Gerunds and Infinitives Part 1

 Introduction to Gerunds  Using gerunds as the objects of prepositions  Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds.  Common verbs followed by gerunds  Go + gerund  Special expressions followed by –ing  Common verbs followed by infinitives  Common verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds

 Reference list of verbs followed by infinitives
 It + infinitive; gerunds and infinitives as subjects

 Gerund
 Is the –ing form of a verb used as a noun  It is used in the same ways as a noun, as a subject or as an

object

 Playing tennis is fun. (What is the subject? What is the

main verb?)  We enjoy playing tennis. (What is the subject? Object? Main verb?)  He’s excited about playing tennis. (What is the preposition? Object of the preposition?)  Compare
 Walking is good exercise  Bob and Ann are walking.

 We talked about not going to the meeting. but finally decided we should go.  Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting. . A gerund is frequently used as the object of a preposition.the not precedes the gerund.  I look forward to going home next month.  We talked about going to Canada for our vacation.  I’m used to sleeping with the window open.*  *notice.  I’m interested in learning more about your work.

 The rain prevented us ______ (complete) _________ the work.  I apologized to Yoko _____ (make) ______ her wait for me.  Thank you ______ (help) ________ me carrying my suitcases.  You are capable _______ (do) _________ better work. Complete these sentences with an appropriate preposition and verb form.  I have no excuse _______ (be) _________ late.  I’m accustomed ________ (have) __________ a big breakfast. .

Be excited Be worried Complain Dream Talk Think Apologize Blame (someone) Forgive (someone) Have an excuse Have a reason Be responsible Thank (someone) About doing it About/of doing it For doing it .

Keep (someone) Prevent (someone) Prohibit (someone) Stop (someone) Believe Be interested Participate Succeed Insist From doing it In doing it On doing it .

Be accused Be capable For the purpose Be guilty Instead Take advantage Take care Be tired Be accustomed In addition Be committed Be devoted Look forward Object Be opposed Be used Of doing it To doing it .

Exercise 2 (page 300) Exercise 4 (page 301) Just write the answers on your paper to turn in .

 Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive. I enjoy playing tennis.  Other Verbs + Gerunds Enjoy Postpone (put off) Keep (keep on) Quit (give up) Discuss suggest Avoid Mind Give up Consider Stop Get through Appreciate Delay Put off Finish (get through) Mention Keep on  .  Enjoy is followed by the a gerund (playing).  Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs.  Incorrect: I enjoy to play tennis. Some phrasal verbs (like give up) are followed by gerunds. Phrasal verbs:  Joe quit smoking  Joe gave up smoking  Both sentences mean the same.

 Create a sentence from the given words:  Enjoy + watching TV  Mind + Open the window  Quit + Eat desserts  Give up + Eat desserts  Keep + work  Keep on + work  Think about + get a job  Avoid +answer my question .

recreational activities.  Did you go shopping?  We went fishing yesterday. Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express. Go birdwatching Go shopping Go fishing Go sledding Go sailing Go bowling Go skinnydipping Go hunting Go boating Go sightseeing Go hiking Go snorkeling Go camping Go jogging Go skating Go swimming Go canoeing Go mountain climbing Go kayaking Go skateboarding Go dancing Go running Go skiing Go window shopping . for the most part.

 Create sentences from the given words.  Finish + study  Go + dance  Keep + work  Go + bowl  Think about + wear  Enjoy + play  Talk about + go+ swim  Stop + fight  Avoid + go + shop .

I caught a thief looking through my desk drawers.  Spend + expressions of time or money + -ing  Sam spends most of his time studying. -ing forms follow certain special expressions  Have fun/a good time + -ing  We had fun playing volleyball  We had a good time playing volleyball  Have trouble/difficulty + -ing  I had trouble finding his house. I found George using my telephone.  I had a difficult time finding his house.  Catch + (pro)noun + -ing  When I walked into my office. .  Lie + expression of place + -ing  He is lying in bed reading a novel.  Sit + expression of place + -ing  She sat at her desk writing a letter  Stand + expression of place + -ing  I stood there wondering what to do next.  Have a hard time/difficult time + -ing  I had a had time finding his house.  I had difficulty finding his house.  Find + (pro)noun + -ing  When I walked into my office.  Waste + expressions of time or money + -ing  I waste a lot of time watching TV.

 Create sentences from the given verb combinations             Have trouble + remember Stand (place) + wait Have a hard time + learn Sit (place) + think Have a good time + play Lie (place) + dream Have difficulty + pronounce Have fun + sing and dance Find (someone) + study Spend (time) + chat Waste (money) + try Catch (someone + take .

Exercise 6 (page 303) write just the answers on your paper Exercise 7 (page 304) this will count for a quiz grade Exercise 9 (page 305) write just the answers on your paper .

 Box 14-4 gave us common verbs followed by gerunds  Go + gerund  Special expressions followed by -ing . Used gerunds as objects of prepositions  Box 14-3 gave us common preposition combinations followed by gerunds.

 Infinitive  To + the simple form of a verb  To see. Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock.  He promised to be here by ten.  Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and then an infinitive.  Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive  Verb + (pro)noun + infinitive  Mr.  The policed ordered the driver to stop. . to go  Verb + Infinitive  I hope to see you again soon. to be.  I was told to be here at ten o’clock  These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive.

Hope to (do something) Plan to Promise to Agree to Seem to Appear to Expect to Would like to Intend to Decide to Offer to Refuse to Pretend to Ask to Want to Need to .

Gerunds and Infinitives part 2 .

 I came to this school for learn English. Helen borrowed my dictionary for to look up the spelling of “occurred.  I traveled to Japan for to visit my sister.  I cam to this school to learn English. .  The teacher opened the window to let some fresh air in the room.”  The teacher opened the window for letting some fresh air in the room.”  Helen borrowed my dictionary to look up the spelling of “occurred.  I traveled to Japan to visit my sister.

 He came here to study English  To express purpose.  Incorrect: He came here for studying English. It answers the question “Why?”. but it is a preposition and is followed by a noun object.  I went to the store for some food.  I went to the store to buy some bread. In order to is used to express purpose. use (in order) to. .  He came here in order to study English.  For can be used to express purpose.  Incorrect: He came here for study English. with a verb.  Incorrect: He came here for to study English.  In order is often omitted. not for.

 I went to the doctor to…  I went to the doctor to have a check-up. Tom went to Chicago for….  Tom went to Chicago for some pizza.  I went to the market for some fresh vegetables.  I went to the market for…. ..  Mary went to the market to…  Mary went to the market to buy some fresh fruit.

these adjectives describe a person (or persons).  Many of these adjectives describe a person’s feelings or attitudes.  In general. not a thing. . We were sorry to hear the bad news.  I was surprised to see Tim at the meeting.  Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by infinitives.

Enough’s enough! I’m…. but he’s reluctant to ask. has always been loving and support.  I’m fortunate to have a good family. He needs money desperately. My family.  Some children grow up in unhappy homes.  I’m determined to relax for the rest of the day.  Ivan’s run out of money again. however. .  He needs money desperately.. I’m…. I’ve worked hard all day long. but he doesn’t want anyone to know his situation. but he’s….

 The box is very heavy. the use of too implies a negative result.  Usually enough precedes a noun  I have enough strength to lift that box.  Enough follows an adjective  I am strong enough to lift that box.  In the speaker’s mind. . Compare:  The box is too heavy for Bob to lift. but Bob can lift it.  Very heavy = It is possible. I can lift it.  Too heavy = it is impossible for Bob to lift that box. but difficult for bob to lift that box.

but an adult old enough to do?  Is it very difficult or too difficult to learn English?  What did you have enough time to do before class today? . Is she too young or very young?  What is a child too young to do. My friend’s daughter is 18 months old.

 Sue Team  Write sentences using the following adjectives followed by infinitives. Delighted to Ashamed to Shocked to Relieved to Determined to Afraid to Lucky to Certain to Willing to . Glad to (do it) Careful to Sad to Sorry to Surprised to Prepared to Ready to Happy to hesitant to  Team Good Cake  Write sentences using the following adjectives followed by infinitives.

4. 7. 3. page 330 .Ex. page 328 Ex. page 327 Ex.

 Past Infinitive: to have + past participle  The rain seems to have stopped.  Passive Infinitive: to be + past participle  I didn’t expect to be invited to his party.  The event expressed by a past infinitive or past gerund happened before the time of the main verb.  Passive Gerund: being + past participle  Past-Passive Infinitive: to have been + past participle  Nadia is fortunate to have been given a scholarship.  Past-Passive Gerund: having been + past participle  I appreciate having been told the news. .  Past Gerund: having + past participle  I appreciate having had the opportunity to meet then king.

I know I’m . but I wasn’t.  Your compositions are supposed to been written in ink. I know I’m going to vote for him.  I expected to be invited to the party. but I wasn’t. not) __________ me my paycheck.  I expected (invite) __________ to the party.  Jack Welles has a good chance of (elect)_____________.  I don’t enjoy being teased by other people  I’m angry at him for (give. I don’t enjoy (tease) __________ by other people.  I’m angry at home for not having given me my paycheck. going to vote for him.  Your compositions are supposed (write) __________ in ink.  I’m angry at him for not giving me my paycheck.  Jack Welles has a good chance of being elected.

 The house needs to be painted. the gerund carries a passive meaning.  The house needs painting. a gerund may follow need. I need to borrow some money.  Usually the situations involve fixing or improving something.  In certain circumstances.  Usually an infinitive follows need. In this case. .

 What a mess! This room needs (clean) ___________ up. It needs (iron) _________. ironing.  To be cleaned. changing. cleaning  To clean  My shirt is wrinkled. The baby’s diaper is wet. It needs (change) ________.  To be ironed.  To be changed. We need (clean) ___________ it up before the company arrives. .

 The object form of a pronoun (us) is used.  A possessive adjective (our) is used to modify a gerund. Lee complained about Mary’s coming to class late.  The possessive form is often not used.  Mr. Lee complained about us coming to class late. Lee complained about Mary coming to class late.  Mary came to class late. Lee complained about that fact.  Mr. Lee complained about our coming to class late. Mr. Mr.  Mr.  A possessive noun (Mary’s) is used. .  Informal English  Mr. Formal English  We came to class late. Lee complained about that fact.

We greatly appreciate that.  The boy resented our/us talking about him behind his back.  We talked about him behind his back. You took the time to help us. . The boy resented that fact.  We greatly appreciate your/you taking the time to help us.

page 332 Ex 10.Ex 9. page 333 Ex 12. page 334 .

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