to protect the load when arcing is detected. (2) A UL cable type (armored cable) with flexible metal ACAR—Aluminum conductor. aluminum for better sag and high-temperature performance than ACSR. then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable.Glossary # 0–10 V—A common analog process control signal voltage range. ACSR/GA—Aluminum conductor. This construction is also referred to as an air dielectric. It is expressed in mhos. Electric energy industry association.

such as metal or glass. sometimes twisted pair or triplexed for open wiring of bell circuits and other low-voltage systems. connecting equipment rooms or communications closets. The interface between the Ethernet/IEEE 802. ASME—The American Society of Mechanical Engineering. ATTENUATION CONSTANT—A rating for a cable or other transmitting medium. circuitry or free air. (2) Electromagnet: the member which is moved by magnetic force. ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials. AMPERE-TURN—The product of amperes times the number of turns in a coil. while improving its flex life. AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM)—A method of adding information ANALOG—A continuously varying waveform that has not been digitized. such as a cable. A common wire diameter specification. BACKFILL—The materials used to fill an excavation. ANTENNA ROTOR CABLE—Multiconductor flat or round cable used to supply power to a motorized antenna and control wires for changing direction of rotation. An ampere of current is flowing when one coulomb of charge is passing a point every second. and utilities charge extra for loads that require large amounts of reactive power. UL 758 is the AWM standard. An organization that sets standards on various material tests for industry. AMPLITUDE—The peak value of a electrical signal.Glossary AMPERE—A standard unit of current. may be a formed metal tube (CCW) or a helical wrap of wires. AUDIO FREQUENCY—The range of frequencies audible to the human ear. A UL 758 designation for a type of wire. layers around a core. which is the relative rate of amplitude decrease of voltage or current in the direction of travel. For this reason. parallel twin lead construction. Kevlar is a brand name of aramid fiber. plastic jacketed with fixed 300-ohm impedance for connecting a remote antenna to a receiver. formed so each convolution locks mechanically upon the previous one (interlocked armor). 261 . ARAMID YARN—Strength elements that provide tensile strength. ASKAREL—Synthetic insulating oil that is nonflammable but very toxic. This also generally lowers the tensile strength of the material. support and ARC RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to resist the action of a high-voltage electrical arc. Wiring must be sized to handle the apparent power. It is measured in decibels per unit length of cable. organization that publishes nationally recognized standards. ARRHENIUS PLOT—A statistical method used to predict time-to-failure. based on ASCII—American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. conductor of the pair are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity with respect to ground.3 controller and the baseband transceiver or broadband modem. B BACKBONE—The main portion of network cabling.000 Hz. usually stated in terms of the time required to render the material electrically conductive. Usually AUI—Attachment unit interface. a not-for-profit professional organization. These cables often have the largest number of fibers and/or the longest continuous cable runs. usually a helical winding of metal tape. APPARENT POWER—The product of the voltage and amperage (VA) in a system. Designated as the amount of current that flows when one volt of EMF (electromotive force) is applied across one ohm of resistance. AMPLIFIER—A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal. It has been replaced by silicone oils. 20–20. AWM—Appliance Wiring Material. ANSI (American National Standards Institute)—A not-for-profit ATTENUATION—The decrease in magnitude of a signal as it travels through any transmitting medium. to an electronic signal where the amplitude of the wave is changed to convey the added information. One method for generating this plot is given in IEEE Standard 101. Also used to describe devices that are designed to operate within this range. a device’s performance at different temperatures. ANTIOXIDANT—Retards or prevents degradation of materials exposed to APPLIANCE WIRING MATERIALS (AWM)—A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment. ANNEAL—To soften and relieve strains in any solid material. BALANCED CIRCUIT—A circuit so arranged that the impressed voltages on each additional protection for fiber bundles. such as sand in a trench. ANNEALED WIRE—See SOFT WIRE. AWM comes in many different styles. ANTENNA LEAD-IN WIRE—Not coaxial. A seven bit plus parity code established by the American National Standards Institute to achieve compatibility among data services and consisting of 96 displayed upper and lower case characters and 32 hidden control codes. Attenuation is measured as a ratio or as the logarithm of a ratio (decibel). by heating to just below its melting point and then slowly cooling it. instead drawing from the capacitors and presenting a less reactive load to the grid. ARMOR-X—Southwire’s trademark for CCW aluminum armor. ANNUNCIATOR WIRE—Usually single solid copper. oxygen (air). ANNULAR CONDUCTOR—A number of wires stranded in reversed concentric ARMATURE—(1) Rotating machinery: the member in which alternating voltage is generated. ARMOR—Mechanical protector for cables. large industrial loads are often power factor corrected using large capacitors to prevent drawing the reactive power needed from the utility distribution system. AUDIO—A term used to describe sounds within the range of human hearing. AWG—American Wire Gauge.

BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE—The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down and becomes conductive. BEDDING—A layer of material applied to a cable immediately below the armoring. jacketing or insulation. Transformers are usually employed to boost AC voltages. BIT—Abbreviation for binary digit. BARE CONDUCTOR—A conductor having no insulation or jacket. generators are also used to raise the level of a DC line. BALLAST—A device designed to stabilize current flow. BREAKING STRENGTH—The maximum force that a conductor can withstand when tested under tension to rupture. BINDER—A tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place. (2) A form placed around the wire termination of a multicontact connector to contain the liquid potting compound before it hardens. Also. BIMETALLIC WIRE—A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). curvature of a bent wire or cable. BONDED CONSTRUCTION—An insulation construction in which the glass braid and nylon jacket are bonded together. BITS PER SECOND (bps)—The number of bits of data transmitted through a digital process control cable in one second. or groups of wires with nonferrous filler metal at temperatures above 800°F (427°C). BIL—Basic impulse level. The ratio of received bits that are in error. Type BORE HOLE CABLE—Power and/or communications cable suspended down a vertically drilled hole to equipment underground. BELDFOIL—Belden trademark for a highly effective electrostatic shield using BELT—Layers of insulation on a conductor. BNC—Common connector for coax. Also refers to the connectors and straps used to ground equipment. main cable. half the diameter of a drum around which a wire is wound. Boosting reinforced metallic foil. BASEBAND LAN—A local area network employing baseband signaling. The carrier revolves during braiding operations. The term booster is also applied to antenna preamplifiers. Used extensively in automobiles and aircraft to prevent static buildup. regular intervals for identification. It can include wire with a steel core. BELTED-TYPE CABLE—Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. BRAZING—The joining of ends of two wires. BONDING—The method used to produce good electrical contact between metallic parts of any device.Glossary BALANCED LINE—A cable having two identical conductors with the same electromagnetic characteristics in relation to other conductors and to ground. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid. BRAID—Textile or metallic filaments interwoven to form a tubular structure that may be applied over one or more wires or flattened to form a strap. wire or connector in addition to the normal BORDER LIGHT CABLE—Same as stage cable but more than two conductors. relative to a specific number of bits received. The crest value of a lightning impulse voltage of a specified wave shape that a high-voltage cable or termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. SO cable is often used. BER—Bit error rate. BINDING POST—A device for clamping or holding electrical conductors in a rigid position. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers. BOOT—(1) Protective coating over a cable. or hertz). BAND MARKING—A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at BANDWIDTH—The width of a communications channel. or layers of jacket on a cable. BOOSTER—A device inserted into a line (or cable) to increase the voltage. BONDED CABLE—Cable consisting of preinsulated conductors or multiconductor components laid in parallel and bonded into a flat cable. A unit of information equal to one binary decision BREAKDOWN (PUNCTURE)—A disruptive discharge through insulation. BRAID ENDS—The number of strands used to make up one carrier. axis of the cable being shielded. measured as frequency (in cycles per second. BRAIDING MACHINE—Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to BRANCH JOINT—A cable joint used for connecting one or more cables to a produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. or the designation of one of two possible and equally likely states (such as 1 and 0) of anything used to store or convey information. BEND LOSS—A form of increased attenuation caused by (a) having an optical fiber curved around a restrictive radius of curvature or (b) micro bends caused by minute distortions in the fiber imposed by externally induced perturbations. The manufacturer or industry standards specify the minimum bending radius for a cable. plated or coated wire. BIRDCAGE—The undesirable unwinding of a stranded cable. usually expressed as a number referenced to a negative power of 10. BARREL-PACKED—Method of coiling wire into a drum for shipment. BENDING RADIUS—The radius of a circle that can be tightly fitted into the inside BRAID ANGLE—The smaller of the angles formed by the shielding strand and the BRAID CARRIER—A spool or bobbin on a braiding machine that holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. A channel’s bandwidth is a major factor in determining how much information it can carry. rods. BASEBAND—A signaling technique in which the signal is transmitted in its original form and not changed by modulation. 262 . BNC is said to be an abbreviation for BayonetNeill-Concelman.

BROADBAND LAN—LAN that uses FDM (frequency division multiplexing) to divide C C—Symbol for capacitance and Celsius. BRIDGE—A circuit that measures by balancing four impedances through which the same current flows: • Wheatstone measures resistance • Kelvin measures low resistance • Schering measures capacitance. For coaxial cable. CABLE CORE—The portion of an insulated cable lying under a protective covering. In some designs. CABLE ASSEMBLY—A cable assembly is a cable with plugs or connectors on each end for a specific purpose. such as types RHH. an 8-bit quantity of information. BRITISH STANDARD WIRE GAUGE—A modification of the Birmingham Wire data transfer. 263 . used mainly in referring to parallel BRIDGED TAP—Multiple appearances of the same cable pair at several distribution points (e. The cable attenuation is a function of frequency. semiconductor capacity and data storage. It may be formed in various configurations. CABLE—A cable may be a small number of large conductors or a large number BROADCAST—The act of sending a signal to all possible receivers in a system. CABLE CORE BINDER—A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a CABLE FILLER—The material used in multiple-conductor cables to occupy the interstices formed by the assembly of the insulated conductors. CABLE. New British Standard (NBS). also generally referred to in data communications as an octet or character. dielectric constant • Wien measures capacitance. Also known as Standard Wire Gauge (SWG). now known as SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber). was known as GR-S. BUOYANT CABLE—Originally military type MIL-C-2401 with built-in floatation CABLE JOINT—A completely insulated splice. CABLE CLAMP ADAPTER—A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp. Also called “direct burial cable. twisted in the same direction without regard for geometrical arrangement. BUTT SPLICE—A splice wherein two wire ends butt against each other. nitrogen and oil are the most common fluids. Many power and communications applications using numerous types and sizes have been developed using buoyancy. usually color coded and with a protective overall jacket. BUNCH STRAND—A conductor arrangement in which all individual wires are BUNCHER—A machine that twists wires together in a random arrangement. English Legal Standard and Imperial Wire Guide. of small conductors cabled together. PRESSURIZED—A cable having a pressurized fluid (gas or oil) as part of the insulation. BUTYL RUBBER—Synthetic rubber formerly used for electrical insulating purposes. Cable losses are usually calculated for the highest frequency carried on the cable. in the center of a splice. Gauge and the legal standard of Great Britain for all wires. crush-resistant polymer tube applied over optical fibers BUILDING WIRE—Commercial wires used in the building trades because they are independently tested and listed in the National Electric Code. multiple-conductor cable used to hold them together. CABLE LOSS—The amount of RF (radio frequency) signal attenuated by coaxial cable transmission. or against a stop. The different channels created by FDM can be used to transfer different forms of information: voice. BUFFER TUBE—A loose. BX—A common type of armored building wire rated 600 volts. contained within a single protective covering or housing. dissipation factor BUSHING—A mechanical device used as a lining for an opening to prevent abrasion to wire and cable. a single physical channel into a number of smaller independent frequency channels. media type and cable length. thus forming a cable core. CABLE CLAMP—A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle. ability. BYTE—Generally.” BUS—A network topology in which a signal line is shared by a number of nodes using rules to control traffic on the bus. BURIED CABLE—A cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground conduit. BUNA—A synthetic rubber insulation of styrene butadiene. BUTT WRAP—Tape wrapped around an object or conductor in an edge-to-edge condition. B and S—Brown and Sharpe wire gauge—same as AWG. or group of insulated splices. to provide mechanical protection. BUFFER—A protective coating in intimate contact with an optical fiber.g. BSL (Basic Switching impulse insulation Level)—The crest value of a switching impulse voltage of a specified wave shape in which a high-voltage cable termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. THW and THHN wire. data and video.. higher frequencies have greater loss than lower frequencies and follow a logarithmic function.Glossary BREAKOUT—The point at which a conductor or group of conductors breaks out from a multiconductor cable to complete circuits at various points along the main cable. BELTED—A multiconductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. RHW. a telephone party line). dissipation factor. BUS-BAR WIRE—Uninsulated tinned copper wire used as a common lead. CABLE. the insulating material may also serve as the protective covering.

I. MUTUAL—The capacitance between two conductors (typically of a pair) with all other conductors. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE—An electrical characteristic of transmission lines.g. individual closed cells of inert gas suspended in a polyethylene medium. line. short circuited to ground. converting upstream (toward the head-end) signals into downstream signals (away from the head-end). Previously manufactured by E. dielectrics that permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. Tests are normally conducted by the quality control department and show that the product being shipped meets the required test specifications. over a conductor. Also called received line signal detector (RLSD) and data carrier detect (DCD). transmit television or other signals to subscribers from a single head-end location. C is named after CAD—Computer-aided design. DIRECT—The capacitance measured from one conductor to another conductor through a single insulating layer. (2) The positive pole of a storage battery. tube. metal to be protected the cathode in a direct current circuit. resulting in a desirable reduction of dielectric constant. employed as a braid. An RS-232 control signal (on Pin 8) that indicates that the local CENELEC—Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique. CATV—Community Antenna Television. spool.. CIC CABLE—Circuit Integrity in Conduit cable. CELLULAR POLYETHYLENE—Expanded or “foam” polyethylene. or bobbin (on a braiding machine) containing yarn or wire. FPLP-CI. CCW—Continuously corrugated and welded. in a broadband LAN) used to transmit one information signal at a time. CERTIFIED TEST REPORT (CTR)—A report reflecting actual test data on the CAPACITANCE. It is measured in ohms and is equal to 1/(2 p f C) where f is the frequency in Hz and C is the capacitance in farads. A type of cable armor. distribution and house drops. An optional rating for UL Listed cable types that meet the two-hour fire survival requirements of UL Standard 2196. CHEMICAL STRIPPING—Removal of insulation by chemical means. One of the European Union’s key electrical standards bodies. CAM—Computer-aided manufacture. cable or circuit. When terminated in its characteristic impedance. modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. C CONDITIONING—A type of line conditioning that controls attenuation. consisting of CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE—A written statement normally generated by a quality control department that states that the product being shipped meets a particular specification. conductor. CAPACITANCE. UNBALANCED-TO-GROUND—An inequality of capacitance between the ground capacitance of the conductors of a pair. CAPACITANCE. CAPACITANCE—Capacitance is that property of a system of conductors and CCTV—Closed-circuit television. capacitance of a capacitor. CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSP)—A rubbery polymer used for CI CABLE—Circuit Integrity cable. e. CHANNEL—(1) A path for electrical transmission. link or path. Carl Concelman. UNBALANCED—An inequality of capacitance between the wires of two or more pairs that result in a transfer of unwanted signal from one pair to others. element of a braid consisting of one or more ends (strands) which creates the interlaced effect. Also called a circuit facility. CHANNEL TRANSLATOR—Device used in broadband LANs to increase carrier frequency. DuPont under the trade name of Hypalon. cable shipped. CAPACITIVE REACTANCE—The opposition to alternating current due to the CAPACITOR—Two conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric material. CARRIER—(1) An AC electrical signal that is used to carry information. usually from power transmission lines. which results in a pickup of external noise energy. CFR—Code of Federal Regulations. CAPACITIVE COUPLING—Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the potential difference between them. CD—Carrier detect. reflections from the end of a line are minimized. Refers to the use of a coaxial or fiber cable to CATV CABLE—General term for all cables used for community antenna TV service CB—Citizens band. and feeders. (2) The woven CATHODE—(1) The negative electrode through which current leaves a nonmetallic CATHODIC PROTECTION—Reduction or prevention of corrosion by making the insulations and jackets. including shield. type of dielectric and spacing between the conducting surfaces. One of the services often found on broadband networks. (2) A specific and discrete bandwidth allocation in the radio frequency spectrum (for example. capacitance is determined by the area of the surface. A generic term for cables that meet CIGARETTE WRAP—Tape insulation wrapped longitudinally instead of spirally the two-hour fire survival requirements of UL Standard 2196 when installed in metallic conduit per UL category FHIT. such as an electrolytic cell.Glossary CABLE SHEATH—The protective covering applied to cables. CABLING—The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled (or twisted together). CABLE SUPPORT—A device to mount a cable on a supporting member. The CAPILLARY ACTION—Movement of a liquid along a small interstice due to surface tension. (3) A spindle. CAPACITANCE. distortion and delay distortion to within specific limits. 264 . C CONNECTOR—A bayonet-locking connector for coax. A type of two-way radio communication.

265 . CONCENTRICITY—The measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the circular insulation. By grounding at either end rather than both ends (usually grounded at source) one can reduce this interference. clad. COMPRESSED STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A conventional concentric COATED WIRE—Any metal covered by a relatively thin coating of a different metal COAXIAL CABLE—A cylindrical transmission line comprised of a conductor COHERENT SOURCE—A fiber optic light source that emits a very narrow. a twisting of all conductors about a “common axis” to result in smaller diameter constructions. but more expensive than open cell material. drawing or other means. coaxials. separated by a dielectric material and usually covered by an insulating jacket. as a central wire.e. CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid wires. The ratio of the current flow to the potential difference causing the flow. The wire specimen is then wound around a mandrel after which it is examined for cracks or other defects caused by bending at low temperatures. direction of lay being reversed in successive layers. especially at low temperatures. COMPOSITE (CLAD) WIRE—A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer COMPOSITE CONDUCTOR—A conductor consisting of two or more types of wire. ideally creating a cold weld. COMPOSITE CABLE—A cable containing more than one gauge size or a variety of circuit types. EQUILAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically-laid wires. or coated-stranded together to operate mechanically and electrically as a single conductor. e. CONDUCTOR—A material suitable for carrying an electric current. around which are laid one or more helical layers of such members. each type of wire being plain. such as tin. such as copperweld (copper over steel) or alum-o-weld (aluminum over steel).. above audio frequencies. CLAD WIRE—Different from coated wire. CONDUCTIVITY—Capacity of a material to carry electrical current–usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100 percent). (not due to heat softening). triples. all layers having a common length of lay. are as follows: COLD BEND—Generally refers to a test to determine cable or wire characteristics COLD-DRAWING—Reducing the cross section by pulling through a die or dies. often at high speeds in line with insulating equipment. COIL EFFECT—The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral wrapped shield. The reciprocal of resistance. usually filled with air. CIRCULAR MIL (CM)—A term universally used to define cross-sectional areas of conductors.Glossary CIRCUIT SWITCHING—A switching technique in which an information path (i. centered inside a metallic tube or shield. PARALLEL CORE CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central core of parallel-laid wires surrounded by one layer of helically-laid wires. CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR—A layer of uninsulated wires twisted around a central wire with subsequent layers spirally wrapped around the inner layers to form a single conductor. Generally harder. better insulating. See COATED WIRE. approximately 8 to 10 percent below the nominal diameter of a noncompact conductor of the same crosssectional area. The direction of lay is reversed in successive layers and generally with an increase in length of lay for successive layers. COLD FLOW—Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical pressure COLOR CODE—A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors. tracers. at a temperature lower than the recrystallization temperature. surface printing. etc. etc. CONDUCTANCE—The ability of a conductor to carry an electric charge. the size of a wire increases. conductor manufactured to a diameter not more than 3 percent below the nominal diameter of a noncompressed conductor of the same cross-sectional area. COMPACT STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A unidirectional or conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a specified diameter. circuit) between calling and receiving stations is established on demand for exclusive use by the connected parties until the connection is released. zinc or other alloy by a dip bath and wipe process. COMBINATION STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A conventional concentric conductor in which the wires in the outer layer are larger in diameter than the wires in the inner layer or layers and the diameters of all wires are within plus and minus 5 percent of the nominal wire diameter for the same size noncombination stranded conductor. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed of a bunch-stranded or a concentric-stranded member or members.. See TINNED WIRE. unidirectional beam of light of one wavelength (monochromatic). COMMON MODE NOISE—Noise caused by a difference in ground potential. As the number of circular mils increase. COMMON AXIS CABLING—In multiconductor constructions. CLOSED CELL—Foamed or cellular material with intact cell walls. CIRCUIT TRACING—Locating or identifying a specific conductive path. quads. The test specimen is cooled in a low-temperature box to a specified temperature. COMPRESSION LUG OR SPLICE—A connection installed by compressing the connector onto the strand. pairs. It is an area equal to the area of a circle 1/1000 of an inch in diameter. Several types COMPACT ROUND CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more preshaped (nonround) helically-laid wires and formed into final shape by rolling. CONVENTIONAL CONCENTRIC CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid wires. braids.g. clad wire is any metal covered with a relatively heavy coating of different metal. shell of a different metal. Tends to result in greater susceptibility to electromagnetic and electrostatic interference.

” being coupled into an adjacent circuit. Conductors are sometimes spliced without connectors. or welding. (cross-linking) of wire insulating and jacketing materials. brazing. CSA (CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION)—Standards body for Canada. all layers having a common length and direction of lay. CRT is commonly used as a synonym for the CRT terminal. The term is loosely used to also include coupling at higher frequencies. CONNECTOR—A metallic device of suitable electric conductance and mechanical strength. CONTINUOUS VULCANIZATION—Simultaneous extrusion and vulcanization CONTRAHELICAL—Wire strands spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable. COUPLING—The transfer of energy between two or more cables or components COUPLING LOSS—Signal losses in an optical fiber due to small differences in numerical aperture. of a circuit. caused by a flow of current in the coil. sheath or armor. CPE—Chlorinated polyethylene. used to splice the ends of two or more cable conductors. CRT WIRE—High-voltage lead wire for energizing cathode-ray tubes. the diameter of the engagement end of the pin. similar to UL in the United States. also known as back EMF. shield. COPPERWELD—Trademark of Copperweld Steel Co. sometimes called Extruded Strand Shield (ESS). (2) In fiber optics. CORD SET—Portable cords fitted with a connector at one or both ends. CROSS-LINKED—Intermolecular bonds created between long-chain thermoplastic polymers by chemical or electron bombardment means. with increase in length of lay for each successive layer. the greater the protection against external interference. Also. CROSSTALK—A type of interference caused by audio frequencies from one circuit different monomers. DELTA—Interconnection of three electrical equipment windings in a DELTA (triangular) configuration. a component or assembly of components over which other UNILAY CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded materials are applied. Also referred to as “XLP” or “XLPE. by more than one layer of helically-laid wires. CONTACT SIZE—The largest size wire that can be used with the specific contact. The properties of the resulting thermosetting material are usually improved. Numerous methods of application are used. Synonymous with Copperweld. CORE—(1) In cables. of wires or members are laid helically to form a concentric-lay or rope-lay conductor. The higher percentage of coverage. CORD—A flexible insulated cable. dependent upon resistance of the soil at the tower base. the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections. Also known as splicing loss and transfer loss. Also referred to as CV cured. A television-like picture tube used in terminals. COVERAGE—The calculated percentage that defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. CONTROL CABLE—A cable used for remote control operation of any type of electrical power equipment. COPPER-CLAD STEEL—Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. core concentricity and tolerances in connectors when two fibers are spliced together. CONDUCTOR CORE—The center strand or member about which one or more layers CONDUCTOR SHIELD—A conducting layer applied to make the conductor a CORONA—A discharge due to ionization of the air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value.Glossary UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR—A conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically-laid wires. CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE—A dielectric material used for insulating and jacketing. CONTROLLED IMPEDANCE CABLE—A package of two or more insulated COPOLYMER—A compound resulting from the polymerization of two conductors where impedance measurements between respective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length. Buried counterpoise wire is connected to overhead ground wires and towers. COUNTERPOISE WIRE—Bare copper wire used to offset the impact of lightning surges along high-voltage overhead lines and around the base of towers. CONDUIT—A tube or trough for protecting electrical wires or cables. COULOMB—The derived SI unit for quantity of electricity or electrical charge: smooth surface in intimate contact with the insulation. CORONA RESISTANCE—The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of ionization that does not result in the complete breakdown of the insulation. CORROSION—The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction. CONNECTION. core diameter. WYE—Interconnection of three electrical equipment windings in WYE (star) configuration. Also referred to one coulomb equals one ampere-second. or as a terminal connector on a single conductor. CONNECTION. all layers having a common direction of lay. Connectors usually fall into one of the following types: • Solder • Welded • Mechanical • Compression or indent CONTACT—The part of a connector that carries the electrical current. by soldering. 266 . such as additional components. COUNTER EMF—The voltage opposing the applied voltage and the current in a coil. CRT—Cathode-ray tube. A jacketing compound sold by Dow Chemical under the trademark Tyrin. for copper-clad steel conductor. See PARTIAL DISCHARGE. as raceway. CONTINUITY CHECK—A test performed on a length of finished wire or cable to determine if an electrical current flows.

electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient. CURE—To change the properties of a polymeric material into a more stable. DIRECT (DC)—Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only. dBmV—Decibel millivolt. DETECTOR—A fiber optic device that picks up light from the fiber and converts the information into an electrical signal. It is expressed as a ratio. DecaBDE—Decabromodiphenyl ether. DELAY SKEW—The difference between the propagation delay of any two pairs CURRENT. of an alternating electric current. (2) The load integrated over a specified time interval. DCL—Data carrier level. while that for polyethylene is 2. The number of cycles in a given unit of time (generally a second) is called the frequency of the current. CHARGING—The current needed to bring the cable up to voltage. to a change in frequency. it expresses either a gain or loss in power between the input and output devices. The level at any point in a system expressed in dBs above or below a 1 millivolt/75 ohm standard is said to be the level in decibel-millivolts or dBmV. Normally the failure of an insulation because of excessive voltage. DC RESISTANCE—See RESISTANCE. radiation or reaction with chemical additives. A cable marking that indicates a cable is suitable for use in a cable tray. (see CURRENT. DERATING FACTOR—A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established. CURING CYCLE—The time. 267 . CSPE—A jacketing compound based on DuPont’s chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon).) DCE—Data communications equipment. usable condition by the use of heat. text. When referring to a single signal measured at two places in a transmission system. CURL—The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. images and video. within the same cable sheath. It may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction. A type of brominated flame retardant sometimes used in wire and cable and other products. DIELECTRIC—An insulating (nonconducting) medium. DEMAND—(1) The measure of the maximum load of a utility’s customer over a short period of time. DIELECTRIC LOSS—The power dissipated in a dielectric as the result of the friction produced by molecular motion when an alternating electric field is applied. Same as ampacity. DAC—Digital to analog converter. temperature and pressure required for curing.Glossary CSA Certified—A product that has been tested and found to comply with applicable Canadian standards. CYCLE—The complete sequence. DIRECT. DIELECTRIC DISPERSION—The change in relative capacitance due analog output signal carrying equivalent information. dB—Decibel. caused by internal losses during the rapid polarization reversal of molecules in the material. Delay skew is caused primarily because twisted pairs are designed to have different twists per foot (lay lengths). CT—Cable Tray. A type of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE). CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY—The maximum current an insulated conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations.3. from NEC Article 392. “K” for air is 1. CURRENT. The standard unit used to express the relative strength of two signals. ALTERNATING (AC)—An electric current that periodically reverses direction of electron flow. A device that converts a digital input signal to an DATA—Digitally represented information including voice. Zero dBmV is equal to 1 millivolt across an impedance of 75 ohms. CURRENT—The rate of transfer of electricity. synonymous with modem. Usually in units of amperes/square meter. The charging current will be 90° out of phase with the voltage. In common usage. determined by the capacitance of the cable. CURRENT. CURRENT DENSITY—The current per cross sectional area. CUT-THROUGH RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure without damage. An insulation and jacketing curing process. including reversal of the flow. DCS—Distributed control system. the capacitance of polyethylene is 2.0. Therefore. The unit of current is the ampere. It is also referred to as specific inductive capacity or permittivity.3 times that of air. the equipment that provides the functions required to establish. a rate of one coulomb/second. maintain and terminate a connection as well as the signal conversion required for communications between the DTE and the telephone line or data circuit. Delay skew could cause data transmitted over one channel to arrive out of sync with data over another channel. Sometimes abbreviated CSP. A type of industrial automation system in which the processors are distributed in various locations though out the facility. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT—The property of an insulation which determines the D D/A—Digital to analog. CV—Continuous vulcanization. DIELECTRIC HEATING—The heating of an insulating material when placed in a radio-frequency field. DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN—Any change in the properties of a dielectric that causes it to become conductive. DC—Direct current.

Halar is a Solvay Solexis trademark for this material. to a dwelling. DROP CABLE—In a CATV system. An RS-232 modem interface control signal (sent from the DUAL CABLE—A two-cable system in broadband LANs in which coaxial cables provides two physical paths for transmission. ECCENTRICITY—Like concentricity. instead of dividing the capacity of a single cable. a measure of the center of a conductor’s (root-mean-square) value of an alternating voltage. one for transmit and one for receive. DISTRIBUTION CABLE—(1) In a CATV system. discontinuous in time. DIP COATING—An insulating coating applied to the conductor by passing the conductor through an applicator containing liquid insulating medium. ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING—The transfer of energy by means of a varying 268 . EDDY CURRENT—Circulating currents induced in conducting materials by varying magnetic fields. Usually used to represent direct voltage or the effective EARTH—British terminology for zero-reference ground. techniques and equipment by which information is encoded as either a binary “1” or “0”. DOWNLOAD—The process of loading software into the nodes of a network from one node or device over the network media. the transmission cable from the distribution cable DSR—Data Set Ready. the representation of information in discrete binary form. DTR—Data terminal ready. DISSIPATION FACTOR—Energy lost when voltage is applied across an insulation. DUCT—An underground or overhead tube for carrying electrical conductors. magnetic field. Inductive coupling. (2) In an electric power system. through a device. usually expressed as a gradient in V/mil (volts per mil). DUPLEX—Two-way data transmission on a four-wire transmission cable. as opposed to the analog representation of information in variable. (2) A UL cable type. waveforms. Polyethylene for example has a dielectric strength of about 800 V/mil. Expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other. causing light of different wavelengths to travel at different velocities in the fiber. DISTURBED CONDUCTOR—A conductor that receives energy generated by the field of another conductor or an external source such as a transformer. DIRECT CAPACITANCE—The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer. A voltage higher than normal operating voltage is applied across the insulation. Used as an insulation or jacketing material. Elevator lighting and control cable. DUPLEX CABLE—A cable composed of two insulated single conductor cables twisted together. DISTORTION FACTOR—An undesirable change in waveform as a signal passes location with respect to the circular cross section of the insulation. DIRECTION OF LAY—The lateral direction. German standards body. ELECTROMAGNET—A device consisting of a ferromagnetic core and a coil that produces appreciable magnetic effects only when an electric current exists in the coil. DIRECT BURIAL CABLE—A cable installed directly in the earth. ELECTROMAGNETIC—Referring to the combined electric and magnetic fields caused by electron motion through conductors. provides lowvoltage service to the customer. DISTURBING CONDUCTOR—A conductor carrying energy whose field(s) create spurious energy in another conductor. but continuous. Also known as power factor. ECTFE—Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene. DRAWING—In wire manufacturing. ELASTOMER—Any material that will return to its original dimensions after being stretched or distorted. DRAIN WIRE—An uninsulated wire in contact with a shield throughout its length. pulling the metal through a die or series of dies to reduce diameter to a specified size. This test can increase product reliability by detecting faulty workmanship. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TESTING—A common test performed on electrical DIGITAL—Refers to communications procedures. DIRECTIONAL COUPLER—A passive device used in a cable system to divide or combine unidirectional RF power sources. products that is often called hi-pot testing. DTE—Data terminal equipment. The cotangent of the phase angle between voltage and current in a reactive component. DTE to the modem on pin 20) that indicates that the DTE is ready for data transmission and which requests that the modem be connected to the telephone circuit. DUOFOIL—Belden trademark for a shield in which metallic foil is applied to both sides of a supporting plastic film. Dissipation factor is quite sensitive to contamination and deterioration of insulation. E E—(1) Symbol for voltage. DIN—Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN). One of the control signals on a standard RS-232-C connector. DISPERSION—The variation of the refractive index of an optical fiber with wavelength. used for terminating the shield.Glossary DIELECTRIC STRENGTH—The maximum voltage that an insulation can withstand without breaking down. the transmission cable from the distribution amplifier to the drop cable. It indicates whether the data communications equipment is connected and ready to start handshaking control signals so that transmission can start. designated as left-hand or right-hand. in which the wires of a conductor run over the top of the conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor.

the system. Often referred to as a polyolefin. keeping and improving the quality of our living environment–mainly air and water. personal computers. Formerly called Open Wiring rated. EPM. An independent testing laboratory that ETPC—Abbreviation for electrolytic tough pitch copper. current to flow in a circuit.) ELECTRO-TINNED—Electrolytic process of tinning wire using pure tin. the immersion time is long. ELECTROSTATIC COUPLING—The transfer of energy by means of a varying electrostatic field. Referred to as ACR-F (insertion loss to crosstalk ratio far-end) in the ANSI/TIA-568-B. A force that tends to cause electrons to flow. M-monomer. ER RATED—Exposed Run. ITC ELECTROSTATIC—Pertaining to static electricity. D-diene. from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. the tubing will shrink to its extruded diameter. EO—A UL cable type. these external signals emanate from universal motors with brushes. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoplastic insulation. When heated EXTERNAL WIRING—Electronic wiring that interconnects subsystems within EXTRUDED CABLE—Cable that is insulated by applying insulation material in a continuous extrusion process. EPR—Ethylene propylene rubber. EXIT ANGLE—The angle between the output radiation vectors and the axis of the fiber or fiber bundle. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling and PLTC that meet the same crush and impact requirements as metal clad (Type MC) cables. EPROM—Erasable programmable read only memory. printers or other devices using nonlinear. EPA—Environmental Protection Agency. flame retardant cables.Glossary ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CABLES—Dual purpose composite cables made up of support strands capable of supporting predetermined loads together with communication. Inc. EPR. or electricity at rest. aggravated and 269 . zero halogen. EMBOSSING—Identification by means of thermal indentation that leaves raised lettering on the sheath material of cable. 300 V. (ELFEXT is FEXT adjusted to discount insertion loss. three braids.16 attocoulomb. EP. A polymer often used for the jacket in low smoke. which may include one or more texts and any associated message headings. flame-retardant and moisture-retardant finish. similar to UL. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoset insulation. The force that causes ELECTRON—An elementary particle containing the smallest negative electric charge. Capacitive coupling. accelerated by DC voltage on the cable.9 percent. EMA—Electrical moisture absorption. an electric field produced by one volt. ELEXAR—Shell trademark for a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). ELONGATION—The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension. May have steel supporting strand in the center. Permits exposed runs between cable tray and utilization equipment. P-propylene. relative to the received signal level measured on that same pair. EVA—Ethylene vinyl acetate. ELFEXT—Equal-level far-end crosstalk. ETCHED WIRE—A process applied to Teflon wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond to the Teflon. ELECTRO-OSMOSIS—The movement of fluids through dielectrics because of electric current. A transmission control character used to indicate the end of transmission. or power as integral members of a finished cable. The federal regulatory agency responsible for EPDM—Ethylene propylene diene monomer. ENERGIZE—To apply voltage to a circuit or device in order to activate it. Typically. A static electric charge. the number of essentially parallel wires or threads on a carrier. ELECTRON VOLT—A measure of the energy gained by an electron passing through ELECTRONIC WIRE AND CABLE—Wire or cable used in electronic applications. EMERGENCY OVERLOAD—A situation in which larger than normal currents are carried through a cable or wire for a limited period of time. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates these emissions in the U. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (EMF)—Pressure or voltage. Designations for a synthetic rubber based upon the hydrocarbon ethylene propylene. ET—A UL cable type. simulates buried cable. EMF—Electromotive force. ENDOSMOSIS—The penetration of water into a cable by osmosis. Standardized as IEEE 802. One of the dominant LAN technologies. ETL—Electrical Testing Laboratories. Tefzel is DuPont’s trademark for this material. EOT—End of transmission character. A water tank test during which sample cables are subjected to voltage and water maintained at rated temperature. EMI—Electromagnetic interference. with the object being to accelerate failure due to moisture in the insulation. External signals that disrupt the data being EXPANDED DIAMETER—Diameter of shrink tubing as supplied. ETFE—Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene. transmitted on the local area network or electronic device being operated. An optional UL rating on UL Listed cable Types TC. charge = 0. etc. ETHERNET—A baseband frame-based networking local area network (LAN) communication standard. EPDM—E-ethylene. ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)—An instantaneous flow of an electrical charge on a nonconductor through a conductor to ground. for example. ENDS—In braiding. coaxial. EQUILAY CONDUCTOR—See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. fluorescent lights. SI unit is the volt. Diameter = 1 femtometer. switch-mode power supplies.3.S. It has a minimum conductivity of 99.2-Addendum 10 draft. performs testing.

crush-resistant cylinder applied over individual fibers to provide mechanical protection. FIGURE 8 CABLE—An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strands that supports the cable are integrally jacketed. more technically. The farad is a very large unit and much smaller units. Common ones include Teflon. which leads to conductors or wires breaking during flexing. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)—An ANSI-defined token-passing FLAME RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to not propagate flame once the heat source is removed. FAULT. commonly used in soldering. like the microfarad (µF) or picofarad (pF) are more commonly used. neoprene or a variety of plastic compounds. Various standards with test recommendations exist. 18 AWG–16 AWG. 600 V rating. as opposed to limpness that is bending due to the cable’s own weight. A technology that uses light as an information carrier. FM—Frequency modulation. Fiber optic cables (light guides) are a direct replacement for conventional cable and wire pairs. FLOATING—Refers to a circuit that has no electrical connection to ground. (2) The rate of flow of energy across or through a surface. fused and cured thermally at the job site. ring using fiber optic media to attain a 100 Mbps transmission rate. or. continuous sheet of metal. FEP—Fluorinated ethylene propylene. FLEXIBLE—That quality of a cable or cable component that allows for bending under the influence of an outside force. transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end. Fluorinated ethylene propylene insulated wire with FEXT—Far-end crosstalk.Glossary EXTRUSION—A method of applying insulation to a conductor or jacketing to a cable. FIELD MOLDED SPLICE—A joint in which the solid dielectric joint insulation is FLUX—(1) The lines of force which make up an electrostatic field. (3) A substance used to promote or facilitate fusion. This is done so that the finished cable will be round. 90°C dry/damp or 200°C dry maximum operating temperature. Transmission in two directions simultaneously. FARAD—A unit of capacitance when a difference of potential of 1 volt produces a FATIGUE RESISTANCE—Resistance to metal crystallization. transit times of various modes (a mode is one ray of light). FOIL—A thin. FIELD TESTS—Tests that may be made on a cable system after installation as an acceptance or proof test. 270 . FLAT CONDUCTOR—A wire having a rectangular cross section as opposed to a round or square conductor. an exact copy. FILLER—Fillers are used in multiconductor cables that occupy the interstices formed by the assembled conductors. In general. FIELD COIL—A suitable insulated winding mounted on a field pole to magnetize it. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure “eight. The process is continuous and uses rubber. FLASHOVER—A disruptive discharge around or over the surface of a solid or FLAT BRAID—A woven braid of tinned copper strands rolled flat at the time of manufacture to a specified width. A modulation technique in which the carrier frequency is shifted by an amount proportional to the value of the modulating signal. FLEXIBILITY—The ease with which a cable may be bent. Often used as a shield material in cables. 75°C maximum operating temperature. Filling compounds may require heating or mixing prior to filling. displacement of one coulomb in a capacitor. like IEEE 400. F FACSIMILE—The remote reproduction of graphic material. Various types of cables are available depending on the type of flexing required. FLUOROPOLYMER—A class of polymers used as insulating and jacketing materials. usually specified as expected total number of cycles before failure. Also called a buffer tube. 14 AWG to 2 AWG. FILLING COMPOUND—A dielectric material poured or injected into a splice housing or cable to prevent the entry of water. the fibers are immune to electrical interference. The deviation of the carrier frequency determines the signal content of the message. glass braid. FOAMED INSULATION—Insulations having a cellular structure. bidirectional simultaneous two-way communications. FLEX-LIFE—The measurement of the ability of a conductor or cable to withstand repeated bending. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. The glass-based transmission cable occupies far less physical volume for an equivalent transmission capacity. Tefzel. Some filling compounds may also serve as the insulation. Kynar and Halar. A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a FFH-2—A UL type of heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire with flexible stranding. FLAMMABILITY—The measure of a material’s ability to support combustion. FLAT CABLE—A cable with two essentially flat surfaces.” FILLED CABLE—A cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable. FIBER TUBING—A loose. liquid insulator. FDX—Full duplex. finer stranding gives greater flexibility. FIBER DISPERSION—Pulse spreading in an optical fiber caused by differing FIBER OPTICS—Transmission of energy by light through glass fibers. FCC—Federal Communications Commission. GROUND—A fault to ground. FINE STRANDED WIRE—Stranded wire with component strands of 36 AWG or smaller. FEPB—A UL cable type.

GROUND—A voltage reference point that can be the same as earth or chassis ground. PVC cables after many years in service. See AWG. In the U. Also referred to as a spectrum analyzer. G-GC—A UL cable type.000. Required by the NEC for some installations. 60°C maximum operating temperature when exposed to oil.000 V). FREQUENCY PLAN—Specification of how the various frequencies available in a communications system are allocated for use. as it enters a metal enclosure. GTO—Gas tube sign cable. A protective device that detects abnormal current flowing to ground and then interrupts the circuit.000 V) or GTO-15 (15. GANG STRIP—Stripping all or several conductors simultaneously. FUSED SPIRAL TAPE—A PTFE insulation often used on hook-up wire. coaxial cable to equipment. in sizes 18-10 AWG copper. FUSED CONDUCTORS—Individual strands of heavily tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating. ground check (GC) conductor to monitor the continuity of the grounding circuit. Often used on automated test and measurement equipment in manufacturing environments. fluorine. the FCC defines uses for various frequency bands. GROUND CONDUCTOR—A conductor in a transmission cable or line that GROUND FAULT—A type of electrical failure in which current flows to ground. bromine or iodine. Generally found to be plasticizer (a component of PVC) contaminated with a copper compound that is green in color. is grounded. HALF DUPLEX—Two-way communications in which data are sent in only one direction at a time.000. Two to five #8 AWG or larger conductors with ground wires. The spiral wrapped tape is passed through a sintering oven where the overlaps are fused together. 90°C maximum dry. 271 .000 V. UL Listed as single conductor Type GTO-5 (5. GROUND POTENTIAL—Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth. medium is an inert gas having access to the insulation. seal and/or ground the metallic armor of a cable GND—Common abbreviation for ground.000 cycles per second. One hertz is one cycle per second. owing to the circulation currents which originate from a second source of voltage. expressed in hertz (Hz). GIGA—A numerical prefix denoting one billion (109).S. GROUNDED NEUTRAL—The neutral wire that is metallically connected to ground. (10. Sometimes called a fitting or a connector. HALOGENATED—Containing halogen atoms such as chlorine. GFCI—Ground fault circuit interrupter. “F” TYPE CONNECTOR—A low-cost connector used by the TV industry to connect sends and receives data at the same rate. GUY—A tension wire connected to a tall structure and another fixed object to add strength to the structure. FUSED COATING—A metallic coating that has been melted and solidified. forming a metallurgical bond to the base material. FULL DUPLEX—Two-way communications in which each modem simultaneously FUSE WIRE—Wire made from an alloy that melts at a relatively low temperature to open a circuit when over-current conditions occur. Rated 2. GTO-10 G G—A UL portable power cable type with thermoset insulation and thermoset fiber reinforced oil-resistant jacket. and interior lighting. Used up to 1 GHz. A portable power cable similar to Type G. GAS FILLED CABLE—A self-contained pressurized cable in which the pressure GAUGE—A term used to denote the physical size of a wire. H HALAR—Solvay Solexis trademark for ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE). GROUND CHECK CONDUCTOR (GC)—An insulated conductor commonly used in mining cables to monitor the health of the grounding conductor(s) in the cable. GAUSS—A unit of magnetic induction (flux density) equal to 1 Maxwell GENERAL PURPOSE INSTRUMENTATION BUS (GPIB)—A protocol standard defined by the IEEE. GROUND PLANE—Expanded copper mesh that is laminated into some flat cable constructions as a shield. FREQUENCY COUNTER—An electronic measuring instrument that precisely counts the number of cycles of a periodic electrical signal during a given time interval.000 V). GROUND LOOP—The generation of undesirable current flow within a ground conductor. FREQUENCY ANALYZER—An instrument to measure the intensity of various component frequencies from a transmitting source.Glossary FREQUENCY—The number of cycles per second at which an (electrical) event occurs. per square centimeter. but also having a GHz—Gigahertz frequency: 1. GREEN GOOP—A viscous liquid that occasionally oozes from the end of installed FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)—Method of encoding a carrier wave by varying the frequency of the transmitted signal. GALVANIZED STEEL WIRE—Steel wire coated with zinc. outline lighting. GLAND—A device used to terminate. This cable is intended for use with gas-tube systems for signs.

under tension. HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLE TERMINATION—A device used for terminating alternating current power cables having laminated or extruded insulation rated 2.5 kV and above. Oil-resistant thermoset insulation and jacket. circuit identification. HOT MODULUS—Stress at 100 percent elongation after 5 minutes of conditioning at a given temperature (normally 130°C). usually 12 AWG and smaller. For use in nonhard usage and damp locations.and high-voltage cables. directions simultaneously. Usually Type GTO. HIGH-TEMPERATURE WIRE AND CABLE—Electrical wire and cables that have maximum operating temperatures of 150°C and higher. An optional rating for UL Listed Type MC cables. HSJO—A UL thermoset jacketed heater cord type. HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER (system voltage ratings)—A class of system stationary object. HPD—A UL portable heater cord type. usually with many breakouts. HL—Hazardous location. mercury metal halide and sodium lamps. HMWPE—High molecular weight polyethylene.000 volts. minimum maximum operating temperature of 90°C. 272 . HS. neon signs. dust. three. HENRY—A unit of inductance equal to the inductance of a current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per second inducing a counter electromotive force of 1 volt. HERTZ (Hz)—Cycles per second. HIGH BOND INSULATION—Insulation exhibiting great bond strength to the conductors. HARNESS—An arrangement of wires and cables. wire that has been cold drawn to final size so as to approach the maximum attainable strength. HOT STAMPING—Method of alphanumeric coding. HDTV—High-definition television. For use in non-hard usage and damp locations. which HASH MARK STRIPE—A noncontinuous helical stripe applied to a conductor for identification. These materials can cause damage to human respiratory systems and to electrical equipment. or four HV—High voltage. HOT STICK—A long insulated stick having a hook at one end that is used to open HOT TIN DIP—A process of passing bare wire through a bath of molten tin to provide a coating. have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath. HIGH-SPLIT—A broadband cable system in which the bandwidth used to send toward the head-end (reverse direction) is approximately 6 MHz to 180 MHz and the bandwidth used to send from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 220 MHz to 400 MHz. 300 V rating with two. HEAD-END—A central point in broadband networks that receives signals on one set of frequency bands and retransmits them on another set of frequencies. used to interconnect an electric circuit. gas and oil igniters. HEAT DISTORTION—Distortion or flow of a material or configuration due to the HEAT SEAL—Method of sealing a tape wrap jacket by means of thermal fusion. types HPD. nonhard use locations. See DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TESTING. 300 V rating with two. HAZARDOUS LOCATION—An area of ignitable vapors. etc. Only certain UL cable types are allowed to be used in hazardous in accordance with the NEC. A cycle that occurs once every second has a HF—High frequency. HEAT SINK—A device that absorbs heat. HID—High-intensity discharge. minimum maximum operating temperature of 90°C. For use in dry. Division 1 Hazardous Locations. colored. three or four 18-12 AWG HPN—A UL portable heater cord type with parallel construction. conductors with thermoset insulation and a cotton or rayon outer covering. HPN. HOUSING—A metallic or other enclosure for an insulated splice. Article 501 of the NEC permits Type MC-HL Listed cables to be used in Class I. Transmission in either direction but not in both HINGE CABLE—A cable connected between a hinged or swinging device and a HIPOT—A DC high-potential test used on medium. or fibers that may HDPE—High-density polyethylene. frequency of 1 hertz. cause fire or explosion as defined in Article 500 of the NEC. HOLDING STRENGTH—Ability of a connector to remain assembled to a cable when HOOK-UP WIRE—Small wires used to hook up instruments or electrical parts. energized switchgear.000 volts or less than 230. HYBRID CABLE—Multiconductor cable containing two or more types of components. HEAT SHOCK—A test to determine stability of material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time. minimum maximum operating temperature of 90°C. voltages equal to or greater than approximately 69. HDX—Half-duplex transmission. HSJO and HSO.Glossary HALOGENS—Chemical elements such as chlorine and bromine that when present in a cable are released when burned. 300 V rating with two or three 18-12 AWG conductors. The guard band between the forward and reverse directions (180 MHz to 220 MHz) provides isolation from interference. 18-12 AWG conductors. HSJ. application of heat. Identification markings are made by pressing heated tape and marking foil into softened insulation surfaces. Compare with FULL DUPLEX. HIGH-TENSION CABLES—Generally unshielded high-voltage ignition wires for combustion engines. Oil-resistant thermoset insulation and jacket. HEATER CORD—A group of cable types defined in Article 400 of the NEC such as HELICAL STRIPE—A continuous. Allows safe separation of user and high-voltage source. etc. spiral stripe applied to a conductor for HELIX—Spiral winding. HARD-DRAWN WIRE—As applied to aluminum and copper. high-voltage equipment.

11—Wireless LAN. chemical and electrical rigors of an industrial environment. Also called matching stub. magnetic field or electrostatic charge INDUCTION HEATING—Heating a conducting material by placing it in a rapidly INDUCTIVE COUPLING—Crosstalk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other. From the French word for current intensity (intensite du courant).5—A physical layer standard specifying a LAN with a token-passing access IEEE 802. The network is capable of carrying information at rates up to 10 Mbps over distances up to 2. IMSA—International Municipal Signal Association. Ethernet. eight control lines and eight signal grounds. INSERTION LOSS—A measure of the attenuation of a device by determining the output of a system before and after the device is inserted into the system. conductors cut to match the impedance of a load. INDOOR TERMINATION—A cable termination intended for use where it is protected from direct exposure to both solar radiation and precipitation. See HIPOT. Matched impedances reduce reflections that decrease the power transfer efficiency. INPUT—(1) A signal (or power) that is applied to a piece of electric apparatus. cable or device to which it is connected. HYPALON—DuPont’s trademark for chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSP). buried in ground or driveway and concrete walks. IMPEDANCE—The total opposition a circuit.15—Wireless PAN. Inc.800 meters (9. In a frequency up-converter. An international professional IEEE 10BASE2 Network—A network conforming to the IEEE 802. INDUCTION—The phenomenon of a voltage. this is the frequency between the baseband frequency and the higher frequency RF. hand-held tool used to insert contacts into a connector.017241 ohm-mm2/m.600 meters. INDEX EDGE—Edge of a flat (ribbon) cable from which measurements are made.3 specification for running Ethernet on broadband. Formerly IPCEA. Widely used in industrial process control networks. normally indicated by the location of the printing which is near the index edge. method on a ring topology. equipment. HYDROSCOPIC—Used to describe material that absorbs and retains moisture. The IEEE 802. HYPOT—Registered trade name of Associated Research. I I—Symbol used to designate current. ICEA—Insulated Cable Engineers Association. IEEE-488—An IEEE standard for a parallel interface bus consisting of eight IEEE-802—Standards for the interconnection of local networking computer IEEE 802. IMPEDANCE MATCH—A condition whereby the impedance of a particular cable or component is the same as the impedance of the circuit. INDUCTANCE—A property of a conductor or circuit that resists a change in current. IEEE—Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. changing magnetic field. The IEEE-802 standard deals with the Physical Link Layers of the ISO Reference Model for OSL. IACS—International Annealed Copper Standard for copper used in electrical conductors. IEC—International Electrotechnical Commission. society that issues its own standards and is a member of ANSI and ISO. (Bluetooth) IF—Intermediate-frequency. INSULATED RADIANT HEATING WIRE—Similar to blanket wire but heavier construction for applications such as in ceiling panels. IEEE 10BROAD36—10 million bits per second over broadband coaxial cable with node-to-node coverage of 3. network standard. It causes current changes to lag behind voltage changes and is measured in henrys. being produced in an object by lines of force from an outside source.3 local area INCOHERENT SOURCE—A fiber optic light source that emits wide. Token ring. The changing field induces electric currents in the material and I2R losses account for the resultant heat. (2) The terminals on the apparatus to which a signal or power is applied. Sometimes indicated by a thread or other identification stripe. IMPACT TESTS—Tests designed to reveal the behavior of material of a finished part if it were subjected to impact or shock loading.Glossary tester. Named IMPEDANCE MATCHING STUB—A section of transmission line or a pair of IMPEDANCE MATCHING TRANSFORMER—A transformer designed to match the impedance of one circuit to that of another. (Wi-Fi) IEEE 802. IEEE 802. 273 . for its high-voltage HYSTERESIS—The time lag between transitions in state exhibited by a body while reacting to changes in applied forces. A measure of frequency or bandwidth equal to one cycle per second. diffuse beams of light of many wavelengths. bidirectional data lines. 100 percent conductivity at 20°C is 0. cable or component offers to alternating current. It includes both resistance and reactance (frequency dependent resistance) and is generally expressed in ohms. Hz—Hertz. IN-BAND SIGNALING—The transmission of signaling information at some frequency or frequencies that lie within a carrier channel normally used for information transmission. after experimenter Heinrich Hertz. INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET CABLES—Cables specially designed to withstand the mechanical. INSERTION TOOL—A small. which provides for connection to an IEEE-488 device.184 feet). The association of cable manufacturing engineers who publish nationally recognized specifications for cables.3—An IEEE standard describing the physical and data link layers of a local area network based on bus topology and CSMA/CD. INSULATED SPLICE—A splice with a dielectric medium applied over the connected conductors and adjacent cable insulation.

the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure. I2R—Formula for power in watts. JOULE’S LAW—When electricity flows through a material the rate of heating in watts will equal the resistance of the material in ohms times the square of the current in amperes. INSULATION LEVEL—A thickness rating for power cable insulation. the outer sheath that protects against the environment and may also provide additional insulation. military specifications). an electrical circuit.Glossary INSULATING (ISOLATING) JOINT—A cable joint that mechanically couples and electrically separates the sheath. INTRINSICALLY SAFE—Incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal I/O—Input/Output. INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY—A frequency to which a signal is converted for INTERMEDIATE TEMPER—As applied to aluminum. INSULATION RESISTANCE—The electrical resistance of an insulating material at a specific time and condition as measured between two conductors. Usually has a red jacket. See WATT. of a three-phase cable system. shield and armor on contiguous lengths of cable. ISO 9000—A set of quality standards widely used around the world. INTERCONNECTING CABLE—The wiring between modules. The stress on insulation is expressed in volts per mil (V/m) or kilovolts per meter (kV/m). IONIZATION FACTOR—This is the difference between percent dissipation factors at two specified values of electrical stress. rods or groups of wires are joined by brazing. Circuits having fault detectors that interrupt fault currents within one minute are rated 100 percent level. The potential at which an atom gives up an electron. IONIZATION—(1) The creation of ions when polar compounds are dissolved in a solvent. INSULATION VOLTAGE RATING—The nominal phase-to-phase operating voltage INTERAXIAL SPACING—Center-to-center conductor spacing in paired wire or center-to-center spacing between conductors in a flat cable. such as cable conductors and circuit components. R = resistance in ohms. JUMPER CABLE—Extra flexible cables with high-voltage insulation for use as temporary connections. ITU—International Telecommunications Union. units or the larger portions of a system. Receives its name from the fact that it is an intermediate step between the initial and final conversion or detection stages. within a sealed subsystem. soldering. INTERCALATED TAPES—Two or more tapes helically wound and overlapped on a cable. INSULATION STRESS—The potential difference across an insulator. INTERCONNECTION—The joining of devices mechanically to complete INTERFACE—The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector that face each other when the connector is assembled. the lower of the two stresses is usually so selected that the effect of the ionization on dissipation factor at this stress is negligible. energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most ignitable concentration. JACKET—Pertaining to wire and cable. A standard that covers a wide range of data communication issues but primarily the integration of voice and data. any temper between soft and hard drawn. INTERFERENCE—Disturbances of an electrical or electromagnetic nature that introduce undesirable responses into other electronic equipment. JAN SPECIFICATION—Joint Army-Navy specification (replaced by current JET STARTER CABLE—Single conductor 600 V cable used for external INTERNAL WIRING—Electronic wiring that interconnects components. ease of handling. (2) When a liquid. ISO—International Organization for Standardization. usually INTERSTICE—The space or void between assembled conductors and within the overall circumference of the assembly. INSULATION—A material having good dielectric properties that is used to separate close electrical components. ISOLATION—The ability of a circuit or component to reject interference. J JACK—A plug-in type terminal widely used in electronic apparatus for temporary connections. where l = current in amperes. gas or solid is caused to lose or gain electrons due to the passage of an electric current. 274 . INSULATION TEMPERATURE RATING—A maximum operating temperature assigned to insulations based on laboratory testing. IR DROP—A method of designating a voltage drop in terms of both current and resistance. IONIZATION VOLTAGE—The potential at which a material ionizes. The process of transmitting data to and from the processor and its peripherals. JITTER—The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization in high-speed synchronous communications. aircraft power. IRRADIATION—In insulations. ISDN—Integrated Services Digital Network. within one hour are rated 133 percent level and over one hour are rated 173 percent level. JOINT—That portion of the conductor where the ends of two wires. usually expressed in dB. INSULATION THICKNESS—The wall thickness of wire insulation. W = I2R. See Article 504 of the NEC. welding or by mechanical means.

or leakage of the line. L BAND—The band of frequencies between 390 and 1. Described as “right hand” or “left hand. LINE EQUALIZER—A reactance (inductance and/or capacitance) connected in series with a transmission line to alter the frequency-response characteristics of the line. device that accepts electrical signals and converts the LENGTH OF LAY—The axial length of one turn of the helix of a wire or member. LEACHING AND NONLEACHING—In a leaching wire the plasticizer will migrate when exposed to heat. 1. LAN—Local area network. kB—Kilobyte. to other conductors and to ground. LEAD CURED—A cable that is cured or vulcanized in a metallic lead mold. short circuit or ground in an electrical LINE LEVEL—The level of a signal at a certain point on a transmission line. LEVEL—A measure of the difference between a quantity or value and an established reference. moisture absorption. an insulating material. user-operated. is due to the resistance. Such loss.” LAYER—Consecutive turns of a coil lying in a single plane. Sometimes KEVLAR—A high-strength DuPont polymer used as a cable messenger K-FIBER—A polyaramid-based material used for jacketing high-temperature cables. LEAKAGE CURRENT—An undesirable flow of current through or over the surface of LEAKAGE DISTANCE—The shortest distance along an insulation surface LED—Light-emitting diode. LACQUER—A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying. See LAY. the axial distance required for one cabled LAY DIRECTION—The twist in the cable as indicated by the top strands while looking along the axis of the cable away from the observer. designated by the Federal Communications Commission. that connects two points in a circuit. LACING AND HARNESSING—A method of grouping wires by securing them in bundles of designated patterns. transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices within a single building or campus of buildings. with lasers. LEAD—A wire. KYNAR—Arkema Inc. A nonleaching wire will retain its plasticizer under extreme temperature conditions and remain flexible after baking. kW—Kilowatt. line or circuit. shortened to “kcm. Transmission speeds are measured in kB/second. used mainly with multimode fiber. LAUNCH ANGLE—The angle between the radiation vector and the axis of an optical fiber. with or without terminals. LIMITS OF ERROR—The maximum deviation (in degrees or percent) of the indicated temperature of a thermocouple from the actual temperature. trademark for polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). 275 . high-volume data LASER DIODE—A semiconductor diode that emits coherent light. the light source is normally a LED or a laser. LINE LOSS—A total of the various energy losses occurring in a transmission line. LIGHTNING GROUND CABLE—A specially stranded single conductor cable used to connect lightning rods (air terminals) to grounding rods. kcmil—One thousand circular mils. LF—Low frequency. L L—Symbol for inductance. LIGHT SOURCE—An object capable of emitting light.000 watts of power. LINE DROP—A voltage loss occurring between any two points in a power transmission line. usually accelerated environment.000 volts). A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum.024 bytes. Usually expressed in decibels. In fiber optics. A user-owned.Glossary K KAPTON—DuPont’s trademark for polyimide.” or strength member. the main light source for optical-fiber transmission. LAMINATED TAPE—A tape consisting of two or more layers of different materials bonded together. LEAD-IN—The conductor or conductors that connect the antenna proper to electronic equipment. energy to a light signal. kV—Kilovolt (1. LIFE CYCLE TESTING—A test to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled. or drop. etc. LINE FAULT—A fault such as an open circuit. conductor or conductor strand to complete one revolution about the axis around that it is cabled. replaced “MCM” in the 1990 NEC. KILO—Prefix meaning thousand. kbps—Thousands of bits per second (bps). LINE BALANCE—The degree to which the conductors of a cable are alike LAY—Pertaining to wire and cable. 1. in their electrical characteristics with respect to each other. kVA—Kilovolt ampere.550 megahertz. between conductors. LIMPNESS—The ability of a cable to lay flat or conform to a surface.

LOAD CELL CABLE—Small multiconductor shielded cables for connecting load LOADED LINE—A transmission line that has lumped elements (inductance or nominal 24 volts or less. as applied to ignition cable. not require any sealants to keep it closed. Generally dropped through borings in subsurface mining or well applications. MARKER THREAD—A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strand in an MASTIC—A meltable coating used on the inside of some shrink products that when heated flows to help create a waterproof seal. Used for low inductance coil windings. LONGITUDINAL WRAP—Tape applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being covered. complex of buildings. LOW-LOSS DIELECTRIC—An insulating material that has a relatively low LOW-NOISE CABLE—A cable specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated noise induced by either physical movement or adjacent circuitry. or campus). MAXIMUM CABLE DIAMETER—The largest cable diameter that a high-voltage MINIMUM CABLE DIAMETER—The smallest cable diameter that a high-voltage cable termination is designed to accommodate. transformers and MAGNETIC FIELD—The field created when current flows through a conductor. area managers and cell controllers over a broadband token-passing bus network. zero halogen. MAP—Manufacturing automation protocol. Defined as candela-steradians and abbreviated “lm. (2) A power system voltage rating of 1. converter. LS (LOW SMOKE)—An optional rating for UL Listed cable types that also pass low LSZH—Abbreviation for low smoke.. cable termination is designed to accommodate. imprinted with the manufacturer’s name and the specification to which the cable is made. 276 .Glossary LINE VOLTAGE—The value of the potential existing on a supply or power line. LUMEN—(lm) A SI unit of measurement for light output as perceived by the human eye. applied longitudinally with the axis of the cable. building. LITZ WIRE—Very fine. useful work. an office. LOW BOND INSULATION—An insulation that exhibits a small bond strength LOW FREQUENCY—A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum. MC—(1) Main cross-connect. (2) A UL cable type (metal clad). a system rated LPF—Low pass filter. M mA—Milliampere (one-thousandth of an ampere). LOAD—A device that consumes or converts the power delivered by another device. loop in which measurements will locate the fault. other electromagnetic devices.” LV—Low voltage. LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE—A term generally applied to shrink products denoting the axial length lost through heating in order to obtain the recovered diameter. A filter that greatly attenuates signals of higher than a specified frequency. MAGNET WIRE—Insulated wire used in the windings of motors. MAXIMUM DESIGN VOLTAGE—The maximum voltage at which a high-voltage cable termination is designed to operate continuously under normal conditions. Also used for weighing and force measurement applications. LOOP RESISTANCE—The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. even during extreme flexing. LOOP TEST—A long line test where a good line is connected to a faulty line to form a LOSS—The portion of energy applied to a system that is dissipated and performs no LOSS FACTOR—The power factor times the dielectric constant. The OSI profile championed by General MARKER TAPE—A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the sheath in a cable. low-cost medium to which many nodes can be connected. and whose communications technology provides a high-bandwidth. to the conductors. LOC-TRAC—Alpha’s registered trademark for a zipper tubing closure track that does LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)—A network that is located in a localized geographical area (e. flat or corrugated. LOW TENSION—Low voltage. A combination of components providing multiple television receiver operations from one antenna or group of antennas. supplied from a transformer. each strand is enamel insulated. Dielectrics with tan δ below 0. Motors Corporation to provide interconnectivity between plant hosts. but passes with minimal attenuation all signals lower in frequency. LOW VOLTAGE—(1) As defined in the National Electrical Code.000 volts or less.01 (approximately) are considered low-loss materials. dielectric loss. or battery. A cable that meets the requirements can be marked “LS. e.g. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry. LONGWALL MACHINE—A mining machine used to undercut coal. LOGGING CABLE—Usually FEP/Tefzel self-supporting instrumentation cable. cells with instruments in electronic strain gauges. designated by the Federal Communications Commission. MATV—Master Antenna Television System. insulated conductor that identifies the manufacturer and sometimes the specification to which the wire is made. Loading is used to provide a given set of characteristics to a transmission line. LONGITUDINAL SHIELD—A tape shield. such as polyethylene or Teflon. #44 AWG bare copper. smoke requirements contained in UL Standards.” capacitance) added at uniformly spaced intervals. Sometimes also written LS0H (0=zero).g.

Chapter 1. MHO—The unit of conductivity. 90°C to 105°C. MSHA regulations appear in CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Title 30. 600 V appliance wire. 450°C. MSHA—Mine Safety and Health Administration. or twisted filament. 8. or 15 kV. One measure of processing power. phase of an analog signal to encode and convey (typically digital) information. MFT—Abbreviation for 1. amplification. between transmit and receive frequencies. = 1 mil). having tensile strength less than the minimum for hard-drawn wire. MIL-DTL-16878—A military specification covering various wires intended for internal wiring of electric and electronic equipment. MIPS—Millions of instructions per second. MOISTURE RESISTANCE—The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water. Thermoplastic insulated. MOISTURE ABSORPTION—The amount of moisture. transformers and stator or field windings. high dielectric strength and high heat resistance. 600 V.4 and 46 kV. Replaced by SAE AS22759. Also. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY—The ratio of stress (force) to strain (deformation) in a material that is elastically deformed. The bandwidth used to send toward the headend (reverse direction) is approximately 5 MHz to 100 MHz and the bandwidth used to send away from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 160 MHz to 300 MHz.g. 2. heat and moisture resistant finish. MONO FILAMENT—A single-strand filament as opposed to a braided MONOMER—The basic chemical unit used in building a polymer. Formerly known as MESA. in. for audio signals. MOTOR LEAD WIRE—Wire that connects to the fragile magnet wire found in coils. MOLDED PLUG—A connector molded on either end of a cord or cable. MIL-DTL-17—A military specification covering many coaxial cables. MEDIUM FREQUENCY—The band of frequencies between 300 and 3. MULTICAST—The ability to broadcast messages to one node or a select group 277 . Bureau of mines. MIL-SPEC—Military specification. One or more conductors insulated with highly compressed resistance. MILLI—Prefix meaning one-thousandth. MEGGER—A special ohmmeter for measuring very high resistance. Formerly MIL-C-16878. MICROFARAD—One-millionth of a farad (abbreviated µf). MICA—A transparent silicate that separates into layers and has high insulation MICRO—Prefix meaning one-millionth.001 in. however. Formerly MIL-C-17. M is one thousand in the Roman numeral system.000 feet. that a material will absorb under specified conditions. a UL cable type. in percentage. surface). MI—A UL cable type. refractory minerals and enclosed in a liquid-tight and gas-tight metallic tube sheathing. MICROMICROFARAD—One-millionth of a microfarad (abbreviated µµf). it is also useful for equipment leakage tests. MEGAHERTZ (MHz)—One million cycles per second. MICROPHONICS—Noise caused by mechanical movement of a system component.. MIL—A unit of length equal to one-thousandth of an inch (. MTW—Machine tool wire. MID-SPLIT—A broadband cable system in which the cable bandwidth is divided MEDIUM VOLTAGE—A class of nominal power system voltage ratings between MEGA—Prefix meaning million. MG—Glass reinforced mica tape insulated cable with an overall sheath of woven glass yarn impregnated with a flame. UL 1063 is the governing standard. In a single conductor microphone cable. microphonics can be caused by the shield rubbing against the dielectric as the cable is flexed. MFD—Microfarad (one-millionth of a farad). MELT INDEX—The extrusion rate of a material through a specified orifice under specified conditions.000 kilohertz. frequency. MEDIUM HARD-DRAWN WIRE—As applied to copper wire. usually shielded cable used MPF—Mine power feeder cables. picofarad (pf).Glossary MECHANICAL WATER ABSORPTION—A check of how much water will be absorbed by material in warm water for seven days (mg/sq. for example. MHz—Megahertz (one million cycles per second). The Federal enforcement agency for employee safety in mines and mills. Usually rated 5. MODULATION—Systematic changing of properties. MEMBER—A group of wires stranded together that is in turn stranded into a multiple-membered conductor. e. MESSENGER WIRE—A metallic supporting member either solid or stranded that may also perform the function of a conductor. of nodes. a MICROPHONE CABLE—A very flexible. but greater than the maximum for soft wire. MICROWAVE—A short (usually less than 30 cm wavelength) electrical wave. The reciprocal of an ohm. Primarily used for checking the insulation resistance of cables. Obsolete abbreviation. MIL-W-22759—A military specification for fluorocarbon insulated copper and copper alloy wire. MICROBENDING LOSS—A signal loss due to small geometrical irregularities along the core-cladding interface of optical fibers.

N CONNECTOR—A threaded connector for coax. NETWORK—A series of nodes connected by communications channels. NEWTON—The derived SI unit for force. MYLAR—DuPont’s trademark for polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) film.2248 pounds force.S. MUTUAL CAPACITANCE—Capacitance between two conductors in a cable. MV—Medium-voltage cables. 600 volts. To transmit two or more signals over a single channel. mW—Milliwatt (one-thousandth of a watt). NOMEX—DuPont’s trademark for a heat-resistant. MULTIPLEX—The use of a common physical channel in order to make two or more MULTIPLEXER—Equipment that permits simultaneous transmission of multiple MULTIPOINT CIRCUIT—A single line connecting three or more stations. Usually rated 5–35 kV. NOMOGRAPH—A chart or diagram with which equations can be solved graphically by placing a straight edge on two known values and reading the answer where the straight edge crosses the scale of the unknown value. NMC-B—A UL cable type rated 600 volts and intended for use per Article 334 of the NEC. standard definition color TV standard. NONCONTAMINATING—A type of PVC jacket material whose plasticizer will not migrate into the dielectric of a coaxial cable and thus avoid contaminating and destroying the dielectric. or component or property of a conductor is identified and to which tolerances are applied. Used for jacketing. 480Y/277. NONFLAMMABLE—The property of a material that is not capable of being NONMIGRATING PVC—Polyvinyl chloride compound formulated to inhibit NRZI—Nonreturn to zero inverted. NOMINAL—Name or identifying value of a measurable property by which a conductor N NBR—Butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber. 90°C conductor rating. NTSC—National Television System Committee. NBS—National Bureau of Standards. NOMINAL VOLTAGE (NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE)—A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 120/240. Nonmetallic sheathed cable. NEMA—National Electrical Manufacturers Association. MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CONCENTRIC CABLE—An insulated central conductor with one or more tubular stranded conductors laid over it concentrically and insulated from one another. flame-retardant nylon. NBR/PVC—A blend of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Now called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring (nonenergized) pair measured at the near-end. chemicals and flame.). NICKEL CLAD COPPER WIRE—A wire with a layer of nickel on a copper core where the area of the nickel is approximately 30 percent of the conductor area. The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. logical channels. Equals 0. Nonmetallic sheathed cable.Glossary to propagate. “Negative sequence” refers to the phase relationship of the currents in the conductors. N-SERIES CONNECTOR—A coaxial connector (RG-8/U) used in standard Ethernet networks. NEXT—Near-end crosstalk. Wet or dry use. N is named after Paul Neill. NODE—A station or point in a network. Also called polychloroprene. NEOPRENE—A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil. Publishes the NEC and other codes and standards. Formerly the National Bureau of Standards. 278 . a material with good oil and chemical resistance. NEGATIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE—The electrical impedance of a three- NONCONTAMINATING PVC—A polyvinyl chloride formulation that does not produce electrical contamination through plasticizer migration. easily ignited. MUX—Multiplex. NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology. the force that will give one kilogram mass an acceleration of one meter per second. Has the same numerical value as the positive sequence impedance. For dry use. signals over one physical circuit. Defined the U. either by splitting of the frequency band (frequency-division multiplex) or by using this common channel at different points in time (time-division multiplex). plasticizer migration. mV—Millivolt (one-thousandth of a volt). MURRAY LOOP TEST—A method used to localize cable faults. NEC—National Electrical Code. NFPA—National Fire Protection Association. 90°C conductor rating. etc. NOISE—In a cable or circuit any extraneous sounds or signal that tends to interfere with the sound or signal normally present in or passing through the system. MULTIMODE—Optical fiber that allows more than one mode (or ray) of light MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CABLE—A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used. A binary encoding technique in which a change in state represents a binary 0 and no change in state represents a binary 1. NM-B—A UL cable type rated 600 volts and intended for use per Article 334 of the NEC. phase power cable with the phase rotation reversed as compared to normal operation.

that is used to transmit light signals. OTDR—Optical time domain reflectometer. PATCH CABLE—A cable with plugs or terminals on each end of the conductors to connect circuits of equipment together. optical fiber usually consists of a core. Specifically the OSMOSIS—The diffusion of fluids through membranes. normally occurring around electrical discharges and present in the atmosphere in small but active quantities. In sufficient concentrations it can break down certain insulations. Usually defined as the percentage of oxygen in air required to sustain combustion of the material. Air fills in the spaces in the material. 279 . A device used for testing and characterization of fiber optic cables. which carries the signal and cladding. to a waveguide used for microwave communications. OSCILLOSCOPE—Test instrument for visually showing the changes in a varying OSHA—Abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Act. Polyamide. which surrounds the core and serves to reflect the light signal. over a single channel using multiple frequencies. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. OPTICAL ENCODER—A device whose position is determined by a photoelectric device and converted to an electrical data output. following the application of a specified higher voltage. Williams-Steiger laws passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment. also known as a “balanced” transmission line. made of dielectric materials. or multiple-bit data blocks. PARALLEL STRIPE—A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor.Glossary NUMERICAL APERTURE—The acceptance angle of an optical fiber that determines the angle at which light can enter the fiber. See also FIBER OPTICS. PARTIAL DISCHARGE (CORONA) EXTINCTION VOLTAGE—The voltage at which partial discharge (corona) is no longer detectable on instrumentation adjusted to a specific sensitivity. A class of flame retardants sometimes used in wire and cable products. voltage by means of a line made on a fluorescent screen using the deflection of a beam of cathode rays. transmission of light energy.—Outside diameter. OUTPUT—The useful power or signal delivered by a circuit or device. Commonly used in data centers to interconnect computer networking hardware. NYLON—An abrasion-resistant thermoplastic with good chemical resistance. Wire is fed from a payoff reel onto a take-up reel. PARALLEL CIRCUIT—A circuit in which identical voltage is presented to all components and the current divides among the components according to the resistances or the impedances of the components. The value of resistance through which a OHM’S LAW—Stated V = IR. OPTICAL FIBER—Any filament or fiber. OVERALL DIAMETER—Finished diameter of a wire or cable. of oxygen and nitrogen. I is current in amperes and R is resistance in ohms. character. are sent simultaneously. It provides for the connection of individual optical fibers with optical fiber patch cords. OUTDOOR TERMINATION—A cable termination intended for use where it is not protected from direct exposure to either solar radiation or precipitation. OUTGASSING—Dissipation of gas from a material. I = V/R. The payoff is the source reel. OFHC—Oxygen-free high-conductivity copper. reel or other package.D. OVERCOAT CONDUCTOR—A stranded conductor made from individual strands OVERLAP—The amount the trailing edge laps over the leading edge of a spiral tape wrap. OPEN CIRCUIT—A break in an electrical circuit so there can be no current flow. or over a multiple-conductor cable. OPTICAL CONDUCTOR—Materials that offer a low optical attenuation to OPTICAL CROSS-CONNECT—A cross-connect unit used for circuit administration. expressed as a number that is equivalent to the sine of the angle. PBDEs are generally banned by European Union RoHS regulations. OHM—The electrical unit of resistance. PARALLEL TRANSMISSION—A type of data transfer in which all bits of a OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE—A fiber used for optical communications. or R = V/I where V is voltage. P PAIR—Two insulated wires of a single circuit associated together. Usually softer and less expensive than closed cell material. OPEN CELL—Foamed or cellular material with broken cell walls. a substance with a higher refractive index than the core. potential difference of one volt will maintain a current of one ampere. OZONE—An extremely reactive form of oxygen. More formally referred to as limiting oxygen index (LOI). of tin-coated wire stranded together and then given an overall tin coat. PAYOFF—The process of feeding a cable or wire from a bobbin. O O. OXYGEN INDEX—A test to rate relative flammability of materials in a mixture OIL AGING—Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a preset temperature for a stated time. either over separate communications lines or circuits. Analogous OSCILLATORY SURGE—A surge that includes both positive and negative polarity values. PBDE—Polybrominated diphenyl ether.

Results are calculated on a weight basis or volume basis and so specified. PCP—Polychloroprene (neoprene). PITCH DIAMETER—Diameter of a circle passing through the center of the conductors in any layer of a multiconductor cable. PEEK—Poly ether ether ketone. extra flexible. PDN—Public data network. PITCH—In flat cable. different from the rms value that is usually used to categorize AC voltages. picofarad (abbreviation pF). Common characteristic of antennas. A type of industrial control system. 2. The phase angle between the input and output signals of a system. PLTC—Power limited tray cable. 280 . A colorless organic thermoplastic used for its robustness. set reach their positive maximum values: a) zero phase sequence–no phase shift. in relation PHASE SEQUENCE—The order in which successive members of a periodic wave PHASE SHIFT—A change in the phase relationship between two alternating quantities. Sometimes also referred to as aramid fiber. PLATED HOLE—A hole with walls that have been plated with conductive material PLC—Programmable logic controller. PE—Polyethylene. not fastened to the other mating half. or PIGTAIL WIRE—Fine stranded. open space over a suspended ceiling. A widely used thermoplastic insulation and jacket compound. PLUG—The part of the two mating halves of a connector that is movable when PLY—The number of individual strands or filaments twisted together to form a single thread. Measured in degrees. rope lay lead wire attached to a shield POLYAMIDE—The chemical name for nylon. for terminating purposes. 1. PHOTOVOLTAIC WIRE (PV WIRE)­—A UL cable type. PIN ASSIGNMENT—A predetermined relationship between the terminals in a connector and the conductors in a cable that specifies the terminals to which each conductor is to be terminated. distribution and utilization equipment. PHASE—The location of a position on a waveform of an alternating current. by weight. member that may be either flexible or rigid.000 PICK—Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. A packet-switched or circuit-switched network available for use by many customers. the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors. Most are scheduled for replacement due to lead content and age. and b) plus/minus phase sequence–normal phase shift. (2) Orientation of the electric field in an electromagnetic wave. expressed in percent. Mylar is DuPont’s trademark for polyester. PICO—Prefix meaning one-millionth of one-millionth (10-12). POLYESTER—Polyethylene terephthalate. insulated. Old cable style present in many urban distribution networks. PLENUM—The air return path of a central air handling system. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage. generally using abrasives. PILC CABLE—Paper insulated. lead covered. PEEL STRENGTH—The force necessary to peel a flexible member from another PERCENT CONDUCTIVITY—The ratio of the resistivity of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) at 20°C to the resistivity of a material at 20°C. POLISHING—Act of smoothing ends of optical fibers to an “optically smooth” finish. 600 V. PDNs may offer value-added services at a reduced cost because of communications resource sharing and usually provide increased reliability due to built-in redundancy. to the start of a cycle. POLARIZATION—(1) The orientation of a flat cable or a rectangular connector. PERCENT PLATING—Quantity of plating on a conductor expressed as a percentage percentage of that of copper. PEAK—The maximum instantaneous value of a varying current or voltage. Also called crest. to provide an electrical connection between the conductive patterns on both sides of a printed circuit or an anchor for soldering an inserted wire. POLYBUTADIENE—A type of synthetic rubber often blended with other synthetic rubbers to improve their properties. stranded single conductor wire used to connect photovoltaic electricity generating panels to each other and to collection. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. either ductwork or PLENUM CABLE—Cable approved by a recognized agency such as UL for installation in plenums without the need for conduit due to a higher flame resistance rating. A micromicrofarad. with 360 corresponding to one complete cycle. Also referred to as PWB (printed wiring board) to distinguish this usage from the chemical usage (polychlorinated biphenyls–persistent organic pollutants that are banned in many countries). used extensively as a moisture-resistant cable core wrap.Glossary PCB—Printed circuit board. PICOFARAD—One-millionth of one-millionth of a farad (10-12). POLYARAMID—Generic name for Kevlar. rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved so the wire will not kink as it is twisted. V.000 V. POLYCHLOROPRENE—See NEOPRENE. POINT-TO-POINT WIRING—An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points. PERCENTAGE CONDUCTIVITY—Conductivity of a material expressed as a PFA—Perfluoroalkoxy. PLANETARY TWISTER—A cabling machine whose payoff spools are mounted in PLASTICIZER—A chemical added to plastics to make them softer and more flexible. rated 300 volts.

POWER RATIO—The ratio of the power appearing at the load to the input power. Also referred to as power sum alien equal-level far-end crosstalk (PSAELFEXT). Expressed in dB. POROSITY—Generally defined as the percentage of space occupied by voids in an insulation cross section. A computation of signal coupling from multiple pairs of disturbing channels.. along a transmission path. 281 . measured at the far-end. composed of electromagnetic energy to travel from one point to another over a transmission channel. Nonlinear loads have PFs less than one.Glossary POLYETHYLENE—A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. electrical connections. chlorine. POLYPROPYLENE—A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having a higher temperature softening point. PROXIMITY EFFECT—Nonuniform current distribution over the cross-section of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor. POLYOLEFINS—A family of plastics including cross-linked polyethylene and various ethylene copolymers. PROPAGATION DELAY—The time it takes a signal. it is equal to 10 log10 (P2/P1) where P1 is input power and P2 is the power at the load. PSANEXT—Power sum alien near-end crosstalk. POWER FACTOR (PF)—The cosine of the phase difference between current and POWER LOSS—The difference between the total power delivered to a circuit. A cable parameter used by electrical system engineers to calculate voltage drop. to a disturbed pair in another channel measured at the far-end and relative to the received signal level in the disturbed pair at the far-end. single or multiconductor. usually most noticeable in communicating with satellites. The halogens are flourine. PREMOLDED SPLICE—A joint made of premolded components assembled in the field. or both. Usually expressed in watts and equal to I2R in electrical systems. and back to the original value in a finite length of time. or device and power delivered by that device to a load. PRINTING WIRING—A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point production for the purpose of quality control. PSAACRF—Power sum insertion loss to alien crosstalk ratio far-end. or jacketing material. PTFE—Polytetrafluorobthylene. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic. rubber or elastomer.O.—Abbreviation for point-of-sale (e. A computation of signal coupling POWER CABLES—Cables of various sizes. POLYIMIDE—A relatively high-temperature plastic developed for use as a dielectric POLYMER—A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. P. PPE—Polypropylene ethylene. the speed-of-light delay. PSAFEXT—Power sum alien far-end crosstalk. twisted together. a cash register station). whose prime function is to act as electrical insulation. PORT—A point of access into a computer. from multiple near-end disturbing channel pairs into a disturbed pair of a neighboring channel or part thereof. A computation of the unwanted signal coupling from multiple transmitters at the near-end into a neighboring (non-energized) pair measured at the near-end. normally. individual insulation. PULSE—A current or voltage that changes abruptly from one value to another PULSE CABLE—A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated highvoltage pulses without degradation. A computation of signal coupling from multiple near-end disturbing channel pairs into a disturbed pair of a neighboring channel or part thereof. bromine and iodine. One type of Teflon. topcoat tinned or overcoat tinned. PRIMARY—The transformer winding that receives the energy from a supply current. Can be in solid or cellular form. POWER—The amount or work per unit of time. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)—A general purpose thermoplastic used for wire and cable insulations and jackets. Sometimes abbreviated TFE. the physical or electrical interface through which one gains access. “Positive sequence” refers to the phase relationship of the currents in the conductors. when conductors are located in assigned positions with relation to each other throughout the entire length of a cable. constructions and insulations. POTTING—Sealing by filling with a substance to exclude moisture. cable. POSITION CODING—Identification of conductors by their location. PSNEXT—Power sum near-end crosstalk. possible only PROPAGATION VELOCITY—The velocity of the propagation of a wave or pulse PROTECTIVE COVERING—A field-applied material to provide environmental protection over a splice or housing. Kapton is DuPont’s trademark for polyimide.S. PRODUCTION TESTS—Tests made on components or subassemblies during POLYURETHANE—Broad class of polymers noted for good abrasion and solvent resistance. PROPAGATION TIME—Time required for a wave or pulse to travel between two points on a transmission line. Resistive loads have a power factor of unity. designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment. a network or other electronic device. applied voltage or the ratio of real power flow to the apparent power flow expressed as a ratio between zero and one. the interface between a process and a communications or transmission facility. PRIMARY INSULATION—The first layer of nonconductive material applied over a conductor.g. POLYHALOCARBON—A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. PULLING EYE—A device attached to a conductor to pull cable into or from a duct. POSITIVE SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE—The electrical impedance of a three-phase power cable during normal operation. PT—Thermostat cable with solid conductor. PREBOND—Stranded wire that has been fused. measured at the near-end.

See RUS. causing standing waves. REFLECTION—(1) The change in direction (or return) of waves or pulses striking Q Q band—The band of frequencies between 36 and 46 gigahertz. REINFORCED SHEATH—The outer covering of a cable that has a reinforcing material. Arkema Inc. energy through the material. Chemicals will be added for a period of several years. PYROMETER—See THERMOCOUPLE. in an even pattern. RESISTIVE CONDUCTOR—A conductor with high electrical resistance. a surface. temperature. A gray polyvinyl chloride material which is semi-noncontaminating. REFERENCE EDGE—See INDEX EDGE. electromagnetic energy reflections can occur at an impedance mismatch in a transmission line. Resins are broadly classified as thermoplastic or thermoset according to whether they soften or harden with the application of heat. A second color represents the second significant figure and the third is the multiplier or the number of zeros that follow two significant figures. RESISTIVITY—A material characteristic that opposes the flow of electrical REACH (REGISTRATION. RESISTOR COLOR CODE—A method of indicating resistance value and tolerance. PWB—Printed wiring board. REACH began in 2008. RADIO FREQUENCY—The frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that are used for radio communications. The first color represents the first significant figure of the value. A black or gray polyvinyl chloride material REEL—A revolving flanged device made of plastic. but is a contaminating type and will cause cable attenuation to increase with age. PVDF—Polyvinylidene difluoride. A black polyvinyl chloride with excellent weathering and abrasion properties. EVALUATION AND AUTHORIZATION OF CHEMICALS)—A European community regulation on the safe use of chemicals. alloying. PVC-I—A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. contamination. specified time period or amount of usage. PVC-II—A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. usually a braided fiber. wood or metal. it is usually located at the EMF measuring device. Can be used for direct burial. inductance. together in pairs. (2) Change in direction of a light wave or ray in an optical fiber. that is noncontaminating. Replacing PCB in common usage to avoid confusion with chemical PCBs. Companies selling into the European market are required to provide compliance information to their downstream users. It is affected by temper. RESISTOR—An electronic component designed to have a specific value of resistance. REFRACTION—The bending of light waves or rays as they go from one material to another due to the difference in velocities in the materials. molded in place between layers. The unit of surface resistivity is ohms/m2. The amount of such opposition varies with the frequency of the current.S. REFERENCE JUNCTION—The junction of a thermocouple that is at a known reference temperature. resistance is the real component of impedance and may be higher than the value measured at DC. In AC circuits. Compliance requires the investigation of the supply chain for the presence of certain chemicals called SVHCs (substances of very high concern). PVC-IIA—A MIL-DTL-17 coax jacket type. the opposite occurs with an inductance. RELIABILITY—The probability that a device will function without failure over a RESIN—A solid or semisolid organic substance. RANDOM WINDING—A winding in rotating equipment wherein wires do not lie REA (RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION)—A federally supported program to provide electrical service to rural areas. It has good weathering and abrasion-resistant properties and can be used for direct burial. Also called a spool. REFLOW SOLDERING—The process of connecting two solder-coated conductive surfaces by remelting of the solder to cause fusion. RECOVERED DIAMETER—Diameter of shrinkable products after heating has caused it to return to its extruded diameter.Glossary PVC—Polyvinyl chloride. brown-red growth sometimes found on silver-coated copper conductors and shield braids. A common insulating and jacketing material used on cables. government. R R—Symbol for electrical resistance. etc. REDRAW—The consecutive drawing of wire through a series of dies to reach a desired wire size. REACTANCE—The opposition to an alternating electron flow by a capacitance or 282 . RESISTANCE—In DC circuits. The reactance of a capacitor decreases with an increase in frequency.’s trademark for this material is Kynar. originally of plant origin but largely synthesized now. the opposition a material offers to current. used for winding flexible cable. QPL—A Qualified Products List issued by the U. measured in ohms. A band of frequencies between 10 kilohertz and 100 gigahertz. When there is a fourth color band. For example. QUAD—A series of four separately insulated conductors. Also known as the “cold” junction. The unit of volume resistivity is the ohm-cm. RED PLAGUE—A powdery. generally twisted REFLECTION LOSS—The part of a signal that is lost to reflection of power at a line discontinuity. it indicates the tolerance.

RS-232 defines the electrical characteristics of the signals in the cable that connect DTE (data terminal equipment) with DCE (data communications equipment). RoHS—Restriction of Hazardous Substances.” RINGING OUT—Locating or identifying specific conductive paths by passing current through selected conductors. The radio noise appearing on conductors of electric rms—See ROOT MEAN SQUARE.9 of its final value. Made with RFI—Radio frequency interference. or parts. expressed in decibels. An RS-232 modem interface signal (sent from the DTE to the modem on pin 4) that indicates that the DTE has data to transmit.24/V. A trademark of the Southwire Company. RS-232—An ANSI/TIA recommended standard (RS). It is the ratio. having excellent electrical properties. it specifies a 25-pin connector (the DB-25 connector is almost universally used in RS-232 applications). usually a metal tube armored coaxial cable. heat-resistant wire.Glossary RESONANCE—An AC circuit condition in which inductive and capacitive reactance interact to cause a minimum or maximum circuit impedance. 75°C dry or wet. Converts temperature to an electrical signal. a common standard for connecting data processing devices. RIP CORD—Two or more insulated conductors in a parallel configuration that may be separated to leave the insulation of each conductor intact. RHW-2—Rubber-insulated building wire. Similar to ITU-T V. RETURN LOSS—A measure of the degree of impedance mismatch between two impedances. RS-422—An ANSI/TIA standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. hexavalent chromium. Retractability may be added to all or part of a cord’s length. RS-423—An ANSI/TIA standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. A European Union regulation (Directive 2002/95/EC). RETRACTILE CORD—A cord having a specially treated insulation or jacket so it will retract like a spring. mercury. It is similar to ITU-T V. RHW—Rubber-insulated building wire.” A UL cable type. current or voltages. Root mean square (rms)—The effective value of an alternating ROPE CONCENTRIC—A group of stranded conductors assembled in a concentric manner. heat and moisture-resistant. The disruption of radio signal reception caused by any source that generates radio waves at the same frequency and along the same path as the desired wave. ROCKWELL HARDNESS—A measure of hardness determined by resistance to indention by a small diamond or steel ball under pressure. RIV—Radio influence voltage. RIGID COAXIAL CABLE—Nonflexible coaxial cable. during production for the purposes of quality control. ROPE UNILAY—A group of stranded conductors assembled in a unilay manner. rated 90°C in dry and damp locations. cadmium. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-449. Sometimes called “hardline.11. ROMEX—A type of nonmetallic sheathed (Type NM) cable. A device used to convert digital data signals to analog signals (and from analog to digital) then modulate/demodulate them to/from their assigned frequencies. Similar to ITU-T V. RISE TIME—The time it takes the voltage to rise from 0. heat and moisture-resistant. RS-422 is most frequently implemented on unused pins of DB-25 (RS-232) connectors. spiral and reverse spiral. A UL cable type. RUBBER. RG/U—“RG” (radio guide) is the military designation for coaxial cable and “U” stands for “general utility. RIDGE MARKER—One or more ridges running laterally along the outer surface of a plastic insulated wire for purposes of identification. equipment or circuits. Similar to EMI. REW—A 600 volt Canadian wire type covered by CSA standards. RING TONGUE—A solderless terminal that connects wire to a stud. of the amplitude of a reflected wave echo to the amplitude of the main wave at the junction of a transmission line and a terminating impedance. ROUTINE TESTS—Tests made on each high-voltage cable or upon a representative number of devices. ROPE STRAND—A conductor composed of a center group of twisted strands surrounded by layers of twisted strands. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR—See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. A UL cable type. PBB and PBDE. which became effective in 2006 that requires the elimination of six hazardous substances from electrical and electronic products sold in the EU including lead. ETHYLENE PROPYLENE (EPR)—A synthetic rubber insulation 283 . RF MODEM—Radio frequency modem. conductors in the same plane. thermoset insulation. RHH—Rubber-insulated. RETURN WIRE—A ground wire or the negative wire in a direct-current circuit. RS-232-C SERIAL I/O PORT—A standard connection interface for computer peripheral equipment. tinned or silver-plated copper wire that include braided.28.10. ROUND CONDUCTOR FLAT CABLE—A cable made with parallel round ROUND WIRE SHIELDS—Shields constructed from bare. RIBBON CABLE—A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or an extruded polymer web. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-422. RS-423 is not widely used.1 to 0. 90°C dry or wet. ROTATING CABLE—A coil of cable whose inner end is attached to a member that rotates in relation to a member to which the outer end of the cable is fastened. RTD—Resistance temperature sensing device. RTS—Request-to-send.

they are not the same. SAE—Society of Automotive Engineers.. CPE and others. SHIELD EFFECTIVENESS—The relative ability of a shield to screen out undesirable radiation. shaped into a required configuration from coils or reels. assembled to give a substantially circular cross section. SHEATH—The outer covering or jacket over the insulated conductors to provide mechanical protection for the conductors. germanium. Same as SW except with ground wires. a central core.Glossary RUBBER INSULATION—A general term used to describe wire insulations made of elastomers such as natural or synthetic rubbers. SG—A CSA cable type.550 and 5. SEPARATOR—Pertaining to wire and cable. EPR. Usually made by adding carbon particles to an insulator and used to provide a graduated transition between conductor and insulation in high-voltage cable. SEMICONDUCTOR—In wire industry terminology. or to keep out any unwanted interference. SENSITIVE CONDUCTOR—A conductor terminated to a circuit that is adversely affected by spurious signals. Not the same as semiconductor materials. etc.. of information in which the bits composing a character are sent sequentially. screen or braid of metal. between a cable jacket and the components it covers. Implies only a single transmission channel. SECONDARY INSULATION—A nonconductive material that protects the conductor against abrasion and provides a second barrier. Silicone rubber insulated fixture wire. except flexible stranding 150°C. solid or seven-strand conductor. or can offer additional mechanical or electrical protection to the components it separates. SEWF—A CSA cable type. wound around SERVED WIRE ARMOR—Spiral wrap of soft galvanized steel wires wrapped around a cable to afford mechanical protection and increase the cable-pulling tension characteristic. SERVING—A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire. SELF-EXTINGUISHING—Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed. 5 kV through 25 kV. or the transfer SERIES CIRCUIT—A circuit in which the components are arranged end to end to form a single path for current. A federal agency formerly known as the REA.200 megahertz. Silicone rubber-insulated equipment wire. SBR—A copolymer of styrene and butadiene. SDN—A small diameter multiconductor control cable with neoprene jacket and nylon SERVE—A filament or group of filaments such as fibers or wires. SEGMENTAL CONDUCTOR—A stranded conductor consisting of three or more stranded conducting elements. to contain any unwanted radiation. a material possessing electrical conduction properties that fall somewhere between conductors and insulators. thus preventing the line from radiating radio waves. or between various components of a multiple-conductor cable. SEMIRIGID CABLE—Generally refers to Type MI or Type ALS that can be bent or SEMIRIGID PVC—A hard semiflexible polyvinylchloride compound with low SHIELD—A sheet. SHIELDED INSULATED SPLICE—An insulated splice in which a conducting material is employed over the full length of the insulation for electric stress control. Also GRS or Buna-S. 284 . CSPE. plasticizer content. Hard service flexible cord with thermoset insulation and jacket. used for making transistors and diodes. S BAND—A band of frequencies between 1. Automotive standards body. with grounding conductors. 600 volts. each element having approximately the shape of the sector of a circle. SERIAL INTERFACE—An interface that requires serial transmission. Service entrance cable. SFF—A CSA cable type. sheath over polyethylene insulation. a layer of insulating material such RUS—Rural Utilities Service. SHIELDED LINE—A transmission line whose elements confine radio waves to an SEPARABLE INSULATED CONNECTOR—An insulated device to facilitate cable connections and separations. which is placed between a conductor and its dielectric. S S—A UL cable type. aluminum or other conducting material placed around or between electric circuits or cables or their components. SEW. three or four individually shielded conductors. usually copper. Also see SO and SJ. It can be used to improve stripping qualities and/or flexibility. Mylar. SCHERING BRIDGE—See BRIDGE. SE—A UL cable type. as textile. SGO—A CSA cable type. such as silicon. SE-R—Style R residential service entrance cable. Same as SF. SF—A CSA cable type. SHIELD COVERAGE—See SHIELD PERCENTAGE. 200°C. paper. Frequently confused incorrectly with the term shield percentage. etc. SEMICONDUCTING JACKET—A jacket having a sufficiently low-electrical resistance so its outer surface can be kept at substantially ground potential. neoprene. SHD—Portable mine power cable. SEMISOLID—An insulation cross-section having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter. essentially finite space inside a tubular conducting surface called the sheath. Same as SWO except with ground wires.

but 300 V. as its frequency increases. SINGLE-MODE—Optical fiber in which only one mode of light can propagate. SINGLE CABLE—A one-cable system in broadband LANs in which a portion of the bandwidth is allocated for send signals and a portion for receive signals. Junior hard service. than braided. with or without a third conductor for grounding purposes. SNM—Shielded nonmetallic sheathed cable. SILICONE—A material made from silicon and oxygen. SOFT WIRE—Wire that has been drawn or rolled to final size and then heated (annealed) to remove the effects of cold working. SOLID CONDUCTOR—A conductor consisting of a single wire. S METER—An instrument to measure signal strength. the information conveyed through a communications system. Junior hard service thermoplastic or rubber insulated conductors with overall thermoplastic jacket. SHOVEL CABLE—Normally an SHD-GC type that supplies high-voltage (2 kV to 25 kV) to travel only on the surface of a conductor. jacket by the use of high heat to a homogenous continuum. control dielectric stresses and prevent partial discharges. Usually employed for fluorocarbon. 300 V. expressed as a percentage. distance between centers of the first and last conductors. SI—An international system of standardized units of measurement. two-conductor light duty cord for pendant or portable use in damp locations. parallel-jacketed. 600 V. SJO—Same as SJ. SPLICE—A connection of two or more conductors or cables to provide good mechanical SPLITTER—A passive device used in a cable system to divide the power of a single input into two or more outputs of lesser power. usually expressed in dB. SOO—Same as SO but with oil-resistant insulation. but with oil-resistant jacket. SJTOO—Same as SJTO but with oil-resistant insulation. POWER CABLE—A conducting layer applied to increase safety. distance between the reference edge of the first and the last SPC—Statistical process control. SJ—A UL or CSA cable type. but UL Listed or CSA Certified for outdoor use. Can also be used as a combiner when two or more inputs are combined into a single output. SHRINK TEMPERATURE—The temperature that effects complete recovery of a heat shrinkable product from the expanded state. SJT—A UL or CSA cable type. but heavier construction. SP-2—Same as SP-1. power to mobile equipment. SJTO—Same as SJT but oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. insulating material. All thermoset. SHUNT WIRE—A conductor joining two parts of an electric circuit to divert part of the current. 600 V. conductor. SOLEF—Solvay’s trademark for its PVDF polymer. SP-1—A UL cable type. Also. SHRINK TUBING—Tubing that has been extruded.Glossary SHIELDING. SIGNAL CABLE—A cable designed to carry current of usually less than one ampere per conductor. oil-resistant thermoset jacket. passes into an optical fiber. Portable cord and control cable. Can be in thermosetting elastomer or liquid form. The thermosetting elastomer form is noted for high heat resistance. cross-linked and mechanically expanded. with a guard band in between to provide isolation from interference. SHUNT—A very low-resistance component used to divert a portion of the electric current. SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO—A ratio of the amplitude in a desired signal to the amplitude of noise. 300 V. oil-resistant jacket. nonextrudable materials. SOOW—A UL or CSA cable type. Same as SOO SOURCE COUPLING LOSS—Loss of light intensity as the light from a source SPACER CABLE—A type of overhead power distribution cable. 300 V. Hard service cord. SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITY (SIC)—Dielectric constant of an SPIRAL SHIELD—A metallic shield of fine stranded wires applied spirally rather SPIRAL STRIPE—A color coding stripe applied helically to the surface of an insulated wire or cable. strength as well as good electrical conductivity. SKIN EFFECT—The tendency of alternating current. SIGNAL—Any visible or audio indication that can convey information. Spacing is accomplished by ceramic or plastic hangers suspended from a support messenger. SHRINKING RATIO—The ratio between the expanded diameter and recovered diameter of shrinkable products. SIC (SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITANCE)—See DIELECTRIC CONSTANT. SINTERING—Fusion of an extruded paste or a spirally applied tape wrap insulation or SIS—Switchboard wiring made with cross-linked polyethylene insulation. S/N—See SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO. SPIRAL WRAP—The helical wrap of a tape or thread over a core. which when reheated or released will return to its original diameter. same construction as type S except SHIELD PERCENTAGE—The physical area of a circuit or cable actually covered by shielding material. SO—A UL or CSA cable type. rubber-insulated pendant or portable cord. Same construction as type S. SPAN—In flat conductors. SJOO—Same as SJO but with oil-resistant insulation as well as an 285 . In round conductors. SHORT—A low-resistance path that results in excessive current flow and often in damage.

or a resistor in series with. conductor. the property of a conductor that causes it to resist permanent deformation by bending. Commonly caused by environmental conditions (lightning) or sudden load changes. heat. STANDING WAVE RATIO (SWR)—In a transmission line. measured longitudinally. 600 V.” STRAND LAY—The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally stranded STRESS-RELIEF CABLE—Cable used to relieve stresses in the process of welding pipe joints by inducing heat in pipe sections to be welded. SPT—A UL type of thermoplastic-insulated. jacketed. a resistance conductor in. Hard service cord. Frequently called “zip cord” or “lamp cord. The existence of voltage and current maximum and minimum along a transmission line is a result of reflected energy from an impedance mismatch. 150/200°C 600 V appliance and motor lead wire. SRK—A cable with ozone-resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame-. each of which consists of one or more conductors. adjacent conductors. Same as ST but with an oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. the cable ends at their points of termination and to keep any pull on the cable from being transferred to the electrical connections. Protective devices are employed to prevent damage from surges. 600 V. Cable core of insulated conductors shielded or unshielded and an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame-. between the cables being joined. SURFACE RESISTIVITY—The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface. surrounded by cladding of slightly lower refractive index. usually a high-tensile textile. Two wires. of the cable structure. 80 volts/mil and at 40 volts/mil measured on wire immersed in water at 75°C for a specified time. or of any combination of such groups of wires. STOP JOINT—A splice that is designed to prevent any transfer of dielectric fluid STP—Shielded twisted pair. SUPPRESSOR—A device used to reduce or eliminate unwanted voltages in electric or electronic circuits. 60°C to 105°C.and moisture-resistant finish. wound around each other to help cancel out any induced noise in balanced circuits. 200°C 600 V fixture wire and power cable. manufactured so it will be reliable and interoperable (compatible) with others of the same type from different manufacturers. STRUCTURAL RETURN LOSS—Backward reflected energies from uneven parts SUBSTRATE—Insulating material layer on a printed wiring board.” STO—A North American flexible cord type. STRIP—To remove insulation from a wire or cable. STRAIGHT JOINT—A cable splice used for connecting two lengths of cable. generally used above 2. 150/200°C 600 V multiconductor cable. STOOW—Same as STOO but suitable for use in wet locations. For example. a figure of merit used to express the efficiency of the system in transmitting power. heat. yarn conductor jacket. STOO—Same as STO but with oil-resistant insulation. flexible copper strand.or three-conductor parallel cord. Also called transient. in one turn. SR—Silicone rubber cable 600 V. ST—A UL cable type.Glossary SP-3—Same as SP-2. heat. STABILITY FACTOR—The difference between the percentage power factor at STANDARD—A set of rules or protocols that describe how a device should be STRESS-RELIEF CONE (TERMINATION)—A device used to relieve the electrical stress at a shielded cable termination. STATIC CHARGE—An electrical charge that is bound to an object.400 volts. It is usually expressed in ohms. SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR—An induction motor having the primary winding (usually the stator) connected to the power and a current is induced in the secondary cage winding (usually the rotor). usually twisted. STANDING WAVE—The stationary pattern of waves produced by two waves of the same frequency traveling in opposite directions on the same transmission line.and moisture-resistant finish. SURGE—A temporary and relatively large increase in the voltage or current in an electric circuit or cable. but heavier construction for refrigerators or room air conditioners. Multiple pairs of wires are contained in one sheath and each wire pair is shielded. An unmoving STAY CORD—A component of a cable. 286 . same as type S except thermoplastic construction. An optional rating for UL Listed cable types that also pass the Limited Smoke requirements contained in UL Standards. A cable that meets the requirement can be marked “ST1. electrical charge. 125°C. 300 V. ST1—Smoke Test #1. 60°C. STRANDED CONDUCTOR—A conductor composed of a group of wires. STRAIN HARDENING—An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range. refractive index. SRG—A cable with ozone-resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided glass yarn impregnated with flame-. SUGGESTED WORKING VOLTAGE—AC voltage that can be applied between SUPERCONDUCTORS—Materials whose resistance and magnetic permeability are virtually zero at very low temperatures. Also referred to as lay length. STRAND—One of the wires of any stranded conductor. SRGK—A cable with ozone-resistant silicone rubber insulation with braided glass STRAIN GAUGE—A device for determining the amount of strain (change in dimension) when a stress is applied. a spark plug cable to suppress interference that would otherwise affect radio reception in and near the vehicle. two. waveguide or analogous system. used to anchor STEP INDEX FIBER—A multimode optical fiber consisting of a core of uniform STIFFNESS—As applied to copper.and moisture-resistant finish.

Same as SV except oil-resistant thermoset jacket. heat. TENSILE STRENGTH—The maximum load per unit of original cross-sectional area that a conductor attains when tested in tension to rupture. TEXTILE BRAID—Any braid made from threads of cotton. SW—A CSA cable type. Solid or stranded single conductor. TAPED INSULATION—Insulation of helically wound tapes applied over a conductor or over an assembled group of insulated conductors. silicone glass braid. SVTO—A North American cable type. thermoplastic-covered solid or seven TFE—One of three types of Teflon. TAPE WRAP—A spirally applied tape over an insulated or uninsulated wire. See also VSWR. TANK TEST—A dielectric strength test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and the water acting as ground. bobbin or some other type of pack. See Tray Cable. SWR—Standing wave ratio. SVO—A North American cable type. 600 V. silk or synthetic fibers. thermocouple to a junction box. bus or block with mechanical fasteners. TCLP—Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. For light duty in damp locations. once set. THERMOCOUPLE—A device consisting of two dissimilar metals in physical contact. Same as SVT. The application of heat or radiation is called “curing. Also. TGGT—PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulation covering of wrapped glass yarn TGS—Solid or flexible copper. 60°C or 90°C. such that when properly connected allows the EMF to be accurately transmitted to the reference junction. Also known as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene).Glossary SV—A North American cable type. THERMOCOUPLE ELEMENT—A thermocouple designed to be used as part of an assembly. glass braid. 600 V.” THHN—A UL cable type. plastic insulated. TAP—(1) Baseband. TERMINALS—Metal wire termination devices designed to handle one or more 287 . THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE—An insulated pair of wires used from the THERMOPLASTIC—A material that softens when heated and becomes firm THERMOSET—A material that has been hardened or set by the application of heat or radiation. TF—A UL cable type. nickel-clad iron or copper. SWEEP TEST—A test to check attenuation at a range of frequencies. A test created by the EPA to determine whether an item can be safely discarded in an ordinary (nonhazardous) landfill. two or three conductor. and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture. 600 V. 600 V. which when heated will develop an EMF output. PTFE and PFA polymers. TERMINATOR—A resistive device used to terminate the end of cable or an unused tap into its characteristic impedance. 60°C. A passive device used to remove a portion of the signal power from the distribution line and deliver it onto the drop line. TEST LEAD—A flexible. Also called a directional tap or multitap. 300 V 60°C. TAPED SPLICE—A joint with hand-applied tape insulation. except with oil-resistant thermoplastic jacket. cannot be resoftened by heating. 250°C. 250°C appliance wire. TEMPERATURE RATING—The maximum temperature at which an insulating material may be used in continuous operation without loss of its basic properties. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION CABLE—A cable comprised of one or more twisted thermocouple extension wires under a common sheath. The component of a connector that attaches a transceiver to a THERMAL AGING—Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for predescribed periods of time. TFFN—Same as TFF but with nylon outer jacket. (2) Broadband. 60°C. T TAKE-UP—The process of accumulating wire or cable onto a reel. conductors. Fixture wire. 300 V. Teflon tape. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION WIRE—A pair of wires of dissimilar alloys T CONNECTOR—A cable adapter that attaches a PC with a network interface TEAR STRENGTH—The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions. 90°C nylon-jacketed building wire for use in dry and damp locations. strands. or nickel conductor. insulated lead wire used for making tests. The terminator prevents interference-causing signal reflections. for FEP. cable. 60°C or 90°C. 105°C. connecting head or protecting tube. and to be attached to a board. Overall rubber jacket. Rubber jacketed power supply cable (8 AWG to 2 AWG) 600 V. or for making temporary electrical connections. NEC Article 336. TEW—CSA appliance wire type. the device for pulling wire or cable through a piece of equipment or machine. but without associated parts such as terminal block. connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily. TEFLON—Trademark of the DuPont Co. SVT—A North American cable type. 300 V. Teflon tape. Same as SV except thermoplastic jacket. TG—Flexible nickel or nickel-clad copper conductor. having EMF temperature characteristics complementing the thermocouple with which it is intended to be used. on cooling. The ratio of incoming to reflected energy in a cable system. module to the network. flame and fraying resistant compound. TFF—Same as TF but flexible stranding. 60°C. Vacuum cleaner cord. rubber insulated. TC—A UL cable type. and which. 200°C. TFN—Same as TF but with nylon outer jacket.

Sometimes also referred to as a “surface transfer impedance” test. solid bottom trays and similar structures. Usually expressed in decibels. THW-2—A UL cable type. a similar nonthreaded bayonet connector. 90°C rated in dry and wet locations. TRIBOELECTRIC NOISE—Noise generated in a shielded cable due to variations in TROLLEY WIRE—A round or shaped solid. TUBING—A tube of extruded unsupported plastic material. made of noncombustible materials used to support cables. TL-9000—A quality system for the telecommunications industry based on ISO 9000. signal from a computer or terminal and imposes it on the baseband medium. bare. intercom signals to operators. TV CAMERA CABLE—Multiconductor (often composite) cable to carry power for camera. channels. with each wire serving as a return for the other two. controller allowing nodes to be placed away from the baseband medium. telegraphy. TWIN COAXIAL—A coaxial cable configuration containing two separate. Flame-retardant. THREE-WIRE SYSTEM—A DC or single-phase AC system comprising three conductors. OVERCOAT CONDUCTOR and TOPCOATED. or other form of intelligence by wire. facsimile.). and dry locations. Rated 75°C in wet THWN-2—A UL cable type. TRANSCEIVER—A device required in baseband networks which takes the digital TR-XLP—Tree retardant cross-linked polyethylene. TRANSMISSION LINE—A signal-carrying circuit with controlled electrical TRANSMISSION LOSS—The decrease or loss in power during transmission of THREE-QUARTER-HARD WIRE—As applied to aluminum. Flame-retardant. troughs. etc. TURNKEY SYSTEM—Refers to any system that is completely assembled and tested by one party for another that only requires the purchaser to turn the key on to be fully operational. TRACER—A means of identifying an individual conductor (e. TWINAXIAL CABLE—A shielded coaxial cable with two central insulated conductors. Contrast with BNC. THWN—A UL cable type. Line impedance is determined by the diameter and spacing of the conductors. TRANSPOSITION—Interchanging the relative positions of wires to neutralize the effects of induction to or from other circuits or to minimize interference pickup by the lead-in during reception. TKGT—PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulating covering of felted K-fiber yarn and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture-. Usually heavy-duty jacketed. Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall. THREE-PHASE THREE-WIRE SYSTEM—An alternating current supply system comprising three conductors over which three-phase power is sent. or other means. THW—A UL cable type. TNC is said to be an abbreviation for TOPCOATED—Bare (untinned) copper wire. stranded. wet and dry locations. stranded then coated with pure tin. video. characteristics used to transmit high-frequency or narrow-pulse signals. flameand fraying-resistant compound. for polarity. radio. TRANSMISSION CABLE—Two or more transmission lines. then coated with tin. message. 75°C rated in dry and wet locations. TRAY—A cable tray system is an assembly of units or sections and ancillary fittings. telephony. threaded-Neill-Concelman. TNC—A threaded connector for miniature coax. TRAY CABLE—A factory-assembled multiconductor or multipair control cable approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays.THREE-PHASE CURRENT—Current delivered through three wires.. Usually conducted per NEMA WC61. energy from one point to another. moisture resistant and rated 60°C. Thermoplastic vinyl-jacketed building wire. and a third circular conductor insulated from and concentric with the second. lights. TW—A UL wire type. maneuvering motors. 250°C. TRUNK CABLE—A main cable used for distribution of signals over long distances throughout a cable system. with each strand a very thin conductor ribbon spirally wrapped around a textile yarn. Rated 90°C in TIA—Telecommunications Industries Association.g. TRANSITION SPLICE—A cable splice that connects two different types of cable. 600 V apparatus and motor lead wire. hard conductor ordinarily used to supply current to motors through traveling current collectors. moisture and heat resistant. TPE—Thermoplastic elastomer. TINNED WIRE—See COATED WIRE. and an impervious sheath overall. one of which is maintained at a potential midway between the potential of the other two. coaxial cables laid parallel or twisted around each other in one unit. See TRANSMISSION LINE. etc. capacitance between shielding and conductor as the cable is flexed. heat-. Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. complete TWIN-LEAD—A transmission line having two parallel conductors separated by insulating material. wire that has been processed to produce a strength approximately midway between that of half-hard wire and that of hard-drawn wire. Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall. TIN OVERCOAT (TOC)—Tinned copper wire. TRIAXIAL—A three-conductor cable with one conductor in the center. moisture and heat resistant. TREEING—Microscopic tree-like channels in medium-voltage cable insulation that can lead to cable failure. a second circular conductor concentric with and insulated from the first. TRANSCEIVER CABLE—Cable connecting the transceiver to the network interface TRANSFER IMPEDANCE TEST—A laboratory test that measures the effectiveness of a cable shield to keep EMI in (or out) of the cable. TRANSMISSION—The dispatching of a signal. TINSEL WIRE—A low-voltage stranded wire. TRUE CONCENTRIC—A cable conductor in which each successive strand layer has a reversed direction of lay from the preceding layer. Cable tray systems include ladders. 288 .

the band extending from 300 to 3. consumption. An unshielded twisted-pair cable usually contains four pairs in a single cable jacket. ULTRAVIOLET—Radiant energy within the wavelength range 10 to 380 nanometers. all layers have the same direction of lay. Underground service entrance cable. UL—Underwriters Laboratories. three symmetrically positioned grounding conductors and an overall RF shield. coaxial cable). The band extending from 10 to 30 kHz. identifies each style. VHF—Very high frequency. CSPE or XLP jacketed. See APPARENT POWER. Many UL styles are single-conductor hook-up wire. TWINNING—Synonymous with pairing. compare with BALANCED LINE.000 MHz as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION—The transmission speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to its speed in free space. typical of telephone and LAN wiring. VA—Volt-ampere. V V—Volts. telephone carrier circuits. It represents the energy available per unit charge within an electrical system (joules /coulombs).S. A unique four or five digit number.g. TWISTED PAIR—A pair of insulated copper conductors that are twisted around UTP—Unshielded twisted pair. Utilities charge more for loads that consume large amount of reactive power. A designation of power in terms of volts and amperes. VISCOSITY—Internal friction or resistance to flow of a liquid: the constant ratio of shearing stress to rate of shear. Also called adjustable speed drive (ASD) cable. VDE—Association of German Electrical Engineers. UNBALANCED-TO-GROUND—Describing a two-wire circuit. usually twisted around each other to help cancel out induced noise in adjacent circuits. UF—A UL Underground Feeder cable type. Usually has three-phase conductors.. Inc. Listing also involves regular follow-up to ensure continued compliance. UL LISTED—A product that has been tested and found to comply with applicable standards. VAR—A unit of reactive power that means volt-amperes. The SI unit of electrical potential difference. that cause microagitation. A U. reactive. 600 V or 3. VAR METER—An instrument used by power companies to measure the kVAR V BAND—A band of frequencies between 46 and 56 gigahertz. Usually expressed as a percentage. One volt is the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire carrying a constant current of one ampere when the power dissipated between these two points is equal to one watt. VLF—Very low frequencies. The band extending from 30 to 300 MHz as designated VIDEO PAIR CABLE—A transmission cable containing low-loss pairs with an impedance of 125 ohms. U U-BEND TEST—A cable test in which the insulation is tested for resistance to corona and ozone. VFD CABLE—Variable frequency drive cable. VG—Varnished-glass or nylon braid. XLP or rubber-insulated. It is invisible and can be filtered out by glass. where the impedance-to-ground on one wire is measurably different from that on the other. etc. Used for TV pickups. typically supported by an analog telecommunications circuit. See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. Styles identify an additional subset of features from the referenced standards in order to allow customers to quickly identify the type of wire needed. ULTRASONIC CLEANING—Immersion cleaning aided by ultrasonic waves ULTRASONIC DETECTOR—A device that detects ultrasonic noise such as that produced by corona or leaking gas. laser diode operating in the 850-nm wavelength window that is commonly used in Ethernet-based networks. UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR—See CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR. independent testing laboratory that also publishes standards for most products in the NEC. VOICE FREQUENCY (VF)—Describes an analog signal within the range of transmitted speech. mainly to cancel the effects of electrical noise. Thermoplastic underground feeder or branch circuit cable. UL 1015. Two wires. as designated by the Federal Communications Commission.g.Glossary each other. UHF—Ultrahigh frequency. USE—A UL cable type. VC—Varnished-cambric insulation. 289 . e.000 V. by the Federal Communications Commission. UNBALANCED LINE—A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are unequal with respect to ground (e. A power cable specially designed for use with VFDs.. closed-circuit TV. UNIDIRECTIONAL STRANDING—A term denoting that in a stranded conductor UNILAY—More than one layer of helically-laid wires with the direction of lay and length of lay the same for all layers. VCSEL—Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is a type of semiconductor UL STYLE—A subset of UL Type AWM (appliance wiring material) consisting of thousands of different styles. TWINNER—A device for twisting together two conductors. 130°C.

or (b) by cold pressure. Volt is a SI unit. VULCANIZATION—A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of a VW-1—Vertical wire flame test. VOLTAGE DROP—The voltage developed across a conductor by the current and the VOLTAGE.” One volt is the amount of electrical potential that will cause one ampere of current to flow through one ohm of resistance. series to which a voltage is applied and from which one or more voltages can be obtained across any portion of the network. Long runs of cable sized closely to the operating ampacity can suffer significant voltage drop that affects the load. by means of a flame torch. WATER-COOLED LEADS—Furnace cables. the base units are joules (energy) per coulomb (charge) (J/C). A system of numerical wire sizes starting with the lowest numbers for the largest sizes. thickness increases for higher voltages. Usually. WATER TREEING—A type of insulation deterioration that can occur after long-term immersion in water with an electrical stress applied. Gauge sizes are each 20. and (b) time in microseconds from virtual zero to the instant at which one-half of the crest value is reached on the tail. WAVESHAPE REPRESENTATION—The designation of current or voltage by a combination of two numbers. Heavy-duty portable power cable. originally called Brown & Sharpe Gauge. (2) The rising part of an impulse wave. A European Union regulation WEIGHT RESISTIVITY—The resistance in ohms at a specified temperature of a copper wire of uniform cross section and of unit weight and unit length. WAVELENGTH—The distance between the nodes of a wave. For rectangular impulses: (a) minimum value of current or voltage. W W—(1) Symbol for watt or wattage. WATER-BLOCKED CABLE—A multiconductor cable having interstices filled with a water-blocking compound to prevent water flow or wicking. around or less than 2 percent is ideal. Formerly designated as FR1. WIRE—A rod or filament of drawn or rolled metal whose length is great in comparison WALL THICKNESS—The thickness of a applied insulation or jacket. (2) A UL cable type. The ratio of the velocity of the wave to the frequency of the wave. VOLUME RESISTIVITY—The resistance in ohms of a body of unit length and unit VSWR—See VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO. resistance or impedance of the conductor. without grounds. See BRIDGE.6 percent apart based on the cross-sectional area. electric furnace applications. VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN—A test to determine the maximum voltage insulated wire can withstand before failure. WAVEFORM—A graphical representation of a varying quantity. Less than 5 percent is recommended by the NEC. VOLTAGE RATING—The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire or cable in conformance with standards or specifications. One watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current under a pressure of one volt in a DC circuit. WAVE FRONT—(1) That portion of an impulse (in time or distance) between the 10 percent point and the point at which the impulse reaches 90 percent of crest value. and (b) duration in microseconds. 290 . Usually welding cable strands cabled with a hose core for carrying coolant used in heavy-duty welding equipment. WICKING—The longitudinal flow of a liquid in a wire or cable due to capillary action. one to six conductors. with the major axis of its cross section. using the application of heat or pressure or both. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE—A device used to measure DC resistance. The test is described in UL Standard 1581. plating and various chemical processes. High-energy cables. Using larger conductor (less resistance) if possible will solve voltage drop problems. WELDING—Joining the ends of two wires. then decreasing the voltage until corona is extinct. or electric current. polymer are changed by reacting it with cross-linking agents. (partial discharge). rods or groups of wires: (a) by fusing. See also RoHS and REACH. cross-sectional area. CORONA EXTINCTION—The minimum voltage that sustains corona VOLTAGE DIVIDER—A network consisting of impedance elements connected in WATERFALL—The point at which cables installed horizontally in a tray transition to WATT—A unit of electrical power (energy consumed per unit time). VOLTAGE—Electrical potential or electromotive force expressed in volts. VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR)—The ratio of the maximum VOLTAGE TO GROUND—The voltage between an energized conductor and earth. For other than rectangular impulses: (a) virtual duration of the wave front in microseconds. WEEE—Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Used for shielding or connections where constant flexing is required. effective voltage to the minimum effective voltage measured along the length of a mismatched radio frequency transmission line. electric arc. WIRE GAUGE (AWG)—The American Wire Gauge. VOLTAGE. a vertical section of tray. time is represented on the horizontal axis and the current or voltage value is represented on the vertical axis. (Directive 2002/96/EC) which holds the manufacturer responsible for proper recycling or disposal when it reaches end-of-life. Generally wall WATER ABSORPTION—A test to determine the amount of water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period. Also refers to the voltage used in a system to overcome the wiring resistance. WIRE BRAID—Flexible wire constructed of small size strands in tubular form.Glossary VOLT—A unit of electrical “pressure. 600 V. A UL fire rating for single conductor cables. determined by applying a corona producing voltage. INDUCED—A voltage produced in a conductor by a change in magnetic flux from an outside source.

WIRE WRAPPING TOOLS—Portable electric tools and automatic stationary machines used to make solderless wrapped connections of wires to terminals. disruptive discharge. or receive data from. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 90°C wet and dry. ZERO SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE—The electrical impedance of a three-phase power cable under fault (short-circuit) conditions. (2) A station at which a user can send data to. puncture or other electric failure when voltage is applied under specified conditions. ZIPPER TUBING—Alpha’s trade name for harnessing/jacketing material containing ZYTEL—DuPont’s trademark for nylon resins. XHHW—A UL cable type. WIRE-WRAPPED CONNECTION—A solderless connection made by wrapping bare wire around a square or rectangular terminal with a power or hand tool. a computer or other workstation for the purpose of performing a job. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 75°C wet and 90°C dry. a zipper-track type closure. XHHW-2—A UL cable type. WITHSTAND TEST VOLTAGE—The voltage that the device must withstand without flashover. Also written XLPE. ZETABON—Dow’s trade name for an acrylic acid copolymer coated aluminum tape.000 megahertz. Y YIELD STRENGTH—The point at which a substance changes from elastic to viscous.200 and 10. See LOC-TRAC. The zipper arrangement allows installation with no need to disconnect installed wire. 291 . X X—Symbol for reactance. Z Z—Symbol for impedance. WRAPPER—An insulating barrier applied as a sheet of tape wrapped around a coil periphery.5 to 3 times the positive sequence impedance. X BAND—A band of frequencies between 5. XLP—Cross-linked polyethylene. It is typically 2.Glossary WIRE NUT—A closed-end splice that is screwed on instead of crimped. WP—Weatherproof construction for overhead wires. WORKSTATION—(1) Input/output equipment at which an operator works.

Glossary 292 .

........... ............................. ....... 68 8000 Series aluminum alloy wire........................... 78 35.. .................. ............................. 145 4 GHz connectors........................................000 Volts.. 165............................................................ 89 293 .. 226 Alcohol resistance........................................................ ......... ....... ......... 3-Phase....................... 69 Aluminum 1350 solid round wire........................... ............. 47 Alkali resistance......... 163 ACRF........................... .... .... 171 including shield losses for 15 through 69 kV cables............ 4-Wire.............. 110 Alumel.. .... 166 at 400 and 800 Hz......................... 3-Wire........ .... .............. .............. .......... Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)........ ...... 47 ACMA................................... 6 Ampacities............ 22 wire.. 200 Aircore cable..................... 122 AC/DC resistance ratio at 60 Hz......... 162 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)............................. ......................... ...... ... 145 15 kV power cable..................................................... 102 of cables in open-top cable trays..... 166 for Conductors Rated 0–2................. 175 series lighting cables. .. II..... ....................... 131 100-ohm Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) vs Shielded Twisted Pair.................................. .................3-Phase............................. . 183 including effect of shield losses................... 47 AC90.................................... ......... ............. ............ ..... 172 Aerospace Vehicle Wiring............. .. 3-Wire........ 82 Acceptance testing.............. 4-Wire.. 229 AEE............................................. 183 A AAR... .. ............................. ....... 80 Airport lighting.............................................................General Index General Index Symbols 2-Pole.. 190 AEIC........... ....................................... 119 compression connectors........................................................... ...000 Volts............ 5-Wire............... 22 clad steel....... 24 strand properties.........000 Btu flame test.. 162 American Wire Gauge........ 172 AFNOR...... . 120 Aerial Service Wire(s).......... 134 Conductors................. 208 Aerial cable messengers......... 91 of Class B copper conductors.... 161 ABNT. 169 Acceptance cone................ ................................ ............................................................ ........................ 183 210. 168 3-Pole...... ...... 145 3 meter cube smoke apparatus................................... 145 3-Pole.. II.......................... 6 American National Standards Institute........ ..... 145 2-Pole.................. 78 Airframe wire.......................................... .. 93 of Class B aluminum conductors.......................................... ........ 228 Accelerated aging test for MV power cables................................................... 231 Acid resistance....... .................. ........................................................................................ ........................................... ........................................... 2-Wire........ 161 AENOR............................................. 147 4-Pole................. 102 of Cables Installed in Cable Trays.. 224 Abrasion resistance............. 236 AC resistance.............. .. ................ 100 600 V control cable. ... 179 400 and 800 Hz ampacity factors....................... 221...... 77 ACWU90................................................... 166.............. ... 147 4-Wire. 47 Allowable Fill..... 72 50-ohm connectors......................... ...........................000 Volts.... 171 of Conductors Rated 2001 to 35..................... .................... 131 4-Pole...... 93 ACIC...................... .

. 236 Austrian Plug Configuration........................... 221..... ............................ ............ 73 AS/ACIF S009............. 198 Bellcore.... 2................ ... 115 for portable cables..... 115 for Type MC cable.................. 166 Ampacity......... . 115 Bending radius.......... ................................. ............................ ............................... 216 Breaking load.................... 161 Brazilian standards...... .. .................................. ............... toluol......... 222 Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación. 150 Argentine standards................................................... ......................................... Trailer............................ 174........................................................... 52 Attenuation.................... ....... ................ 216 Boat cable..................... .......................................................... 79............................ 114 for pulling tension calculations. .................. 10 Breaking strength.. 12 Breakout kit.......... ............ ................................................... ................ 222 Angle of burner......................................... 102 tables.......................... ............... ............................. ................................. 162 Appliance Wiring Material........... etc..... . 224 BRB......... ......................... ......................................... ........... 164 Bending radii for cables without metallic shielding.. .... 83 of the fiber............ ........... 115 for all single conductor cables with metallic shielding.. ... 63 pulling grip...................... 102 Ampere.. ..................... 100. 208 Associação Brazileira De Normas Técnicas...................................... 114 Benzol... ....................... 236 Asia Pacific................. 75 Bandmarking................ ......... 198 standards........General Index Ampacities at 400 and 800 Hz...... 197 Standards......... 115 for fiber optic cable............. ...... 59 Brake system cable........ 216 Belden electronic color code.................................................. 72 BNC connector.......... .......... 2 Amperes when horsepower is known..................................................................... resistance............. ................ 183 Automobile Truck............ ............................. and Motor Coach Wiring...... 140 ANCE.. 236 Asociación de Normalización y Certificación............ 156 diameter.... 62 Armored cable(s)................... 169 power cables. .. 141 Bridle wire.... ........................................ ...... ............ 73.. 82 BASEC.................. .............................................................. ................................... ................... 182 Braid shield............. Truck-Tractor............................ 177 Annular conductor. 102 derating of fire-protected cables. . ........................... 111 Bayonet........ ............ 102 Basic principles of electricity............................................................... ........... 115 Bend multipliers................................................................................................................................................................................. 131 coupling............. 127 Australian Communications and Media Authority................ ....... 131 BNFL.......................... 81 at a specified wavelength.... 127 at high frequencies.................................................... 252 when kilowatts are known............... ..................... 252 when kilovolt-amperes are known................... 190. .... 182 B Balanced mode.......................... 235 AS/NZS 3000............ ...................... ................. ......... ........ 197 Authority having jurisdiction........................................................................ ........................................... 1 Basket-weave armor..................................................... 174 Arbor hole............... 162 D2863.. 224 Armor...................... 131 BBC...... .............. 10 change at low temperatures.... 161 ASTM..... ........ 165 294 ............................ .................. 173 power and control.............................................................. 236 Plug Configuration........ 8 ANSI........................................... 161 Association of Edison Illuminating Companies........ .......... 172 AWM.......................................... 216 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings...... 200 Association of American Railroads........... 46 Bandwidth..... 224 Association Française de Normalisation...... 43 Belgian plug configurations..... ...................... ........ ................. .............................. 82................ 47 BIL ratings.. 237 Standards.......... 102 Binder tape..... 252 Anaerobic.......................

...................................... 144 trays........ .. 165 Capacitance......... ...... .......................... ................... 193 (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standards)... 76 6 and Category 7 100 ohm shielded and unshielded twisted pair cables........... 111 identification code. ........................ 216 standards. 205 CESI..................... ...................... 11.... ...... CEI......... .......... ......... 226 FT4 test.............. ................... 226 CANENA............. 0.... 7................ 78......................................................... 6 Canada................................................................................... 191 length measurement.... 171 6A UTP performance..... .................. 247 BSI..... ............. 141 Building Code of Canada..................... ...... 165 feed-in setups... ............................. ... 198 (Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque)...... 226 C22...... ....... 174 Cabling for data center premises. ..................................... ........... ............. 161 termination........ II............. ................................................................ 68 Bunch-stranded copper conductors............... 216 Broadcasting Company.... 231 Standards Association (CSA)................ 127 pulling guide.......... .................... 216 Defense Standards.......... 174 for Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits................................. ... ...... 218 Nuclear Fuels.......... ....... ... ................ .................................. .. 190.... ..... ......... 79 of a coaxial cable.............. ................................ 122 Char length...................... 226 Canadian Electrical Code.... 78 C C22......... 179 plug configurations..... ....................... ...... 193 copper conductors.......................... 62 CEBEC 185.......................................... 143 types and selection criteria............ 205 Channel cable tray................. 203 grips.................... ..... 189 harmonized approvals............... 198 Buried distribution........ ......................1... 190 Central office cable..................................... 164 hook-up wire................. 196 CENELEC cable identification........................ .. 166. ...... 127 3 UTP performance...................... 164 coaxial cable......... 205 Cellular polyethylene........... 20 Bureau de Normalisation............................................... ...................2 No................ ...... 232 Electrical Code. 65 Cables for boats.................................................... 162 Bunch stranding................ ............................ 216 Buffer tube fanout................................................. 116 for LAN twisted pair data communications... 226 Cable accessories.......General Index British Approvals Service for Cables..... ............. 6 and 6A............ 214 Telecom..................... 77 CCW armor................... 214 BT Group................. 167 Cadmium............................................ 76 5e UTP performance.................. 76 Category 3....................................... ........... 232 Building Wire. ....... 203 for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation rated to 450/750 V.......... 152 Categories 3........... .... ............ ........ 77 6 UTP performance................................... ............... ......... 5 or 6........................ 5e.......... 74 Charging current.................... ......................................... 48 CEN............ ................ 185............................................ 4........... .... ..................... 216 Railways Board................... ...... ........................................................... .... ......................... 174 for Non-Power-Limited Fire-Alarm Circuits............................... ............................................................... .............. 183 tray systems......................................... 253.......... 144 Characteristic impedance......... .... 131...... ........................................................ . 256 Capacities and dimensions of shipping reels....... 161 for power circuits with rubber insulation rated to 450/750 V.................. .................................... 165 for locomotive and car equipment........ 177 295 ............. 129 Connectors for Audio Facilities for Radio Broadcasting............. .................. ....... 216 thermal units............ 165 Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano.................... 47. ... Part I.................................... 123 tray installation.................. 191 color codes.........2 No....................................................................................... 226 C22........ .......

........ . . ....................... 112 CM............................. ........ 240 standards................ ............... ........General Index Chinese National Institute of Standardization.... .............................. 240 Quality Certification Center.... .. 233 Circumscribing circle......... 191 5 . 191 AA .......... 167 Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano.................... .... 200 Circular measurements diameter....................................... 70 Color coding. ..... ....... field splices and connections for nuclear power generating stations.............................. compact and compressed diameters.................... ......................................................... 198 Common conductor materials................ 70 for thermocouple wire... 79 CNIS.............................................................................. 231 CIGRE...... .... ............. 38 Colors of the cores of flexible cables and cords......... 84............................ 20 M (34 AWG strands) rope-lay-stranded copper conductors.................................................... 205 Comité Electrotechnique Belge............................... .................... 256 connectors..... 244 Circular mil(s)... . 11 B ......... 73 capacitance. circumference and area........... ........................ 10 Coax Connectors for Flexible Cable. 224 Color identification and coding.............................. 37 jackets for wire and cable............ 14 B............................... 191 6 ........ .......... ... ........... .................................... .......................................................................... 140 296 ................ 16 B concentric-lay-stranded compressed............. ..... .................. ....................... ....................................... ...................... ......... 165 distribution cable.... ................... 182 CL3....................................... 164 transmission lines.. 173 cables for outdoor use................. 81 Class 1E electric cables.......... 6. ........ II vs alumel... ............................... 132 Coaxial cable............................................. 34 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene... ................................. 17 rope-lay-stranded copper conductors........... 14 H copper............. .... 169 2 ......... 31............... ... 214 Color code for flexible cables...... 8 Comparison of vertical cable tray tests......................................... 240 Coatings....................... ...... 184 Compact conductor.... ............ 182 Cladding....... 69 vs constantan....... 84........... 84 CMX..................................... 255 CL2......... ............................. 193 for thermocouple extension wire................. 166 Circuits....................... ............................... .............. . 114 Colombian National Electrical Standard............ 224 standards...... 182 CMP........................... 69 CI Circuit Integrity.............. 84 CMR..................................................... 173 transmission lines and connectors.............................. 17 Clearance between conduit and cable.... 173 types........................... 59........................................... 17 I (24 AWG strands) rope-lay-stranded copper conductors..... 6 Communication cables................ .............. C............. reverse-lay aluminum 1350 conductors................. 164 drop cable.............. 21 Class H rope-lay-stranded.. ..... 131 connectors for CATV 75.. 246 Circulating currents................................ .................................................................................................... 240 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE).................................................. 84 CIC. ........................... ............... .................... 166 Color chart for insulation and sheath of electric cables........ 132 for Semirigid Cable................................................. ........ C and D compact and compressed copper...................... ........................ ................. 177 Composite tips......... 23 B concentric-lay-stranded copper conductors.... 19 K (30 AWG strands) rope-lay-stranded copper conductors....................................... 164 Chromel........................................................................................ 84......... 23 B....................... ................ 8 strand... ....... 9 B aluminum........................................ ......... 74 Coefficient of friction......................................................... D.....................................................

......... ........................................... ... 178 297 ........... 179. 78......... 79..... 8 lay .. impedance............ ..................................... 10 Corrosivity.................. 119 Copperweld..................... ......... .. 163 insulation for wire and cable rated 2............................ 96 short circuit current for aluminum cables... 176............ 59 braid shield......................... ....................... ............... 98 short circuit current for copper cables... ........................ .................................................. ...... ................. 177. 97 size conversion......... .......... 184 size................... 242 Conduit fill ............... 70 wire shield......... 26 drain wire...... 68 Continental Europe................................................................................. 72 Copper-clad steel.. 8 Compression connector.............................................. ... 165 CP .... . 112....... ....... 123 Cross-connect and breakout applications....... 187 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW)................. 256 Concentric-lay-stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors.............. 7 stranded conductor.................. ............ 256 of insulated cables... 134 terminals......... 167.................. ........................ ....... 127 Crosstalk... 200 Connector(s). 56 Conductor(s).... ...................... 110 Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension...................................... 72 strand properties............................... 58 hard drawn.. ........................ .......... 62 Control and instrumentation cables....................................................................................... ............001 V to 35 kV............ ....................... 48 CQC....... 118 Copper annealed........................... ........ 215 properties...... .............................. 227 strand... ................................. 26 resistance (ohm per loop-mile)................................. 134 strand.......... 113..... ............................ 246.......... ....................... 226 FT1.. ........................... 167 Neutral Power Cable Rated 5-45 kV...................... 24......................................... 249 Conveyor sheave(s). 127 CSA.............. ....................................... 140 Constants...................... . ............... 242 characteristics......... 82 diameter... attenuation.... ................................. ............................... 57 vs constantan.... ....................... ........................... 227 cables............ .............. II.......................... 57 Council for the Harmonization of Electrical Standards of the Americas.................. 135 tools.... 68............ 171 instrumentation and thermocouple.......... ............. 176.......... . ..................... 6 diameter from wire diameter.. 163 (XLP or XLPE).................... 167.............................................. 176 FT4.... 11 tape shields.............. .................... 123 Corrosion resistance.. 246 tables....... 162 Aluminum Conductors...... weight and DC resistance................. 248............................................. III Core... 79 resistances....................... Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)..................................................... area.............................. 24..... .......... 6 shielding tape......................................... 240 Creepage surface.................. .................. ........................ ......... 176 Corrugated copper wires............... 8 stranded conductor diameter from wire diameter.. diameter... ..... 134 conductor stranding.............................. 51 Crosstalk................ ......... ............................................ 244.................. 189......... 8 connector....... 141 tips made from ceramic........................... ............... ............... ..... ........................... 68 Conversion factors..................................... 59 compression connectors.. ............................ 34.... 251 Construction and building wire......................................... 106................................... 135 Concentric.......... 6 braid construction.................................... .... 134.................. 163 Conductive shield.......... ................................ 36 CPE...... ....................... ......................... 36............ 162 Conductors of 8000 Series Aluminum Alloy.................... 82 Corona... ..000 V...................................... ..................... 180 FT6...... 6 area................... 166 shield (strand shield)....... 11 Neutral Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV.........General Index Compressed conductors...... ......... 56 short circuit current...... 28 DC resistance.... .............. 137 Cross-linked polyethylene insulation for wire and cable rated 0 to 2.......... 242........................................ . ............................................... .. 137 termination methods......

.....General Index CSA cable types....... 124 maintenance testing............. 194.... 110 DIN............................ .... 41 ECA........................... 47 Degrees centigrade (celsius)..... 51 Dimensions and maximum allowable percent fill of electrical metallic tubing (EMT).........000 ft.......................................... 124 hipot testing... . 38..... 133 grade media (DGM)......................... 254 Deformation. ............................ ............. 71 Current loading (ampacity).............. 38.. II Duplex LC connector....... 256 constant of common wire and cable materials........... ...... 51 DEF STAN 02........................... 193....... 193 resistance of plated copper conductors.. 199 standards..... 134 Duct bank.. ......................................... ........................................... 122 test voltages for shielded power cables........................... .................................................................................................. ..... 218 Degreaser solvents resistance............... .......................... 26............................................ 89 Deca. .................................................... 165 ...... ............................ 123 resistance.................................... ............................................................................... 203 47100 color code for single conductors (with color repetition above 44).. 124 DC and AC resistance of copper conductors............................................. 71 Current rating of cables (100% load factor).. ....... ................................... 204 Drum diameter................... 86 resistance ohms/1....... 195 resistance and stranding of Class 6 (Highly Flexible) copper conductors..... 190.................. 53 strength.......... 122 hipot test voltages........................... 196 resistance of Class 1 (Solid) copper conductors....................... .. 53................................................................. 37 Current-carrying capacity (ampacity)........................................... 40 E-4 color sequence for control cables.............. 217 Department of the Environment........ .................. 86 testing... 200 standards....... 12 for common conductor sizes.......... 174 DC field test voltages...... 173 connectors....................... 111 Duofoil........ 199 Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol........ .............................. 255 Diameters and cross-sectional areas of solid copper wire.................. 101 D Danish plug configuration..... 218 DEF STAN 61-12. ............ ................................... 101 for power applications... 76 DEMKO (Danmarks Electriske Materailkontrol)................. 194 resistance and stranding of Class 5 (flexible) copper conductors.. .... 51 DKE.. 37..... 51.......................................................... 195......... 199 Department for Transport................... 217 Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Informationstechnik...................... 34.............. 199 E E-1 color sequence for control cables.......................... .................. .. .............. .. 204 Deutsches Institut für Normung........... ........... 78 Data-processing cable....... .......... ........ .... 126 Dual braid shield construction..... 168 Current ratings for electronic cables..... 202 Direct burial...... 202 47100* color code for paired conductors (with color repetition above 22)......... .............. 84 Dissipation factor............... .................... 75 constant. 150 Dry nitrogen.. 74 Dual-rated aluminum compression connectors.................................... 59 Dual coax................................... 138 Dutch plug configurations.................................... ... 248 298 Delay skew.................... ................................................................................... ................................ 39 E-2 color sequence.. .............. .......................................... 228 CSP.................................................... 73. ............. ...... ............ ................... 196 resistance and stranding of Class 2 copper conductors...... 8 Dielectric.. .............. 199 Data centers...... 41 E-5 color sequence for control cables.. 185..................................................................................... . ................ 248 Degrees fahrenheit....... 202 Diameter of multiconductor cables.................... ...................................................... at 20°C (68°F)............ ...

.... 78 immunity.......... 247 ESTI (formerly SEV)....... 119 Extruded conductor shield......General Index ECTFE (Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene or Halar).................. 174....... ............................................. 37................................................. ...... 56 EN 60228................................... .................. ... .................................................................... 189 Extension grade (wire)........ ......... ........................... ................ 161 insulation shield.............. ................................. .... ........... ..... 68 Equivalent conductor spacing........................... 35 EU power plug configurations......... ....... 189 Committee for Standardization........ 6 connections....................................... ...... 168 shipboard cable... 73 locating........ 189 ENA........... ........ ................ . 142 and polish connectors (UV cured)....... 51 integral insulation and jacket for wire............................................. 57.... 189 EVA.... 210 Electric cables under fire conditions–circuit integrity..................................................................... 73 cable shielding................. ............ 252 systems......................... 165 Industries Alliance....................... 139 299 . 163 Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)............ ...................... 79 Eddy currents..... 85 conductivity.......... ....................................................... ............ 142 and polish connectors (snaerobic)....... 257 ER (exposed run).............. ............ 175 submersible cable............ ....................................................... .... ....... 119 Eidgensisches Starkstrominspektorat............ 69 Extra-fine wire strands Class 6........ 58................... 210 Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EP......................... ... 169 properties........... ...... ........................ 70 Exchange cables............. .................................. ................... 37 EPDM.... 56 Components................ 72 F FAA.............. 167 gas atmospheres.......... 137 EP ...................................... 166 Fanout/breakout cable........................................ or EPDM)........ 230 Fault current requirements.... 233 Efficiency of motor................................................................................... Assemblies and Materials Association... .................................. ............................................. 3 Electromagnetic interference (EMI).... ........................................ 142 EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber)............. 141 FAS 90......................................................... 169 Electrical characteristics.............................. ................ 166 ELFEXT.. 217 Ergs........ 252 EHS galvanized steel....................... 35 Evaluation of the insulation of shielded power cable systems..................................... ................... 72 dielectric insulated power cable systems.................... ................................................................... 37..................... 242 Enterprise cabling installations........... 163 jacket for wire and cable.................................................... ............ 134 installations in ships.......................................... 58 cable shields..... 78 Explosive atmospheres (hazardous locations)................. 196 Union (EU) Standards................ ........ 50 versus XLPE.... 31 Extra-high strength galvanized steel.............................. 78 Electronic cable................................................... ........... 84 ERA Technology Ltd............. 157 seals........................... 113 Engineering notation........................ ....................... 217 Emission shield........... 124 FC Connector.............. 169 EX . 217 End caps................ ....... ...... ........... 76 EMI emissions... 167.. 78 separation recommendations.................. ................ 110 Equipment trailing cables... EPR....................... 47 properties of circuits............................. 37 Epoxy and polish connectors (heat-cured)............................... 51 Equation for calculating wire or cable area........................................................................................................... 254 English to metric..................................................... 197 European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization............. .................................. ........................

....................... 140 distributed data interface........................ 173 selection........ ....................................................... 173................................ ......... ....................... .... . ....................... 137 core................................................................. .. .............................. ..... 67 Cords and Cables.................... 79........... 172 cables.... ............................................ ....................... .... 174 safety tests.. ... II Flame propagation... ... 169 Tests............................. 58 Fondo para la Normalización y Certificación de Calidad................ .................. ....... ............................. ........ ....... 223 Foot-pounds....... .......................................................................................... 183........................ 247 For CT use........... ........ 74 Cord & Fixture Wire..... 82 connector.............. 189 Flexibility...... 168 Field testing............... ............................................ 141 cladding...... ................................................................ 182 Teflon.. 141 300 .. 137 Festoon cable.... 131 FT1 fire test.......................................................... 11................................. ..................................... ............. ...... 200 Frequency range... 127 type FSMA connectors..... ......................................................... 37 Fiber optic cables............ ...................... . 232 F type coax connector........................................ 137 ribbon cable. ..................... ............ 168 ratings............ 127. 34 Foil shields............................. ................... 133 Fusible Links...................................................................................... ... .................................... ............................... ....... 34........... 82 Terminology...................................... ................. 139 distribution equipment.... 31 Fire alarm and signal cable............... 139 Federal Aviation Administration..................................................... 156 Flange diameter......... 37 Fieldbus for use in industrial control systems............................................... 67 Fluoropolymers......... 251 FPL............................. ...................... 173 connectors...................................... ................. 172 Fusion splicing... 184 Flamarrest. 172 cables for outside plant use................................................... 157 Formulas and constants............................................ 232 Resistive Cables (“CI” Rated)..................... ..................... .............................................................. 47 spread.............................. ............ 140 port density........ ...................................... 180... 11 Flexible coax.... 169 Filled buried wires...................... .......................... 173 cords..... ............................................................................................... 82 diameter............................... 138 Fiberglass.................................. 230 hazard testing............................................... 178 testing of wire and cable...... ............................. .................................... 232 FT4 fire test............. ........................................................ ......... 201 standards..... 137 Outside Plant Communications Cable............................................ ............... ................. 167 premises distribution cables........................................................ 78 Telephone Cable....................... ........... ...... .................... 166 FEP (Flourinated Ethylene-Propylene)..... 170 travel and smoke of wires and cables for use in air-handling spaces...... 174 resistance. 172 Telephone Cable with Expanded Insulation.......... 171 Flammability of polymers................ 176 Fixture wire(s). 150 Flat PVC...................................... 173 testing..... .............. 84 Fork lift............. 81 Fibrous coverings..... 174 Fiber cable construction..... 169 electric submersible pump cable................................................ . ..................... 52 Flange diameter...... ............................. 84 French plug configurations...................... 226 cord type designations.... .......... 172 Fine wire strands Class 5.............. 49 Ferrule.General Index FDDI Connector.... 232 FT6 fire test.... 173 types........

................................................... 192 H05V-U........ 10 HAR (Harmonized) Approval................................ ... 70 High temperatures............. 141 polyethylene.... 253 High-density fiber counts......................General Index G Galvanized steel strand........................ 125 H H03VV-F3...... ..................... ......... . ....................................................... resistance........... 163 Helically applied copper wire(s) (shields).......................... 168 Gasoline............... 67 HSJ... 226 Geometric mean distance. 78 301 . .. 204 standards........ ................................. 192 H07V-R..... 189 HAR mark. 10 High-voltage connectors... 11 Heat-shrinkable tubing................ ...... 182 gases evolved during combustion of electric cables........... 190 standards........... 37. 49 Halogen content................................................. flame spread and mass loss testing of insulating materials........................ 176 in typical insulation and jacket materials........ 202 Giga.. 122 Hipot testing..................... 174............................................... ...... ...................................................... 257 mean radius of conductor........................ 57 Henries................................................................... II (ECTFE).......... 252 IBM cabling system........... ....................... ....... .... 122 High-strength galvanized steel.............. .... 184 Health Care Facilities Handbook........... ........................................ 67 Hypalon (discontinued).................. 171 wire and cable types........ ...................... 119 High-temperature............... 171 Heat cure....... 105 of cable reels........................................ 10 hook-up wire.... 47 Heater cord. ... 36 High-frequency applications.............. ................................... ..................................................... ........... 35... 127 Handling........ 230 GTO-5.......................... 120......... ....................................................... 10 High-potential DC testing........... 50 Hypot.............. ........................... ......... ............................................ 163 High dielectric strength........ ..... 247................................................................ 240 General Requirements–Canadian Electrical Code..................................................... chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE)........................................... 47 Gas-Tube-Sign Cable........ 192 Halar........... ...... ............. ....... ............................................ .... 257 German plug configurations................. 6 Graded refractive index................... 68 Grounded systems (100 percent insulation level).... . . .......................................................................... 240 5023.................. II I IACS............................... ............ ................... 131 tests........................... 63 GTO... ....... .............. ........................... 122 Horsepower.... ............................... ...... ............ kerosene..................................................... ......... III............................................... 34............. ....... 250 HPN................. 252 to amperes........ 52 of wires and cables....................................... 182 Guard (G) connection........................................ ...... 171 instrumentation and control cable.... ......... 81 Ground check (GC) conductor.... 189 Harmonized marks................................................ 157 Hard drawn....................... ................................ 174 GB 5013........... Part II.. 191 Hazardous locations (Type MC-HL).................................... 47 polyethylene insulation for wire and cable......................... 174 Hazardous (classified) locations................................. 164 resistance................... 71 GSWB (galvanized steel wire braid).......... etc............................................................................................ ............. 170........................ ........................ 254 Gold........ 203 Handheld LAN cable testers...... 140 release....................................................................................

...... 166 S-73-532 (NEMA WC57)...................... 180 ..... ........................ 167....... ............... 122 802....................... ..... ........ 170 Interstices........................ 185 Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita...... .......................................... 166 flexible cords.............. ................................ 189 Identification threads.................... ....... 168 Insulation.. ................... ................................................... 116 methods for generating station cables.. 171 Industry standards...... 78 1202......................... 253 at 60 Hz for single copper conductor cables................. 184 Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA)....................................... 253 Inductive reactance....................... .................. ... 214 Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables.......... 205 standards........... .... 205 Including Effect of Shield Losses.......................................... 209 Information Technology Equipment.......................... 169 IMQ (Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualità).... ........ 131................5 (token ring)................................... ......... 221..................................... 92......................... 38 T-29-520............. ..... 177 400.... ....................... 189 IEC 60228....................................... 170 ISO (International Standard for Standardization)........................ 164 Installation and testing............ 177....... 207 Instrumentation cable(s)..................................... 177 (International Electrotechnical Commission).. 169 Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación......... ........ 204 Iron vs constantan................ ............... 36............ . 176 Ignition temperature....................... 78 wiring cable................................ .. 62 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)..... ... 92 matching.............. ..... 169 302 Installation (Continued) of cable systems in substations................ II............ 180 ICONTEC....... 171 Individual shields.. 123......... 255 Intrinsically Safe electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres...................... 215..... 70 IR tests........ 77 Inside cable.................... .......... ..................... 34 and jacket materials.................................. 207 IRAM.................... 170 organizations.......... 102 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).... 217 wiring regulations........ ................................ ..... ..... 170 IPQ........................................................................................ . ........ 79 resistance (IR)..... 169 termination............ .................................. ............... 217 IEEE......... ...... 76...... 167.......................... ........................ 163 Impedance...... and testing of insulated power cable.......... 169 of overhead transmission line conductors.......................... 170 tray cable................ 224 Irish plug configurations..... 184 Insertion loss... 159.............................. ...... 185 stranding................................ ................ 69 Inductance......................................... 190.................. 169 Installations on shipboard............ 179......... 224 Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas..... 214 Systems and Automation Society.................... 169 of cable systems for Class 1E circuits in nuclear power generating stations........ .... ............................. 31 IEE................ ........ 125 Interference voltage.................. 189 Systems.. .......... .... ................... ............. 161 Informationstekniska Standardiseringen................... 177..... 127 Impulse voltage tests on insulated conductors........................... II............... 224 Instituto Portugues da Qualidade.. ....... ............... .. 170.............. .......... ............ 184 Intrinsic safety........ ....................................... 185 Telecommunication Union/Telecommunications Sector........ 125 ISA.............. 74...... 174 Tray Cable: Type ITC....................... 176............... 58 Interlocked armor............. . 224 Identification and use of cores of flexible cables..................................... 257 Industrial machinery....... 221............................ 205 ...................... ...................................... .................. ........ 127........................................ ...................... ..................... 47........................ 74 mismatches...... II.. ...... .. 217 IET Ignitability...... ................... 185...... 103 methods........................................................... ......... 167 Organization for Standardization.......................... .............................................. 69....... 169 383............ 243 60332-3.........General Index ICEA..........

........ ................................................ 145 Loc-Trac........... 144 LAN cable testing........ 78 Locate faults.................. 172 Jacket(s) for power..... 113 Japanese plug configuration....................... 127 Local area networks (LANs)................................ 206 standards...... ............... 239 JIS C3662.............................................. 35 303 ..... .... .. 122 Length............. 172 Lubricants.. 190. ............... 37 K FIBER....... ..................... ... ... 172 Ultra Thin Wall Primary Cable.......................... .................................................................................................... 84 Limited-Combustible Cable. 252 kVA to amperes........................ ........ 255 Lashing wires..... 205 ITC. ....... 172 Primary Cable........................... 81 Low-Smoke Halogen-Free (LSHF) Polymeric Cable Jackets......... II Kilo................................. 70 Kynar........... ............................................... 138 J J1127....................... 52 temperatures for Australian insulated cables....... 113 Jam ratio....................... II LOI of common wire and cable materials.......... ........... 170 L L-824-A............... 52 London Underground Limited......... ... 113..................... 174 . ....................... . 120 Latin and South America........ 47 Low-smoke fire-retardant cables................... KEUR (NV tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen)................ ........................... 167 Low-temperature flexibility... II KEMA...................... .............................................. 247 JSA.................................. 114 Lucent connector........... 218 Loose buffer tube construction... ...... 221 LC connector............. ........ . . ......... 141 Low-density polyethylene.... B................................................. ................ .. .............. 127 Locating equipment................................... 252 Kilowatts............ ..................... 239 Jumper cordage (patch cable)............................ weight...................................... 105 Light output..................... 47 Low Voltage Battery Cable.......... 34.. .......... ........................................ 237 Local area network (LAN) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)......................... .... .... 209 ITS ITU-T............................................ 166 Ladder type cable tray............... .............. .. 254 Kilograms per kilometer..... ............... ............................ 172 J1128.................. 239 C3663........................ ..... ......................... C............................. .......... .................. power and energy................................................................................................... 249 KX .............................................. ...... ............. instrumentation and control cables...................... 199 KEMA....................................................................................... 124 Locking plug configurations............................. 138 Lead-covered cables............. II... 57 Lifting cable reels........................................................ 70 K Kapton........ 239 Joules....... 174 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)......... . ......... ...................................................................................... 185 Kevlar.. 63 Lead sheath. . ...................... ..................... . 127 Limited combustible......... II K-fiber............ 37 Jamming.............. ............. 127 Largest possible conductor in cable interstices... 141 JX .................... 63 Lead sheathed power cables. ..... area.....General Index Italian plug configurations................................................................................. 82 Loose tube (loose buffer) cable................... 247 Kilovolt-amperes................................ 246 Life of the cable insulation........................................... ............ 203 Leakage current.................. ........................................................... 239 standards association........................................... 34 (PVDF).................. .. ............................................................................ 239 standards......... 84.........

............... ............... ....... ......... 125 Messenger breaking strength.. 174 Magnesium...................................................................................................................................................... .. . ............. ......................................... .................... ................................. 113 Supported Wiring.......................... 115 drum diameter as a multiple of outside diameter of cable......................... ........... .. 140 Multipair color code (Belden Standard)..... 68 Ministry of Defense.. ................................. 172 Shipboard Cable........................................ II N Nano.............................................. 170 MTP/MPO connectors... 183 Mega... 182 Multiconductor color code (Belden Standard)...... ...........Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers..................... 254 Microbending... 223 standards.... ............................................................. 170 Mineral insulated cable(s).......... ................................ .... 118 Munsell color standard.. 127 Mechanical Transfer-Registered Jack............................ ............ .......... ............... 214........... 84.................. 144 Metal-clad cable: Type MC........................ 182 Mylar................................................................. 38 Method 3 ........ 6 Marine Propulsion System Wiring........... 6 Metric to English conductor size.......... 38 Method 7 .. 119 Metal Cable Tray Systems.............. II testing. 10 Voltage Power Cable (Type MV).......... ... .............. ............... ................... 183 Method 1 ...... ........................... 38 Metric sizes.. 38 Method 4 ..... .................... 254 MIL-Spec wire... ................................... 157 MSHA................. 166 MV............ 139....... .............. 168...... 38 Method 5 ......................... .......................... 38 Method 6 ...................................... ...... 43 Multimode fiber............ 226 Minimum bending radius...... .. 127 losses.......... ............................... .......................... 114 pulling tension. ........... ......... 165 Military wire and cable types... ........................... ........ ........... 254 Megger..... 174 Maximum cable diameters for permissible conduit fill........... ............... .....................................General Index M Machine Tool Wires and Cables (Type MTW)............................. 242 Mexican Code Standard for Electrical Installations..... 138 MT-RJ connectors. .......... 109 core weight............ ................ 46......................................................................... ....... ........................ 150 Mining cable......... 80 Mine power feeder cables (MPF)................. ............................................... ..... 80 Milli......Neutral or single-color compounds with surface printing of numbers and color designations. 81.......................................... ............................................... ................ ......................... ................... 183 weight................. .. 138 MTW.. ........Paired conductors................. 126 Motor efficiency................................. . ................................ 218 MODUK.......................................... 222 plug configuration.............Neutral colored compounds with tracers. 83 Microphone cables......... 218 Modular jack pair assignments for UTP............Colored compounds with tracers....Layer identification...... ................................ 38 Method 2 ......... 37 removal. 43 Multi-sheave assemblies............................ ........... 174............. ......... ............................... 70 MIC (media interface connector).... ........ 169 .. 82... ............. 119 in aerial cable installations. 134 Moisture absorption...... 183 Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)...................... 250 Moving and lifting.......................... .. 171............ .. 189................................ 138 Medium hard drawn. 119 permissible pulling length............ .. 183 Electrical Code Articles related to the wire and cable industry................Individual color coding with braids....... 254 National Electrical Code.... II Electrical Safety Code (NESC)...... 139 304 Micro.......... .................... 68 Safety and Health Administration.......................... 111 MC......... 222 MG................. 182 Measure attenuation........ .....

............... 171 262........................................... 174 Nonshielded Cables Rated 2....... 6 coatings......... 10.... .... 145 plug and receptacle configurations. ........... ... 17............ 127 305 .................................... ................ ..... 81 wave guides.. 74 Optical attenuation........ ............ ............. . ............................... ........... 84 NPT................ 168 fiber types......................................... .................................. 48 O OFN....................... 164 fiber and optical fiber cable.......... ........... ... 218 Newtons... 84 Operating temperature range................................. 178 Nickel..................... ............ .000 Volts.............. 78.. ................... ......................... ...................................... 81 Optical time domain reflectometers (OTDRs)...... 2 Ohm’s Law..................... .................................................. ................. 236 NEXT...................... ................................... 173 fiber cables under fire conditions............. 167 WC 55............... 76...................... ................. 224 NEC............................. .... 106 Number of strands....... 206 Norwegian plug configurations.......... ........................... .............................. 81 power..................................... .... 167 NEMKO (Norges Electriske Materallknotroll)................... ................ ....................................... 77 NFPA...................................... tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen.......General Index National (Continued) Fire Protection Association (NFPA)............. 204 N series coax connectors........... ... II.......... .... 50 NESC.. 222 Nomex............ 36.............. 81................... 167........... 145 WC 26 (EEMAC 201)... ..... 82 fiber cable splice closures................ 164 density of smoke generated by solid materials........ ....................... 18... ......................................... 169 Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee.................. II Nisil..... 83 fiber cable(s)........ 190......................... ....................... .................... 140..... 167 WC 54........................... ....... 206 Neoprene (CP).................................................. 171 Power Cables Rated 2.................................... 197 OTDR......... ............................................................... 86 Nicrosil..... 183...................... ................ ............... ............... 206 NPLF......................................................... ............................. 185................. .. 247 Oil resistance............ ........ 151 WC 50............... 171 Standards Authority of Ireland............................. 82 cable innerduct........ 227 Fiber Cables and Raceways..................................... 252 kilometer.................. II...................................................... 174..........................000 feet....... ......................... II NM.. 21 N...............................5.... 47 resistant............. 247....... 47 Number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing........... II NBR 5410........... 222 No epoxy/no polish connectors........................ .......... .............. ................................................................................ .............................. 182 NMX-J-451-ANCE........ II Nonmetallic-sheath cables.................... 164 fiber cable designs..... 190................ 84 Ohm.... 184 fiber cable selection...... 207 Post and Telecommunications Authority................... 166 WC 51..................................... ............. 206 standards...................................000 Volts or Less............................. 2 Ohms per 1................. 206 NSAI........ 199 Nylon............ ....................... ................... 82 power meters............... ....... .. 176 NEMA.. 224 Nuclear radiation resistance.............V......... ................. 247 New Zealand Wiring Rules........... 199 Fire Test Summary.......................... 127 radiation. 171 non-locking plug configurations... 166 WC 53.......................................................... 199 Network Rail...... 133 NTC 2050.................... 142 NOM-001-SEDE... 204 Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC)................................................................ ............................................................................. 167 WC 57........... 167 WC 58.. 171 Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll........................ ....................................... ...... 127 Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik................ .....................................001 ....... 176........................

.................. 252 Power-limited circuit(s)......... 252 Power and Control Tray Cables (Type TC).. 166 cable ampacity tables............. 167 connectors............. 178 PLTC....................... 35. ............. 205................................. 174 Portuguese plug configurations......... 236... .................. 209....... 176 PVC............. . 163 consumption calorimeter................ 207........ ..... 47 Oxide inhibiting compression connectors..... 168 cable shielding...... 174.......... .......................... 161 cables for rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV............................ 172 Peak smoke release rate......... 196................................... 239 .................. . ......... .. 253 factor of load................ 84.....General Index Outer cladding layer...... . 223................................. 184 PP .. 147............ ....................................... 198... 206................ ...................... 164 content of air............... .............. 79 Polyolefins (PO)......................................... 255 Overall shield.......... 81 Outer shield (insulation shield). ....................... 161 cables and accessories Rated above 46 kV through 345 kV.................. 11 cord terminology............................................... 37 Polyaramid............ 134 Oxygen. 122 PE-7....... .................... 172 PE-86. .. ............... 210........................ 182 306 Plug configuration(s)..................... .... 173. 56 Outside cable.... ............... ....... 161......................................... 34 Phase-to-ground fault. 110 Performance categories...... 47........ 163 (PVC)......................... 167 cables.......................................... ............. 57 cables rated 5 through 46 kV................................... 164 Plenum flame test.......................... 79 Polyurethane (PUR)................ .......................... .......... 134 Parallel connections........... .................. ............... 68 cord.... 71 cable 15 kV through 69 kV....................................................................... 231.. 146.... 69 through 138 kV............. 163 (PE).................. 35 Polypropylene (PP). ........................... 48 Polyvinyl chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable................. ........ ............... . 238......................................................... ...................................... 256 PIC screened cable............................. ................................. .............. 247 Pounds per 1. .......................000 feet....................... ............... 37.......... 35 PO Polyamid............... 207 Pound-force......................................................... 172 PE-90........ ..................................................... 221........................ 145......... ......... ................... 237............................ 47 P Packaging of wire and cable............................. 52 Index Test.................................................................................... 78 ÖVE (Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik)... 177 Percent fill............................ ........ .. ......... 113 PD (partial discharge)..... 197 Overall diameter of a group of round conductors... 183 cable..... 166 cable ampacities........... 197.......... 35 .. 172 PE-39................................. 67 power cable.... 79 Portable and power feeder cables for use in mines.............................. . 149 Pair assignments..................................... 35.. 247..... 37 Polyethylene jacket for electrical insulated wire and cable.. 232 (NPFA 262)...................... 67 power and control........ 52 concentration to support candle-like combustion of plastics (oxygen index).................................... 56....... ...... .............................. 211...................... ........ ....... ... .................................................. 34...................................................... 254 Picofarads per foot.......... ...... 69 Oxidation resistance....... 134 factor........................... . ........................................ 102.................................................... .. 200.............................. 165 Payoff reel......................... 208.................. 48 rated cable................ 169 cables........... 253 Partial discharge(s)............................. 204.............. .................. 71 Pico............................... 199. .... 208 standards................ ........................ 56...... 168 PASP cable... 76 PFA....... 170 Ozone resistance...... 190..................... 219...... 35............ 201.......... 172 PE-89...............

......................................................................... 118 Pulling....... 137....... ....... ........ .................... .............. 253 and impedance at 60 Hz....... 172 Reactance.. 218 Ribbon cable.... 157 Properties of EPR compared with those of XLPE............... 126 PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V........ ...................... ................. 89 (R) .................... 74 Regulatory and approval agencies................................................ 176 delay......................... 150 weight.... .................... 253 and inductance in series (R and L).. 124 Radiant Cone Flame Test..... 252 inductance and capacitance in AC circuits........................ 79 R R90... 35 Return loss.......................................................................................... 228 RA90......... 191 Recreational Vehicle Cable................................................... 228 Radar............................................................................ .... ........... 68.................................................................................................................................. 47.................. 77 Proper handling of cable reels..... 111 lubricants............... . ..................... 51 of thermoplastic insulation and jacket materials... ........ 77 PSANEXT...................................................................... 145 Recognized national standards....................... 111 Pre-connectorized patch panels................. 150 terminology............ ............................. 11.. ............................... ............. 111 tension calculations....... .. 47 of thermoset insulation and jacket materials...... 122 Resistance and ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz........................ 182 Preassembled aerial cable............................................................ 161 Reel dimensions.....................General Index PPE...... .................................... 76... 50 PSAACRF. 218 R-CPE-90... 162 (Concentric Stranded Members)......................... 182 RIA..... 141 Riser cable.............. 77 (dB)................................... 35 Railway Industry Association......................... 179 (UL 1666)............ 111 eyes............ .............................. 237 Residual voltage................ 100 and capacitance in series (R and C)...... ............... ........ .............. 253 inductance and capacitance in series (R.. 176 RJ11 and RJ45 modular plugs and jacks......... ......................... 253 Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials............................................................................................ 253 of aluminum conductors........... ........ 167 (polyvinyl chloride)........ ...................... ............... 157 size.............. . 92 Receiving.................. .... .................... 105 Receptacle configurations................................................ 76 PTFE (TFE) Teflon.... 182 RHW-2............ ....................................................................... ........... ............................... ................................................. L and C)..... 162 307 .. ..................... 156 Reflections. 164 flame test..................................... 49 Pulleys........................................................... ................................... ............ 138 Premises distribution wiring... 105 Rollers............. 170 Radiation resistance...................... 77 PSACRF.. 113 Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Bunch Stranded Members)........ 84...... . 237 REA............. ......................... ......... ..................................... .............. 111 force.......................... ............... 156 handling................................................ ....... ................... 111 interlocked armor cable..... 174 Reduced diameter extruded dielectric shielded power cables rated 5 through 46 kV........ 11........ 114 swivel................................................................ 182 R-EP-90...... 253 and weight of conductors.... 35 Purging water from conductor.... ............... 76 PSNEXT................... ..... 91 of copper conductors............... ..... 122 Propagation................... ............................ ..... handling and storage......................... 76 RHW.... ...... .... ....... 133 Roll direction..... 111 tension....... 34..................................................................... .............................. 164 Proof testing............. .......................................................................................... ....... . 162 Retractile cords........ ........ ....................................................................... 77 PSELFEXT......... 111 grip................... 34.............................................. ....... 113 PUR.... .. 78 optical fiber cable.......... .........

. ............ 78 twisted pair (STP)....... 58 practice for low voltage cables........................ II Sector conductor....... ....... 56 Semirigid cable................................. ......... 131 Sidewall pressure (SWP)........ 172 Safety in high voltage and high power testing. 227 SC Connector................. 67 SJE............................. 118 Shielded cables.................................... ........................ ............................. 111 assembly..... 113...... 99 Shipboard cable........ 238 Singlemode optical connectors.............. 229 S SAA.... 197 SHV connectors.................................. .. 111...................... 58 effectiveness. 132................ 140 fiber.... ...... ................................................. 99 Short-circuit temperature limits................................................. ............... ... 7 Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V............................ ..................... 7 Semiconductive shields......................................................................... 137........................................................................ 175 Shipboard cables.......... 67 SJTO... 140 Schweizerische Normen-Vereinigung.... 169 Sag.......................... 139 ... ............................................................................ 96 current(s)...... ................... ...................................................................... .................................... 67 SJT................. 114 Signal leakage............. ....................................................................... .. ... 68 Shrinkback........ 185.... ... 127 308 Shielding at high frequencies.............................. 67......... ............................... ................. II Scotchlok..................................... ..............General Index Rope strand............................................ ....................................................................................................................................... 168 performance of metallic shields and sheaths.... 50 Silver.................. 172 RUS............ 58 Silicone........... 63... ..... 190..................................... 233 Single-mode connectors. .................... 228 RWU90..... ...... 209 SEO.................. ....... .......... 168 Rural Utilities Service...... 10................. .................................... ............... 96....... 185 SEV (Schweizerischen Electrotechnischen Verein)......................................................................................................... 253 Serve shields........... 68 Sheave.... ...... ................................. 67 SMA connector(s)............ 185 Seven-conductor cable for ABS power............................. 96 current for copper shielding tape..... 172 SF-2................... ... 131 coax..................... 166 time...... 70 SHD cables............. 86 Singapore plug configurations... 55 Shield short circuit current...... 37 rubber.......................... 99 current rating....................................... 7 Segmental conductor........................................................ ....................................... ........................... 210 Scotch. .... 59 Service drop... 172 RW90..................... 182 SJ .................... ................. ............................................................................... 70 SFF-2................................. .... ... 81 Single sheaves.................... .. . 168 Shovel (SHD) cables.......................................................................................... 174... ......... .......... ............................. 118 SIS..... ..... ......... 81 Shipping reels........................ ....... 6 plated................................................................... ............................................ ...... ..... 119 SCC.... .................................... 169 Shields................. ..... 236 SAE International................ ......... 76 twisted-pair (STP) cabling................................. 183 SETI (Electrical Inspectorate Sakiniementie). ............ 152 Short circuit current for copper and aluminum conductors....................... 74 SEMKO (Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten).................... 67 SJOOW........................... 238 standards........................ .......... ................ ........... 72....... 164 Single conductor high-current armored cables............. .... 78 Service entrance cables...... 51 “Shuko” European.. ............. 182 Series and parallel connections...

................................ C...................... .................... 78 Stud sizes..................... 8 aluminum....................................... 79........................ ... 63 Swedish plug configurations..... 121 SVE....................................................................................... 164 Steiner Tunnel Flame Test.................... 214 Standing waves................................................ ....................... 88 types....................................... 236 Council of Canada..... .................................................................... ...... 150 SPRING Singapore (formerly PSB)................................. 143 Suspended cables.. .......... 182 Storage... ......... 74 SS299 Part 1................ 172 Soft or annealed copper wire................ 83 Stress control layer.............. ............. 70 SRK. 242 Standards Australia.................. 34 Solef/Kynar (PVDF)/PVF..................... II (PVDF)........................ ...... 22 conductor............. ............ ............. 67 SWA (steel wire armor)...... ........ .............................................. . 176 density..................... 162 Solderability.......................................................................... .......... 137 Small reel dimensions......... ............. 227 Standards organizations................................. H........................................................ ............................. 178 density of burning cables................. 67 Square millimeters..................... ....... ...... ................................................................... 6...................... 121 Support span....... 164 Standard English Sizes (kcmil)................ 221 Spacings for conductor supports............ 137 Sunlight resistant.......... ........................ 137 Steam resistant cable............................................ ..................................................... 12 SOO.............. ............. D........................................ .................. ............ .............................. 246 SRG...............................000 kcmil)... .............. 210 standards................. 164 SNV.............General Index Small form factor (SFF) connectors...... ............................. ........ .. 11........... 182 SOOW... 67 Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten................................ 105 and shipment......................................................................... 79 Structured building wiring system............................................................... ........ .......................... 49 Solid.............. 59 Spool size.. 63 Submersible pump cable......................... 136 Submarine cable........................... 169 Subscriber connector............. ...... .................... 86 classes B.................. 169 ST Connector........................ ........ I and K.... 208 SPE-1............................. ........... 119 tips...... 11 Strength members................... 10........ 121 Spanish plug configurations........ 238 SS358............... 157 Straight tip connector................ 209 309 ........ 238 Stainless steel............................. 67 Spiral (serve) shield.................. ....................... ... .......... ... 210 SO ....................................................... ..................... 164 Statistical analysis of thermal life test data..... 178 STO.. .......................... ......... 84 Support spacing for conductors in vertical raceways............................. 156 Smoke.......................................................................................................... ........................................ 168 release rates........................... 209 SVT.... 74..................................................... 8 copper....... 7 Stranding...... 26 diameter............ ....... ........... ......... 182 STOOW.......................................... .... 67 South America................ ....... 242 2 Standard metric sizes (mm )............... 26 diameter.......................... 67 Society of Automotive Engineers.......................... 10 Solef.......................................................................... ...................... ............... 137 Strand classe(s)............. ........ 74 Station wire............................... ..... ....................... 70 SRL.. .. DC resistance and weight (20 AWG through 2............. 79.... ...................... ................................. area and DC resistance (32 through 4/0 AWG)........ .. ......... ...................... .. 56 Structural Return Loss (SRL).................. 70 SRGK... .. 51.......... 209 standards... 28 Strand Properties.......... 238 SPT-1......... area.......................................... 140 STALPETH.........

.................................. 69 junction.............. 46 color codes......................... 185 Synthetic rubber..................... 83 ..................... ............. 211 standards..... 83 strength of copper wire..... 254 Terminal stud size chart.......... 67 Thermosetting polyethylene insulation for wire and cable....................... .......................................................... ................ 182 THWN....................... 47 cords................. 136 310 Termination leakage current.......... ......................................................................... ... 36 T T90 NYLON................................ 46 power cable............................................ ................... ......................... 123 methods..... .............................................................. ......... .. II (ETFE).. 101 Tensile load.....................164 THHN........................................................ 34 FEP.... 182 TFN...................................... ....... ................................................... 131 Three phase delta..... 70 TDRs............. 173....... 173 TIA TIA-568-B.................................. armored cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases....... 248 correction factors for the resistance of copper conductors............................................................. 182 ....................... 173 TIA-568-B............... 228............... ............ 228 terminations..................................... 34... 164 Telecommunication Industries Association................... 34 PFA.. .......... 173 Telecommunications Cabling Standard........... 124 TECK 90 cable........................... 34................ 34 elastomer (TPE).... 78 Temperature coefficient of copper................. ................................. ............................................. ................................ 182 Threaded coupling...... ...2..... 141 of Single Phase Single-Conductor Teck 90 Cables... 182 TGGT... 67 CPE................................................... 76 Tight buffer...... ...... 70 Thermal conductivity............. ..................................... 69............1... .. .................................... 210 Symbols of international organizations.............................. 173............................ .. 233 Teflon............ 34................ ........................................... 46 cable color code (solid colors).......... ........................... ......................... 51 rise....... .... 94 range of cable polymers...... ................ 226...... ............................................... ... 69 types............ 34 Tefzel...................................... 38 Tape shielded 15 kV power cable............... 50 CPE............ ............ 72 TC .................... 49 Telcordia................................. ............................ 3 wye......... 94 coefficient of resistance.............................. II...... 69 wire.......... ................. ............. 233 Testing at high voltage............................................................................................................ 182 TCGT.................... 229 Table E-2......... 226 Thermoset(s)............. 51 properties................ 36........................ 226 Thermoplastic(s).................................. 68 THWN-2....................... ....... ................ ..................... 10 Tension limitations................................ ......................................................................... 6 expansion.......... ..... 124 Textile braid........................................................................................ 214 portable cords........ 3 THW.................................. ................................. .......... 34 PTFE.... 35........ 84...... 50 insulated............... 182 TFFN................ 111 Tera...................................... .................................... ................................. ........ 122 Tests conducted during and after installation. 35 Thermoset-Insulated Wires and Cables.................................. 182 THW-2.............General Index Swiss plug configurations.................... 94 conversion................................ 80 Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables............... ......... ...................... 37 TFE....................................................................................... 173 Telephone cables....................................... 51 Thermocouple connectors......................... .............. 38 Table K-1............... .. ................................. .................. 3 star............................................ 164 Telecommunication cable color code (band marked)..........................

II United Kingdom....... 179........... 51 Trees......................... .. II Union Technique de l’Electricité............ ... 131 Token ring protocol........ .................................................... 228 TX ...... .. 74 Twinaxial cable (twinax)...................... 70 Type .............................. Bureau of Mines.................... ....... 124.......................... 68 Tyrin.............. .................................. ....................................... ............................................................................................................... 139 Total smoke released.............. 182 UHF coax connectors.................................... 150..... 37 government specifications............ 182 UL Marks...................... 79 Type (Continued) E (chromel vs constantan)............................................................................................ .................. 182 Ungrounded Eurocord................................ II UniStrand........................ 70 TNC........... 69 K (chromel vs alumel)...... .................................... ............. 56 Tree wire......................................................................... ................................................................................................................. 35 TPR........ .................... .......................... ..................... 213 plug configurations.......................... ....... 176............. ..General Index Tight-buffered cable..................... 141 Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR)... ........ ................................. 180 UL Listing(s)...... 127 Time-leakage current test............... 68 USEI90.......................... 177....... ......................... ................... 86 Tinned soft or annealed copper wire........................................................ ..S. 68 J (iron vs constantan)............. 162 Tinsel conductor............................. 175 USE.. 176 Testing of Fire Effluents............................... 179 UL 1685 Fire Test........................................................ 180 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test............................................................. 79 CMX................. 69 R and S (platinum vs rhodium)................................................ 71 UniBlend................................. ............................... II..... ..... ........ .... 165 Transmitted intensity.............. 143 Tree retardant....... 178 UL 1581 Vertical Tray Fire Test.......................... 219 Unshielded twisted pair (UTP).... ......................................................................................................... 79 CM CMP........................ .................. ....................... II U UF ... ............. .... 214 Transfer impedance testing................. 79 CMR......................... ........................................................ 185 Underground burial................... 84 types................................................. 69 G ................ 131 connector.............. 75 TWU75................................................................ .......................................... 191 Tip and ring........ 69 TECK 90 Cable. 78 U. ................................ ......... 170 TPE.................................... ..................................................... 74 Transmission lines........ 70 TMMG. ............. 84 T (copper vs constantan)............................................................................... 76 (UTP) cable. . 200 UniShield.. 132 UL 910 Fire Test............. 182 USE-2... ..................... 78 TKGT........... 230 311 ..... 10 Tin plated.... 176. 34 W ............................................ 35 Trademarks................... .................. 82 Traverse..... 226 UF ............................................. 144 material and finish................... II Trailing cables for mining purposes............. ... ...................................................... ....................................... 143 rating......... ........ . 171 Transit time of signals................... 165 Triaxial cable (triax).......... 84 cover.................. 182 UL (Underwriters Laboratories) Symbols.... 197 systems (133 percent insulation level)....................... ............................... ............................ 177 Toxicity...................... 69 TC ......................... 47 Underwriters Laboratories (UL)........................ ............................................................... 84 cables.................................................................................. 156 Tray cable listings and markings...................................... 122 ....................

.. 126 Watertight construction..... 200 UV cure.. ........ 95 drop considerations................................. ....................... 78 Volt........ 182 XHHW-2............................ ...... 63 Wire and Cable covered by UL Standards.......... 47 Welding cable........................ 74 Venezuelan National Electrical Standard (Código Eléctrico Nacional)...... 182 Wet location........... ...... ...................................................................... 82 WC 57.. ..... 237 XHHW........ 84............. 84 Wire connectors....... II VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting laser)..................... ................ 131 Volume resistivity...................... of circuit........... 176................................. 185............. .. ....... II Z-Fold foil shield................ 81 Watt-hours..... 74 Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio (VSWR)........................................................ 36 Z Z-Fold..... 95 rating.... ............. 247 Wavelength.................... 181 Vertical-tray fire-propagation and smoke-release test.............................................. 167 resistivity of the insulation shield............... 71....... 56 VSWR....................................................... 173 pulling compounds............................................................. 190. 144 Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker............... 81 VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechnischer)............................... 36 XLPE.................... .... ........... .......................... 113 serve armor... ................................................................................................... 223 Ventilated trough-type cable tray.. ................................................... 174 Withstand test.... .............. 105 Weather. 68.... 121 Tray Flame Test....................... ........000 BTU/Hour)......... 95 drop per amp per 100 ft........... 71....................................................... ...................................................... ................. 171 packaging standards......................... 237 Valox.. 167 Vertical cable tray tests............. ............. 223 standards........................... 74....................... ..... 177 Vertical-specimen flame test............................. 171 WC 71.......................................... 47 vapor................... ............... .......... .................................................................................................. ....... 182 Packaging.......................................... II 312 .. .............................................. ....... 190................................ 151... ..... 143 V V-90....... 203 Velocity of propagation...... .................................................................... .......................................000 BTU/Hour).... ...................... ... 151 Test Methods (Trinational)...................................................................................... .............................. 182 XLP.. 179 Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (70.......... 171 WC 70........................ .................. 171 Weatherproof caps...... 74 VW-1................................................... 247 Watts...... 167 (210......... . 6 Zytel......................... ...... 84....... 58 Zinc............... ..... 203 Vertical suspension........... 122 Voice grade media (VGM).. ... 122 Working load................................ sun resistance.. ... ...... ............................ 181 X X-HF-90..........General Index TE (Union Technique de L’Électricité).................................................................. 174 VLF (very low frequency).. .. ...... 171 WC 66............. ... ................................................... 72 drop in percent............................. .. 140 W W ........................................... 11............ 182 Water resistance............................. 2 Voltage drop.. .... 185. 181 VW-1 flame test................ ................. .............................

313 .

314 .

Louis Nebraska Grand Island Omaha Nevada Las Vegas New Hampshire Nashau Salem New Jersey Cranbury Florham Park New Mexico Albuquerque New York Albany New York Rochester North Carolina Charlotte Raleigh Rocky Mount Ohio Ashland Chillicothe Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Oklahoma Tulsa Oregon Portland Pennsylvania Allentown Erie Lewisberry Philadelphia Pittsburgh South Carolina Greenville North Charleston Tennessee Jackson Memphis Nashville Texas Austin Dallas El Paso Houston McAllen San Antonio Tyler Utah Salt Lake City Virginia Dulles Norfolk Richmond Washington Renton Seattle Wisconsin Appleton Kenosha Manitowoc Milwaukee Tomah CANADA Alberta Calgary Edmonton British Columbia Vancouver Manitoba Winnipeg Nova Scotia Halifax Newfoundland St.8000 CANADA HQ Toronto. Anixter Association and Committee Memberships • Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) • The Green Grid • Building Industry Consulting Services International (BICSI) • Security Industry Association (SIA) • Control Systems Integrators Association (CSIA) Technical Certifications • More than 100 Registered BICSI RCDDs • PSPs (Physical Security Professional Certification) • CCNAs (Cisco Certified Network Associate) Corporate Snapshot: Year founded: 1957 | Number of employees: Over 8.323.521.Anixter’s Global Presence Anixter is located in over 260 cities around the world in more than 50 countries.838658 Fasteners HQ Gloucester.521. IL 224.568. England +44.0250 USA Alabama Dadeville Alaska Anchorage Arizona Nogales Phoenix Arkansas Fort Smith California Anaheim Burbank Fresno Los Angeles Pleasanton Sacramento San Diego San Jose Colorado Denver Connecticut Cheshire Florida Delray Beach Fort Lauderdale Jacksonville Miami Orlando St.361.000 | Stock symbol: AXE | Countries: More Than 50 | Fortune 500 List NORTH AMERICA – USA Worldwide HQ Glenview.6508.1600 South Pacific HQ Sydney.521.333. England +44.1452.8167 Canada 800.1 billion | Products: More Than 450.8000 AFTER HOURS USA 800.8999 LATIN AMERICA HQ Glenview. FL Chile Santiago Colombia Bogotá Medellin Costa Rica San Jose Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Ecuador Quito Jamaica Kingston Mexico Aquascalientes Guadalajara Juarez Mexicali Mexico City Monterrey Panama Panama City Peru Arequipa Lima Puerto Rico San Juan Venezuela Caracas Uruguay Barbados EUROPE/MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA United Kingdom Aberdeen Barrow in Furness Belfast Birmingham Bredbury Chesterfield Coventry Diss Dorset Edinburgh Ellesmere Port Gateshead Glasgow Gloucester Leeds Liverpool Luton Newtonabbey Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Rotherham Sheffield Uxbridge Warrington Austria Vienna Belgium Willebroek Czech Republic Prague Denmark Ansvej Copenhagen Finland Helsinki France Lyon Paris Sarreguemines Germany Bielefeld Dillingen Frankfort Mannheim Stuttgart Hungary Budapest Republic of Ireland Dublin Italy Bari Brescia Milan Reggiolo Rovereto Morocco Casablanca Netherlands Capelle aan den IJssel Norway Oslo Poland Warsaw Portugal Lisbon Russia Moscow Saudi Arabia Riyadh Slovakia Bratislava Spain Barcelona Madrid Sweden Gothenburg Stockholm Switzerland Montreux Zurich Turkey Istanbul United Arab Emirates Dubai Oman Qatar ASIA/PACIFIC Australia Brisbane Melbourne Perth Sydney China Beijing Shanghai Shenzhen Suzhou Hong Kong India Bangalore Chennai Mumbai New Delhi Indonesia Jakarta Japan Tokyo Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Penang New Zealand Auckland Philippines Manila Singapore Singapore Taiwan Taipei Thailand Bangkok Vietnam Ho Chi Minh .880500 ASIA/PACIFIC Asia/Pacific HQ Singapore +65.000 Inventory: Over $1 billion | Customers: Over 100.200 | 2011 Revenues: $6.9. IL 224. Ontario 905.818181 Wire & Cable HQ Warrington.0800 INTERNATIONAL SERVICES Glenview. IL 224. Petersburg Tampa Georgia Americus Atlanta Dublin Vidalia Idaho Boise Illinois Bloomington Mount Prospect Princeton Wood Dale Indiana Columbus Fort Wayne Indianapolis Iowa Des Moines Kansas Hesston Kentucky Cadiz Louisville Louisiana New Orleans Maryland Baltimore Massachusetts Boston Michigan Detroit Grand Rapids Minnesota Eden Prairie Minneapolis Thief River Falls Windom Mississippi Gulfport Missouri Kansas City St. Australia 612.1925.1895.8000 EUROPE/MIDDLE EAST/AFRICA HQ Enterprise Cable & Security HQ Uxbridge. John’s Ontario Hamilton Kitchner London Ottawa Toronto Sudbury Thunder Bay Quebec Abitibi Montreal Quebec City Saskatchewan Saskatoon LATIN AMERICA Argentina Buenos Aires Cordoba Brazil Curitibal São Paulo Caribbean (English) Miami. England +44.

• 01/13 • 252161 • ISBN: 978-0-615-24926-1 .11H0001X0 © 2013 Anixter Inc.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful