CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

FROM

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

3 1924 100 631 211

li^l

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924100631211

DICTIONARY
OF

/

SECTS, HERESIES, ECCLESIASTICAL PARTIES, AND SCHOOLS OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT

RIVINGTONS
E-onBon
2I);;fotti

Waterloo Place

High

Street

SEambri'Dec

Trinity Street

[An

Rights reserved.^

DICTIONARY

SECTS, HERESIES, ECCLESIASTICAL PARTIES

AND SCHOOLS OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT

EDITED BY THE REV.

JOHN HENRY BLUNT,
COMMON PRAYER,"
ETC. ETC.

M.A., F.S.A.

EDITOR OF THE "DICTIONARY OF DOCTRINAL AND HISTORICAL THEOLOGY," AND THE "ANNOTATED BOOK OF

'
'

Let both grow together until the Harvest.
[MATTH.
xiii.

30.]

*'

Lis eorum fides nostra

est."

[HILAR, de

Trinii.

\.

26.]

RIVINGTONS
HonUon,
©3;forli,

anb Cambrttige

f874

A CLASSIFIED TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL CONTENTS
JEWISH SECTS
Pharisees
Docetee Bbionites Ophites Adamites, or Prodicians Sethians
Cainites

LATER HERETICS, be[A.D.

Sadducees Essenes
TherapeutBB Hemerobaptlsts Karaites
]Masbot]iEsaiis

70-120]

Cleohians
Basilidlans

Nazareeans
GenistsB MeristSB

Satuminians
Carpocratians
IMarcelliuians

[a.d.

120-130]

Mendeeans
Gorttiseans

Cerdonians Marcionites
Liucianists

[A.D.

130-140]

HEATHEN
Brahmins
Buddhists Parsees Yezeedees IVEahometans

Apellianists

RELI-

GIONS

Valentinians Heracleonites
IVEarcosites
[A.D.

138-158]

Colorbaslaus

Seoundians
Florinlans

Quartodeci-

Brahmoo Somaj

mans
Bncratites Tatianists
[A.D.
>

HEEETICS REFERRED TO IN THE New Testament
False Christs False Apostles

Severlans Hydroparastatse

160-170]

Arohontics Apotactics

Simoniaus
Judaizers Gnostics Nicolaitanes

Hermogenians
Seleucians

Montanists Theodotians
Tertullianists

[A.D.

Alexander

170-200]

Demas
Diotrephes

Artemonites Bardesanians
AscodrugjrtSB

Hermogenes Hymenseus
Philetus

Noetians

Praxeans

I

[A.D. 206]

Phygellus

Melchisedechians Arabici
Sabellians [a.d. 220] Blchasaites [a.d. 224]
[a.d. 250]
[a.d. 261]

E ARLY HERETICS, be-

tween THE Apostolic Origenists Age and the End op Novatians

THE PeEBECUTIOUS OP Audians [a.d. 264-326] [a.d. 280] THE Chdrch, a.d. 313 Manlchseans Samosatenes [a.d. 280]
DosithEeans
\
\

IVIetangismonitsB
[^ d.

Menandrians Nazarenes
Cerinthians

70-120]

Artotyritae ASCltBB

.^^
>

Meletian Schism

[a.d. 306]

VI
JosepTiistae

A

Classified Table of the Principal Contenls
Rosenfelders Saint Simonians
[AU the English
below are
in

sects

named
of

AMEKICAN SECTS
[lilost

Lollards Men of Understanding Ortlibenses

very insignificant

Schwenckfeldians
Servetians
Sionites

numbers,

and

some

of the Sects which are to

he found in Europe arc also
to he found in America. The following list contains some among those which are of

them

are nearly extinct]

Pasagians Pastoureux
Paterini Paulicians Perfect!

Synergists Theophilanthropists Ubiquitarians

Seventh-Day Baptists Muggletonians
Southcottians

native growth]

UckewaUists
United Evangelical

Petrobrusians Petro-Joannites
Porretanists Stedingers Taborites

Independent or Calvinistic Methodists
"

African Episcopal Methodists

Church
Verschoorists

Jumpers
Shakers
Socinians Universalists

Waterlanders Wilhelmlans
Zwinglians

Tanchelmians Thondraclans Waldenses
WTiite Bretliren

Bourneans
Coglers Peculiar People " Christians " Free Gospel Christians Freethinklng Christians New Christians Original Christians Primitive Christians Protestant Christians United Christians Christian Association Christian Brethren Christian Disciples Christian Israelites Christadelphians

ENGLISH SECTS
[Long Extinct]

CONTINENTAL SECTS
OP Eeformation LATER Date.
Abecedarians, or Zwickau Prophets Adiaphorlsts Adrianists

Anabaptists and Alascans Enthusiasts
Familists
Fifth

Campbellites, or Disciples of Christ, or Reformed Baptists, or Reformers Christian Connexion Conferentie Party Cumberland Presbyterians Darrelites Evangelical Association, or Albrecht Brethren Hard-SheU Baptists Harmony Society Hicksites

Hopkinsians Jerkers and Barkers

Monarchy Men

Jumpers
Keithians, or Baptists

Grindletonians Hetheringtonian s

Quaker

Ambrosians Amsdorflans
Amyraldists Anabaptists Angelic Brothers Apostoolians Arminians
Bacularii

Nonjurors Banters
Se-Baptists

KnipperdoUings Methodist Episcopal

Church
Methodist Protestant

Seekers
Separatists Semi-Separatists Traskites

Church

SCOTTISH SECTS
[See also p. 009]

Methodist Reformed

Church
Methodist Society

Wilkinsonians

Scottish Kirk

Mormons
[a.d. 1672]

Bourignonists Brugglenians
Calvinlsts
[Chief existing Sects]

Cameronians

The

New Bom
Lights, or Randall-

Secession Kirk, or Associate S3Tiod [A.D. 1733]

New
ites,

Cameronites Camlsards
Christo

Sacrum

CoUegiants Convulsionaries Comarists
Familists

Burghers Antiburghers Roman Catholics [a.d. 1670J Old Light Burghers Independents, or Congre- New Light Burghers gationalists [a.d. I6l(i| New Light Antiburghers Baptists, or Particular Old Light Antiburghers
[See also p.
viii.]

Baptists

[A.D. 16S3]

Relief

Synod

Flemings Gomarists Hattemists

Quakers

[a.d. 1650]

United Secession

Huguenots
Hutites
Ilhiminati

Presbyterians [a.d. 1062] General or Unitarian Baptists [A.D. 1691] Unitarians [a.d. i719]

Huntingdon Connexion
[A.D, 1748]

Protesters Besolutioners Original Burghers Rogerians Original Seceders Separates United Original Seceders ShakerSf
..

or Free Will Bapor General Provisioners New School Presbyterians Old School Baptists Old School Presbyterians Ornish Church Perfectionists, Bible Communists, or Free Lovers Bestorationists
tists,

Komthalites
Labadists

Lutherans
Majorists Martinlats Melchiorists

Morisonians Moravians [a.d. 1749] Free Kirk [a.d. 1843] Nevs- Connexion General United Presbyterians
Baptists
[A.D. 1770]

Six Principle Baptists
Spiritualists
[a.d.

Tunkers, Dunkers, Brethren, or

1847]

Mennonltes
Michelhahnites

Mommiers
Moravians Old Lutherans
Osiandrians
Pietists

Swedenborgians [a.d, i783] Sweet Singers Wesley an Methodists [a.d. The Men 1792] Nonjurors [Presbyterian] New Connexion Metho- Moderates dists [A.D, 1797] Buchanites
Primitive Methodists
1810]
[a.d.

Tumblers

United Brethren in Christ
Universalists

Wakemanites
Wllburites Wilkinsonians, or Universal Friends Zion Wesley Methodists
Zoarites

Scottish Baptists

Marrow Men

Psychopannychltes
Puccianites Pueris Similes

Bryanites, or Bible Chris- Campbellites, or Rowites tians [A.D. 1815] Daleites Plymouth Brethren [a.d. Glassites
1830]

Sandemanians
[a.d. 1831]

RUSSIAN SECTS
[Rascholniks, or Kerjaki]

Irvingites

Eeformed Church, or

United Methodist Free

German

Calvinists

Church

[a.d. 1857]

Wilkinsonians Smytonites Haldanites

Bezpopoftschins Bezslovestni

A
Dlaconoftsohins

Classified Table of the Principal Contents

Vll

I I II

Vlll

Genealogy of Chitrch Parties and Sects

TIJ

rjl

H O W W CO
I—
1-3
12;

I—

w o

w H
Ph

O
fi

-<

W I— H
Ph

M

o
p^

W o

W
I—

C5 1^

O
O
<J

;

A
ABECEDARIANS. A name given to tlie Zwickau Pbophets [a.d. 1520], a section of the German Anabaptists, who claimed to have direct inspiration from God, and maintaiaed that this inspiration was ohstructed hy human learning. They carried this theory to such a length as to declare that it was desirable never even
to learn

ABC,

since

all

human

learning

is

out literally such texts as, "It remaineth that both they that have wives be as though they had none " [1 Cor. vii. 29]. But there does not seem any historical evidence for connecting them with the Gnostics generally, as Mosheim. does, or with the Manichseans in particular, as does Herzog. [Aug. de Hceres. cap. 87 ; Prcedestinati liber, cap. 87, Waloh, Hist. Ketzereien, i.
607.]

founded on the alphabet, and the knowledge of it thus opens the door to that which is an obstacle to Divine illumination. Nicholas Stork, a weaver of Zwickau, was the first to proclaim this principle, but it was afterwards supported by Carlstadt, once an ally of Luther, who, yielding to Stork's iuvectives against learning, shut up his books, resigned his degree of Doctor of Divinity, forsook all study of Holy Scripture, and looked for Divine truth at the mouths of those who, by all ordinary men, were accounted the most ignorant of mankind. The Abecedarian theory, in a more moderate form, has had much
influence on some modern sects, especially the more ignorant sects of Methodists.

ABEN0NIT.3E.

[Abelonitbs.]

historian Nicephorus mena heretic of this name as having been Novatian, bishop of Nicsea about a.d. 430. He had been a pupil of the sophist Troilus, and became celebrated as one of the foremost orators of his day. He seems to have taught the Novatian heresy in its most extreme form, maintaining that Baptism is the only means by which remission of sins can be obtained ; and that, consequently, penitence and mortification of the flesh are utterly useless. [Niceph. Hist. Ecal. xiv. 15.
tions
Socrat. Hist. Eccl. vii. 12.]

ABLAVIUS.

The

ABELARD.

[Schoolmen.

Nominalists.]

sect, deriving its name from Abel, the son of Adam. The exact date of its origin is unknown, but it became extinct during the reign of Theodosius the Younger [a.d. 408-450], for at the time when St. Augustine composed his book on Heresies [cap. 87], he alludes to it as having lingered on as late as his time in a village near Hippo, of

ABELIANS. [Abelonitbs.] ABELITES. [Abelonitbs.] ABELOITES. [Abelonites.] ABELONITES. An obscure African

ABRAHAMITES. branch of the PadlioiANS, SO called from their founder Abraham, or Ibrahim, a native of Antioch, who lived in the end of the eighth and the beginning of the ninth century. They do not appear to have
held any distinctive tenets, but were simply Antiochean Paulioians and the heresy was soon suppressed in that city by the vigorous opposition of the patriarch Cyriaous.
:

A

which he was bishop [a.d. 395-430]. The members of this sect adopted the eccentric practice of marrying wives without procreating children, in supposed imitation of Abel, who was stated to
have had a wife, but not to have known her and in lieu of the consummation of marriage, and at the same time to eiiable them to perpetuate their sect, the husband and wife adopted
different sexes, who in their turn were to abstain from all intercourse, and on the death of their foster-parents to resort to the same plan of adoption. It is said that young persons were easily procured for that purpose from the superfluous families of the poor population in the neighbourhood. The conduct of the Abelonites was a mistaken attempt to cany

ABEAHAMITES. Bohemian sect of no importance, existing at the end of the last century in the town of Pardubitz and its neighbourhood. They professed to follow the religion of Abraham before he was circumcised, rejected all distinctively Christian doctrine, and only acknowledged the Decalogue and the Lord's
Prayer as Holy Scriptures.

A

ABSTINENTES.
and Spain,

A sect which arose in Gaul

at the close of the third century, dur-

two children of

ing the reigns of Diocletian and Maximian, and in the pontificate of MarcelHnus. Like the Eastern Enckatites, they held Gnostic views on the subject of marriage, which they denounced not as absolutely wrong, but as a thing to be This avoided by those who sought sanctity. was their deduction from such texts in Holy Scripture as "There be eunuchs which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of

Heaven's sake.

He

that

is

able to receive itjjet

1

A>

:

;

Acacians
him
[Matt. xix. 12], and "Withshall see the Lord " [Heh. xii. 14]j and their argument ran thus: Christ must have preached some new virtue, or have performed some praiseworthy action not commanded in the Old Testament. Did He come to
receive
it"

Acacians
by the abolition of the terms of technical theology. In A.D. 363, on the ascent of the orthodox Jovian to the throne, they attended a synod held at Antioch under Meletius, and agreed to sign the Nicene Creed, with a mental reservation to the ejBfect that the expression " consubstantial" or " co-essential" meant no more than begotten of the Father's essence, and therefore like Him in essence. Four years previously, at Seleucia in Isauria [a.d. 359], they had attempted to banish the term ovcrla altogether, with its compounds
at another time

out holiness no

man

teach the fear of

God ?

This

is

contained in the

Law. "Was and the like

it
%

condemn envy, covetousness, This was done iu the Old Testato

ment. He could not, therefore, have any other view but to preach continence to the world, practising HimseK that chastity without which everlasting Ufe could not he attained [Epiphan. adv. Hmres. lib. ii. torn. 2, p. 710]. They also condemned the use of meat, as having been created by the devil and not by God [Philaster, cap. 84] to which later writers add that, while admitting the Godhead of the Father and the Son, they held the Holy Ghost to be merely a created Being. Led perhaps by the similarity of some of their views, Philaster connects the Abstinentes with the Gnostics and Manich»ans, and Baronius [in Annal. ad arm. 288] identifies them with the HiBRAOITES. ACACIANS. Three broad lines can be drawn among the various subdivisions into which Arianism branched about the middle of the fourth cen:

[1.] Semi-Arians, of whom Basil of Ancyra and George of Laodicaea were the leaders. [2.] The Anomoeans (avo/^otoi), or Ultra-Arians, followers of Aetius and his pupil Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicum. [3.] Between these two extremes rose the Acacians, a third party, who would neither allow any approximation to the orthodox doctrine of the Homoousion, nor yet admit that the Second Person in the Trinity was a mere creature, on the level of all other created beings. They derived their name from Acacius, who suc-

tury.

be allowed only Son, without any further qualification as to His nature rejecting " consubstantial " as not found in Holy Scripture, and the phrase dvd/toiov tw TLarpi, as equally defenceless. On being further pressed, they allowed the Son to be like the Father, but seemed to prefer the absence of closer definition. But if the Son was like the Father, in what, asked the orthodox party, did the resemblance consist 1 Was it merely a resemblance in respect of will ? or was it a resemblance of a stiU. more unreal character, like that of a statue to the original, which involves no inherent element of identity 1 The answer of the Acacians to these questions must be discovered from the creed which was promulgated on that occasion, the precise terms of which have been preserved "We confess and believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and earth,
o/iooijo-tov
o/jioiova-iov,

and

and asked

to

to adopt a formula of belief in God's

and of things
"

visible

and

invisible.

We believe also in our Lord Jesus Christ, the

ceeded Eusebius as Bishop of Ceesarea in Palestine [a.d. 338], a person possessed of many of the qualifications necessary for the leadership of He was strong and active, a fluent a party. speaker, and evinced his regard for learning by taking great pains to increase his predecessor's library [Tillemont, Mem. vol. xv. 458, edit. Brux. 1707]. At the same time he was extremely unscrupulous and fickle : at first a furious

Son of God, begotten of Him without any passion (diraOm), before aU ages, the God Word, God of God, Only-begotten, Light, Life, Truth, Wisdom, Virtue, by Whom all things were made which are in Heaven and earth, whether visible or invisible. We believe Him to have assumed flesh of the
Blessed Virgin at the end of the world to put sin, and that He was made man, that He suffered also for our sins, rose again, and having ascended into Heaven, is seated at the right hand of the Father, and shall come again with glory to judge the quick and dead. " believe also in one Holy Spirit, our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ called the Para-

away

We

Arian under Constantius, who sheltered him from the decree of deposition passed by a majority of the Semi-Arian Council held at Sardica [a.d. 347], he became a CathoKc under Jovian, and veered round to Arianism once more under Valens. He was prominently concerned in the banishment of Liberius and the substitution of the antipope Felix [a.d. 355-358], after whose expulsion a sentence of deposition was passed against him at Seleucia [a.d. 359], and repeated at the Council of Lampsacus [a.d. 365], which he only survived for about a twelvemonth. The Acacians as a body partook of the chameleon character of their teacher, and the shifts were various by which they attempted to sustain their indeterminate position between the Semiand the Ultra-Arians. Their end would be obtained at one time by an intellectual subterfuge, 2

Whom

and promised that He would send the same on His Apostles after His departure. Whom He both truly sent, and by Him doth sanctify the faithclete,

ful in the Church,

who

are baptized in the

Name

of the Father,
Spirit.
_

and of the Son, and of the Holy But whosoever preach anything beyond
this

what is contained in Church considers them
Hmres.
Ixxiii.]

Creed the Catholic
[Epiphan.

as aliens."

The following forty-three bishops subscribed to the above Creed :— Acacius, Bishop of Csesarea, Basil of Ancyra, Mark of Arethusa, George of Alexandria, Pancratius, Hypatian, Uranius of Tyre, Eutychius of Eleutheropolis, ZoUus of Larissa in Syria, Seras of ParEetonium in Libya, Paul of Emessa, Eustathius of Epiphania, Irenseus of Tripolis in Phoenicia, Eusebius of Seleucia in Syria, Eutychian of Patara

The title of Acephali was also applied to those who would not adhere to John. then vacant by the expulsion of John Talaia. 82 . All priests refusing allegiance to their diocesans. Mcephorus. who had been the bitter opponent of. Bishop of Antioch. Hist. who took their name from the Greek word by which a being is defined as uncreated [oktjo-tos]. Eusebius of Sebaste in Palestine. a former bishop of Anthropomobphitbs.d. Patriarch of Constantinople [a. " koJ ivavdpunrriaavTa. 459. Heliodorus of Sezusa in Pentapolis." " et Homo factus est." was given to an Eastern monastic order founded by Alexander. and erected a cloister especially for them [Niceph." This dogma was. IV. Peter Mongus. a however. Leontius of Lydia. consult Pseudo-Jerome. Cyrion of Doliche. Empire. Bishop of Alexandria. i. Honorius. [For further information about the Alexandrian Acephali. 428-430].d. On Peter's assent to these conditions. De Heresiarcli. thereby contradicting the words of the Nicene Creed. ApoUonius of Oxyrinclius. XV. Panciatius of Pelusium. 23]. Exeresius of Gerasa. on the two conditions of admitting the Proterians to communion and subscribing the Henoticon. ' Acuanites tion of ISTestorius [a. llie followers of Severus the Monophysite. Stephen of Ptolemais in Libya. when Acacius. Charisius of Azotus. 32. for their rigid orthodoxy. so that an uninterrupted round of worship rose perpetually from their monastery. Eccles. and ascribes their foundation to a person named MarceUus in the middle of the fifth century [Bar. letter of attempted reconciliation entitled the Hbnotioon. himself a Syrian monk. but the Ultra-Eutychians still clinging to their denial of the two natures in Christ. but all remained separate from the body of the Monophysites for about three hundred years. Grcec.] L The MonoIn the year a. while "the Monophysite and Monothelite controversies were raging. Accaophori in Lyoia. ACGAOPHOEI. befisian. was called the sect of the Acephali. Peter of Hippus in Palestuie. in ed. Lib. ii. Tillemont. and Barochius of Arabia. A The name of "the "Watchers. 484. This order afterwards obtained the name of Studites." and who was deprived of his see and retired to Alexandria [a. The Acephali were. notwithstanding that a suspicion of heresy attached to their founder Alexander. the Emperor Zeno issued his famous ACEPHALI [d— Ke<^aAij]." each carrying on their devotions for eight hours.d. 451. 457]. Clark's transl. and Cyril. and hence " Accaophori " is supposed to be merely a misreading [Timoth. II. from their leader in .d. who went to Constantinople during the episcopate of Gennadius. Basil of Caurica in Lydia. the Acoemitse sided with the Pope against their own bishop. IL The Nestorian Acephali.. literally abstain from aU. lib. incerto interprete. under the auspices of Gennadius. but divided themselves into three "watches. Arabion of Adrai. contra Acephalos prcefatio." or ACCEMIT^ [d— Kotjuaojuai]. hence the reality of our Lord's human nature was a doctrine as incompatible with the belief of one sect as it was with that of the other. de Hceres. Sleepless. from Studius.nd ceased to exist as a separate sect at the beginning of the ninth century. .'] ix. 43 Isidore. Patr. Hist. gradually absorbed by the Jacobites (as the Monophysites were called in later times)." " and A was made Man. They became famous both for their special sanctity and. Epiphanius. Ixxiii. either from having no one conspicuous leader. Ptolemy of Thmuis AugustonisB. Ann. or fiom the absence of bishops to head the movement. The Manichees were so caUed in the time of Epiphanius. [Mosheim. Eccl. Grceco-Latin. nov. Philicadus of Augustada in Phrygia. Mon. vi. though stUl retaining the distinctive name of the original sect. Hmres. v. Pollux of the second province of Libya. was condemned by Felix in synod for holding communion with Peter Mongus. eccl. at the General Council of Ephesus III. xii. Patriarch of Alexandria. Comfor Sacoaophoei. and he traces their origin to the followers of Tatian. Paris edit. even in respect of His human nature .d. physite Acepliali. Gibbon's Rom. or suffragan bishops rebelliag against their metropolitans. for since a Being wholly uncreated must be wholly God. Eudoxius. but the earlier date is more generally received. de Sectis. In later days the AcoemitEe were believed to have inclined to Nestorianism. Leontius. Presb. sleep. and formed a sect which. and Esaianists. 304. The Accemitas did not. 431].] ACUANITES. Theodosius of Philadelphia. IT. ACTISTETES. Mil. Baesanuphists. Serapionof Antipyrgum in Libya. 776. Coteler. in opposition to the CTiSTOLATRiE. Augustus of Euphratesia. M&moires. and stiU bitterly hostile to the Council of Chalcedon.] sect of heretics which used water instead of wine for the Holy Esoharist has this name given to it by Timotheus Presbyter. 306. 67 . Eccles. Theoctistus of Ostracine. EustatHus of Pinara and Didyma. art. section of the Julianists. Germanus ofPetrse. as their name would imply. 13. in reality. and had been excommunicated of Alexandria [a. Angarus of Cyrus Euphrasia. But he adds that they were also called Hydroparastatae. a rich Eoman noble of consular dignity. i. Evagrius of Mytilene. 518]. most of the Catholics submitted to his jurisdiction . in the condemnar 3 form of the elder heresy of the Dooet^. or the Encratites. a. who added to the Trisagion the words " Who was crucified for us.d. Ittig. 482. Magnus of Themisi in Phrygia. These Acephali broke up into the three sects by Proterius. Patriarch of Antioch. Patriarch of Constantinople. Elissseus of DiocletianopoUs. was informed that he might be elevated to that see. withdrew themselves. Phoehus of Polychalanda in Lydia. torn. There is also a lengthy refutation of their doctrines by Eusticus Diaconus. [Dorner's Person of Christ. i 131. Hist. Baronius puts the date rather later. vi. Auct. The Actistetes maintained that after the Incarnation Christ ought not to be spoken of as a created Being. In a. ex actis Marcelli aptid Suriuni].

The scriptural authority for this was the text. The " Anti-Adiaphorists " were led by Flacius Illyricus. where they succeeded in making a (dSM£<^opa). so that there was no longer any need of fasting to keep the body in subjection. 368] against the Messalians. and Adelphius [a. and obtain a clear vision of the Trinity. man once fully possessed by this Divine influence. the use of choral services and of intonation by the oflSciating clergyman. who hold of Ephesus. Whom A Church was hateful to the stricter Lutherans. the Holy Spirit would come. These controversies lasted _ long after the Interim itself had faUen to the . not only imagined himself free from all iU. they rejected that of the Holy Spirit [Aug. being things that were in themselves indifferent theologians. the infidel. they engaged in a controversy with the bishops it Adiaphorists The term was intended to include aU the Eeal Presence of Christ's Body and Blood. in his Elenchus A thus acquired the name of "Elacians. whence they shared with the Euchites the title of " Enthusiastse. a man who inherited no small portion of Luther's controversial fire and energy. and [2] as to the lawfulness of giving up or of adopting even any that were allowed to be non-essential for the sake of concession to the enemies of "the truth. They [1] rejected limited number of converts. he desired draw nearer to the Church by treating as indifferent some doctrinal points which Luther had considered essential. forbidden by the fifty-fifth canon of down Luther's dogmatism as regarded the doctrine of the Eucharist. or of any doctrine to strengthen. and other points. AI)ELPHIAN"S. began his rule by calling an assembly of Lutheran divines together at Leipsic. 692]. to fetter the sold. a. but denied that His presence involved the transubstantiation of the elements in the sense of JRoman 6 controversial desigPrateolus. they treated Sunday as a fast-day. in various ways. who is mentioned as being excluded from a synod held at Syda [c. the eflicacy of prayer depended solely on its length or intensity. « in. to consider whether or not they should adopt the Interim which the Emperor Charles V. but could foresee future events. the latter allowed that he rejected baptism. which sprang up in the East during the fourth century. or whetlier they only declined to break bread with St.] But it is a mistake to suppose that there was ever an organized sect bearing the name of Adessenarians. Augustine informs us. as the Adelphians would say.d." Adelphians is Tincertain wlietlier this expression means that no two of them ever ate in common. the heretic. the elevation of the host and its accompanying ceremonies. a practice Luther had now been dead for nearly two and Melanchthon had become the leading theologian of the Lutheran party in Germany. on the other. not on the Being it was addressed. by incessant prayer. and the platform which it offered for reunion with the to In a conference the council of Trullo [a. and lastly the doctrine of salvation by faith alone without good works. were of equal avail. and by a return to its ancient customs." the bread and the wine. on the one hand. Endless discussions were raised [1] as to the essential or non-essential character of the customs and doctrines above enumerated. and [2] objecting to manual labour. and that demons could only be expelled." as the Adiaphorists did that of " Philippists " from Melanchthon." Among the Adiaphora they included the Eucharistic vestments. the Eucharist and other ordinances . and the devotions of to the Jew. The Leipsic Interim of Melanchthon was thus only a modified form of that proposed by the Emperor at Augsburg. It was supposed that each man at his birth inherited. Adelphian theory. but to exclude all who hold that the presence of Christ in the Eucharist is merely His figurative presence " in the heart (or devotional thoughts) of the faithful receiver. Marcianists. a Galatian by birth. The " Adiaphoristic controversy" originated in theyear 1548. 1]. name given to Melanchthon and his party. which took place between Elavianus. along with the human nature derived from Adam.d. indulged in long sleeps and visions. the Primacy (as distinguished from the Supremacy) of the Pope. and that after they had been driven out by incessant prayer." that IS of Lutheranism. ADESSENAEIA^S. while. 71]. the observance of Saints' days. ADIAPHOEISTS. signifying its presence in a visible and sensible fashion. freeing the body from all fear of illness." [3] like the Lampetians. and they . and the sinner. At the Leipsic conference. on account of their maintaining that many customs and doctrines for and against which the stricter Lutherans contended were not worth contending about. nation (adopted by Hceretieorum) for the Lutherans of the sixteenth century. and all of which. the use of Extreme Unction. those who did not belong to their own sect. de Hceres." " with. it was decided that "in rebus medii generis. that while holding the divinity of the First and Second Persons of the Trinity. on which. Choreutae. theElector of Saxony." or " under the form of. His great desire was for peace and the cessation of controversy. the servitude of evil demons. or. he wished years. and the mind from all inclination to sin. [Impanators. "Men ought always to pray and not to But according to the faint" [Luke xviii.d. Bishop of Antioch. The Adelphians are so-called from their leader. sen Adiaphoris" the Emperor might be obeyed and his "Interim" accepted: and the decision at which Melanchthon and his friends arrived is thus called "The Leipsic Interim. to hold out a hand to the Calvinists by toning and finally condemned by many writers. when Maurice. laid great stress on the necessity of incessant prayer to banish evil. One of the num erous names A given to the different branches of the Mbssalians or EncHiTES. the use of Latin in Divine service. 381]. and asserted that grace could only be obtained. They were eventually banished from Syria into Pamphyha. and unite the soul to God. and thus. Adelphius. had imposed upon his subjects. and other branches of the Euchites. who maintained that Christ is really and truly present (adesse) in the Holy Eucharist.

and the following passages from the Fathers have been quoted as containing an anticiSt. begotten of the Father. condemned at the Council of Capua [a. St.d. He forgot that Divine mysteries are not to be explained or rejected on the ordinary principles of human reasoning. but we do say that a son by nature is a true son" [de Incarnat.d. envy." It is plain from these quotations that the idea of adoption underlay many errors on the subject of Christ's Person. The Gnostics were in a certain sense Adoptionists. not a perfect union in one Person. 374-396]. and not by adoption" [Oateeh. i. The Basilidians taught that. captiousness.d. Bened. Such was the opinion of Pope Adrian. as one of the three principal foUowers of Manes. and scurrility. Soames' Elizalethan Hist. The reason for this wUl be seen if we first consider in what sense the earlier heretics held adoption. Nestorius denied the identity or unity of the Person of Christ. 285.d.d. or of ]!^estorianism condemned at the third CEcumenical Coimcil of Ephesus [a. whether presented to mankind in the form of Nestorianism in the fifth.D. 390] regarded Christ as a mere adopted man. as His Only-Begotten. was the Son of God the Their doctrine has been Father by adoption. It seemed to him that the real duality of the wills and natures could only be established at the price of a duality of personalities. their distinctive theological tenet being that Jesus Christ. And whether or not the premisses of two essentially different natures and wills render the conclusion of the existence of two persons in one Christ logically unavoidable. ed. taught that the Divine Wisdom or Logos adopted the Person of Jesus for an incarnate manifestation. but true God" 7 viii. The Valentinians went further. or God by metaphor (nee adoptivus nee connunoupatus). He denied the truth that the Eternal Son of God was conceived and bom. of Jerusalem [a. [Amsdobfians. reviving SabeUianism in Spain in the eighth century. Jesus was arbitrarily selected by the eternal and divine decree to receive Christ. 785]. the Divine and human. and that therefore. Synergists]. Puritans. 270.]. as far as His Manhood is concerned. the Apostle often using the word for no other purpose than to distinguish the OnlyBegotten from the sons by adoption" [Aug. iii. were united. and that Christ coming into Him at the time of His baptism. who described Elipandus as the successor of Nostorius in his circular letter to the orthodox bishops of Spain [a. virtue and purity. xi. to whom God ' We . 1732. who were imprisoned for it as a Ubel. de St. and yet it has been the tendency of modern criticism to disconnect Adoptionism from them.' but are adopted by His love. Paul.d. just as God the Father had assumed the form of David. in the two natures. and the eleventh Council of Toledo [a. 429-449]. very generally supposed to have been a revival in the West of the ancient error of the Bonosians. The Cerinthians imagined that. Evang. from the earlier times up to the seventh century. Ambrose [a. and would be necessarily rejected by the orthodox Church. Hooker's Ecd. as a Divine subject was for the Divine nature.Adimanthus ground. or of Adoptionism in the eighth century. He lived about A. a human subject being required for the human. that " the Son of God is not a false God. which was answered by Cartwright. to give rise to others not less bitter.d. inaccuracy. ix. Mary was the mother of Christ. 675] clearly laid down the same " This Son of God is His Son by nadoctrine ture. and -wrote a book to prove that the doctrines taught in the Gospels and Epistles were opposed to those of the ancient law and of the prophets. v. or God by adoption. 389]. Whom Augustine [a. [Aug. are now brought to : A Man was composed principally by two London clergymen named Field and Wilcox. 395-430]. and is characterized even by so moderate a writer as Soames as a " mass of encroaching intolerance. III. Whitgift wrote a reply to it. and argued that the preeminent degree of wisdom and virtue possessed by the Man Jesus presupposed a previous and Godbestowed endowment. The Admonitionists established a secret convenIt ticle at terian Wandsworth. and then contrast their teaching with the fully systematized dogma of the Adoptionists themselves. He was fitted for adoption as the receptacle of the Divine element in Christ. 3]. Consens. by reason of His wisdom. Bonosus of Sardica [a." in twenty-three chapters. which arose in This is the name of a sect Western Christendom towards the close of the eighth century. that "we has given power to become His sons are not begotten of His nature and substance. which was printed in the j'ear 1572. 163. Manichcei disciptilum. though not free from our common sinful nature. Migetius. ed. purified Him and rendered Him a perfect organ for the purposes of the Divine revelation. They universally held the Manhood of Christ to have been of transient and unessential significance. 5] . which was confuted by St.'] ADOPTIONISTS. ch. ii.] ADMONITIONISTS. Augustine in his treatise Gontra Adimantmn. which was the first Presbycommunity set up in England. 4. lect." Adoptionists [Hilar. the two natures were to be distinctly separated. the ecclesiastical historian. but invented different theories about the reason why the Christ deigned to adopt it as His habitation. 0pp. Brook's Memoir of Cartwright.]. that " we do not speak of an adopted son as a son by nature. the Man Jesus became worthy of such adoption and of the title Son of God. St. 348-386] said that " Christ is the Son of God by nature. party of the Puritans was so called on account of an " Admonition to the Parliament. Hilary of Aries [a. de Trin. not by adoption. [Neale's Hist. ADIMAI^THUS is referred to by Nicephorus. Cyril patory condemnation of Adoptionism. not the mother of God (Xpto-TOTOKos not Ocoto'kos) . and he admitted only a junction by indwelling of the Deity. at least such a conclusion was inconsistent with Holy Scripture. Pol. This "Admonition " called for a reconstruction of the Church of England on the most extreme Puritan platform. by a supernatural birth. and the Holy Ghost that of St. vii.d. Strype's Life of Whitgift. 153. 431].d.

in what sense was Jesus the Son of God ? Felix answered that the Father. the contact of the Spanish Church with the Arianism of the Goths and the amalgamation which took place between the Spanish population and the Germanic tribes would naturally pave the way for disputes about the Manhood and Divinity of Christ. and by which an attempt was made to avoid it.. so far as to call Him. in such a way that the Son of God should be recognised as the vehicle of all predicates. But here the Church stopped she had hitherto been gradually unfolding the dualistic view. there was to Nestorianism. especially on theological questions. [6] Others have regarded it as an un vanquished remainder. The labours of Adrian I. [a] By contemporaries Adoptionism was regarded as identical with. siquidem persona res juris est. In the first place. ii. 18]. and for the acrimony which too often accompanies polemical theology. ought to be carried into the sphere of the personality. 48]. substantia vero substantiam non potest. Four views of the relation of Adoptionism to preceding heresy have been held by various theologians. a sufficient superficial resemblance between these to account for the Pope branding the Spanish bishops with the imputation of the older here-sy. 121. the protracted contest with PrisciUianism. but the German councils unanimously refused to allow the principle to be pushed into a region where it would apparently lead them back to the long vanquished error of Nestorius. . of the ancient Eastern heresies. legitimately enough. might have been solved by explanation of the grammatical terms employed. and on the following points [a] The Adoptionists had no objection : to the term 06otoko9 as applied to the Blessed Virgin. and with the Monothelites (condemned at the sixth General Council at Constantinople). and a glance at the preceding ecclesiastical contentions in Spain will shew us the guK that historically separates the two. could not produce the Humanity of Christ from Himself [lib. by which the logical inconsistency of the orthodox teaching on the subject of the two natures in Christ was discovered. iii. None of these aspects are entirely just. as was even allowed by their opponents [Paulinus. therefore. if so. and maintained that the principle of duality. 3] . The intellectual activity of Spain during preceding centuries. In support of this argument. Alcuin. but their anxiety on this point led them to make use of arguments which implied a human person equally with a essentially Beings.. and. Him Who assumed and that which is assumed . to insist on the real Humanity of our Lord . and that therefore Christ in His human nature is only "Nuncupative Deus" [hb. iii. to suppress it. substantia res. They appealed to the repeated decisions of the Church against Monophysitism and Monothelitism . to Christ's own admission that He Himself did not know the hour of judgment [Markxiii. naturae. 2] appealed to the following words of Pasohasius :— " In Christo gemina substantia sed uon gemina persona est quia persona per- human nature. " In adsumptione caruis a Deo persona perit hominis. i. [c] More modern writers {fi. Nestorianism. with the Monophysites (condemned at the eleventh and fourteenth councils of Toledo). and therefore of obtaining Adoptionists correct information. i. or as a lineal descendant. and that the whole contest which raged in Christian Europe at the close of the eighth and beginning of the ninth centuries. that none was good save God only [Mark x. with Sabellianism. the Word and the flesh. Again. One of the primary objects of the Adoptionists was. in what that relationship consists. Felic. 17]. non natura " [c. cap. and so assimilated their doctrine Although. or \d\ as the first proof of awakening intellectual energy in a barbarian nation. 12] . xi. had been far too great to allow us to regard Adoptionism as the undisciplined exercise of a newly awakened interest in questions of Christian controversy. equally preclude us from believing that it was merely a superficial deviation from the truth. both in His divine and human nature. Secondly. and others. would aU equally tend to give prominence to the distinction of the two natures in the one Person of Christ. an examination of the doctrines of Elipandus and Felix wiU present to us points which intrinsically disconnect them from those of Nestorius. 7] . Walchius in the last century) would regard it as differing rather verbally than from the Catholic doctrine . was to confound the Creator and the : Who creature.g. he appealed to such passages as "the Head of Christ is God" [1 Cor. Charlemagne. which epithet had been expressly rejected by the Nestorians. and in their memorial to Charlemagne they acknowledged the unity of Persons in plain terms but they seem to have meant by this the juxtaposition of two distinct personal : merely a revival of.) we must accurately distinguish them. [5] While the Nestorians laid special stress on there being two Persons in Christ. vifhich had already been recognised in the assertion of two natures and two wills in Christ. that Christ could not be the natural Son of God in the same sense in which He was the natural Son of David [lib. The real error of the Adoptionists lay in dwelling too strongly on certain aspects of the truth.— Adoptionists the difficult question as to wlietlier there was any connection dootrinally or historically between the latter and any of the former. but not in so close a manner as to amount to the absorption or almost transubstantiation of the human personality into the Divine Person. as was taught by the orthodox party. and that to press the unity of Persons (which he still claimed to believe in)." Alcuin wrote. 1 The Council of Frankfort [iii. slightly altered and disfigured. was a Spirit. while they also negatively prepare the way for the distinctive features of Adoptionism. while the Ifestorians spoke of Christ owing His exaltation to His virtue. If the Adoptionists were right. strictly Son of God. the former protested against the doctrine of the duality of Persons. 32] . (especially if we make aUowance for the diffic'ilty 8 two sonam consumere potest.i [c] They taught that Christ assumed humanity.

so that intrinsic evidence the conjecture union between Christians and Mohammedans. he asked. His mediatorial position was endangered. Alcuin. in Catalonia. God sent forth His Son. Unfortunately neither letters are — H Him" [1 Johniv. Baronius. and the second. 16." At what time then was Christ in that position with reference to God % and when did God. by lowering the human character of Christ. but interpreted by reference to the general teaching of the Bible. maintaining that something which is of a difierent substance from another thing may possess as its property this other thing. 32] . In the year 783. as to His humanity. " a stranger. we have no power to refute on made by some historians. the adoption of that man at the time of His baptism. that we might live through : Adoptionists Tolved two distinct lines. if it is not allowable to designate the entire Christ as the proper Son of God. the latter may become a predicate of the former. intiveness for Christians. that their object was. our Eedeemer embraced and contains within Himself the first. out of affection or necessity. that of the Son of Man and Son of God. have asked whether adoption and assumption may not mean the same thing . and the latter in his answer said. made of a woman. but that as man He was the Son of God in name and by adoption. and the distance between Him and Christians was increased. " [viii. " Does a man of his father. we proceed to give some account of the history of the sect. and the Son of God identified as to Person with the Son of Man. also. by being bom of a virgin . thus distinguishing between the two. iv. DCCXLIV. The texts alleged by Felix must receive an interpretation not inconsistent with other passages where Christ is plainly called the " For God so loved the world. whether. Annul. running in a harmonious parallel together. no man can be called the son Again. 9]. idem redemptor noster secundum hominem complexus in semel ipso continet primam videlicet quam suscepit ex virgine nascendo. self. condemned sin in the flesh [Eom. however. • — tiones. 921." Alcuin works out every this analogy with great force. that if Christ. the proper Son of God. Ecoles. that FeHx spoke not of an assumed human nature. 16] . so God and man is one Christ. and Felix. by parity of reasoning. History of the Adoptionists. ann. and no interference with the reality of the humanity. Those writers on Adoptionism who would reduce the point at issue to a mere question of words. Hisp.Adoptionists How. lib. condescend to the act of adoption ? The whole question.] 9 . whether that which properly pertains to a substance must always be of the same substance as that to which it pertains. 3] . 260. and that therefore the Son of Man may be properly called the Son of God. Archbishop of Toledo. ii. for in so far as He is man. who both flourished towards the close of the eighth century. " God Sending His own Son in the likeness of sin" ful iiesh. " man is the proper son of his father if so. and the leaders of the Adoptionist movement." ^ The opponents of Adoptionism urged that this teaching involved two Persons in Christ . life — Who which he began at His baptism and continued by His resurrection from the dead. The answer to which is. notwithstanding the reality of His human nature. viii. Christ was by nature and truly the Son of God . 8 . This Alcuin answers in the negative. for the sake of this real and substantial relationship between the two. that Son of God He gave His only-begotten Son" [John iii.^ " ' secundam vero spiiitalem quse per adoptionem lit. depends on the further question. if the man assumed by the Son of God was really the Son of God. that he spoke of two births in our Lord's moment the assumption of the man at the of conception by the Blessed Virgin Mary. Such a unity of Person is very different from that taught in the older creeds. Bishop of Urgel. To refuse therefore to attribute a separate personality to the Son of Man was no more than an act of justice to the Son of God. but of an assumed man . but only as to the flesh . and takes place by adoption . we are reminded that men are not sons of their fathers as to the soul. 4] . " He that spared not His own Son. the Son of Man can be strictly called the proper Son of God. secundam vero quam initiavit in lavacro a mortuia resurgendo. made under the law " [Gal. 0pp. in such a manner that. and defended on the analogy of the union of soul and body: " For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man. He asks. cap. the first. and therefore. which He took upon Himthe second. and for sin. for it has always been considered orthodox to say that Christ assumed our human nature. as to His humanity. Histor." adopt his own son. logically speaking. "When the fulness of the time was come. vii. implied in the previous decisions in favour of the two natures and the two wills. a mere formal link between two essentially uncoalesoing natures. were Elipandus. that as to His divinity. p. " He is the second Adam received these two generations . was to destroy the condescension of the Incarnation. which is spiritual." [Felix. the Archbishop wrote to Felix to ask his opinion about the Sonship of Christ. and secondly.^ Having thus described the doctrines of the Adoptionists. The originators of the theory of adoption. lib. but delivered Him up for us aU. was not the proper Son of God. to pave the way for a extant. and either each possessing a separate personality (which the Adoptionists denied) or else reducing the personality to a meaningless and unsubstantial abstraction. which is according to the flesh. p. Johannes Marianna. and to rob it of its chief attracHis view. " God sent His only-begotten Son into the world. i. and that to designate Christ. tom xiii. To all of which Felix rejoined that the duality of Persons was no more or less involved in his teaching than it was. and the principal arguments by which they were supported and refuted. could such expressions have any meaning at all ? This question is met by the rejoinder that difficult passages of Scripture must not be thus isolated. "Qui est secundus Adam aocepit has geminas generaprimam videlicet quse secundum carnem est. he asks. or a stranger \ " The answer is obviously.

Johannes de Barsolis. among whom were Etherius. Felix disseminated it in Septimania. and he was suffered to remain till his death in undisturbed — possession of his see. 799]. Peter's tomb that he renounced his former Upon this assurance he opinions as heretical. They unanimously rejected the theory of adoption as taught by Felix and Elipandus. 23. mainly in consequence of certain loose expressions discovered in his writings to Tolmarus. In the twelfth century it has been ascribed to Euthymius Zigabenus. "Christum dici posse adoptivum. which the following passage proves him to have considered akin to Nestorianism :— " The melancholy news has reached us from your land. vi.d.d. Hinc ad catholioi deductus principis aulam. at Eome under Pope Leo III. and induced the learned theologians of the day to remonstrate with him. [a. with other confederates. king of Galitia. the monks of Gothia (ad monachos Gothiae). multis ibi prsesulibus synodoque frequenti Est auditus et errorem docuisse nefandum Convictus. Ehpandus and Ascarius. " That holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be . a poet of the period :— " Atque suum scriptis defendere dogma libellis Omni quo potuit stndio cuvavit et arte. Georgius Calixtus. Buns Scotus said. lib.^ In the seventeenth century. Archbishop of Lyons. Elipandus could have no rule of faith imposed upon him. 7. Duchesne. During this and the following centuries the subject was constantly debated by the Schoolmen. &c. also [a. four books against Ehpandus. V. Aquin. Elipandus. 1 Epist. art. council Felix argued for six days with Alcuin. and also composed seven books against him. where Charlemagne presided in person. Archbishop Benedictus of Anien. 156]. not an adopted and strange Son.d. smaU Council of Narbonne [a. both Asturians. Theol. where he died a.called the Son of God. quam ordinatur ad hsreditatem et sic fuit extraneus. because he lived under the Saracens in Spain. non alienus sed proprius). he retracted his recantation and disseminated his former errors. Pope Adrian I. take a formal refutation of the Adoptionists. Johannes Major. and various letters on the subject addressed to Charlemagne. abbot of a monastery in Franconia. Elipandus was advocating it in letters to his Tlie Adoptionists whole subject might be submitted to the Pope. But he was not again trusted to return to Urgel. edit. Agobard. unless it be that perfidious Nestorius. but held the following to be orthodox :—" Christus secundum humanitatem habet adoptionem. Wherefore by no means let such deadly poison insinuate itself into your neighbourhoods. 818. Idem regino nam tnm hiemavit in urbe. who confessed the Son of God to be a mere man.d. was allowed to return to his diocese in Spain j but before he had been there long. become extinct on the death of Felix. 10 . torn. Alcuin requested that the book of Felix and the described by Saxo. p. 796]. Jacobus Ahnainus. and Beatus. Petrus Areclus. 792].d.D.. Eichard Fitz-Ealph. friend and preceptor of Charlemagne. he was sent to Eome under the charge of a certain Angilbertus. 4].d. however." ^ Still the doctrine went on spreading. but some of them allowed the use of the term with certain modifications and explanations. or defile your love. Felix was once more condemned. sicut unus alius homo quia prius natiu-a habuit naturam. iii. Portiano. was convinced. who both personally confuted Felix. until it became necessary to make it the subject of conThis was first done at the cOiar condemnation. as appears from his controversy with Adamus and Gerhohus. "Christus secundum quod homo est est filius Dei sufficienter A adoptivus" as heretical. and other eminent bishops. and Alcuin. History of Adoptionis^n after the death of Felix. then abjured This condemnation was repeated at Friuli [a. and the orthodox doctrine was solemnly reasserted in these words. 7. new While diocese.— " Sancti negarunt Christum esse filium adoptivum propter hsereticos qui solum dixerunt eum filium adoptivum et non naturalem de yirtute tamen vocis potest Christus dioi filius adoptivus Dei. and chiefly by the following Peter Lombard. 788 or 791]. At the latter at Aix-la-Chapelle [a. among others. 818." Johannes Major rejected the proposition. and there imprisoned. Adoptionists theory was vigorously propagated. cum additamento. who. quses. Instruct. xcvii. warning them against the new doctrines. Rerum Gallicarum et Franeicarwm Scriptor. a blasphemy which no previous heretics have dared to enounce. Thomas Aquinas. which virtually reduced the whole discussion to a logomachy. She however remained firm in the Catholic faith. P. Abbot of the monastery of VaUiscava. namely. plainly ascribed adoption to Christ. not supported by any name of note. sec. until he consented to swear before the Eucharist on St. the latter of whom was charged by Elipandus with gross immorality. said. and tried to win over. had taken the veil. The confutation of Adoptionism was continued by Paulinus of Aquileia. This appears to have been done at the Council of Frankfort in the same year. widow of Silo. In the eleventh century this view was and anathematized his own error ^ but being still suspected. and the brothers of Lyons (ad fratres Lugdunenses). Bishop of Osma. p. The tenets of the Adoptionists did not. that certain bishops resident there. after her hushand's death. cap. for CEcumenius. but placed under the charge firstly of Leodrad." [^orhisvas. and once more retracted his heresy. ' The proceedings at Eatisbon are thus 'For example." [Bouquetus. a theologian of the Academy of Helmstadt. 785] wrote a letter to the orthodox bishops in Spain. again at the Synod of Eatisbon in Germany [a. Adosinda. 799]. 794 Charlemagne desired Alcuin to under. in quantum homo est filium adoptivum Spiritus Sancti. See also Thorn." Durandus a S.d. in the following century. Durandus a S. then of his successor Agobard. do not hesitate to call the Son of God an adopted Son. and before whom Felix first defended. Duns Scotus. broxight out a book in which he attempted to prove that : : — . until in A. dean and superior of the monastery of Eeichsberg. of Lyons. but a true and proper" (non adoptivus sed verus. Paulinus of Aquileia.

dissatisfied.d. from one Satannius. It was their distinctive tenet that the world will remain for ever in its present condition. stating the year 1561.ffiLUEUS. .] As the forerunner of the Presbyterians. there is no remedy . ii. but this name was sometimes given to the EucHiTES. is heretical. and the opinion of Aerius in this point be a plain error of that nature. IftJsr. Histoire Litter. in Thomam. 1755. in the North African province of Byzacene. " Surely if heresy be an error falsely fathered upon Scriptures. and Adamus Quenstedius. the denial of the episcopal order. controversy on the same point. i. 360-370. He then affirmed himself to be Eustathius' equal. Philaster. p.d. Grindal's Works. but indeed repugnant to the truth of the Word of God. but his sect does not appear to have spread wide or lasted long. which was called after his name. fab. Timotheus.. and allured a great number of followers. Ingolst. so named after Adrian Hamsted. and must be in no way confused with Adoptionism. 374-6 . Prayer for the dead A [Theod. e. Epiph. 181. are the descendants of Arianism and other early heresies. who was excommunicated by Grindal. by Gabriel Vasquez./ESCHINES. and both Valesius and Ittigius consider that " Adrianistse" is a misreading for "Menandrianistse. formed about a. was carried on hetween Dannhaverus and Johannes Eeinbothius. betwixt a priest and a bishop. 1656]. Eef. Ixxv. Eustathius was preferred. 96. placing him over the hospital of Pontus. Aug. or Armenia Minor.] AEEIANS. misinterpreted St. \Prmdest.d. The Aerians also objected to pray for the dead. Theodoret as one of those which sprung from " the bitter root " of the Simonian heresy. Ixvii. liii. refused from principles clearly heretical. . But Aerius. An Arian and Presbyterian sect of the fourth century. Augustine's anti-Pelagian doccontaiued in his 1 94th Epistle. hence. Works. Domin. that "we may be apt to think that he knew of some such people at the time of writing his book of Heresies in the year 428 " [Lardner.] [Cat^schinians. and that he began to exist no otherwise than by the birth he received of the Virgin Mary. must ever stand where Epiphanius and Augustine have placed him. a theologian of the University of Jena [a. Conradus Dannhaverus." of a schismatical patriarch of Alexandria. that Jesus Christ is mere m£in according to His substance. He ADEUMETIANS. Aerius and Eustathius were Arian monks and fellowstudents. but Aerius. or rather "nickname. But nothing further is known of their history. and as the eightieth . Hcer. gave up his preferment.. Historia Adoptianorum. and he ordained Aerius priest. Hcer. in his edition of Augustine's treatise de Hmresibus.] This name was given by Danseus. Hceres. Gottingen. 243]. and by the consent of the universal church. seems to have organized a small community in Holland." A in Philaster. — [TiMOTHEANS. in the councils. his heretical tenets. Kirchengesch. who for many years was the 11 may be as. Gommentar. 176 . and was deposed by Grindal. however. 1. into Atitinomian conclusions respecting grace and predestination. xx. but we have not sufficient data to form a correct judgment as to the true character of Aerius' teaching on this point. in the beginning of form of recantation. The Socinian heresy. iv.] ADEIANISTS. even after the second coming of our Lord. Of the distinctive tenets of the Aerians.AdrianistcB Pope Hadrian and the Council of Frankfort were wrong in their condemnation of the Adoptionists. fol. 79 . who retreated into the wUd fastnesses of the country and formed a sect Aerius was alive when Epiphanius wrote. and might he free from those conditions which human infirmity might render necessary in the latter . that God hy virtue of His infinite power might unite more closely to Himself than man could the Son Whom He wished to : Aerians leader of the Monophysite party there and at Constantiaople in the middle of the iifth century. Colonia.]. whose view he defended on these among other grounds " That it ought to he allowed Divine adoption was more excellent than human adoption. 1649]. Schroeckh. see Walchius. ix." [Presbttebianism. a theologian of Strashurg [a. Dutch A i. especially that The monks of Adrume- tum. 1606." He was opposed hy Dorscheus. VII. ^TEENALES. Bishop of London. trine. and went abroad [Strype's Ann. Augustine remarks that PhUaster gives neither the name of the sect nor of its originator.g. by the Word of God. He left the Church. Hooker writes \Eccl. Both becoming candidates for the bishopric of Sebaste in Armenia Minor. The author of Prmdestinatus mentions the same tenet as that of a sect which he names Satanniani. together with the various modifications of this doctrine held by modem sects.d. but it was not signed by Hamsted. adopt. and ahout the same time. or in her contrary uniform practice throughout the whole world. and asserted that there was no difference. and the Adoptionist theory found its last advocate in Johannes Tobias Major. Among other Anabaptist heresies they denied the miraculous conception of our Lord by the Hamsted was minister of the Virgin Mary. 2]. Pol. and are thus sometimes considered as the first Pbedestinaeiaws. president of Schlesvig-Holstein. 459 . a. 8vo. p. The utmost which can be said from Augustine's notice of it is. and set himseK to traduce Eustathius. by Aerius of Pontus. states that there were many of them in Pamphylia. is printed in Strype's Annals of the Beformation. charging him with avarice and hoarding. An obscure sect of Dutch Anabaptists. from a denial of the communion of saints j or the refusal may proceed from a sense of an . de la ville de Lyon. St. declared to be such. to a sect which is numbered as the sixty-seventh in that work. so schismatioally and stiffly maintaining it. sectaries in London. the foremost. [For a fuller treatment of this subject.(Elurus. The surname. the case of Aerius is frequently quoted in modern times.] sect is thus named by ADEIANIST^.

After some time spent in servitude to the wife of a vine-dresser. but not involving heresy. from his disciple Eunomius. The sect of Arians founded by Aetius were more commonly known by the name of Eunomians. and an unrighteous aggravation of their principle" \Works." Aetians undue extension of the range and purpose of from a sense of abuses connected with the practice. or " ingenerateness.] From Epiphanius' statements. the general purport of which is. III. instead of ascertaining its true Hmits and such. and Aetius once more returned there. Ixxvi. Here his powers of disputation attracted the notice. But he states that Aerius advocated the renunciation of property [aTrora^/av KTjpva-cra. It may he thus a measure of prudence. that the Second and Third Persons of the Holy Trinity are entirely different in substance and will (dvd/xo 6ov) from the First Person. who eventually banished him to Amblada in Pisidia. however. Augustine remarks that Epiphanius does not attribute to them any such abstinence. and to have been driven to the extreme of denying altogether the efficacy of such prayer. the first promulgator of their distinctive tenets. and his Antinomianism in theory and practice were too notorious to be contradicted. But the principles of the heresy were very distinctly stated by Aetius himself. Aerius appears to have been influenced by the thought that men might be tempted to neglect repentance and good works. by deposing Aetius from the diaconate. Eudoxius became Bishop of Antioch. that what Epiphanius says of their choosing to fast on the Lord's Day is a calumny. From thence the restless Aetius went to Tarsus. but his death. whose name was Athanasius. 11]. " and it is probable that the Christian liberty they claimed shewed itself. but the theories of Aetius acquired for him the name of " the Godless ['A^eos]. prayer. 72] states the Aerians to have been Encratites. leaving his widow and her son in extreme poverty. 363. the death of his mother set him free to follow an inclination for theological studies. HcBres. and brought men under a yoke of servitude. c. Aetius learned to work in metals. in a treatise which has been preserved by Epiphanius [Epiph. [Dict. For the following four years he was driven from one place to another. but Leontius being made Bishop of Antioch. This ordination was not intended. in a more legitimate way. that Leontius was compelled to retract what he had done. with or without sufficient grounds. they said. of Theol. fasting on the Lord's Day. but only of their free vriU. Fasting was not rejected altogether. In the year 358. first of a professor of grammar. having meanwhile declined to accede to a proposition made to him at Alexandria. dyevvjyo-ta. in the year 367. the former returned to his native city. p. when the latter was again driven from Antioch. The third error of the Aerians was a schismatical breach of the discipline of the Church. but the truth ia that he repudiated aU mystery in religion. This work consists of a short preface and forty-seven theses or propositions. where his talents led to his being engaged as the paid advocate of certain theories not generally received by the profession. whose pupil he became. but simply to place him in a better position for propagating his views . in wiKul opposition to established order. who was a number sufficient him from and he was made a bishop at Constantinople about A. The apostate Julian. vi. About a. and had acquired importance to lead the older Arians to oppose him before the Arian Emperor Constantius. that he himself should be raised to the episcopal office. 331. where he soon set up as a physician." Eunomius endeavoured to formalize a system of Christian theology and morals on this distinctive principle. Several special misbeliefs are traced up to Aetius seems to have been attracted by some success in disputation in the medical schools. Philaster was not unnaturally led into the error. alone (he alleges) is possessed of the Who true quality of Deity. recalled exile. and . the second bishop of Antioch of that name. he returned thither. that on the death of the bishop he was driven from Antioch. and studied afterwards. For a short time he studied at Alexandria.D. Aetians Paulinus. flows from the premisses. Indie. continuing his studies under a priest named Antonius . name of the Anomcean sect of Arians which was given to them from Aetius. who died while Aetius was stiU a youth. in the schools of medicine at Antioch. but Christian liberty was not to be abridged by the appointment of " They gloried. and was ordained deacon by him in the year 350. and afterwards of the Arian bishop of Anazarbus. to qualify Aetius for the ordinary ministrations of the Church. in reliance on the prayers of the Church for them after their death. and had to resume his old trade as a goldsmith at Anazarbus. to carry them further under another priest named Leontius. Philaster [cap. and when the latter was made bishop. Forsaking the latter trade. and of dangers thought to accompany it. He was taken in hand by 12 and his immediate followers. Lardner's comment on this point is worth notice "Not but that they would sometimes fast on the fourth day of the week as others do . they did it not as bound thereto. It is difficult to see how this conclusion 180]. who was a follower of Ariusj but the pupil outran the master so rapidly. and as the Apotactites were in general Encratites. He had now of followers. rising from the position of a travelling tinker to that of a goldsmith. AETIANS. and the remonstrances of the laity of purpose. however." Epiphanius says. Aetius was the son of a military officer settled at Antioch in Coelo-Syria. seems to have taken place at Constantinople. It was pretended that set fasts were Jewish. A quences. as it usually does. iv. " in times. being hated by the Arians for the logical precision with which he developed their heresy into its consea personal friend of Aetius.]. which last particular is sufficient to shew.d. Epiphanius indeed states the direct contrary. he learned some rudiments of medical practice under a quack doctor. to which he : Antioch were so strong.

They were a branch of the Eunomians. deriving [Agionitbs]. " Have we not power to lead about a 1 " &c. some things of which He was ignorant. and from the adoption of this conclusion as their distinctive tenet became known as Agnoetse. women who were not u-aKToi or and who were hence called crvvd" subintroductse. II.d. led the latter to maintain the conclusion. Jerome. 380. sui'vived the [a. Jerome explains [Contra Jovin. 1." In another place [Ad Ctesiphontem]. of Samosata at his deposition by the Council of Antioch [a. who.d. 20] . [dyvoea]. I. without any real dependence on revelation.5. An answer given by the Patriarch Timothy to a deacon named Themistius. Philostorg. freor widows of the Church. This opinion was developed by the Severianist and Julianist controversy which divided the Monophysites. OR DILECT^. Perhaps the name was assumed by the Eustathians in some form based on the word ayios. It was defended by the text. and as a substitute allowed the most unrestrained intercourse and familiarity between both sexes. who with her husband Elpidius were its reputed founders. " Of that day and that hour knoweth no man. 270]. Hist. Hmres. 3]. S. but the Father " [Mark . Eccl. They also reits jected the ordinance of fasting. which St. 520. An obscure sect of EnORATITES. [Socrat. AGAPEMONITES. indulging in festive and uproarious living.d. or assertors of xiii. during the reign of Theodosius. Montanus by Prisca and Maximilla. for condemnation of many councils. i. 15]. "Whence did the pest of the Agapetae creep into the Church? Whence is this new title of wives without marriage rites ? Whence this new class of concubines ? I will infer more. but to the decay arising from the wear and tear of life). JEcd. St. Epiph. The Scriptural proof of this doctrine was rested on our Lord's question respecting the body of Laza. iii. and there were. cap. was that of adopting himself and allowing his clergy to adopt too great and body of Christ was corruptible (subject. 860 and a. and call us suspicious if we think anything of it. d. [1 Cor. such as the first and second Councils of Carthage [a. Jerome thus indignantly alludes to them in a letter addressed to Eustochium [Lih. they ask for the spiritual consolation of each other. which was held at some time between A. ix. Hist. Timothy having succeeded Dioscorus as Patriarch of Alexandria. AGIONITES. and therefore a preceding defect The heresy of this opinion it starting in Eutj'chianism. de Custod. 12. 35. endeavoured to effect a compromise between the Julianist Aphthartodocetae and the Severianist A AGNOET^ A Phthartolatrse ing. therefore. condemned with the Eustathians and others of a similar character at the Council of AGINEISTSES. not to the corruption of the grave. that if the pretend to be aiming at the same object.d. then He must also have been so far subject to the defects of human nature that His very knowledge of the present and the future was imperfect. lib. attributed to Him the human defect of imperfect knowledge. The brother deserts his virgin sister. 517. iii. reasoning. became a very common one.d. that is.d. who. confusing the two Ifatures of our Lord. and seeks 'a stranger. [Prinoeitbs. ApeUes by Philomena. that they may enjoy the pleasures of the flesh.D. cohabited with the virgins This custom. Ixxvi. q.] Hist. about A. Hist.rus. but they did so while holding most emphatically the 13 . 5]. appears to it Agnoetce have been a persistent one. ii. were allowed to share the same room and even the same couch. mentions Agape as drawing Elpidius into heresy. which the Severianists did not believe. 32]. privately lean- however. iv. The title of Agapetse is also applied more generally to those monks or clergy who. Sozom." The custom. lies in the fact that. The conclusion. Whence these harlots cleaving to one man 1 They occupy the same house. Such principles would naturally lead to the rejection of nearly every Christian doctrine as soon as it came under consideration. Eccl. school of Alexandrian Monophysites.D. 14] of sacred women who ministered to the Apostles of their One of the charges laid against Paul substance. after enumerating Nicolas of Antioch led astray by the prostitute Helena. under pretence of pure love. " Where have ye laid him ? [John xi. to the latter as regarded his own opinions. but ignorance. sect of the fourth century was sometimes called by this name on account of a peculiar opinion which they maintained respecting the Omniscience of God. 24. and since they : Gangra. thus attributes ignoSome of the rance to the Omniscient Word. can. ii. and was only finally abolished by the fourth Lateran Council under Innocent III. 348-397. i. canons 3.'\ facts. name from a certain Agape. 451. and being by him the spiritual progenitor of PriseiUian (successoremque suum Priscillianum habuit). 34] and on His saying respecting the day of judgment. often a single bed. Marcion by a woman unnamed." Agapeti^ made theology a mere matter of intellectual ever. no not the angels which are in heaven. scandalous intimacy with relations. "Puritans. Theodor. on the principle that " to the pure all things are pure" [Tit. 1215]." AGNOETiE. which struck off under the leadership of Theophronius [Ednomio-TheoPHRONtANs]. the second Council of Aries [a. iv. to the human soul of Christ. can. " It is a shame even to allude to the true Virg. sister patriarch himself repudiated this a school of theorists grew up under the leadership of Themistius. Fathers used language which attributed growth of knowledge. 25] . neither the Son. or CoTrupticolee. Essone [a. quently condemned in the patristic writings. a single chamber. asking why they should "abstain from meats which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth " [1 Tim. Eccl. the virgin despises her unmarried brother.I AGAPETiE. 3] . how- of knowledge. They rejected the institution of marriage. A sect which rose in Spain towards the close of the fourth century.

cruelty. A fanatical are said also and eighth centuries. marriage. 1761-8. a doctrine which led them to Antinomianism. Circuiti. under Lasco. saying that He appeared not to know for the sake of His disciples. They were a portion of that influx of heresy by which the mountainous districts of Italy. and their belief in these doctrines leads them to supplement the services of the Church with prayer-meetings of an excited character. xv. who had been a Wesleyan preacher previous to his ordination. consequently. AGYNIANS ywij]. in Bill. 269.d. and France. 300]. the one being the God of light. vi. as their name implies. entitled Eeinerus contr. or k Lasco. and which also made it a sin in their eyes to take the life of any animal. XXV.] ALBATI ["White Brethren. alleging that there are two coeternal First Causes. and those of John de Lugio. and known by their other titles of Catrophites. Sunima de Gatharis et Thes.] Max ALBIGENSES. 'k some portions of them settled at Embden. They were condemned by a synod of Jerusalem.D. GaUand. similar to those which were held by "Wesley The object in the early days of his movement. 726. prised heretics "Under this varieties name are com- the numerous of Manichsean who are found in Southem France and 14 . and subsequently to it became a High Churchman . whose distinctive tenet was the condemnation of kneeling as the attitude of prayer. 614. 127. For some years k Lasco was minister of a congregation at Embden in Friesland. who had adopted the negative theology of Zwingli during a residence at Zurich. and Eome) Montenses. name given to the foreign ALASCANS. pretending that God was not the author of. returned to Poland. and xvi. were overrun in the twelfth century. 96]. the Manich^an character of which indicates an Eastern The Albanenses maintained a phase of Manichsean duahsm evidently derived from the origin.D. [Eaynerus Sachonus. Lugd. held no intercourse with women. however. 694]. Belgian. to A. and after a sojourn at Frankfort. 267. and lust. The sect was subdivided into the adherents of Balazinansa. in Martene's Gretser's Summary. They held a theory that no living thing created by God was mad^ to perish. 317 [TiUemont. first more (at familiarly [Circumcellions. of Mr. and the other the Prince of darkness. Ignorance of Christ]. such a distinction being as empbatically repudias a Albigenses mission movement. [a. Lasco was a forward partizan of Puritanism. but was also associated with the Albigenses. kneeling at Communion. and it is believed that he influenced the later opinions of Cranmer in the same direction as regards the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. It is distinctly ZwingJian. A full account of the Alascan liturgy will be found in the British Magazine. They are said to have the Cathari. ydi/i). It seems to have been confined to Venetian Lombardy. ALBANENSES. The Agnoetian heresy obtained a permanent footing as an opinion. then forming part of the archbishopric of Aries. Eeiner numbers them at about five hundred only. vol. who was the maker of aU material things. who. Waldens. but being invited to London by Cranmer. AITKENITES. Anecd. soon forsook them. being Vicar of Pendeen in Cornwall from 1849 until his death in July 1873. and very probably they were actually amalgamated under the common name of Albigenses. CircumceUions. A rapine. A The distinctive feature of Aitkenism is indicated by these two circumstances. Switzerland. The heresy was opposed by Eulogius of Alexandria in a treatise " Of the two Natures of Jesus Christ" \_BiU. Pair. ated Afterwards the opponents of the Agnoetians extended this idea of oeconomy even to our Lord's own words. They have used dancing as a devotional custom. but it does not appear that it led to the formation of any sect distinct from the general body of the Monophysites. assigned to the latter part of the seventh century [a. the principal one being the church of the Austin Friars in Broad Street. the district in which it originated. The doctrines of sensible conversion and assurance of salvation are strongly maintained by the Aitkenites . hood of their following "Wesley's example in originating a sect . a Polish refugee of noble birth. which took small medieval sect of its name from the city appeared are iuA. and Aitkenism will probably find its place and level in the Church of England Persian system. xii. Protestants in London during the reign of Edward YI. Aitken and his followers seems to have been the development of "Wesley's original principles in the High Church direction which they were disposed to take in the first year or two of There is. opposing the use of the surplice. Bishop of Verona. he lived with the Archbishop at Lambeth for six months. Corophites. party in the Church of England which owes its origin to Eobert Aitken. no likelihis preaching. and was then made superintendent of the " foreign churches" (German.] One of the many later offshoots of Manichaeism. and diocese of Albi in Piedmont. and Leonistis. and home that a simUar A by the Agnoetes. A AGONICLITES sect of the seventh [d. 'The two sects are often con- founded with each other. Its adherents..Agoniclites distinction between His Human and His Divine Natures [Dict. and he went so far as to say that the Fathers had allowed the doctrine of a growth in Christ's knowledge by way of oeconomy in dealing with the Arians. in the same way movement has done in Erance. and did not sanction. kAivm]. o/Theol. The German congregations were dispersed at the accession of Queen Mary. and Italian) in London. God the Father of the orthodox creed. It was derived from John Laski. it being a combination of Methodist peculiarities with the ritual and the sacramental theology of the High Church school. but in reality gratifying their own desires for distinctive AGONISTICL The name where he died in 1560.. French. of " Contenders" was given by the Donatists to the violent bands which roamed about Africa under the pretence of winning converts to that schism. &c. Bishop of Bergamo. v.

was further connected by a community of participation in the Eomanesque institutions and language. beaten back from the rest of Europe. are found flourishing in Provence and Italy in the tweKth. attached. was consolidated and developed. for the most part was poured. That which comprised almost the whole of the ancient province of Narboiinensis. until. as will be shewn more at length presently. Max. in Italy. while feudal and oligarchical institutions were ill-suited to the democratic spirit of the Paulicianism from which it was immediately derived. in consequence of its proximity to Bosnia and the other provinces which bounded the home of Paidician Manichaeism. in Luc. the seventh. a. where a council was held against themin A. the scene of St. they had learnt to be tolerant when the rest of Europe was bigoted. they condemned the Old Testament as the work of the evil being. Albig. Italy. and the increasing connexion was most famous and fatal. though. The connection between Italy and Provence was of long standing. elsewhere overpowered. The Paulician Manichseism which had broken out first in Northern Europe in the neighbourhood of the emporia of the Eastern trade. that there is hardly a western or northern country in which we do not find a disturbance traceable to this source. the inhabitants had been accustomed to the demoralizing spectacle exhibited by the flourishing courts of the infidel princes of Spain. Bulgarians. 1225. was favourably situated for the dissemination of the heresy. at the 15 .] The Albigenses were also called Gazari (a corruption from the name Cathari). They had been frequently. doubtful and disunited in their creed and practices. Ttie name does not seem to be contemporaneous with the appearance of the heresy in Europe. and still remained to a great extent. denied the lawfulness of marriage. — — of the anti-sacerdotal revolt. about that date. it burst out in that form to which the famous title of the " Albigensian" has been third. upon which the new heresy was originally founded. as has been mentioned. that the old tenets which had been discarded by the Paulician heretics from the seventh to the tenth centuries. was next to Toulouse in its forbearing temper. [Gretser. 190. Manichseism in its earlier stage seems. and Languedoc. at a very short interval had appeared in Italy. respectively. xxv.D. united. and by the identification of the persons of the Duality with spirit or good. 1176. in a great measure. lite most of those bodies. It was in the the independent cities of Italy that the dying institutions of Paganism had lingered longest . too. confounded with various sects of pure anti-sacerdotalists. and Italy. had been. It seems to have become the popular designation. and Germany. under the same lordship. and by an almost infinite number of other local names. and therefore the greater part of the Tolosan suzerainty. during four centuries of its early history. not being found in the earlier synodical decrees against it. but these heretics are certainly so called in a worlc of Stephanus de Borbone written about a. climate predisposing the South of France to admit the influence of a heresy like Manichseism. commencement of the eleventh century. but of awaking the dormant Manichseism of central Italy. had. Provence. while they were too far removed to dread Mohammedan hostility. In England. like the followers of Waldo of Lyons [Waldensbs]. not only of exciting many new leaders of heretical opinion. Bibl. Lugd. in the middle of the twelfth century.. in the South had the effect. for a time at least. for the time successfully crushed in the North. to the absorbing interest of the struggle between the Papal and the Imperial powers. from different causes. Publicians. the Albigenses are distinguished by a more or less complete dualistic creed. it was in such towns that Manichseism was earliest revived . During the centuries immediately preceding the Manichsean revolt. error. is evidenced by the fact. the Manichsean revolt was easily subdued. which in the centuries and the eleventh threatened to desolate Christianity. But if Italy was foremost in the revival of Manichseism. but the sects had been weak in the number of adherents. Like aU the Manichtean bodies. Italy. [Eonians. and matter or evil. In these last named countries. of many differing sects whom the theologians of the age generically termed Manichseans . from one of the districts of Languedoc of which the city of Albi. the case was different. where Paulician Maniohseism [Paulicians] had been established since the seventh century. and divided aU their members into two classes of superior and inferior hohness. Manichsean ideas Albigenses intercourse brought about by the Crusades materially assisted this dissemination. and it was probably derived.Albigenses Nortliern Italy in the twelftli and tliirteenth centuries. with the south-eastern parts of Aquitania Prima. which included Languedoc and Provence. was the principal town. anciently called Albiga. Septimania. Tudens. But the cold and phlegmatic temper of these regions was fatal to the oriental mysticism of Mani. and the ground so broken received the seed of the new heresy with Nor was the Church in wonderful rapidity.] From Bulgaria. had indeed found their way into Europe as early as the beginning of the eleventh century. adv. Fref. and in particular Lombardy. and of mad communists like the worshippers of Eon. submitted without reluctance to the domination of Arian Goths or infidel Saracens. Bernard's most famous triumph over the anti-sacerdotalists. the heretical ideas slowly permeated Europe. Here the last of the three great waves of Manichsean opinion. to have escaped notice. So general was this infiltration in the eleventh century. to the Bulgarian frontier.d. and that this revival was a genuine rehabilitation of a dead heresy. Here the heresy. Northern France. In Southern France and Provence this was probably due to the more urgent character many circumstances ^traditions. Sufficiently near to find polite intercourse with the Mohammedans agreeable. its suzerainty. that province of the Western Empire nearest The outbreak. it is with the suzerainty of Toulouse that There were situation. but in Southern France.

and not to the Albigensian heresy. in default of more differential nomenclature. is thus precise in its terms " Quia in Gasconia Albigesia et partibus Tolosanis et aliis locis ita haereticorum quos aUi Catharos alii Paterinos alii Publicanos invaluit damnata perversitas. a letter. almost wholly independent of the French kuig at Paris. a his vassals against the attack.. and the payment of tithes to the clergy. aliens in blood. forbade the use of churches. about which time a second council was held at Albi. From it we learn. within or adjacent to which lay Toulouse and the principal towns of the invaded district. would be likely to attract much attention from crusaders. Lucius II. Languedoc enjoyed an almost licentious freedom. is found in the records of the Council of Tours. the names under which. and marriage unlawful. so predisposed by circumstance to receive the poison. But count. or (as they are frequently called) Arian heretics of this district. It was in this country. 1190. are inclined to derive the distinctive title of Albigenses. and so in succeeding years it might come to pass. that the name " Albigensian " occurs only in one other record of the twelfth century. dated a. quarter of a century later. 1179) A In their report they describe the whole land as in the possession of the heretics. near Albi. invaders of Toulouse. where the heretical opinions were condemned. Such men might readily borrow for the title of their crusade the name of one of the principal scenes of their operations with which they were familiar. details of the process. .d. the large fertile district contiguous to the frontier of Guienne. besides their assertion of the duaUstio principle. In the year prior to this council Raymond v. of this heresy. The fourth canon of that Council is entitled. 1163. calling them however Cathari and Paterini. employed to express all the antisacerdotal bodies. preserved the first authentic statement. that the heretics (hereafter to be called Albigensians). which took place a. a council was held at Lombferes. and has now for so many centuries. denied the resurrection of the body. had appealed to Alexander for pontifical assistance.d. salvation by faith. a. carry the chain of anathema through the councils presided over by Alexander III. been applied. and taught that no female soul in a future state retained femininity. at a time when the rest of Europe was held in the strongest grasp of an almost universal military despotism. commission of five of the most distinguished prelates. and Innocent III." appellant Of the names applied to the Albigensian sectaries. that the earliest use of the word in the broader meaning refers it to the Albigensian crusade. until the middle of the next century. The third Lateran of Alexander III. they are invariably known. . mostly from Northern and Eastern France. from Bishop Odo of Paris. "ut cuncti consortium Albigensium hEereticorum fugiant. It is from this council that many learned authors. The word first began to be applied to the heresy (but not commonly) in the latter half of the thirteenth century. can inquisition. . now so famous. . originally a term of reproach flung by the secular at the regular clergy. sponsors or fatherHngs. to the heretics of Languedoc and Provence. during which the name Albigeois acquired the sense in which it is subsequently. are not discoverable with certainty. Publican! is a manifest corruption of Pauhciani. These. Albigenses Of the other terms. "Cathari" or " Puritans. The first mention of these Manichaean. Southwards. or that surrounding Albi. This theory derives much support from the fact. a nally. In a. civUizod beyond its age. when. proceeded to the assistance of the (the third Lateran.. Cologne. its law and its God . (in the preceding century it had absolutely ignored his existence). was well adapted to the Manichsean despisers of marriage. . 1165. Besanjon westwards. under the patronage of the Domini- A The — — — The most fruitful and important district of the Tolosan Count was the Albigeois. has by a somewhat obscure process been derived. It is worthy of remark. The word Albigensian certainly absent from the series of condemnations which extend from the middle of the tweKth to the middle of the thirteenth century.. that the name thus given to the crusade might be transferred to the heresy which was its cause." The canon itself then describes them. including Mosheim. 1163. from below the Pennine Alps northwards. from Treves.d. speech. that the first crusade against this development of modern Manichseism was directed against the inhabitants of Albi. whether Manichsean or otherwise. the great crusade of Innocent commenced." was. more probable hypothesis derives the name from the fact that the Albigeois was the chief seat of the heresy. commencing with the Council of Tours in a. though by an enemy.d. and had been in common use for a — . but they contain no use of this word in other than a geographical sense.d. the reigning Count of Toulouse. The name was probably given to the war by the lay invaders. A fact however which rests on is insufficient evidence. 16 . a town on a tributary of the Garonne. and it is from this territory that the name Albigensian. declared capital punishment. with the sanction of the Kings of France and England. luxurious country. but the name not unnaturally does not there occur. not to the heresy by the priestly It is a significant fact. ritual. to his clergy. the efficacy of infant baptism (chiefly on Pelagian grounds) . for the influence of their clergy was then at the lowest point that it has anywhere reached in the history of Christianity. whose feudal lord defended Besides.. nomilouse. oaths. from Tuscany and the States of the Church the flow of heretical opinion converged upon Toucentury. but conceived in terms which smack of modern authorship. Albigenses these provinces capable of any considerable resistance. who claimed peculiar sanctity. and the modern capital of the department of the Tarn . rejected the Lord's Supper j disowned the Old Testament. and "Paterini" (variously spelt Patareni and Patrini). that the streams of heretical opinion were appointed to meet. In the edict of the Council of is Alexander III. and usage.

So completely had the country come into their possession. and the clergy were powerless. were publicly received into the induced a more widely exBishops. that in one assembly. and Bulgaria . and Narbonne. with its great subordinate fiefs. and countless abbots. burn the bodies and confiscate the goods of the heretics. Poix. The voluptuous Tolosan nobles (and most of the Tolosan nobles-were voluptuous) had probably little religion of any kind . in France. with two coadju- pretext was the murder of Peter of Castelnau. or Perfect. representing the communities of Prance. . obtained through the death of Peter the prestige of a martyrdom. dallied with the papal mandate the legates were exacting. and surrendered seven of his principal castles into the hands of the Pope . The old Zoroastrian controversy of the first causes.. Pol. at any rate. four of the most noble Provenjales. in vain he offered to join. heretic as he is alleged to have been. . and amongst them Albi." whose title to confidence lay only in his holy life. was certainly no Maniohsean. but. taries. the crusade against his faithful Albigensians. On their admission into the ranks of the Perfect. Albi. Italy. nor was the persecution which Eaymond set on foot more crusade. a crime of which the count was entirely innocent. the other of youngest son. who had by this time obtained some influence owing to the austerities which. and the heretical Church of Provence. The Pope issued to the king and great nobles of Iforthern France a public caU to vengeance. sixteen in number. supported the Churchmen. Albi itself. The Pope called on the count himself to Eaymond VI.. Albigenses the condemnation of papal and provincial councils -was of little efficacy in Toulouse. and other digni. in the exaction of vain promises and idle protestations. eggs. so fearless were they in the enjoyment of their freedom. on the other hand. Innocent commenced proceedings. again appeared. (he had three wives alive at the commencement of the crusade). Eight years passed of ineffectual preaching. who. struggle the inevitable end arrived. undertaken by Henry of Clairvaux against the Albigeois. The Pope sent legates. The invaders had for leaders four archbishops. and after a short interfere. In the first quarter of a year five hundred towns and fortresses fell or In their capitulated. then to all the great prelates and nobles of the country. was rendered wholly nugatory by the protection which the Viscount of Bezi^res and his great vassal the Count of Albi afforded to the heretics. Carcassonne. Brescia. It is said that haK a million of men were gathered for the enterprise. more merciful moments. the Lord of Amaury in France and Leicester in England. or Auditors. while the consolation in death. administered by the "perfect. in this the hour of its dissolution. like Leo and CyrU. Milan. and there is reason for beheving that their ministers received ordinar tion. but neither cities nor nobles would act : A burial-grounds. but the discipline of the federate or auditor. In vain the count performed the most abject penance. offering them for the use of their swords the blessings of the Church and the possessions of the heretics. Simon Montfort. How deeply imbued with the heretical opinion was the whole country may be gathered from the fact. first Eeiner and Guy. against faithful vassals. Toulouse. including besides those that have been mentioned. Montpellier. Even Innocent admits their virtue.rse. He wrote fijst to the Archbishop of Auch. neither to swear nor to lie to abstain from all carnal intercou. twelve bishops of great sees. The cities promised. the order was given by the crusading chiefs that those who recanted 17 . while his emissaries privately urged Eaymond's vassals to revolt. and Arnold of Citeaux these last the most bigoted Churchmen of that age of bigots. in vain were ecclesiastical censures poured out against these Cathari in successive and continuous imprecation. that they possessed their own efficacious. subsequently Peter of Castelnau. under the title of Consolati. Toulouse. Beziferes. in Italy. and in fact did join. chosen from the monastic orders. and the Bagnolensian and the Albanensian camps respectively sustained the cause of the single and double origin of existence. Eaoul. numbering among them Esolarmonde. but to eat only vegetables and fish . Queray. the sister of the great Count of Poix. seemed to them to have more than all the value of priestly absolution. and the inhabitants indiscriminately massacred. In vain did Eaymond. and the nobles. They divided the sect into classes. The devout. he held their practice of virtue but a wile of the devil to betray the orthodox. held in the year 1204. these ladies made solemn promise to touch no meat. was not a severe or ascetic rule. and in an asceticism which surpassed the utmost severity of which the degraded priesthood of the country was capable. Albigenses heretical community. They are alleged to have possessed a complete system of churches. against inoffensive citizens. the Counts of iN'evers and St. the one holding the title of eldest. the death of Peter becoming the signal for a general crusade. was wholly given to the heretics. and to keep troth to their sect unto the death. through the last twenty years of his reign. Florence. Bergamo. The crusaders' ad- excommunicated. Within a few months of his accession. administered to the accumulating need of the congregations. and Poederati. and subsidized their own clergy. or. supported the theory of the single origin. or cheese. The Duke of Burgundy. they had sedulously practised. from the more important stations in the Italian cities. urging them to exterminate the heresy. by the advice of Dominic. which sufficed the ambitious youth of Augustine. The legates. Beziferes and Carcassonne were at once stormed. This first appeal was wholly ineffectual the nobles would not act against their vassals. tors. first appointment. which had divided Persia in the hour of the birth of Maniohseism. found their account in the religious excitement of the new and daring opinions. and he was The vast increase in the numbers of the sect tended organization. The vance was irresistible. each continued to hold flourishing communities professing Albigensian opinions. and thus gained the reputation of sanctity.

The arms of Montfort were everywhere irresistible. penance and deprivation of all honourable means of life for those whom they could not convict.Albigenses should be spared. and before its gates the great crusader at length perished." was war. was occupied with the consolidation of his dominion. to wear two crosses of different colour on their dress. are historically instructive.d. All the heretics. fession of faith. the lady paramount was thrown into a well and stones rolled upon her. Even the King of Arragon. The two counts enthusiastically landed.. and to pay at first two. promised fealty to the king. most boldly confessed their faith. Shortly. died. to abjure Albigensian tenets.. was one of unchequered success." "Paterini. which defied every effort of Montfort's arms. It is alleged that the Pope was overborne by the cardinals and of Montfort's party. In a. 1244. and four years later another crusading army descended into Languedoc. and were received. a strong castle perched on the edge of a ravine in the Pyrenees. had fled. In every village one clerical and three lay inquisitors were to be appointed . the Count Raymond VI. and with the extirpation of the Albigenses. to execute justice on all heretics. they were fortunate if they survived themselves. with their bishop. the destruction both of political independence and of religious liberty." " Albanenses. was defeated and killed. marked with atrocities remarkable even for a religious " Slay all. In the same year. Montfort pensation for Toulouse. four hundred of the " perfect " were burned in one pile. At the Council plete code of persecution make acceptance impossible. the last refuge of the Albigensians. But these successes were of no long duration." The persecution was devised with such political shrewdness and so weU. and numerous other massacres. 1 222. published an imperial decree for the punishment of the Albigensian heretics of the empire. this Inquisition. and the noble Lady Esclarmonde. the Bishop of AIM. with their bishop. the rest. himself a freethinker. abundantly testifj^. 1229 saw.d. of practising medicine. The career of Simon de Montfort. But even these decrees were considered of dangerous mildness. to which most of the perfect. and abandonment of the Albigensians was stipulated for in the act of submission. was headed by Louis of France. so contrived as to Albigenses of Toulouse a comwas developed. the heritage could not pass away. the harbourers of heretics were to be reduced to personal slavery . Few availed themselves of the former alternative. The strife was continued. and the same revolt. Eaymond was offered terms. or of nursing the sick. But a general insurrection of the whole people in favour of their old rulers compelled him again to take the field. The crusaders soon grew tired of leniency. By the council the laity were prohibited from possessing the Scriptures. and accepted martyrdom with cheerfulness. For those who recanted. but against inhabitants who refused to own the suzerainty of the French king. At the great papal Council of Aries. By the treaty. it accomplished nothing more than one massacre of Albigenses. it was appeased by a temporary removal of the Inquisition. many of whom had shared the sufferings of the crusade. in the Council of Toulouse and the Treaty of Paris. and hewed in pieces "William Arnaud. Nor were the inquisitors backward in enforcing these penalties . and universally adopted by the Inquisition.D. that at Marmande. Innocent had died in a. perpetual imprisonment for the guilty. were massacred. In this their last struggle the Albigensians fought with fury. enemies of the Christian Church. and the Seneschal of Carcassonne.ce. In 18 . were burnt alive in a vast enclosure of stakes and straw. with the four Dominicans and two Franciscans who formed the inquisitorial tribunal at that place. "Within two years of that submission. He swore besides to render fealty to the Pope. as possessing a corporate succession. women and children. to Gregory is due the glory of having perpetuated. Eaymond VII. By him it was handed over to theDominicanFriars. men. declared the formal spoliation of Eaymond. under the style of " Cathari. the old count threw himself into Toulouse. the Emperor Frederick II. The punishments invented for suppressing the Albigensian heresy. eight hundred nobles were hanged on trees or hewn in pieces. the only crusading noble base enough to accept the price of blood. 1216. In three campaigns he became a sovereign prince. and to make public con- dominions. : : from whom. The nobles of Toulouse were now struggling for existence. and those who refused should be burned. as the holocaust of one hundred and eighty-three persons at Vertus. They captured the castle of Avignonet. The year a. but with its return after four years the same cruelties returned. Mont Segur. and though the new crusade preached by his successor. Raymond was forced to submit to Saint Louis. the great inquisitor. God will know His own. Their cruelties in Toulouse at length provoked an insurrection . death at the stake. heretics who recanted were to be removed to Catholic cities. and offered the Venaissin to the young Raymond as a comMeanwhile. which were levelled as well against the true Albigenses or Manichasans. executed that the heresy was actually stamped out in Southern Europe. the property of those on whose lands heretics were found was to be forfeited . was forced to surrender to the Archbishop of Narbonne. To Innocent and Honorius belong the credit of establishing. as against the Leonist» or Waldenses.d." and "Bagnolenses. Honorius III. The fourth Lateran of Innocent III. that is A. by the men who boasted themselves more papal than the Pope himself at any rate it would seem that the Pope partially repented of his harshness. Raymond and hie vassals were too weak to protect their subjects . At Lavaur. the saying of the legate Arnold before Beziferes. subsequently one mark for each heretic discovered in his priests : The suspect were incapable of holding offi. But it was no longer a war directed against heretics. and were amplified and made more stringent by subsequent councils. the victor of Navas de Tolosa.

contains an authentic list of sentences of that tribunal during those fifteen years. are the most important. When cur Lord bade His disciples baptize in His name. was displayed between the years a. and the poem written by a troubadour. 1244 the community had ceased . and entitled La Guerre des Albigeois. by MM. 33]. That it was heresy of a very antichristian kind is shewn by St. escaped to Bosnia and the provinces of the Danube. Lyons]. the Histoire de Languedoc. xx. and in Maitland's Facts and Documents connected with the History of the Albigenses and Waldenses. This activity. Fauriel [Paris]. as having made shipwreck of the faith. Besides these more important works. tom. handed over to death by the civil power twenty-nine of the Albigenses. It is necessary to observe. cf. Eome] . In the case of Jews bare admission that Jesus was the Christ might be sufficient. the Albigensian history comin A. from a. the bloody crusade which commenced and the bloodier persecution which consummated their ruin. The most important of these contemporaneous authorities are collected in the Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la They consist of France [Bouquet. tom. and almost entirely of orthodox ecclesiastics. xviii. as the work progresses. being converted to oi-thodoxy. and punished. and a persistent character. The present article wiU be limited to the Catechetical School. — — ALEXANDEIAN . the papal letters of Innocent III. twelfth century. unless it was a hatred of Eoman bigotry which even the Inquisition failed to extirpate.] . Paul's Epistles Timothy an Alexander is named as one of the worst opponents of his ministry. Vich et Vaissette [Paris] and Sismondi's History of the Crusade against the Albigenses [London]. Pauriel. until they were reconciled to the Church in the fifteenth century by the eloquence of the Cardinal Carvalho. and the Ethiopian eunuch. in attendance on his uncle. that of Beinerius. Slowly and in secret the last remnant of the Albigensian heresy was strangled by the strong hand of the Inquisition. attracted more by the comparative A security of their Piedmontese homes than from any community of religious opinion. ^The original records of the AlbiLiterature. 1307-1323 [Limborch. Of modern works on this subject. gives the history of the war from A. i. It is noteworthy that the country of the Albigenses was also the country of the Camisards. The Godex Tolosarue inquisitionis. xviii. tom. under the nom de plume of : William of Tudela. at their various " sermones. but. At first he is furious against the heretics. 1209 to 1219. gensian heresy are unfortunately the )vork entirely of orthodox writers. to exist. and a whole century later than the death of Montfort. but heathen idolaters needed a longer and more elaborate course of instruction. present features of romantic interest absolutely without parallel. edited by M.". Docvr 19 What was the nature of Alexander's heresy is not stated. the unchristian heresy which they themselves are bold to admit. a record of the work of the Inquisition of Toulouse. few escaped and joined themselves to the Waldenses. The story of the Albigensians (gross heretics as they undoubtedly were) is the shortest. by M.. xix. and as having put away the faith and a good conscience In the second he says [1 Tim. the cruelties practised by the crusaders have the effect of changing him from a staunch partizan into a bitter enemy of their opponents. and the gaoler at Philippi. that of Gulielmus de Podio Laurentii. by Alanus de Insulis [Masson. 1307-1323. whose orthodoxy is unimpeachable. that the account of the Albigenses given in Milner's Church History is wholly untrustworthy. Guerre des AlUgeois [Bouquet. sixty years after the heresy had been forcibly suppressed. Acts xix. I. By that date little that was Albigensian survived. In the middle of the In both of St. it is said. and Acts of CouncUs are to be read passim. [HYMBN^aiDS. their high moral tone (which their enemies scarcely deny). reason to believe that two Alexanders are here named. Paul. Amsterdam]. the abbot of that place. This author.D. was an approving eye-witness of the horrors of the crusade [Bouquet.D. the history of Petrus Sarnensis. it must be borne in mind. at the Alexandrian School ments Historiques inedits [Paris]. and that of the anonymous author of the history of the sian. and the " shipwreck " of " the faith.". Excepting in such abnormal instances as the first converts on the day of Pentecost. regular instruction was conveyed from the first before the administration of baptism. 14 . iv. favoured more by their obscurity than by any intentional toleration of either eastern or western Eome. 19. and as the second Epistle to Timothy was written some years after the first. but the combination of immorality and misbelief the putting away of both faith and conscience ^points to some form of Gnosticism. The most valuable learning applied to the many difficulties with which their history abounds is to be found in the Histuire de la Poesie Provengale. William of Puy Laurens [Bouquet. the Tolosan Inquisition. and bloodiest in the annals of heresy. Much information is contained in the ecclesiastical histories of Fleury. " Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil There is no [2 Tim. xix. 20]. with various severity of imprisonment.].d. Albigenses fifteen years. himself a Catharist or Albigen- mences — speaks of him in association with Hymenseus. became an inquisitor [Bouquet. we are led to the conclusion that the opposition to St. Others. to ITor was this course of events less swift than the events themselves are surprising. Paris]. &c.] . Mosheim. nearly five hundred others. though the two former are sometimes exceedingly partial in their views . In the first he ALEXANDEE. they preserved a liarmless and precarious existence. as also in Milman's Latin Christianity.] .d. brightest. He also commanded that instruction should precede the initiatory rite. beginning of tlie fourteenth century. Peter of Vaux Cernay. Paul's language in both places. and Gieseler. To these are to be added the controversial treatises Adversus CatJiaros et Waldenses. Their precocious refinement and civilization.] SCHOOL. and by Moneta Cremonensis [Eichinius. were of a but who. where. who." or sessions. tom.

to be succeeded in due course by others [1 Cor. x. for the office whether clerical or lay. 36]. or so demonstrate the weak points of every philosophical system. deepened into those more severe lines of comparative scholarship. E.! -^ a fragment published by Dodwell [Diss. He instructed widely. had their systematic exposition of the rule of faith before that rule was confessed in baptism . V. 24] to every soul that : believeth. Pantsenus is named by Eusebius. but the large centres of civilization demanded more care and method. and even females were not considered ineligible to convey to converts of their sex the first and Pagan. St. E. but the only Church with respect to such appointments to which we can speak with certainty is the Alexandrian.lov StSao-KaAci'ov tuv tepQv Aoywv Trap' aurois crvvea- TUTOS. II. 16]. doubtful links in the succession being printed in italics : by him to St. 1 1]. a.pxa. and instruction for neophytes. Paul himself was the first catechist of the Corinthian Church [1 Cor. milk for babes was gradually replaced by the strong meat for men. 19-23 . 6 . doubtless. ix. quam in : seculari litteratura fuit " \Gatal. Chris- At perhaps. in Iren. But the writer's authority does not stand high for accuracy. the origin of the Alexandrian Church being also referred Eespecting the position of Panteenus there can be no doubt. at first simple in the extreme. as the first of a succession of learned teachers. c5 Kal e'ts ijjuSs iraparelvcTai ^H. were told off . iii. A lexandrian School the succession of pure teaching in the Church of his foundation .— Alexandrian School necessity tlius arose for a distinct order of catecWsts. delegates. whUe they exhibited the spiritual simplicity of the Gospel of Christ as the power of God and the wisdom of God [1 Cor. and from him the following succession may be traced down to the close of the fourth century . 5. xv. 2 Cor. The Evangelist would naturally provide for Date. but baptized few.ce. The earliest name contian thus. as its boundaries became extended. i. 16]. which local peculiarities fostered . the school as of old standing €^ . own principles of the Christian faith. . ii. tantse prudentiae et eruditionis tarn in Soripturis divinis. In remote districts. St. then. Mark \H. and Eusebius fails to confirm the statement. 490-514]. although the way in which the historian mentions Pantaanus at the close of the second century by no means implies that he had no preBoth Athenagoras and decessor in his ofS. who This same speaks of 'iOovs nected with this school is that of Athenagoras. first. Jerome refers the origin of this noted " Pantsenus Stoicse sectse school to St. Mark phUosophus juxta quandam veterem in Alexandria consuetudinem. and certainly no more useful class of instructors could be found in such a locality than learned converts for no other men could have so complete a grasp of the various problems that have exercised the human intellect. the ordained and authorized teacher of each church discharged the duty in person . Pantsenus were converts from the ranks of philosophy . catechetical arrangements would be simple in the extreme . ubi a Marco Evangelista semper ecclesiastic! fuere doctores. in the middle of the second century. mentioned by Philippus of Sidet in Pamphylia. Athens and Eome. 10] .

It is seen to pervade the Hindu system. as suited the particular syncretistic taste of the individual. Philosophers held that it was for man to seek after God.d. vi. . but The it was chiefly by way of contrast. possibly also with Pierius. it is quite possible that the catechetical school was placed on a similar footing after the conversion of Constantino [Cassiodorus. however. There appears to have been no endowment of any kind. Clement of enhance the bitterness of scarcely be understood without the other. it was heathen perversion to say that the animal instinct of the wanderer led it back to its owner. but found again in Christ. H. but some apartment in the private dwelling of the teacher. Iiist div. the perpetual voice of living witnesses. it gave to Moses the " pattern. and of Didymus. Hence arose a continual clash of jealousy between the Chris- IV. and is united into one body of glory. aimed at embodying all the learning of the day in his Christian teaching . and he the Apocrypha as being of almost equal authority . but they eventually misunderstood each other. the purpose. The methodical practice of class teaching based upon Scripture caused a wide induction of Scriptural fact. E. who received his appointment from Athanasius [Kuffin. and his subsequent deposition [Eus. was capable of formal proof . Neo[Mystics. taught it as an essential aspect of the truth. Theodoret. and they died in numbers of every age and of both sexes. Catdl. . H. Christian and heathen. Catal. who " appetitor voluntarife . did his work for the pure love of souls. in the Mount. E. were eminently based on Platonic realism. its followers shewed a love for it that was strong as death. gree t)f enthusiasm for systems that they helped to create . 3j Hieron. the teacher having private means. H. Man. " Alexandrian School The head. nor has the teaching ever died out again. 26 . the instructor of Philip. hand. had none of these advantages. but their hearers were bound together by no catholic bond of unity. the Book of Baruch. but it must first find a nature with which it can coalesce and harmonize. ad Paul. 29] . The Eclecticism of Philo gave a substratum of mystic thought to both Plotinus. while poorer students were admitted gratis. said the Neo-Platonist. and was received traditionally by Plato. /Scr. the Christian teacher announced from the revealed Word that God sought man out. The place of instruction appears to have been no public building. The schools of the middle ages. from the very cradle of the human race. Synodii}. 54] . on the other that love. as to suggest its descent by an unbroken tradition. There were principles then in the old philosophy that were not Christianity. and the philosophy of the Reformation period. •^Xa^ijo-etav avTov [Acts xvii. «' apa ye . of which the Christian teacher at Alexandria Clement professedly diligently availed himself. H. as seen in the appointment of Origen by Demetrius [Eus. i. from whence the pupil took his name of Sidetes or Sidensis.]. 1494 . of Arius. or hired for with God but their respective methods were in an inverse order. Platonism. who was appointed and also removed from the office by Achillas [a. before the human principle can be in any sense assimilated to it . The one could the principal may describe the Alexandrian sources. canon from these fragmentary sources. but there must first be a descent of the Divine.. . Christian teacher could shew a definite creed his religion. which has supplied also the proper elements from whence Kant and Fichfce and Hegel have distilled over the more subtle spirit of their later philosophic creeds. and nearly every book of Scripture is cited in the remains of teachers of this school that have tian and heathen schools of Alexandria. as a heaven-descended system. . Since the teachers of the Museum received a state stipend. He had no creed. must ascend up to the Divine . Each of the trwo schools of Alexandria. The appointment of the principal teacher was vested in the bishop. Ep. E. i. and drew him with cords of love to Himself. and eliminate or enlarge. vi. rather than forswear The heathen teacher. vi. its highest excellence was the sense of duty that it Its teachers may have felt some deinculcated. 'AxtAAas 'Apeiov Tov kv 'AXe^avSpeKf SiBavKakn'ov TrpouTTtjiTiv [Ararsius Papp. whoUy repugnant to and in tanto they offered an important means of approach to the heathen mind. rather than evolved by him from the germ. E. and to a sense of his high birthright which had been lost to him in Adam. of this school had occasionally a coadjutor or assistant in the work of teaching. 27] . In some iustances. Hieron. and the substance of Mishis lectures was termed by him Sr/jw^aTeis cellanies. Prcsf. . 313]. 3] . The school gradually decayed after the removal of Ehodon. as was the case with Origen [Eus. 7]. The truth declared that the Good Shepherd sought His erring sheep in the wilderness. H. of these schools. At Alexandria both the heathen and the Christian teacher maintained that the attainment of truth should unite man in spirit and intellect paupertatis fuit " [Hieron. but the teacher received an honorarium from those who were able to pay for their instruction . E. to Sida in PamphyHa. 76]. 2] . his philosophy was an intellectual system without warmth or definite colour . III. sufficient similarity in certain was There broad features come down Origen to us. The spirit of the Museum determined the bearings of the Christian school at Alexandria. Human thought seems so completely tinged and instinct with the realistic idea. being cites . Alexandria and being We plies us with quotations and lengthened extracts from every book of the present canon . as exactly Origen supas from the venerable Codex A. argued the Christian teacher. the various instances of -which are tabulated ahove. ii. " Quiequid habent homines nostri est — farrago libeUi. flame touches flame. Alexandrian School both that has run as a thread of gold through the speculative efforts of the human race from earliest ages.] a Platonic realism was common to 21 of either system to difierence." or heavenly counterpart of earthly things. and were ready at any time to modify the teaching of the schools.

" Similarly the author of Prcedestinatus and Isidore of Seville. Peter and Didymus also were almost entirely free from the allegorizing tendency of Clement. God. and was Word was made flesh. v. and space need not be occupied in describing that which was in truth the doctrine of the Church Catholic. both Origen and Clement term that of St. as Westcott [Introduction to Gospels. [Amalricians]. that there was no sect or number of Christians who rejected St. Matthe-w's first existed in a Hebre-w form. Johannis Evangelium respuentes. as shewn in his Hexapla. and important enough to bring all who held it into one class. to which work the reader is referred. John. The labours of Origen on the Sacred Text. With respect to Dionysius -was induced. who deals with the Alogi in a somewhat offhand manner. John's doctrine concerning the Logos. it remains for inquiry whether Lardner. Word. and dwelt The rejection of the fonner brings who affirmed that there among us to the Monarchians. and that a copy of it -was found by Panttenus in India . Ix. s. John's Gospel the test of Alogian doctrine. o/Thbol. -where there -was no antecedent objection to their contents. imply that there but was adopted to describe a heresy common to not a few sects. Origen. John's Gospel and the Eevelation. is affirmed. and with this view to have made the rejection of St. -while Clement adds that it -was -written by him in Hebre-w and translated by St. The Arians did not reject the fourth Gospel. Thus Theodotus. But he was by no means a type of the rest. The Epistle to the Hebre-ws is assigned to St. The two great facts which the CathoKc Christian holds in this matter are the Divinity of the personal Word. The canon of the Ne-w Testament is similarly confirmed. was no real distinction between the Eather and the Son. denied the Incarnation of the Word. 240]. and ascribed both to Cerinthus. to Didymus. as he considered. to refer it to some other author than St. and limited the application Pierius followed of allegory by certain rules. John's doctrine. the latter cannot be thought to assert that there did not exist the Allowing heresy of denying St. The authenticity of the Catholic Epistles. de Trinitaie. who comes next in Epiphanius' catalogue. . The various heads are examined by Guerike in his valuable exercise on the Alexandrian Catechetical School. asserting Jesus to have been a mere man who received Christ by the descent of the Holy Spirit -upon Him in Jordan. Unfortunately for the Alexandrian School. theologically considered. ALOGI. This is to be noticed because. There was nothing peculiar in the dogmatic or positive theology of this school. [Guerike. the true text of the LXX. Peter is interpolated and of no authority. by which they assigned to Him a beginning. DiOT. deutero-oanonical -writings. Dionysins and Didymus make a similar use of tlie Alogi [LuLLAEDs]. speak of a sect called Alogi. But the Arians. Ep)iphanius appears to have confined his new term to those who altogether denied the Logos. the heresy without using the name. chap. had al-ways associated it. The hermeneutical principles of a catechetical school must always determine its value.: Alexandrian School assigned by him. John's Gospel. -while he makes use of it. with whom he was associated. de Scliola qum Alexandrice floruit. while they received the other books of the New Testament. recipere noluerunt. the rejection of the second to those who separated the Word from the Christ. to Jeremiali. more especially of and Wisdom .] speaks of the name as in use quia Deum Verbum sic vocantur . Origen. Of the four Gospels Origen declares that St. as by Clement. though they did not hold St. John's doctrine. 1 Peter and Jude. inasmuch as the thought must precede the sound which gives it utterance. by internal evidence. "Alogi . As it is. would have been in the highest degree valuable." " The us. and Ecclesiasticus also John's writings. including Clement and Origen. V. 1 John. if they had been guided by a sound critical judgment. XXX. Lardner [History of Heretics. then that there was. Augustine The term was not intended was a distinct organized sect so called . xxiii. -without ho-wever : denying the authority of the rest Didymus alone declaring in one place that the second Epistle of St. Gnostic contempt for the Old Testament perhaps caused the catechist to raise even doubtful books to the canonical level. and the Incarnation of that [Hcer. was justified in saying that there was no number of Christians who rejected Philaster [Hmr. The former writer did not intend to assert that all the Alogi were united into one separate body .] in his treatise the Apocalypse. strictly speaking. II. Eor they did not altogether deny the Logos they wished to establish that the Son was only the Ad-yos Trpo^opcKos. no separate sect of Alogi. " and they establish the authenticity of the Acts of the Apostles and Pauline Epistles. John the " Spiritual Gospel . Theodotus is said by Epiphanius to have been an offshoot from the Alogi. This name was given by Epiphaniua to those who denied St. and Dionysius sought throughout the moral sense of Scripture. they tried to explain away the force of its words. ALMAEIC. in his steps. : 22 . yet would not be classed among the Alogi. Luke. iii. although they were formed into several bodies. while some writers of high authority. followed more closely the plain grammatical method of the Antiochea-n School.] says that there was never any such heresy. has only become worse confounded by the very means that were intended to secure it from error. ALEXIANS. p. Dionysius. -with -whom his predecessors. The truer exegesis of the Antiochean School superseded the allegorizing interpretation copied from PhUo.] describes St." "The Word was with God. its principal exponent Clement had learned from Athenagoras and Pantaanus to consider the allegorical method of Philo to be the true key for unlocking the hidden sense of Scripture. Paul by Pantsnus. and who consequently rejected St. as canonical. while Clement cites the fourth book of Esdras. from -whence Athenagoras also quotes.

in spite of its doctrinal character" p. Matthew [Epiph. Adv. in the Epiphanius goes on to state that the Alogi attributed not only the Apocalypse. is to be referred to those afterwards : To which we answer. and was not much considered in and for itself. the Theodotians rejected St. Luke [Iren. cap. speaking of those who rejected the Apocalypse. makes it far more probable that the evidence of Pseudo-TertuUian is correct [Iren. irony requires that we should say. it can only be said. 11. and it entirely mars the pertinency of the closing comparison. phanius is to be credited. Cerinthians." Here the comparison made with those who abstain from true communion in order to avoid hypocritical communicants. we find a passage on He is the same subject \Hae. Turning to Epiphanius. John's Gospel. sec. 7. and who objected that there existed no church at Thyatira. is noticed by Irenaeus [iii. from the Cerinthians downwards. 15]. It follows only that in this respect the writer did not faithfully represent the school to which he belonged [Lardner. illam speciem non admittunt. and read "qui pseudoprophetas quidem esse volunt. John's Gospel. iii. and that mutilated [Pseudo-Tert. for he affiliates them to the Alogi. 3. he proceeds to the new heresy of the Alogi.: Alogi Fabricius states that the Ebionites. Consequently we must. but for the benefit of the Church at large. John's If this statewritings generally. iii. this was placed in the same category. That the Montanists were met by an assertion of the spuriousness of the fourth Gospel. that the practice of the writer of the Homilies cannot set aside the evidence of the tenets of the Ebionites in general. But when the rejection of the Gospel was used in opposition to other doctrines or practices. iv. is a translation of Hippolytus' early work. certain sects which rejected St. " How groundless that supposition is must clearly appear from our accounts of Theodotus. ment be accepted. His argument from a passage in St. and as one of the Apostle's writings had already been assigned to. the appendix to the De Prmscr. prophetiae vero gratiam repellunt ab similia patientes his. Church received.] . having defined the Alogi by that very rejection \H<^i'. iv. 25 . John's Gospel. Tert. its authority It being thus proved that there were is high. 33]. that rejection was an almost necessary consequence of their doctrine. xvi. HippoL Ref vii. with the teaching of Cerdo. which rejected St. and thrust away from the Church the grace of prophecy. 27 . John is quoted in the Clementine Homilies. 3] . ticularly with regard to Cerdo and Marcion. the Marcionites used only St. xxxvi. xxviii. John's Gospel. H. as Neander remarks. Lardner thinks that in this respect he went beyond Cerdo But the close resemblance \_Rist. which implies that Cerinthus Philaster is supported by Epirespected it. phanius. Hoeret. Hoer. 185] he should have regarded main feature of their doctrine. 6. the Cerinthians only St. "With regard to the Cerinthians it is said \Hist. of the doctrines of Cerdo and Marcion. when they were claiming the fulness of those gifts . E. 150]. Luke. This was the case when. to the pretensions of Montanus. but St. Cerinthus." drawn from a book which his opponents believed. on the Canon. to Cerinthus. if i.r. that the God proclaimed by the law and the prophets was not the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. it makes them say that they wish to be false prophets (if the words are taken ironically. qui propter eos Ecclesia qui in hypocrisi veniunt. The passage written when Irenseus was favourable. In reply to them Lardner urges. That at the time Irenasus wrote [about a. It was the consideration of this controversy that led Epiphanius to give a distinctive name to those who rejected the Gospel. Gredib. with regard to the Ebionites. and others of that principle. of Her." Now the Ebionites used St. i. Hmr.] . Lardner remarks. that "some theory was necessary to account for the origin of the Gospel. Epiph.] munion. li. And called Alogi. iii. it became in itself more noticeable. quod in novissimis temporibus secundum placitum Patris effusum est in humanum genus. i. 9]. 5]. 4]. Praxeas. It came forward into the front of controversy. that St. 11. 6] that PhUaster's evidence is not supported by others and needs not to be much minded. xxx." T&ey declare their opponents to be false prophets. shews that they who refused the grace of prophecy did so to avoid false prophets. After describing the Montanists and allied sects. and he meets them by arguing thai 23 . Matthew's Gospel only [Iren. qui pseudo-prophetse quidem esse volunt. 308]. " they wish forsooth to be true prophets ") . of Her. it was urged that the fourth Gospel was spurious. quotes that which the That Marcion rejected St. and at a later time wonderful. The passage has been variously interpreted. sed simul et Evangelium. in qua Paracletum se missurum Dominus promisit. and is as follows " Alii vero ut donum Spiritus frustrentur. Cerdonians. par5]. Marc. These authorities strengthen each other. p. 5 and xxx. etiam a fratrum communicatione se abstinent. 11. xxix. 14 Philast. if Epi. probably Victor. Alogi Philaster we should limit the statement to the Apocalypse. x. quae est secundum Johannis Evangelium. Euseb. in opposition to the pretensions of the Montanists. John could not of course be denied.] . there is no reason to doubt Epiphanius' statement that Theodotus followed them in this as he did To interpret the passage of the Montanists has It accuses them of a purpose three difficulties. more likely that with [Montanists. et propheticum repellunt Spiritum. the Bishop of Eome. rejected St. of frustrating the gifts of the Spirit. and Marcionites. the Cerdonians only St. ix. Theodotians. adopt Gieseler's correction \Gompend.d. 26. In the case of these sects.liv. 27. Infelices vere. Haer. and that Epiphanius argues against Cerinthus from St. was on the point of admitting the Montanists to his com- But it IS far [Westcott. the Montanist pretensions favourably is nothing Many did so . John was only an "argumentum ad hominem. John's Gospel. writing not in immediate controversy with Cerinthus. and Epiphanius.

14] Athanasius says. 25]. that they should be called Anabaptists. from a. and full of an anxious desire to promote union among the Calvinists. who was Lutheran bishop of Naumburg. tells us that a branch of the Montanists corrected text. and as Montanists. perhaps. The followers of a French Anabaptist named Ambrose. but that God gives all power to believe. Anecd. 1577. David op Dinant. De Decret. AMALEIGIANS. Thes. called themselves " Pneumatiques. The party of Nicolas Amsdorf in the "Majoristic controversy" [a. century. It is not at all clear how re-baptism (an ancient heretical custom of the Novatians. and Amalric returned to Paris by order of the Pope.] ceeded originally from God. 1633 to a. The use of the word aXoyo's in controversy with the Arians should be noticed. 12]. Stubbs' ed. [Mosheim. and the Holy Ghost in ourselves [Martene. but in 1207 the sentence of the University was confirmed.d. as to have maintained that good works The controversy are a hindrance to salvation. whether the Montanists of Thyatira were of the Noetian branch or of the elder stock. This name has sometimes been used to designate the school of Ammonius Saccas. which the reader chooses. " This is a frequent argument in the controversy. in HoUand. [See Athan. for they very commonly (if not 24 . a Lutheran divine of Wittenberg. was a strong supporter of Luther. that "all things are one. burned. it would suit them to reject the Gospel which expressly The promises the Paraclete to the Apostles. contemporaneously with the movement headed by Luther in Germany.] heresies. ten of his followers were burned as heretics by order of another council of Paris. and the ashes scattered Thisname was given at the Eeformation to a body of extreme anti-sacerdotalists which came to the surface in the north-west of Germany. sec. Select Treat- p. 24. who about 1559 professed to have special Divine revelations far They transcending Holy Scripture in value. 15524]. in opposition. iv. and by Zwingli in Switzerland.d. in which he taught simple Pantheism. : Anabaptists The fourth Lateran Council [a. Arian. they are most irreligious" \yid. Orat. 19 and 24. Those who adopted these opinions were called " Hypothetical AMYEALDISTS. difficulty in supposing this . 358. As Noetians it would be natural to them to reject the fourth Gospel. viz. from which the Son receives His name. A (so called from his of native town in the diocese of Chartres). a bitter dispute between George Major. the Son in the Blessed Virgin. Mystics." Hist. After the failure of an attempt made by order of Cardinal Eichelieu to promote the latter. viii. many years afterwards. Syn. and will return to Him. If we follow the unaipiCTLV. Ecd. and he was expelled from He appealed personally to Pope Innocent office. Amyraut was a man of much learning. A and they spread very widely among the French and Swiss Protestants in.] Upon the first of these passages Newman remarks. and Amsdorf. that none can be saved except through belief in Christ . that all matter pro- who followed the Bena. AMSDOEFIANS. that is God . Nio." or Spirituals.d.d. sec. stands in Oehler's edition. was brought to a close by the " Formula of Concord" drawn up between the two parties at Bergen." The words in brackets are corrections adopted by Gieseler. a." Thus \Orat. Cord.Amalricians the state of Thyatira is a fulfilment of St. the Donatists. and it is only through men's own default that they are not saved. a distinguished French Protestant Professor of Divinity at Saumur. III. AMMONIANS. iii. AMBEOSIANS. and among other strange opinions taught that the Father was incarnate in Abraham. SiKtjv Xvkoiv dpira^avTOiv ras Siavoias Tiav aKepaCwv ttuttZv. Some of them also emigrated from Holland' to England about a. in the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth Amalric attracted many to his lectures. or Ee-baptizers. as it must be concluded that adopted Noetian tenets \_Refut. it at Thyatira the Alogi and Nor is there any the Montanists joined forces. ot Te [ot 8e] dpvovfjievoi. a more developed form of Universalism than that actually taught by Amyraut. for Hippolytus. and he is accused of going so far in adopting his leader's Solifidianism." From this platform he advanced to the denial of many doctrines of the Church. Pantheists. to the winds. wiU probably be his conclusion. or Amaury of Bene school of mediajval opinions of Amahic school of Calvinists followed the opinions of Moses Amyraut. According to the text as before. Jolin's "'EvotKijo-ai/rrav yap tootuv «K€icr£ propliecy KoX Tbiv Kara ^pvya'S [oi /xei/]. and their leader's own remains were exhumed. that none are excluded from salvation by any Divine decree. and formed the nucleus of a sect which gave the government of the country great trouble for ANABAPTISTS [dv-a— /JaTrrt'^eiv]. and in Switzerland.d. In 1209 Amalric died of grief.T£vovro. who fin. i. 19. 1664. 1525. and between the Calvinists and the Church. corrections adopted by Gieseler shew the parties. The opinions of Amalric were condemned by the University of Paris in the year 1204. He maintained that God wishes the salvation of all men. respecting Amsdorf the ef&caoy of good works to salvation. 16. Universalists. 163]. jMeT'^veyKav ttjv Trocrav ttoXiv eis t7]V avrSiv t^v 'AiroKaXv^Lv rov \6yov tovtov els dvarpoTT^v Kax CKeivov Kaipov i<TTpa. who claimed the Paraclete exclusively to themselves. writing from thirty-five to forty years later than Irenseus. Amyraut turned his studies towards a reconciliation of the endless disputes about predestination and grace in his own sect. "Imputing to God's Nature an absence of His Word (aAoyi'av. 1215] confirmed the sentence passed against his [Pantheism. the founder of Neo-Platonism in the [Neo-Platonists. to recant his heresies. ises. i.. a theologian and dialectician of Paris. sec.] second century. or 'irrationality).d. and the Eunomians) came distinctive to be regarded as so a characteristic of these anti-sacerdotalists. sec. i. that to deprive the Father of His Son or substantial Word (Adyos) is as great a sacrilege as to deny His reason (Adyos).

521. and if you perish in the work it will he. "On! on! on! while ye have the day. Hottinger. 1525. that the dreamy mysticism of the master had turned the disciple Munzer was deposed into a wild fanatic. To the opponents of the peasantry he wrote that the latter had incurred the guilt of dreadful sin of three kinds against God and man. who can . with them entirely . and others of the early Swiss " Eeformers brotherly manner. At Altstadt. on(^ of them. and had " Therecloaked their doings with the Gospel. or lord would not consent to this. Here he headed a fierce rebellion in the character of a prophet. of Doct. on May 15. named Thomas Schugger. which was likely to lead eventually to Anabaptism. and in a short time spread through Swabia. " come hither have pity on the . the more sober sects of the MbnnoniTES and the Baptists originated among the Anabaptists of the two countries." His exhortations to the labouring classes were as savage " Let not your as that of Luther to the nobles sword cool in blood. rebellion. the Lutheran pastor of Zwickau. and the Duke of Brunswick . [Luther's Works. cutting off the head of his brother Leonard under the pretence Zwingli endeathat he was inspired to do so. 91. while the second was a demand for more equitable collection of tithes by the lay-approThe priators who had taken possession of them. but at the same time severely condemned their rebellion. 85. had plundered religious houses and castles. Walch's In his subsequent confession ed. peasants appealed to Luther. Munzer estab_ lished a league for the formation of this new theocracy. They were." Anabaptists universally) repudiated the doctrine of our Lord's Incarnation. the year 1525 he returned to Thuringia. fore. who partly recognised the justice of their complaints. the first was a claim to appoint and depose their own pastors. and that the nobles and gentry who would not stand by the Gospel. and others of the Zurich reformers. a town which had been warned against him by Luther in a letter written so long previously as August 1524. Hetzer and Denck. it soon found a supEarly in porter. smite. for which they deserved death in body and soul many times over . the Landgrave of Hesse. 1737-53]. under torture [ibid. xvi. Grebel. &c. Stumpf. God goes before you " [Luther's Worles. Grebel. for they had broken their allegiance. but Hubmeyer. pagated his tenets for two years." he continues. a blessed death. Munzer and his subordinate leaders. Those tenets were: [1] that the true Word of God is not Holy Scripture." The rebellion was crushed at the battle of Prankenhausen. war He was not. found natural allies 25 cast in their lot For a time the Anabaptists were suppressed as . if they refused to do so. and being compelled to withdraw from Altstadt in 1524. Clark's transl. who had read the works of the mystic Tauler so exclusively. throttle. . ii. betook himself to Altstadt in Thuringia. and in the following century in England. At this crisis the long impending rebellion of the peasantry against the nobility broke out in Southern Germany. that of twelve articles in which the peasants stated their grievances. however. originating with the " prophets of Zwickau. Hubmeyer. " a better than which you will never accomplish Walch's ed. and gradually superseded them. Pfeifer and others. in Munzer. especially those of Zurich and St. for example. in Germany. to deliver. the Swiss cantons. and reestablished his parody of a theocracy in a mors formidable shape than ever at MUhlhausen. and that it thus formed the most notorious part of their system.] " prophets " was Thomas Munzer. in reality. to death. and whatsoever duke. Pranconia. strong enough to carry out his threats. xvi. and Alsace. the Eeformation descendants of those many mediaeval anti-saoerdotalists who went by the names of Albigenses. The earliest historical notice of the Anabaptists as a sect is in association with certain religious and civil disturbances. he said that "he had stirred up this rebellion in order to bring Christendom to an equality. 157]. From Waldshut the principles of Mlinzer quickly spread through some of rate . and summoning the nobles to co-ope- with him. and after a vain attempt to win support in Bohemia. hither to the rescue dear masters. and lield other equally conspicuous Anabaptists among done from the denied (as they seem to have the Incarnation of our Lord. stab. Hist. Hbnrtcians." was provoked by the tyrannical and extortionate habits of the feudal nobility. being already in correspondence with him. This those first) who But it is prohable that their custom of re-haptism was enforced upon their adherents in a very strict and ostentatious manner. and BuUinger was equally zealous against the fanatics . should be punished and put The first principle of the league was to have all things common. and culminated in a fierce civil war. and must enjoy a com- But if the communism of these ill-used serfs had no charms for Luther. with the sword of Gideon. In the later part of the sixteenth century. while the Unitarians. the fanaticism of his followers beginning to grow very extreme.]. from his post at Zwickau. he threatened them with civO. commonly known as " The Peasants' War. signing himself " Munzer. and was sa far mixed up with religion. but an internal inspiration . being taken and after- wards executed. should be beheaded or hung. and join his league when invited to do so in a : munity of goods. voured to stem the tide of fanaticism by a work against Anabaptism. where he proheresies. and they a leader. and [4] that in the kingdom of Christ all must be equal." which began in the year 1. he ventured upon a new settlement at "VYaldshut on the borders of Switzerland. Gall. The leader of these [Zwickau Prophets. Petrobrusians. at present. [3] that there must be a visible kingdom of Christ upon earth. 150]. Zfringli. vast numbers of the people also being slain." he wrote to the miners of Mansfeld. and among all such sects there was a more or less developed antipathy to infant baptism [Hagenbach. by an army under the command of the Elector of Saxony. BoGOMiLBs. [2] that the baptism of infants is unlawful. count. poor folk.

and establish the new kingdom there also. Strobel's Leben Sdiriften und Lehren T. in ples which it is said that many strangers are come into this realm. although they were baptized in their infancy. Miinzers. except those who said " that infants ought not to be baptized. 1842. rebaptized themThey are ordered to depart out of the selves. and that nineteen men and Lett. Fresh immigrations of the sect must have taken place after this. and proposed to carry their plans stiU further by the destruction of Leyden. Holy Sacrament of Baptism. two in Smithfield and the rest in several country towns. this primary idea of the Anabaptists had travelled to Amsterdam. In the year 1537. until the new theocracy was once more established at Miinster in Westphalia nine years after the death of Miinzer. p. also an Act of Parliament was passed [32 Hen. and the prospect of death at home was even more imininent than it was in England. vol. his fanatic partizans as The leader of these at Amsterdam was Van Geelen. BuUinger's Von dem unverschampten. bankrupt merchants. Latimer's Sermons. 49]. Brandt's Hist. 65]. and its leaders put to death. 1538. At a later date. These had become allies of John Matthei. who were examined in St. bably refugees from the Netherlands. the same writer says that Kent and Essex are " troubled with the frenzy of the Anabaptists more than any other part of the kingdom' 26 . and what the king will do with them " [EUis' Orig. 1535. 1550. 1527. The insurrection which he raised was quickly suppressed. carried on under the name of religion. A similar result followed in where like attempts other parts of Holland. and subsequently burned as heretics. Hooper writes from London " The Anabaptists flock to the place. including those who say " that Christ took no bodily substance of our Blessed Lady. xii. "First. Leeren der selbsgesandfen Widertovffern. 1531. hoAvever. and two of the Anabaptists man's Munzer." under the title of John of Leyden. 779]. Orig. ii. June 29th. of Eeforma- 2. cap. This final struggle of Anabaptist communism was headed by a tailor of Leyden named John Bockhold. who had in some filled the place of Miinzer as leader of the Bockhold." whose body was for many years afterwards hung in chains as a warning to the citizens from the steeple of St. and Gerard Kippenbroeck. lib. however. and condemning the opinions of the Anabaptists \ibid. After the death of Matthei. although much similarity is to be observed between their princi- burghers named Krechting and KnipperdoUing. vagabonds. and Wesel. II. 1795." who "have embraced the abominable and erroneous opinions latelv sprung in Germany" In a. Zwingli's Elenchis contra Catdbaptistas. were made. Hon. a bookbinder of Amsterdam." Some of the unfortunate people recanted. ^c. Walch's ed. 1535. and were ready even to die for the maintenance of them when persecuted by their Lutheran opponents. and if they were baptized that they ought to be re-baptized when they came to lawful age. a royal proclamation was issued. 120] . 579 . [Froude's Hist. but others were burned like their predecessors [Stow's Ghron. Matthei. Miinster was taken on June 24th. tlixee towns which John of Leyden claimed as given him by God. Meanwhile. Lett. ed. immigrants from Holland). Miinster had become a stronghold of the sect under its Lutheran minister. 211]. to have gone on increasing in numbers. 1549. gradually regained its strength. the formation They soon gained posof a theocratic kingdom. But before this could be effected Miinster was besieged by the Count of Waldeck. who formed a conspiracy among his converts to take the city out of the hands of the magistrates. but established at Haarlem as a bishop by Melchior Hoffmann. Davidists]. its temporal and those of sectarians spoken of by the bishops in 1529 as "certain apostates. appear to be those referred to by him [Stow's six women (all Gliron. realm in twelve days. Hmreticorum. 144. The result was that a set of Injunctions 836]. i. touching the Anabaptists. originally a baker. granting a general pardon to all the King's subjects. lewd priests. though still a fanatical sect [Mennonites. Deventer. organized an insurrection at Miinster for the same purpose as that which Miinzer had in view. who. an organized body." and some who hold other opinions. session of the city. in a sortie against whose forces Matthei was slain.d.Anabaptists thovigli a vast number of persons still held the opinions of Miinzer. however. 1824]. under pain of death But they were pro[Wilkins' Concil. On June 25th. Lambert's Church. however. lord and also its bishop. Certain it is that Cromwell has left a memorandum in his pocketbook. for on October 1st. the tailor Bockhold was crowned king of the "New Jerusalem. [Luther's Works. yet have. VIII. iii.'i. The sect. xvii. SchliisSeideselberg's Catalog. Bernard Eothmann. whose distinctive tenet was that of adult baptism. i. in contempt of the degree sect. and thenceforth the continental Anabaptists ceased from their endeavours to establish their principles by violence and rebellion. and in the following January the dissolution of the new " Kingdom " was completed by the cruel torture and execution of its "King. They seem. Archbishop Cranmer and others received a commission from the Crown to take stringent measures for their suppression [Wilkins' Condi. and they subsided into a peaceable. 571]. 1534. and for twelve months the city was a scene of fanatic lawlessness and revolting profligacy. to Bullinger and give me much trouble with their opinions respecting the Incarnation of the Lord for they deny altogether that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary according to the flesh" [Parker A : : Soc. few months afterwards. and bore faggots in token of their recantation . and to which he had sent some of apostles of sedition. Menno became their leader and head. the churches were destroyed. restraining the importation of books. p. friars. Paul's on May 25th.] In England the Anabaptists are not distinctly traceable before the year 1534. were issued in the year 1539. monks. of Eng. and lewd idle fellows of corrupt intent. iii. 847].

d. 574]: and. one : But as say something more respecting it. or Epiphanius would have been able to them was discovered near Aldersgate Bar. that the heretics " are now beginning to shake same to the ANGBLiTiE. VI. Angelolatry was known even in the time of the Apostles [Col. . Pietists A Dutch comfounded by George The Anabaptists are said by Bishop Jewel. The ecclesiastical historian Nicephorus accuses them of holding tritheistic opinions [Niceph. and can only conjecture that they were so called either because they believed the world to have been created by angels (as the Gnostics believed). Their opposition to infant baptism. Soc. Paul's to be burnt. their practice of re-baptizing adults. sect of this name is mentioned by Epiphanius. on Easter Day 1575. ed. Hist. 614. but their petition was not granted. the Act of 1540 had been re-enacted against them by the Parliament of Edward VI. xviii. in a letter to Peter Martyr. Eecl. and two suffered the extremity of the fire in Smithfield. a private conventicle of and local. [4] that it is not lawful for a Christian man to take an oath. . and inherits some of that narrowness and want of sympathy by which the seventeenth century divines were characterized in their dealings with foreign churches and with dissenters at home. ch. i. viz. St. [3] that no Christian man ought to be a magistrate . ANGELIC BROTHERS. " Of these. et in primis baptismo Anglo-Calviniani Episcopi suos . in the originally understood sense of the name. 49] . turn in disciplina. who were thus so severely dealt with in England. of Purit. An Anabaptist sect in Silesia and Bohemia assumed this name about a. sed ejus signum Sacramentis. Episcopalem Christi troenim ordinem admittunt. xxxix. iv. It seems almost certain that the Anabaptists. . which was published at Leyden in six volumes in 1722. 1732 . favours its [Baptists. If there ever was a sect bearing this name it was probably obscure A But from abroad [Strype's Ann. were executed for their heresy in England. neither marrying nor giving in marriage.'\ ANGELITiE. tum in dogmatibus . Ref. to have " sprung up like mushrooms in the darkness and unliappy night of the Marian times" [Jewel's WorlcSjVf. and when forbidden by the 35th canon of the Council of Laodiceea is spoken of as being carried on in private conventicles. But there is no essential historical connection between the earlier and the later sects. and that all four had come who died at Amsterdam in the year 1710. and though the designation "Baptists" is less distinctive than that of : ANGLICANS. 24]. Strype's Ann. rebuking them for sowing discord among English people.]. . ed. from Andronicus. . meanwhile. dated Nov. 1560. A "Anabaptists. phseum. In the same year Bishop Grindal received an anonymous letter. which he supposed to be written by Adrian Hamsted [Adrianists]. asking that they might have the free exercise of their religion . ANGELICI. there is much probability that the worshippers of angels were called Angelid. They assumed their name from a belief that they had already attained the purity of that state in which the angels of God are. bishop of the sect about a. and twenty-seven were apprehended. These were the last Anabaptists who 1824]. who have not unfrequently been called Anabaptists. 564. Crucem scilicet. ANGLO-CALVINISTS. A temporary name 27 given Thus Sianda writes " Anglo-Calviniani a Puritanis. 18]. controversial designation applied to the Church of England in ignorance of its true principles by Romanist theologians.]. Polem. as they deny the Conception of Christ by the Virgin" \ihid. But others refusing to abjure. that they were worshippers of angels [Aug." historical clearness use. [Sianda. [2] that infants born of faithful parents ought to be re-baptized . Hoer.ed. The school may be called that of Andrewes and Laud . 1575. 520]. our churches with greater violence than ever. A erected a. four recanted the following errors [1] That Christ took not flesh of the substance of the Virgin. or because they claimed to be so pure as to be already as the angels of God. ANGELICS. adhibent.Andronicians \i'bid. adding. cseterisque Reformatis differunt. Lexic. eleven of them (all Dutchmen) were condemned in the Consistory of St. when they replied that they had only four English persons ^ in their congregation. munity of theosophio Gichtel. non solum honorant. Ix. Gichtel left behind him a work entitled TheosopMa Practica. Hcer. A year later Martin writes from London to Builinger. iii. Ref. Park. and instead the Queen issued a proclamation. John Wielmacker and Hendrick Ter Woort" [Neale's Hist. 6th. a letter was addressed to " the Dutch Church" in London by the Privy Council. ordering all to depart the realm within twenty-one days. were part of the very dangerous German sect which had been founded by Miinzer and Bockhold and that. 1596. but he states that he knows nothing about them except the name. In April 1573. named Edward Wightman (who was condemned for Anabaptism among other errors shortly after Bartholomew Legate had been burned for Arian- ism in 161 1) being imprisoned for life in Newgate as a more humane mode of punishment. nine of whom were banished. were inherited by the Baptist sects. July 22nd. but it is probable that the name Angelitse was given to other sects of the Monophysites including the Teitheitbs. 540. name assumed by the Alexandrian Jacobites from the first church of their sect.]. Anglo-Calvinist's Micronius 87]. there were never many English Anabaptists. ii. and called the Angelium. This designation has been given of late years to that section of the High Church school in the Church of England whose theology and ritual customs are principally formed on those of the seventeenth century divines. 340.] ANDRONICIANS. Augustine names the sect on the authority of Epiphanius. or that they took their name from a country called Angelina which lay beyond Mesopotamia [Epiph.d. : .d. 1240. in 1549 [3 & 4 Edw.

They were also the Court party. either of that which lies before their feet. it never attracted large numbers.] leaders. autbority. 358] . Those who believe Highest" [Gregor. a Semi-Arian bishop. The principal sect of the Arians. A name sometimes assumed by members of the Church of England as a protection against their common classifica- tion with sectarians under the word " Protestant. rejecting all mystery. who dared not face the full argumentative consequences of the Arian dogma. forming a party headed first by Aetius and subsequently by Eunomius his secretary. Hence they were also called Exucontians. with tbe Church of England is and wholly and successor Constantius. Pubitani]. set forth at their partizan Synod of Sirmium while the Father was acknowledged to eternally. doctrine.] leaders professed to understand the exact nature of the Divine Essence. . Lexicon Pdlemicum. obtained a very distinct exposition and condemnation of their tenets at the Synod of Ancyra [a. but it was afterwards met by a more efficient antagonist. unjustifiable by the facts of history or by the some trouble to the formularies of the Church. s. . Nyssen. . . Cathedrales Ecclesias. ANOMIANS. They endeavoured. St. 337 were openly 357] a creed. This sect of heretics originated at Antioch about a. ANOMGEANS. They soar above this. are so obtuse that it is beyond their power to comprehend anything. " some men's minds standing. have existed After the Nicene Council [a.Anglo-Catholics habent Canoellarios. and this having brought them prominently to the notice of the Emperor Constantius. . Anomoeans were also a purely intellectual party. and the Semi-Arians. from religion. or statement of faith. line which had been The struck out by Eusebius and his friends. which took its name from its distinctive dogma.d. Thus Eunomius denied that there was anything in Divine things which was beyond human under" If. There was never any sect among the multitude. and professing to rest it solely on dogmatic reason that is. This logical revival of normal Arianism was supported by the influence of Eudoxius. bishop of Mursa in Pannonia. sooner or later after death. ANGLO-EOMANISTS. that the Second Person in the Holy Trinity is essentially or substantially different [dvo/iiotos] from the First Person. and a broader line taken which might be hoped to comprehend large numbers of the orthodox as well as themselves. bishop of Singidunum in Mojsia." &c." he wrote. ANNIHILATIONISTS. out of an secure followers . and Valens. the projected council was broken up into two parts. like all Court parties. and afterwards of Constantinople. Archidiaconos. qui Matutinas ac Vespertinas preoes celebrant. a new sect so much as strict Arians of the old school who were developing the principle of their first leader in its logical form. [Antinomians. sen Praebendarii. . 325] the party of strict Arians rapidly contracted in numbers. v. The Semi-Arian party at Court endeavoured to suppress it on their usual policy of comprehension. and upon the death of the Emperor Constantine in a.d.d. Its principal opponent in the first instance was Basil of Ancyra in Galatia. yet it would not follow from this that the knowledge of true Being is unattainable by all the rest of mankind.d. " ANIMALES. Omt. however. in reality. considering this as a preliminary to the triumph of the Anomoeans. and being designated also after the names of these two [Abtians. Eunomians. or of that which is above their heads. The Anomoean movement under Aetius and Eunomius was an intellectual recoil against but although it gave Semi-Arian leaders. in striving. of the name. but the "Low Church" school have done much to earn for themselves the name wrongly given to the Church of Eng- land by foreign writers. in opposition to the Semi-Arians. to attain to the x. earnest desire for eternal life. he determined to convene a General Council for the purpose of setting all differences at rest. et in functionibus suis obeundis superpelliceo utuntur. Anomoeans supported against the Catholics by his son The association of Calvin's name. Uunom. Liturgiam etiam suo ritu celebrant diebus sacris." It is intended as a designation that shall express the claim of English Churchmen to be regarded as members of the Catholic Church at large — (whether in the Eastern or the "Western world) subject to those distinctive marks which characterize them as an ecclesiastical tribe or family. et in eadem Litanias diebus Mercurii et Veneris recitant ." English of Eoman A who spiritual resuscitation. to hush up all differences between the Arians and the Church by a middle course in which the extreme statements of their founder should be suppressed. a system which was not likely to this theological compromise. adv. who was Bishop of Antioch when it first took shape in the hands of Aetius. and so apparently more safe. By the influence of the Court party under the leadership of Ursacius. 350. and [a. They were not. Basil of Ancyra. which the Eunomian party found no difficulty in subscribing. feeling. [Sianda. Gregory of ISTyssa. with reference to the original statement of Arius himself that there was a time when the Son of God had no existence. became the life of the movement which Arius had started. Decanos. and the exact manner in which the Son On this principle the Anomoean of God originally came into existence. tion A modern sect appella- name of reproach used believed in the EesuiTection of the Body by an early sect who had perverted the doctrine of Origen into a belief in a mere towards those given to the Catholics.]. and moral discipline. the majority of the Arian sect stiU preferring the less definite. that the wicked will. ignota et haec omnia cseteris Calvinistis. The minds of those who believe on the Lord should not stop even with the generation of the Son of God. on a kind of mechanical logic. in quibus sunt Canonioi. cease to exist altogether.d. . ANGLO-CATHOLICS. the one composed of Eastern bishopir 28 .

immaterial. et infecta. the other of Western bishops and meeting at Ariminum in Italy [a. that those who held with Melito defended his opinion by the language of Scripture. corpus esse. and there are indications that it did lead to this result. Eunom. adv. expressly rejects Anthropomorphism [Tertull. that his followers were passing into Anthropomorphism. maddening the mind by the terrible Simon Magus argues. et per locorum spatia nulla partitus. 381]. 7]. Tertullian. Melito of Sardis. who." The extent of this qualification is shewn by the words. which attributes bodily members to God. " Quis enim These Fathers then are by no means to be charged with Anthropomorphism . and speaks of God In the absence of appearing in human form. Nihil est incorporale nisi quod non est" [Tertull. to et He says that we are hold in the Deity " nihil corporeum. one dwelling apart in the tranquillity of an unfathomable depth. for evidently it might be easily developed into the grosser error of Anthropomorphism. without Tertullian's contradiction of the conclusion drawn from it. "Deum immutabilem et informabilem credi necesse est. Deum which is aerial matter. Ixxvi. and therefore could not deny that the juo/ac^^ Geoi! [Phil. as incorporeal. ii.' Anthropomorphites and meeting at Seleucia in Syria. 11]. non est inanitas. and by the seventh canon forbidden to be received into the Church except by orthodox Baptism. and Phcebadius have been charged with holding that God is not incorporeal. the world being made and governed by inferior powers. ST. and explains his meaning. xx. i. At both these councils the Anomoeans were ultimately overpowered and condemned by the Semi-Arian bishops. Dogm. IxxxvL] negabit . Deity would be reduced to an impersonal power. " but they abstained from describing its parts and shape. but their principles received a final and decisive blow at the second CEcumenical Council held at ConstaMi nople [a. 6] implies a shape or figure [see Cyril. that Melito advanced the same opinion as Tertullian. the inference from these premisses appears to be. secundum formam " divinitatis .d. Arian. non est corporis vel animaj qualitas. EuDOXIANS." and " efiSgies " is the Again we translation of /to/x^'^ in Phil. Tertullian's rendering it by " effigies " and which St. to declare the spirituality of the body. ANSELM. and distinguishes the error he imputes to thom from vhat of Anthropomorphism. et seterna where the words [Tertull. and interpreted Hterally. that they held the substance or oxKTia of the Deity to be entirely "void of corporeal bulk and concretion. cont. adds.d. is stated by Origen to have been on this subject. as Eouth observes. 10. 363] . opposed the original tenet and asserted the entire immateriality of the Divine nature.]. Alex. in order to maintain the true Being and Personality of God. To the verdict of the Seleuoian Council the Anomoeans opposed that of a synod held by their ally Acacius at Antioeh [a. 27]. " Omne quod est corpus est sui generis. adv. Phcebadius repeats Tertullian's words [Phcebad. Nyss. De Came Ckr. His members appears again. Marc. without which they thought that the ut Anthropomorphus et Vadianus " [Gennad.] ANTHEOPOMOEPHITES. There is here in argument the very misapprehension of the term /^op^Tj which appears in . The error of these Pathers must be noticed in the first place . represented an impersonal power. and that Origen. Augustine therefore [Aug. Tertullian translates it by " effigies . 5]. innata scilicet. iv. 255]. in the use of contradictory terms. adv. in Gennadius' description of Anthropomorphism. not for use. c. Of Tertullian's opinions we have full statements. Origen's words shew. Peter (the ideal of orthodoxy according to the Essene-Ebionite school) is accused by Simon Magus (the impersonation of heresy). sed ubique totus. quia non est nihil. however they extenuated their doctrine. Arians. de Hcer. etsi Deus spiritus est 1 Spiritus enim corpus sui generis in sua efifigie?" [Tertull. of image of the shape of God. de Eccl. words which language can supply to denote the substance of God must be metaphorical. Anthrap. of the o-Syua uo-to/ittToi'. fuller information. Prax. 29 . in suatamen natura atque substantia immutabUiter permanet. They shrunk from a clear statement of the incorporeity of God. V. declared in the former passage to be "spiritus. ii." Gennadius classes Melito with Tertullian. when they were condemned in the first canon. "Potuit propterea putari corpus Deum dicere. Those who hold that the Almighty has a material body of shape. but it seems to be impossible to assert. human This error must be carefully distinguished from an error held by some Fathers of the early Church. [Abtians. cap. ut seternum" Accordingly TertuUian [Tertull. adv. And accordingly he asked. in GaUandi Bihl. [Sohoolmen. but are for beauty's sake. sition to this the doctrine of a Personal God ruling Now all the the world was to be maintained. This.i Clementine Homilies St." Whence then came this notion? It appears to have resulted from opposition to the Gnostic conception of the Supreme Being. Ilepi evcru/xaTov GtoC.] Anthropomorphites declares that TertuUian was not held to be heretical for this opinion. Ednomians. if God has a form (fwpfjni) (o-^^/ia). Mare. and struggled. Epiphan. adv. "corporaUter > See Bentley's Eemarlca on FreethinMng. The negative terms lent themselves more ready to the conception which was to be opposed. 15] " secundum formam divinitatis " qualify the word " materia.] Melito's book. Prax. adv. ut Melito Tertullianus: nihil corporaliter effigiatum. i. and the metaphorical terms were inIn the sisted on. or negative. 6. He laid down the general axiom. He must have a shape Peter accepts the inference. as spirit. " Et materia enim Deus.d. Gregor." and refer it to the very ovaria of the Deity. Hceres. whether avowedly or In opponot. seeing the evU. 359]. In the paragraph which contains this passage " corpus " is opposed to " vacua et inanis res. read. ii. thought themselves obliged to assert the existence of a Divine o-oJjua or Corpus. to the notion of Bythus.

Other monks besides the Audian fell from the same cause into the like error. has been left to the correction of the clergy. and used the fanaticism of the monks and their hatred of Origen to further his own designs. 125. Instit. D. and with it the possibility of Anthropomorphism. as a popular error. of Anthropomorphism is. In a more technically theological manner. And for the perversion of the meaning given to the truth. bishop of Verona. Origen was a warm defender of the incorporeity of the Divine Nature and those who opposed him in matters more doubtful were led by the mere spirit of contradiction to oppose him in this point too. The monks who held that opinion rose against him . 82. After the fifth century. adv. no doubt. adopting a monastic life. p. found his diocese in such ignorance that many of priests It is better. Protrept. For they who attribute any materiality: to God (and materiality is implied in the notion of figure and shape). p.3 the mind which is in man. caused an undercurrent of Anthropomorphic opinion in the Church. Anthropomorphism appears only among the ruder and more ignorant The teaching of Origen sections of the Church. i. Such a charge was brought against Epiphanius by John of Jerusalem. Socrates notices this under the reign of Arcadius and Honorius. * Cyril's Treatise was occasioned by the reports brought him of the monks of Mount Calamon. is defined into a settled dogma. a Syrian bishop.d. see Cyril. The decision that the nature of God is simple denies the latter. note. although probably popular Christianity is much tinged with it. he pacified them. Anthrop. and the discreditable proceedings of Theophilus of Alexandria afforded \iliBt. Ecel. E. 7]. Works. or has been detected by drew the same source. of the forms of angels. x. and of the Most High Himself Eatherius lowers of the Syrian monk AudsBus. or that the nature of God is compounded . while Anti-Origenists were often accused without cause of Anthropomorphism. and there can be little doubt that what he discovered and combated at Vicenza passed unnoticed in many other dioceses [Eatherius' Sermons in D'Achery's Spicileg. Theophilus had not encouraged himseK upon four monks known as the Long Brothers of Nitria. Anthropomorphism is not professed in any part of Christendom. the image of God is His "Word . Such was the case with the fol- accustomed to see on the walls were true representations of the court of heaven. Lightfoot. Anthropomorphism is denied in the decision that the nature of God is simple. The most prominent the vigUanoe of bishops. a. 101.. [Audians. the image of the Word is the true man. 143 Liebermann. 1657]. Sac. the reproduction of that language to the eye by pictures and images. instance of this was in the tenth century.^ The author of Prcedestinatus names Zenon. Klotz. substantia. to hold the possibility of its existence is beyond many an untrained mind faith. p. The recluses of Egypt were for the most part Anthropomorphites [Socr. It is a misinterpretation of the first article of the creed to be dealt with by instruction. Horn. 294-98. and there is danger of driving men into atheism if their error on this point be rudely handled. their miuds often in an unhealthy state. and its consequences most impious. Comment. and obedience are compatible with an indistinct notion that God has arugthereal or luciform body . Eecluses. Theophilus in a paschal epistle more matter denounced Anthropomorphism. In the year 399. the strong metaphorical language of the Hebrew Scriptures." Whatever be the authority of the fourth Lateran Council. ii. already named The more common however. Eatherius. i. as a chief opponent of the Audians. and not requiring the anathemas of councils. and other Fathers of the Church destroyed the fundamental misconception by which TertuUian rest if in a corporeal vehicle. Theol. Ixx. the worst and most extended form of materialism. vl. eUdva toO GeoO /xeff d/ioiiiffem. ed. 30 . for history. and Epiphanius \H(Br. but from time to time the tianity. at Vicenza. cap." Anthropomorphites and Melito had given some occasion for the growth Among of the heresy among the more educated. and many and people believed the pictures they were conception. iv. brooding over Scripture imagery. ii. o yap Oeos aTrAoCs Kal axrvvderos Koi dcrxi^ytioiTicrTos is —that He Mind residing The former is to revenge [Z)e Incomp. • pomorphism Theodoret . must hold either that the very essence of Deity is material. It has taken refuge among the Mormons. assimilated s Clemens Alex. It is impossible to form a true conception of spiritual substance . inevitably occasion an Anthropomorphism in popular Chrisdoubtless. condemned Origen. when the Anthropomorphite controversy was mixed up with the Origenist controversy. Socrates states that the controversy might have been put to it. but the grosser and material notions of the illiterate. Nat. fell into Anthro- was a reforming bishop. are peculiarly liable to such an error. the carrying on that language into Christianity. to have this conception of a personal God than to lose the sense of His Personality . Accordingly Chrysostom sums up the argument in three pregnant words. not without dissimulation. . his priests could not say the creed. vi. ed. Prof. generally indistinct. The form (juop^^) of God'is His neces- sary attributes. but his followers. Anthropomorphites eflBgiatum. About the year 433 Cyril of Alexandria wrote against this heresy. cap.] Of Audseus himself little is known. still prevailing among the monks of Egypt. 30 . but not separable from His being .] and 10] state that he was the first to interpret of outward form the image of God in which man is made. xii. seu natura simplex omnino. on Philipp. H. Tte difficulty of forming the conception of a purely spiritual personality.] The fourth Lateran Council determined that in God there is "Una essentia. By the rulers of the Church Anthropomorphism. not Melito's followers oonolusion. Compare cap. love. 939. the untaught. Pearson's Minor Theol.. this is undoubtedly a Catholic conclusion. the use of pictures representing the Father Himself in human form has. i^ .^ the depravation of the doctrine of learned and thoughtful men. which are logically distinguishable ^ See Eouth's Reliq. p. iv. which has from time to time come to the surface.

" This body was also popularly It_ is called the " Old Light Antiburghers. &c. name from its members upon burgesses in ob- Establishments. derived from the revolutionary spirit of France. is described as being still a very valuable argument on the Voluntary controversy.] These views were developed from the teaching of ApoUinaris . 8 th edit. which relaxed the statements of the old " Testimony " on these this change gave rise to a new Dr. had been formed in 1820 by persons dissatisfied with the union which then took place between the Burgher and New Light Anti- jecting to the oath imposed some burgher Synods [Burghers]. 1675. called the " Associate and of the cause of the separation. author of Free Thoughts on the Toleration of Popery. revived for a short period in the 15th century. by civil authority. OTi dw' aVTOV tov Trpea^vTOV 'AiroAAtva' : ptov e^ij^rjTat. Historical Account of the Secession. are Helvidius.iv<aV points. the teachers of philosophy and divinity in the Associate Synod happened to espouse the Antiburgher view.] ANTI-CALVINISTS. in 1838 they had thirty-six congregations. the Old Light party. Thomas Mair. while the sanction given by them to the principle of Establishments was impugned by After much advocates of new Voluntaryism. views of the AntidiJovinian. and was himself joint societies took the Synod of Protesters . and a pamphlet written by Dr. in the Presbyterian standards of doctrine . M'Crie. died for all mankind [Brown's Rise and Progress of the Secessi. however. the old Covenanting views were and they are spoken of also as AntiThe principle of the marites and Antimarians. or Secession Kirk.] The title assumed hy a body which separated from the Associate Synod. [Concilium Basilie?ise.J ANTIDICOMAEIANITES. but he can hardly be said to have Epiphanius says that the originated the sect.^ On May 18th. The name given some heretics who appeared in Arabia. 1827. different opponents of the Presbytery. Augustine they are called Antidi- then ejected by his Antiburgher brethren " as an erroneous person. M'Crie in vindication of their proceedings." so named as claiming to adhere " to the true constitution of the Eeformed Church of Scotland. will be found under the head Burghers. [Arminians. the influence of new political principles. a few years after. gave rise to a discussion on the power assigned to the civil magistrate. in some sense.a6t]Tevfj. repented of the part he had taken. they immediately excluded from Church fellowship and communion all who would not at once adopt their view. that he refused to observe days appointed by Government. Adyos." They still number twentyeight congregations. By St. Among the Burghers. M'Kerrow. maintaining that she was the natural mother of those who are in the comaritte. Bad's Summa Conciliorum Omnium. Eome. they were united with a body which. as opposed to thirty-two on the other part. 512. But Ixxviii.'D. The heresy have in turn assigned different names for ^ With a somewhat singular scrupulosity. and elsewhere. objected on the latter ground to the appointment or observance. the New Lights. while advocating the union of Church and State. consisted of twentj'-three ministers and elders. At name was regarded as too strict and intolerant. us avw fioi. 1]. Hcer. and he in part admits the claim. the divided consistent." . on the other hand. but had afterwards abandoned his youthful views). Thomas M'Crie (the well-known author of the Life of Knox. for maintaining that Christ. down to us as favouring the comarianites.(u [Epiph. rj o/tto tlvidv to)V avrtf Kal d/x<^t/3aAA. James Aitken and James Hog). Paris. at the time of the schism. Thomas M'Crie. with the wonderful power of infinite multiplication possessed by sects. terea vLntimaritse nostri (quos eo nomine nuncupamus. i. [Adiaphoeists. of national fasts or thanksgivings while. and as requiring modification to meet the spirit of the times." remarkable that this obscure party of Scottish Dissenters were strenuous advocates for ^National tions of that bind.A. Life of Dr. discussion. was adopted in 1804. " Opposers of Mary. of the Secession. ANTIBUEGHEES. which for a time gave a preponderance in number of ministers to their party. A n ti-A diaphorists to the Divine soul. and among charges parties were more brought against the Old Light minister of that body in Aberdeen in 1800 one was." &c. The leader in their movement. minister at Orwell. Bonosus. and which was The statement of their views. heretics in question claimed ApoUinaris as their founder. in the latter part of the fourth cento tury. Mr. and deposed and excommunicated all the " Burgher " ministers. or at least one of his immediate followers [Apollinarians]. Hist. The chief names that have come 6 separation. in the year 1746. J. who had at his own ordination claimed to sign the Standards with reservations. heresy is embodied in the word. and in consequence most of the students went along with them. which was the title by which the other portion of the dissociated Associates was henceforward distinguished. Brown of Haddington. the time of the separation. a new " Testimony.. 31 . Their number. for this seems the meaning of the last word ^aal 8e. inconsistently complied with injunc. its and which derived corporate towns. quod syncerissimse puritati Beatse Marian sint contrarii et oblectantes) rationem adducunt. established in August 1806 the " Constitutional Associate The Gospels called the brethren of the Lord. in regard to the controversy of the Im' Aliam praemaculate Conception of the Virgin. 1840. but strongly resisting the very slightest appearance of State interference with spiritual things. Antidicomarianites of the Word in tlie affections ANTI-ADIAPHOEISTS. 1431. Secession. ans. Burghers.on]." or Declaration of Principles. Photinus." the name of " Associate Synod of Original Seceders. 1802. as to matters of religion. fji€iJi. in Scotland." They denied the perpetual virginity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. as distinguished The rigid Luther- from the Melanchthon or Interim party. As if the ground of diflference involved an article of the Christian faith. who repudiated State connection. At the close of the last century. in the following passage €ipTf)Tai. in company with three other ministers (Professor Archibald Bruce. of which two are in Ireland [J.

The most exhaustive modern treatise on the question is that He gives [pp. " Fuerunt qui eam [Mariam] negarent virginem Hoc tantum sacrilegium silere jamdudum maluimus : sed quia causa vocavit in medium. our Lord's brethren his cousins. was not an addition. without conjugal relations to Mary. but in his works against Jovinian himself he does not allude to this heresy. ever afterwards. 389] to condemn him. Antidicomarianites Virgin-Mary at the General Council of Chalcedon [a. who denied that the Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. his children those of a former marriage. He was accused of maintaining that the Blessed Virgin bore several children. [3]. ainTa. St. more a guardian than a husband . eam scilicet post partum Virginem esse aliaque dogmata damnantur.d. [2] Writers of succeeding narratives held Joseph and Mary affianced . Joseph and Mary married . writing against the sect. [5] Virginity of our Lord's mother never destroyed. . who asserted that Jesus Christ was the natural son of Joseph and Mary . [3] Later writers suppose that Joseph. A . held the same year [a. Epiphanius. gave a similar decision against " Joviniani errores Jovinian. 451]. through the intermediate heresy of ApoUinaris. Council at Capua was held [a.d. his opponents' syllogism. but it that St. Bonosus. which. Augustine did not connect this bishop with the heresy." The desiisse . in the above passage. de Maria Deipara. abstained from assumption of conjugal rights. : : : The main arguments brought forward by the Antidicomarianites. Jerome. and [6]. 390]. of the conciliar condemnation of the opponents of the doctrine as being mild. that they " had no precursors in their sentiment respecting the Virgin. Kara 'AvT66iKo/iapiav6V(i)v. but those much worse and thorough heretics who asserted Jesus to be the son of Joseph and Mary" \The Accounts of our Lord's Brethren in the New Testament. till His birth. he says that no bishop has anywhere been found to favour them. for in speaking of Jovinian's views. The earliest appearance of the sect in any definite shape seems to have been in Arabia . Of the divines who had occasion to answer these objections. bishop of that see. or had a reasonable soul. . was authoritatively applied to the Blessed " [WhitParker Soc. followers of Bonosus and Photinus were condemned by Pope Gelasius [a.\ favour of the doctrine [Sermon at Grimsthorpe. is false .: . but rather a condition by which the last two were held. Hel367]. after some hesitation. St. [6] View of Jerome. Joseph not the father of Christ. dum" is clear [Z)e Institutioue reference indemnatum non putamus relinquenThe Virginis. not severe . and which was thus stated [1] Opinion of contemporaries and authors of genealogies . They at the same time recognised the priests he had ordained. and of no weight in the argument. Mill demonstrates the inaccuracy of all this. extracts from the principal divines of the English Church. argueretur. The term. Whitaker appears to be the only one who went so far as to treat it as an open question Bishop Latimer writes very strongly in \ib. that the aeiTrapdevla is not written in Scripture. and the passages of Scrip- 32 . At Rome. which is apocryphal. . except perhaps [4]. v. some other source besides the Scripture aker's Disputation. necessary to believe that Mary continued a virgin : always. in the first instance.d. 35]. Still later was the case of Bonosus. under St. was gradually evolved from the preceding [1] was never held by Christians. And Cranmer says that the minor of i. 60. to Jovinian. Jerome. under the presidency of Anysius. He refutes a chain of development of the doctrine which Strauss had conceived.d. not only does not mention Jovinian. Jesus Christ their offspring. and [5] always existed in the minds of the more thoughtful from the first. [4] Epiphanius and others proceed to imagine Joseph a decrepit old man. who assembled the next year at Thessalonica. vindicated against some recent Mythical Interpreters : The Christian Advocate's publication for 1843]. The third Council of Milan. are said to In the controversies of the sixteenth century. Not one of these. wrote against them. as saying the doctrine is to be believed of necessity [Cranmer's Works. But this is not certain from Scriptures some necessary things are known from ed. He speaks. Dr. names ApoUinaris as the founder. Ambrose. but referred the matter to the bishops of his own province. therefore. The Antidicomarianites may thus be said to be traceable from the antichristian Cerinthians. in the fourteenth cen- have revived the opinion that the brethren of the Lord were sons of His mother but there is no aUusion to this tenet in the articles charged against Wickliffe at Blackfriars. 105]. ita ut ejus prolapsionis etiam Episcopus perseverasse. The Lollards. St. here is to Bonosus. MUl says of Helvidius. wlieiice we see that it sprang up rather as a natural expansion of previous heresies than as a new one. it was against this that Epiphanius wrote [c. and their followers. 492-496]. Antidicomananites the originator of it. who refutes the error in his book against Helvidius. ii. 309-311] of Dr. . save by one denounced heretical party [2]. Parker Soc. and. and formally condemned him.pdivo% everVirgin. besides the other Fathers named above as writing in its favour. and quotes Cyprian and Chrysostom. a. MiU cited above. . Thus. vidius advanced these views in a book which was answered.]. a Spanish bishop of the same period. shewing the difference of importance between a necessarybelief in the virginity of our Lord's mother at His birth and a pious belief in her virginity after. too. Audentius. the English reformers were often called upon to defend their belief ia the doctrine of the aeurap" It is Their opponents argued thus divia. This council gave no decision. by St. until it had found a patron among the order of bishops. a few years afterwards. he says. Mary and Joseph always virgin . Ambrose speaks of the error as unworthy of serious refutation. Augustine attributes the error. tury. as held by Chrysostom and others. 539]. a bishop of some im- portant place in Macedonia [Bonosians] .d. Dr. is in exact agreement with the sentiments of our own divines.

Peepbtual Virginity. whatever moral conduct they may practise for as gold. on the other hand. 2. art. whose New Testament god was their belly. Paul begins with a warning against Judaizers [iii. the rules of modern warfare. together with the best received answers. The utmost which can be said for this custom is that there may have been cases in which there was no blame beyond that of unseemliness and giving offence. Several sects of the latter were clearly Antinomian. who minded earthly things. _ by some form of Antinomian delusion. but would not follow apostolic example . as into the Apostolici of the twelfth and [Apostolicals. not from moral conduct. so. The same custom passed into some sects in the Middle Ages. Antinomianism speak of the evil as already existing. that they themselves will be unquestionably saved. Christians. on Gnostic Sects]. he points out. it is requisite to shew that they acted upon some ground of perverted Christian principle. and caused so many conciliar decrees.] of the thirteenth centuries. and with the fanaticism which treated unhallowed wgyks of the flesh as exponents of spiritual love. proceeds to state that a Judaic trust in the law is carnalism. To bring these within the definition of Antinomians. deceiving them with vain words. while many. They were fanatics (with a large admixture. Irenseus states that the Gnostics imagined three divisions of men. although they broke every law of God and man with the cry. "Hence they pronounce that good moral conduct is necessary for us. the mud not being able to injure the gold. does not lose its beauty. note 62. Hence the most perfect among them perform all forbidden things without any scruple" [Iren. ii. See Burton. which gave so much trouble. preachers of unrighteousness to be tolerated.] But this party (it not from a difference of principle. that of entertaining spiritual sisters. The thirty-second of the heresies named by St. and was lost among the Gnostics. iii. 19]. but the opposition which justifies itself Some in the of the warnings against by alleging a supposedliberty or privilege. but reject Those who profess to be the moral law on some ground of perverted Christian principle. who had perfect knowledge of God. 3. with high-sounding doctrine. Diot. nor lose their spiritual substance. and Articles in this Diet. I. de Hcer. in great swelling words of vanity . Hoer. BonosiANS. and because they were in some measure restrained by [Diot. vi. in the case of the Nicolaitanes. Of the material they took no notice they considered the Christians to be the animal. 6]. it cannot be doubted that these were strictly Antinomians who perverted liberty from the law of Moses into immunity from the law of God. In the first place. Again. adv. [Hblvidians. and the wickedness of man would not allow even the wisdom of St. whose glory was in their shame. 1. And is those course. The Church was passing from the bondage of the 8. that he has renounced all that Judaism had to offer for the sake of the righteousness of faith. vi. Paul to conduct the change without this accompanj'ing evil.] Antinomians can hardly perhaps be properly called a sect) lasted but a short time. and in these is placed the ostensible foundation of a schism. 443 . under a pretence of purity. who indulged themselves in that inter- The existence of Antinomian parties in the Church in apostolic times is thus clear. p. and that in no slight measure. of Theol. 18. and perverted St. but because they were not so much separated from the better men of the same party as the Circumcellions were from the better men of the Donatists. and sin that grace may abound [Eom.]. or rather perhaps veiled. but because they are by nature spiritual.Antinomians tuie on which they relied. There were false teachers among the people. Isidore is also that of the " Anomiani qui Latine sine lege dicuntur" [Isid. The opposition to the law implied in the term Antinomian is not the opposition of the simple transgressor of the law. Paul tells the Philippians [iii. and they themselves. Puritanism. with some variation in the form of their tenets. the introduction of immorality into religious rites. the animal. : : : ANTINOMIANS. Theol. with that which was then familiar to the popular mind. whose brutality failed to equal the brutality of the Circumcellions. With these may be compared the lower sections of the English Puritans. St. that they cannot be injured by it. they think that the spiritual is incapable of receiving corruption. held the same error. The perversion of Christian principle on which it rests is expressed. however. 18] of those in other churches who professed apostolic doctrine. are given in the Theological Dictionary. the Antinomian principle connected itself.. V. were the spiritual. as distinguished from the simply disobedient. because without it we cannot be saved but they affirm. there were those who. must have sought to justify themselves in their own sight law through the intermediate stage of Judaic Christianity into the liberty of Christ . Within the Church the Antinomian principle traceable in the custom. And when we observe that St. But it appears that Antinomianism. but preserves its own nature.] But the Independents (or at least 33 . of mere ruffians) who had persuaded themselves that God's cause was to be upheld by brutal violence. when deposited in mud. Hisp. 1-3]. Bampton Led. Paul's doctrine by arguing that man may do evU that good maycome. and then presses his own example of the mode in which such righteousness is to be attained. whatever may be the character of their material morality. are acting otherwise. as if God's wrath would not come upon them [Eph. " For the honour of God. the material. can hardly be adopted as the basis of a Its preachers would be too evidently sect. so also they say of themselves. promising liberty [2 Pet. Jovinians. xxxii. 1]." cannot properly be called Antinomians. Few will doubt that in the vast majority of cases the intercourse was criminal. and the spiritual. [Nicolaitanes. The Circumcelhons of the Donatist sect. pure and simple. For as the material is incapable of partaking of salvation.

and found to be the secret fautor and life of their cause. principle was scepticism.2 [Independents. inasmuch as they Antinomians . Baxter writes of this party: "The Vanists (for I know not by what other name to make them known who were Sir Henry Vane's disciples) first sprung up under him in 'New England that could scarcely fail to affect prejudicially positive theology. In 1588 he declared. London. Hutchinson the Antinomian teacher brought forth at one birth. because trouble of conscience demonstrates a man subject to the covenant of works. cities had each Hence the theology of these two its distinctive cast.": . History of Puritans. The Anahaptists of Munster were fanatical Antinomians. At p. curate of St. that the law of God was not to be used to hring men to repentance. he took occasion from Luther's doctrine to " declaim against the law. Altona. Jwaie ei Ardbe. vi. was fain to steal away by night and take shipping for England. and Euin of the Antinomians. he maintained. that such teaching was no better than a doctrine of devils which deprived men fanatics.d. and that the gospel alone was to be inculcated and explained both in the churches and in the schools of learning.^ The foreign Anabaptists who tried to settle in England were of the milder type. Luther's influence was sufficient to suppress the sect during his lifetime after his death Agricola gained some proselytes. admits that Eaton committed some mistakes regarding the doctrines of grace. who taught the necessity of good works. Ecc.^ For the theological connection of this heresy. [Anabaptists.] Among the Lutherans a preacher of Antinomianism appeared in John Agricola. who in New England had added this to his other errors. "Welde. until Alexandrian heterodoxy in the Nestorian and Monophysite period made it no longer possible. that we look for in vain from the Alexandrian divines. articles Justification. Thus no mention of this error occurs in the Eecantation [a. and was imprisoned for his error.* Neo-Platonism ruled paramount in the schools to prevail. as at a later date the Moors of Spain gave to Europe its first readings in Aristotle. as will Antiochy School of prin- Antmomian Le mentioned presently. 1817. He considered that in the gospel men were brought under a new moral oeconomy with which the law had no possible connection. They learnt it from John Cotton. whose words we have used. ed. Agricola is not to be charged with carrying into Antinomian practice the principles which appear to many to lead logically to an allowance of sin.] Mr. 543. Notwithstanding their diversity. maintaining that it was neither fit to be proposed to the people as a rule of manners. t. In 1538. London. In the cen- altogether of Christ's gospel. But their notions were then raw and undigested. will not. .] » Neale.] * Munk. 1575] of the Dutch Anabaptists discovered in London [Collier. nor cannot see any sin in any of His justified children . Nye. ii. and taught it to Goodwin. Alexandria. By T. 74. But the character of Antiochian philosophy was essentiits . Sir Henry Vane being goyernor. and . a good understanding was always maintained between the two schools. Oscon. In Antioch closer contact with the East caused the Peripatetic philosophy which the oriental mind assimilated with greater ease . nor to be used in the Church as a means of instruction . Catherine-Coleman. see the Dictionary of Theologt. and artifice. Solipidianism. and free from Antinomianism. minister of perverted glories to earthly and privileges of the millennial and carnal pleasure the kingdom they sought to estahlish that force. the Macedonians having imported into the two latter cities the philosophy with the lajiguage of Greece. Familists and Iiibertines that infected the churches of New England. [See Wood's Athen. 1692. Eeign. these a party of Antinomians appears to have been formed in the reign of Charles I. 314. hour the discussions of the philosophical schools were copied in the catechetical. by Sylvester. 1642. 1641 and The Honeycomb of Free Justification hy Christ alone. after secession from the Church. Johaun Agricola's Schriften moglichst vollstandig verzeichnet. with perversions of preceding doctrine. In the year 1527. SCHOOL Antioch OF. and a tone of indifferentism was fostered ally sophistical evil In an ' See M. and Syriac versions older than the Latin Vulgate gave a fresh racinoss to the expositions of the Antioch school." Mosheim. and took a judicious course between a mystical interpretation on the one hand. 34 . in that kingdom presently hy Wickham-Market. and considers Agricola to be chargeable with vanity. while the Alexandrian writers allegorized. presumption. 269 is Agricola's recantation. first ANTIOCH. in opposition to Melanchthon's Formulary of Ecclesiastical Visitation. Among their tenets were the following That no sin must trouble any child of God. favoured a plain grammatical line of hermeneutics. and. his apologist. Cotton was too favourable to them. schools of philosophy mediate time his teaching did not vary. They were probably derived from the same source. [Reference is made to "Welde's Tract and to the thirty monsters which Mrs. and that the preaching of the law was no work for a gospel minister. of Alexandria. Antinomians not a few of them) professed ciples. and other leaders of the sect. 1852]. Milomgea de Phil. p. with which this school stood in close contact for all the ordinary purposes of life. in opposition to George Major of "Wittenburg. and his followers avowed the same tenets of Antinomianism as those received by the Independents. by John Eaton. confesses that the recantation he made when pressed by Luther was not sincere. " See the curious tract Short Story of the Rise. i. Suffolk. Hist. The Syriac language also." [Life. the school of Antioch occupied itself upon the plain meaning of the text. but a stranger to the covenant of grace that no Christian is bound to look upon the law as a rule of his conversation that no Christian is to be pressed to any duty of holiness. The two most grievous here- "A when he was governor there. The object of this latter book was to shew that God does not. and a servile adherence to the mere letter of Scripture on the other. But the Independents fell into Antinomianism.] Besides : : : established themselves at Eome. The most sacred subjects were argued pro and con. He wrote The Discovery of a most dangerous Dead FaitJi. During the inter- turies of the Christian era.

ix. are principal factors in the heresy imputed to Lucian. s. E. Or. Feruntur ejus de Me libelli.' who say that God Christian annalist.Bampton Lectures. bishop of the same see [a.. Paul of Samosata. and a third was extracted from the Hexapla by Eusebius and Pamphilus. Lucianns vir disertisaimus. H. which otherwise might have died away in the echo of the schools. Catal.]. Gieseler. and that He made all things good . and according to St. Luke. E. 6]. ii. "We call them ' Antitactics' or 'Opponents. Chrysostom here delivered his homilies De Siatuis. H. Both Arius._168]. 7] part of his epistle to Aristides on the genealogies of our Lord given by St. E. E. in his three books ad Autolyeum shews the wellread Platonist . E. Lucian would scarcely have been honoured as a martyr even by Eusebius. Oesch. 4]. and his predecessor Paul popularized their error. Theod. Thus Clement says. Dei. and Theodore of Mopsuestia. like them. H. changing the distinction of the three inseparable Persons into a separation. [Newman's Arians. 77]. Muff. Alexander. Origen. and was extensively used in the Eastern churches from Antioch to Constantinople. 16]. was the precursor of Arius [Alex. Jerome \de Vir.^ Hesychius ^ tantum in Scripturarum studio laboravit. and later oriental writers have ascribed to him commentaries on the Gospels [Asseman. viiL 13. The recension of the This term is limited the doctrine of the Holy Trinity by opposing to it the tenet of a God without distinction of Persons. Theophilus. 105. iii.T&. he would not be classed as an Antitrinitarian. M. Eusebius also has preserved [H. 232]. Gnosticism. and Luoian. This error of the Antitactics is confuted by St. H. xii. translation by Lucian went by his name.d. V. But there is a brighter side to this distinguished school of historical. 158]. . and as the natural consequence of his error argued himself over to the opposite extreme. 35 . Jerome and Chrysostom. ApoUinaris of Laodicsea. et breves ad uonnullos epistolae [Hieron. ii.]. the friend of Origen. and some indulgence must also be shewn to the pupd who does not at once confirm the adverse opinion of a These two censorious world against the master. Matthew and St. and critical exegesis. Thus if a man. 290. vii. the instructor of Chrysostom. Ilcer. v. in the perseNitrian theus. but he does not mention them by name. Ep. ANTI-P^DOBAPTISTS. the Judaizing bishop of Antioch. De Civ. Antiochenae eccIesisB bat [adv. Diodorus of Tarsus. A. Arianism also may be traced through Alexandria back to the same quarter. ut usque nunc quaedam exemplaria Scripturarum Luoianeiv nunoupentur.d. H.Antioch. Augustine in his City of God [Aug. Dorowho was a presbyter of Antioch [a. Emvi. v.D.d. K. Arianism was here the early offset of dialectical theology [Socr. E.'\ ANTITACTICS. wrote against the Montanist heresy [£us. Oesch. but that one of those beings whom He HimseK had made sowing tares among the wheat originated evil. i. and. 27]. 114]. Alex. elements. and Epiphanius for this reason has styled Aristotle Bishop of the Arians. i. i. i. maus. there first hrought to by Simon Magus [Just. Arius impugned the doctrine of the Eternal Filiation of the Word as Sabellian. H. which statement may possibly be confirmed by the first (TTrovSaa-fxaTa indeed our Father. If it had been a well- founded charge.'\ he led the way as an expositor of Scripture in a Commentary on the Gospels. Afterwards of sporadic growth. and through his commentaries the sound principle of Antiochian exegesis has become the property of the Church. 32]. were zealous promoters of a rational system of Scripture interpretation. E. iv. Fab. who deny LXX. ill. but allowance must be made for the statement of a polemical writer. 189]. it arose endemically at Antioch from the pernicious habit of discussing the deepest mysteries of faith as an intellectual discipline.d. 7]. in which it always held a highly distinguished position \Conjh&a. vcas continued by his disciple Saturninus and the many allusions to Gnostic tenets found scattered through the epistles of Ignatius shew how certainly the tares had taken root. who suffered martyrdom in Mcomedia [a. Gieseler has enlarged the area represented by the school of Antioch so as to include Eusebius of Emesa. by setting it forth in hymns and songs for the many.e. School of sies that Antitrinitarians prepared a similar recension for Alexandria. Fragments from the same venerable. 19] as the mouthpiece of a provincial council. 312]. )(fiovoypa<l>Lmv irevre a-vveypa^e. Neander. Dictionart of Theology. Flavian.] MSS. makes Lucian to have been a follower of Paul of Samosata. and shewed his critical tact in rejecting the gospel falsely ascribed to St. E. Julius Africanus of Mcopolis \i. by the confusion of these three recensions has become hopeless. cution under Diocletian [Eus. The Antitactics were probably a branch of the Caepocratians. and certainly not by Athanasius. and the Father of all things.]. were all of this school. Even Jerome did not fail to note it " Totusque orbis hac inter se : traced back to the life have devastated the Church may he first germs of virus developed at Antioch. Buff. Constantinopolis usque ad Antiochiam Luoiani Martyris exemplaria propresbyter. iii. bishop of Antioch [a. grammatical. Eus. Peter [Eus. K. Meletius. 12]. although he does deny the ANTITEINITAEIANS. Serapion. and Ephraem of Edessa. 5]. H. was the trifaria varietate compugnat" [adv. was as a youth exposed to sore trial from unavoidable association with a Gnostic teacher from Antioch. were led to assert that there are three Gods. i. of which we being made partakers ourselves become adversaries of God" [Clem. BiU. i. Aipol. writer are found in Eouth's Reliquice Sacrce [ii. 3. bishop of Alexandria. were accused of gross immoralities [Theod. perhaps. upon the martyrdom of his father. to those [Baptists. The name given by CIpment of Alexandria to those who first broached the dualism which characterized the Gnostic heresies. ad Const. 4]. and to have adopted his heretical notions [Theod. of the National Collection. CyrU of Jerusalem. Hence the corruption of the LXX. end. 129. whose panegyric of Lucian is still extant. 3. Strom. They all felt the same kindly influences. 26]. The opponents of is infant baptism.

" And if Nominalism was allowed by its professors (whether rightly or wrongly) to lead to the dilemma of Tritheism or Monarchianism. ii. former for publishing his book without the Pope's authority . Son. For Tritheism. in which place he was minister. "When Nominalism became theology. of the heterodoxy of his countrymen on these subjects . 61 j Natal. himself an Italian. It appears that Eoscellin was not able to convict Anselm of a fallacy in this argument. of disbelief. preparation such as has been described appears to be sufiacient to account for the simultaneous appearance in dififerent parts of the Abelard was that he introduced three Gods. lib. and Tritheism inevitable [Milman. began to ventilate their theories more publicly. and unable to determine which of the two heresies 36 A Church of teachers of Antitrinitarianism. acting independently. and used to say. it is often said. the authoritative The authority of Anselm. but it was again agitated with renewed vigour in the fourteenth century. the Three Persons of the Trinity (this was the perpetual touchstone of all systems). " If the three Persons are one thing. in 284]. Adopting the Monarchian principle the rationalists were driven. of Reform. 367." A ntitrinitarians The correlative term is doctrine of the Trinity. an incorrect term. and unconnected with the progress of thought in the Church at large. Lot. Christ. 1867]. however harsh the mode of expression might be. art. Abelard. took the safe course of Nominalism condemning him God The requires the distinction of Persons in the Godhead. saec. xiv. ed. p. Of these teachers. for a while. and not three things. speaks of his being opposed at Chiavenna by the enemies of discipline. John Denk was one of the earliest. vii. he was condemned. Italia fovet ova. And the process we may fairly conclude from Anselm 's argument to have been a repetition of the process which formed Arianism out of Monarchianism. through for centuries before the Church their p.] Between the time of the disappearance of the Monarchian sects and the heginning of the sixteenth century there were several heresies regarding the Nature of the GodBut the head and the Three Divine Persons. to deny the Zanchius. and averred that the existence of three Gods might iii. Again." conclusion from the Nominalist philosophy was his which had existed in the attributed to Eoscellin letter to by John the monk in a Anselm. and from that time ostensibly divided the schools into the two great parties of Nominalists and Eealists. and the Unity of Ant itrinitavians resulting (as it was believed) from he really held. [MoNAECHiANS. and even went so far as to establish independent organizations with the hope of leavening the whole of "Western Christendom" [Hard wick. torn. Eeformation was dreamt of. since there can be unity only where there is plurality. for he accepted the former alternative of the dilemma. not the genuine product of the Eeformation." The Council of Soissons [a. 185]. He was pressed by Anselm with the argument that principles led inevitably to Tritheism or Monarchiauism. ser. puzzled perhaps by his dialectics. xii. The Nominalists were the Eationalists of the pre-Eeformation Church. Porree. 1121]. and that they only describe the plenitude of the Supreme Good. the controversy in the ninth century between Hinomar and Gotteschalc. compelled him to make a profession. controversies between the No- minalists and Eealists appear to be the chief origin of the later Antitrinitarian sects. p. Bernard and the great leader of the Nominalists. Compend. silenced the dispute among the Schoolmen. the popular outcry against whom the followers of Servetus united their forces [Zuriah Letters. Ixviii. a party ready to deny the divinity of the Saviour as soon as the pressure of the papal yoke was abated. Hist. diss. and instead of enjoining him to recant any one specified heresy. and "scattered here and there the seeds of scepticism. a letter to Jewel. He held the simple manhood of our . Hist. abbot of heresies The scholastic attributed to Eoscellin and Abelard. though one in wiU and power. 281]. " Hispania (the birthplace of Servetus) gallinas peperit. by the decision that the Nature of God is simple. complained to BuUinger. " Multitudes of freethinkers. nos jam pipientes pullos audimus" [Hardwick. and used by Anselm (though he admits all the words may not be Eoscellin's own) as the statement against which he wrote his " De Fide Trinitatis" [Gieseler. Again.d. p. divinity of the Saviour. conclusion appeared to follow from Eoscellin's premisses. It may be noticed too that Zanchius. This may give the true composition of the Antitrinitarian party in the sixteenth century. the Father and the Holy Ghost must have This heretical been incarnate with the Son. of Reform. " that the names of Father. as distinct as three angels or three souls. The horror of Patripassianism. regarding the words "Trina Deltas" appears to be accidental. Yet he was distinctly accused of holding the old Monarchian principle. Eoscellin was the first great Nominalist. if they were more than three words. in the controversy between St. 271]. iv. It is quite otherwise with the class. and Holy Ghost are improperly attributed to God. when writing from Chiavenna. Antitrinitarian principle in early times expended itseK in producing the Sabellian and Arian heresies with their several derived heresies. Italian rationahsts and malcontents of the Eeformation. He was a rationalistic Anabaptist.] such as the heresies of Gilbert de la Flora. which were met in the fourth Lateran Council [a. 1215]. art. do not touch the present subject. in those who rejected the former. but the offspring of a school interpreter if not the author of the system. and to utter the comprehensive anathemas of the Athanasian Creed [Fleury.d. who had hitherto been yielding a hoUow and occasional compliance with the ritual institutions of the Church. were individuals. and of speculative license. we have. Unitarian . Alexand. and for the rapid spread of their opinions. with be asserted with truth. Antitrinitarianism then appears to be. and Joachim. V.

: The circulation of Servetus' books in Italy leads us to the Italian the point in question. He was a Spaniard. It was said that he affirmed. nevertheless the dissensions between the orthodox and the heretics increased so much. History. a statement of the orthodox doctrine of the Holy Trinity for subscription by their members. were much approved by many who had thoughts of leaving the Church of Eome. and their speculations terminated very differently. holding that Christ had been created by the Father before the world. They were honourably received by the Protestants. was taken at Berne. In 1553 (the year of his execution) he published at Vienne another book of Antitrinitarianism.A ntitrin itarians Lord. which Calvin's letters of warning could not overcome. denying altogether the Atonement. Didlogorum de Trinitate Libri Duo. cent. These points were denied by Budnaeus. were the chief advocates of the Antitrinitarian doctrines. London 1606. Leelius Socinus had. and Lublin. into which they introduced their heretical speculations. He is the Son of God. in 1566. and mistook the subordination of the Son for inferiority of nature [A Short History of Valentinus Gentilis the translated. pp. A n titrinitavians Savoy and Mor. circulating in Italy.! Upon the spread of these doctrines the Italian Consistory drew up. at an earlier visit than that named above. in virtue of which. the rest fled. for the first time. the minister of a Protestant Church in Cracow. petitioned the States assembled in council. and worship is proportionally due to Him. they held that the Son is aiVrfffeos. His doctrines spread in two or three years in the Ehine district. others denying both these points. From Toulouse.d. xvi. 1509. one Monarchian. for opposing the doctrine of the Trinity in violation of his oath. which is plain blasphemy against the Son. Sherlock. This is an error. in 1558. and proposing Jesus Christ simply as a pattern of holy life in which the effects of divine love were exhibited. 23. Toleration was granted them by the States and the Emperor. 40-i7. in the year 1546. Suabia.] Tritheist. that. differing from each other in numerical essence amongst which (three Spirits) he acknowledges the Father only to be that infinite God which we ought to worship. by S. iii. and afterwards broke their promise not to do anything directly or indirectly in opposition to the Formula. one Tritheistic. and. This party was much strengthened by the arrival. publicly opposed by Peter Gonezius. and that worship is due to Him. although His Divinity was denied. See the Sistory of Gentilis (named in the next note). to discuss not only the discipline but the doctrine of the Church. They only agreed in a general Antitrinitarianism. as Abelard was. Gentilis. of Blandrata and Alciatus. The result of the conference was. Eaoow was buUt for them by Siemienius. This difference in some measure checked the spread of the heresy. Farnovius was nearer to the Arian tenets. John Paul Alciatus. At the same moment that the spread of Protestantism agitated Germany. Council of Soissons was not well qualified to judge Abelard's doctrine: the divines of Berne were little qualified to judge Gentilis. that the Father alone is that one only God set forth to us in the Holy Scriptures. Laelius Socinus visited Poland. ' The specific charge against Gentilis was this. Blandrata and Alciatus retreated to Poland. Clirktianismi Restitutio. Authorities differ as to the number of those who subscribed. part ii. in the Canton of Berne. translation of this history professes to have been made for the benefit of Dr. and at a synod held at Siceminia in 1556. i. literary societies assuming a religious colour arose in Italy [see movement regarding however. the followers of Lselius Socinus. His principles appeared impious to the main body of the Socinians. Prince of Podolia. There was a difference of opinion. Pinczow. where he was studying civil law. the chaplain of the Queen of Sigismund I. The : wards). and that there are in the Trinity Three Eternal Spirits. in 1565. 'The event undoubtedly was that the heretical party was broken up. and publicly excommunicated with all his disciples. Among them there were not a few shades of opinion. the doctrine of the Trinity was. converted to his opinions Francis Lismain. Switzerland. He died in Zurich in 1562. LseUus Socinus. The Inquisition interfered. The Socinians held a miraculous conception of our Lord. but they had conventicles in all the towns and villages of the kingdom. " That after eight years' preparation to attack the doctrine of the Trinity he did begin openly to teach. and particularly the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. that there were in the Trinity three distinct Spirits. and the Antitrinitarians formed a separate society. to cause a conference to be held for full discussion of the subject. et seq. government of Venice.^ after wandering in Dauphin^ and ^ Socinian. Blandrata gained great influence. particularly in Cracow. and the factions of BuduEeus and Famovius. The 37 . and as far as Moravia. Such a society met at Vioenza. p.avia. and put himself in communication with the Eeformers. George Blandrata. Three members of the society were seized. where the history of Socinianism centres itself. These books raised a great tumult among the German divines. Into Poland Antitrinitarianism had already been introduced by Spiritus of Holland in the year 1546. of holding inconsistent propositions. Gribaud fled to Fargise. authors sometimes write as if this society held and propagated definite Socinian principles. and in 1584 he was deposed from his ministerial functions. but would not remain there. born a. At Geneva they found already formed a congregation of Italian refugees. some of the party allowing the miraculous conception of our Lord. Austin. John Valentinus Gentilis. If the history of Benedictus Aretius is to be trusted. and died in prison. even at this time (it widened after- Eanke's History of the Popes. and became their chief settlement . 1. but they gradually formed themselves into three parties. Servetus (through Calvin's interposition) is better known. iv. each of which is by Himself God. in the 135]. In 1531 his book De Erroriius Trinitatis was printed. of Villaneuva in Arragon. and in the next year also. and put to death. See Mosheim. lect. that the parties which had up to that time met together in synod separated. in 1558. he went to Basle and Strasburg. 131. Franconia. Gregory Paul. at Hagenau. Matthew Gribaud. " Gentilis was accused.

Cyprian [Ep. incorincluding in their term <f>6opd. cap. met with considerable success. The human nature they considered to have been so essentially united with the Divine nature of the Logos as to have become merged or absorbed in it. section OF. not only sinful appetites. In the year 1563 Blandrata was invited to Transylvania by Prince John Sigismund. but also aU innocent physical needs and weaknesses and sufferings. APELLEIANS. Hist. whose utterances he supposed to be dictated by a familiar spirit. was summoned before the Diet. necessary corollary from the last doctrine 3. Eccles. toC v6iiov [Euseb. 38 creation by an inferior and fia-i^Tia-e '0 7^01 'AttcXX^s oJitos uvpta KarA. Unitarians. Hist. and united the Antitrinitarians. and of his prime minister Petrovitz. only this Christ was not incarnate by the Holy Ghost in the womb of the Blessed Virgin as the Gospel teaches. Eccl. but was expelled by the latter from the number of his followers. families [Apellianists. 4. and water. into APHTHAETODOCET^. iv. xlvii. sufferings. whom he converted from Calvinism.— Antosiandrians But lANS. Euseb. [Osiandeians. The subsequent History of the Continental Socinians and the history of the English sect are given in articles Socinians.] Gnostic teachers. nor was He a mere phantom. In 1578 Blandrata invited Faustus Socinus to help him in opposing David. iv. as far as the complex nomenclature and singular divergencies of the Presbyterians can be explained without Presbyterian verbosity. pertaining to that one nature a. c. but He was supposed to have descended from heaven in a mysterious manner. of the four elements which were again dispersed abroad before the soul of Jesus ascended to heaven. Stancaeists. Ixxiii. MoiVffias . and after Sigismund's death by the favour of the Bathori. Lastly. It was held. in Egypt. In 1579 Socinus went into Poland. fire. in which he coincided with Marcion and other evils [Aug. Apelles taught that every one would be saved by remaining firm in the behef which they had once embraced. David. This heretic was originally a disciple of Maroion. [Aug. Niceph. two cogood and the is and substituted its as some . he also wrote much against the Mosaic law. adv.] APELLIANISTS. was by Him permitted to the world. The ApeUeians are mentioned by St. and separated from Blandrata. He died a few months afterwards. superintendent of the Eeformed in Transylvania. and whom he regarded as an inspired prophetess. David adopted the principles of Budnseus. who having been himself called which takes up the subject from the time into existence create 2. PEESBYTEEY A Nicephorus [Hist. or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. lib. living with a mistress named PhUumena. TertuU. and with the greatest inconsistency. and to be the author of all its de Hcer. xxiii. ANTOSIANDEIANS. Philaster. He accused the prophets of the Old Dispensation of inconsistency. v. and to have contracted a body composed earth. Eccles.] APELLITES. and as that could not be the result of Divine inspiration. Gaianitje : the general name Aphthartodocetse being descriptive of their As a consequence of the Monophysite tenet that from the union of the two natures in our Lord there resulted only one nature. But about Tihe year 1574. Prcescr. he boldly and successfully propagated his heresy. that the actions and — doctrine of the eternity of matter as ^ more probable. Ecd. by God. however. and death of Christ as the Son of God. 13]. 29]. not yielding to argument. and ridiculing it along with the rest of the Bible in a conversation with a certain Ehodon. and condemned for blasphemy. from a disinclination to subscribe to the "Westminster Confession of Faith. Hmr. The attempts made to form settlements in Hungary and Austria were defeated by the opposition both of Catholics and Protestants. Gnostic sect which arose about the middle of the second century in the reign of Antoninus Pius. Supported by the favour of the prince. he attributed it to the same spirit of evil which had created the world . and the corruption which ordinarily follows death. he became the founder of a distinct sect. [Apellianists. as Marcion taught. because he exchanged the rigid continence inculcated by his teaching for licentious indulgence. or evil. this history belongs to the article Aphthartodocetce Socinhostile deity. In this he was assisted by Francis David. deriving its name from its founder Apelles. air. . xxx. TrdOrj dSiapX-qra. the Aphthartodocetse attributed to our Lord's Body as ruptibility He rejected his master's belief in active principles of for it. iv. 28. and which was distinguished from its parent stock by the addition of the following new doctrines 1. 28. 5. Julianists doctrine. Hist. 12. of Faustus Socinus joining the Antitrinitarian body. an Asiatic. eternal Gods. assert. 17 .i spending a great deal of labour in its refutation. princes of Transylvania. of the Irish Presbyterians who separated from the main body in the year 1750. and therefore to have become possessed of the inherent and indestructible life of the Logos. 23]. may be identified with the Scotch section known as the New Light Burghees. which has been preserved by ANTEIM. 4] along with the Marcionites and other sects as among those whose baptism was not to be considered valid. which. The opponents of Osiander's party. He — A In no other countries of the Continent was Antitrinitarianism established. After his expulsion.4>dap(jla. From the names of their leaders they were called. and. in Armenia and its neighbourhood. They adopted the Arian or " New Light " principles. Marc. or. de Hmres. as might be expected from the laxity of conduct permitted. was a denial of the resurrection of the body. seems to have believed in the existence. v.] A One of the two which the Monophysites were divided.

Anathema of Julian (directed against the errors which his opponents charged him with) in Assemani in Syriao. pars.] transl. in his old age issued an edict [a. p. illustrantur. In the eighth or the ninth century they seem to have utterly disappeared from Syria. and man became a living soul " [Gen. where they had a patriarch of their own. or lihe History of Eusebius. but did not break out into controversy until the deprived Monophysite bishops met at Alexandria about A. This last is in two stages. iii. A portion of them. In the earlier stage it was contended 39 . but a body impassible and immutable in itself. but did : Person of Ghrist. Gommentatio. but was applied to any such bodies as the Manichseans." Justinian. and lives of saints. as told in the Gospels. Mention of its outbreak in the Homeritis in the year 549 is made in Assemani. . for the salvation of man. [Philast. APOCEYPHANS. although the attributes of humanity had been abolished by the union of the two natures. De Hceres. 1838. The three heresies are these the first holds that the Son of God acquired a body. Peter. are said to have possessed a spurious life of St. it is not to be denied. though not accepted as de fide. who based their doctrines on apocryphal writings in their private possession. for example. &o.] Apocryphal. St. and were bound to be accepted and believed. and breathed into his nostrUs the breath of life. but that even as man He should be designated God and Creator. xii. where is also a reference to a strange story of the Julianists thinking to con" De tinue a succession of bishops by mortmain Sacerdotio quod a Julianistis in urbe Epheso per mortui manum illegitime traditum fuit anno Ghristi 549.d. opiniones Gieseler's vi. Pair. Andrew the apostle and Acts of St. which impUes that our Lord's Body was only a phantasm. and must therefore have been a proper object of worship from the very beginning.] APOLLINAEIANS. . . the third that our Lord assumed a human body of the Virgin. spurious additions to the gospels and epistles. St. who had been an eager defender of the Council of Chalcedon. which were utterly devoid of authority. Gnostics. Gnostic and Manichsean doctrines. [3. such as having received the imprimatur of authority. Nicolaitanes. of which ApoUinaris appears to have been the chief assertor. were composed. ssec. and a persecutor of Monophysitism. tom. were real. 520. were generally considered deserving of credit. and in general from Asia. The difference of opinion between the Julianists and their opponents the Severians had long existed among the Monophysites. It appeared to be a human body . rites of our Lord. that in his later years he added to that specific heresy one of the other heresies.] Canonical. Aphthartodocetcs sufferings Apollinarians APOCAEITES. one party maintaining that after the Incarnation Christ ought not to be spoken of as a created being as regards His humanity.d. These were called aKTUTTTfral [Aotistetes. Gottingse. having been composed by trustworthy persons. made of a woman. or Valentinians. vol. . 455 . in GaUandii BiU. such writings as the Apology of TertuUian. tom. The title " Apocryphans " did not denote any one sect in particular. Natal. in the way of an ceconomy or dispensation of grace. John the evangelist. such as accounts of their conversation with various animals. neither acting nor feeling as men act and feel. the only authority for which was the passage in Genesis " And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground. AlexDorner On the ii. ii. et seq. their opponents KTurToXdrpai.. At the same time. and did not properly belong to the nature of that Body upon which they were inflicted. But the doctrine faUed to gain the approval of the Monophysite body. But when we distinguish them one from varicB . Clementino-Vatic.D. the other. . however. The seeming contradiction between this and the foregoing statements was obviated by the distinction that those sufferings were voluntarily undergone by our Lord. Paul. as also from Egypt. Bihl. pushed their way into Ethiopia and Nubia. called human. with the exception of Armenia. The Aphthartodocetse were themselves divided into two parties. ander. They adopted the greater portion of the 275]. Orient. They doubtless held that our Lord possessed a real and substantial body. There were three classes of writings recognised in the early Church. and other trifles. because it is in the form of man. and not merely in appearance. Ixxxviii. especially holding as their distinctive tenet a belief that man's soul was eternal and uncreated. The Manichseans. by conversion of the substance of the Godhead into the substance of flesh . and may all be referred to one motive or principle. and of the same substance as God Himself. not assume a human soul. Clark's 128. dLssert. The heresy of the Aphthartodocetse then spread rapidly. which were replete with marvels. the second holds that in the Incarnation the two substances are confounded or blended . p. and in Latin in Gieseler's Gommentatio qua Monophysitarum : The Apocaappeared for the first time in the reign of Tacitus and the pontificate of Eutychian [c.] Ecclesiastical. which. De Seetis. and attributed for that purpose to names which would ensure acceptance. a. is not a proper human body. i. 7]. ii. div. The term Docetse. . Yet it was truly said that they held our Lord's Body to be other than it appeared. One of the many sects which grew out of the Manichaean heresy. is not rightly used of the Aphthartodocetse. the Divine Nature supplying the place of the soul. were included in the Canon of Holy Scripture. vi. Ctistolatr^ Leontius. [1. They are therefore often spoken of as several branches of the ApoUinarist heresy. There are three diswith the name of Apol- They all relate to the Incarnation of our Lord. and either contained false : and ridiculous accounts of miracles. [2. tinct heresies connected linaris. or were written to bolster up some new-fangled doctrine. 563J in favour of Aphthartodocetism. that for which ApoUinaris was condemned must specifically bear his name.

This the See Mill. for that would deny is altogether. of the human soul. In general.s. iit aliquid ei desit. ed. is little Epiphanius describes them [Hcer. and the two books. ii. thus limited by the exclusion of these two sects. and brought up against him an earlier fault. He had distinguished himself in controversy with the Arians. the place of the latter [Theodoret. 1741. The -fyxq. that He used the organized body as an instrument. linaristae them in Lardner. rationalem. To take the very nature of man was (it appeared to him) to take a body and soul of fallen humanity. by Irving. however. nor was it insisted on in the time of the original controversy. it will be remembered. sive animam. and make itself ApoUinansts did. is. in the latter stage. by some the mind or rational soul. is thought to be both and divisible from the vovi." first.^ This is worked out in Athanasius' argument. not an essential property but a defect. and its assumption therefore denied. was thought the seat of sin. Word no other than a superior created Spirit. is evident from Athanasius' Epist. that the Word was in that body as a celestial soul in place of the inner man [Athan. as now constituted.i took the place only of the rational All these agree in denying to our Lord a perhumanity. asserted that our Lord. Ad chrum Constant. 362. naturam. [Abian. his presence namely at some Bacchic rites. Cont Apoll. whereas it is. 15]. in order to avoid the impiety that our Lord assumed a sinful body. Logos soul. and was The misconception is lies in the supposition that ori- ginal sin of the very substance of fallen man. to deny His assumption of that which they regarded as the primal seat of sin in man. as such. Ihose who hold that original sin is an essential property . Inconfusus\. assert with the Docetse the unreality of His body or with the Synusiastse. 40 . Sermons on tU Temp'^ation. ties) this deliberate adoption of heresy out of pique or revenge. : sumpta est mutate quae tria falsa et vana ApoUinistarum hsereticorum tres partes variffi protulerant. that Christ could not therefore be the complete man. Ixxvii. That this tenet was held by the Arians noticed. these heretics are called Dimoeritse. the sensitive soul. there is sin. sive carnem quje non de femina sed facta de Verbo in carnem converse atque est pertinere . and that the of tells Apollinarians Sozomen Credib. "Nee (Deum) sive ita hominem (dicimus). In each case there is something of the human nature lacking. ii. Contra Apnllinariwm. that is. Apollinaris held the Catholic doctrine of the Holy Trinity. on the other hand. Dial. he thought himseK obliged to admit the Arian ^ tenet. and impiously refer the sense of passion to the impassible Deity \ih. known i_ for his many theological works [see a list Leo describes three heresies of the Apollinarist sects. becoming man. 8. distinct And it is the nature of man only the former . But (not to speak of chronological difl&cul25]. By some the body. The Apollinarists are represented as stating that where there is a true and very man. Urbis. and was in some measure misled by erroneous metaphysical theories. Cone. Georgius' predecessor [Sozom. the third heresy was not combined with the the JvovS/xuTnjo-ts evidence however which cannot be resisted that Apollinaris in the latter part of his life did so. . Logos supplying. who maintained that God prepared a body of fallen humanity for His Son. Eccl. take the place of that soul. A. In heretics who accounted the " On note +. He says that the Arians affirm the Saviour to have taken only the flesh of man. or two-thirds of the human nature in the Person of our Lord. vi. fect by some the body and its sensitive soul. and counting as two the two stages of the third.Apollinarians that nothing of the human soul was assumed by the Son of God . The heresy is to be attributed to the workings of a mind which had lost its way amidst the mazes of controversy. The substantiality of evil in human nature. Those who advanced these tenets thought themselves obliged. or part of the soul. must deny the assumption the Word to avoid a corresponding impietv. i.] that the occasion of Apollinaris' falling into heresy was resentment against Georgius. and coming down from Heaven: a tenet adopted. for which he had been dealt with by Theodotus. the error was but little taken into consideration by the Church. 331 . munion on account of his intimacy with Athanasius . ing a Sifioipia. Hist.d. quod ad hunianam certum mentem . improbable from the character of the man. under which name this Arian tenet see Pearson On the Creed. Those who hold that must. The ivavdpiair-qcri's of our Lord was thought to be maintained by His assumption of the remainder of the human nature. accordingly. And the common motive and principle to which the three are referrible. bishop Georgius separated him from comof Laodicaea. was a friend of Athanasius. There The third class is named by Philaster Teopit^. and they are ranked by Theodoret as an offshoot of the Apollinarists under the title " Polemians. By the ApolUnarist heresy. reader in the Church of Laodicsea. of the Syrian Laodiosea. is considered to be not merely distinguishable in our conceptions.n.]. and in his maintenance against the Arians of the divinity of the Son of God. xcv. 17]. as hold- assumed of the Divine Augustine speaks as unhesitatingly "Apoldicentes sicut Ariani Deum Christum carnem sine anima accepisse" [Hcer. human flesh. . Stnusiast^. in order to maintain the perfect sinlessness of our Lord. is understood the third. was held by Marcion and other Gnostics. ad Upietetum. and his desire to maintain the impeccability of Christ. 6. but really independent of and separable from the rational soul. notes I and K. i 2. Heretics of the second class have their accredited name. in no case very probable. in the present case. ot the human soul. From this division of the sensitive from the rational soul. and negatived by the fact that Apollinaris began by adopting a portion of the Arian creed.] ^ _ Apollinaris. : . a pupil of a Sophist Epiphanius. that His body was of His eternal substance prepared in Heaven. son of a presbyter of the same name. that the Logos supplied in Christ the place of the human soul. in the God-Man. is sinful. p. 17. It wiU be observed that Athanasius expressly attributes this doctrine to the Arians. 461" [Harduin. that with the body He assumed the sensitive soul (c¥"X''i)-< but not the rational soul (voSs). In the Apollinarist heresy. . omitting that which is above called the second. was made bishop of Laodicsea about a. 160.

M. From this extreme position they were driven. not a proper manifestation in the flesh. Nyssa \Antirrheticus. ad. and describes the latter as the former in a state of degeneracy [De Prindp. 382. Hcer. which is a legitimate deduction from the premisses of Apollinaris." See Irenaaus' description of the saved man as a complete man. that Apollinaris taught that the Flesh of Christ was not assumed from without. In neither case can the highest part of man have fellowship with the sufferings of Christ. o/Thbol. 649 [act. See also Justin Mart. body. it follows directly. i. This latter statement is repeated by other authorities. denies to the Mediator a complete manhood. avowed his belief that in Christ was the human Y^X'3) ^ot the human vows . Paulinus and Vitalis. and was afterwards made bishop in the sect. mesius writes in his opening paragraph that the metaphysical tenet was borrowed from Plotinus. or the existence of a compound substance. Paulinus was the Bishop of Antiooh. iii. after Gregory of Nazianzum. that which is confessedly the highest part of man is denied to the humanity of the Mediator.]. first form of the ApoUinarist heresy. Again. from whom the ApoUinarists were called Vitalians by the Antiochenes [Sozom. in virtue of which the creature. Apollinarians Son of God. 46]. inhabiting a becomes man. On this subject see DiOT. Apollinarius. that the very nature of the Godhead suffered. as holding that the fvxq. With this statement may be compared the words of Apollinaris. In the first Epistle to Cledonius. but had appertained to the Son from the beginning. lying between the two. but God and The soul is the imperfect man. the spirit being a divine principle superadded to the rational soul. E. Ooncil. which he had himself signed. and we are constrained to believe that Apolhnaris. the Father greatest. He speaks of In the ApoUinarists as adpKa fiovrjv irpoa-ofioXoyovvT£s [ii. of the vov's errovpavios €v XpLarip being dvTt Tov 'dau)6ev dvOpwTTov Toi) iv rjfuv [i. 21-25]. in his letter to IS'ecabout the year 387. sed pro anima hominis. " Mens cujusque is est quisque. consisting of a human body and sensitive soul. The heresy." It is the living soul inbreathed from God. /dav iritpvKev dTToreXety t^v ivipyeiav &V S^ fda ij iv^pyeLa. Christ is no longer God and man. salvation. and advanced tenets which altogether destroy the Incarnation of our Lord. fda &pa oiala y^yove tov 'Kdyov Kal ttjs aapKds [Har: A duin. 6. viii. attributed to the Godhead.D. it is neces^ It may be right to observe that the true human triad is found in the regenerate man. not the outward shape. In neither case can it be said that the Son of God was made in all things like unto His brethren. H. asserting the Holy Spirit to be great.].dv. Res^irrecHon.'] states that Apollinaris introduced a scale (as it were) of divinity. vi.^ This evidence cannot be set aside (as Basnage would do) by the assertion that Gregory must have been mistaken in the authorship of the writings he quotes . See Socrates.]. Ixxvii. the "soul" being both the "anima" and the " mens. V. Spirit. and the necessary deduction that the Body of Christ passed through His mother " tanquam per canalem" [sect. Its connection with heresy is evident in other Gregory of cases as well as the present case. he mentions the opinion that the Flesh of Christ had come down from heaven [sect. ii. Paulinus produced a creed drawn up by Athanasius. 892. neither God nor man. in like manner as before. 1]. Gregory Nazianzen \Ep.— Apollinarians Iv. On fht. that in some writings Apollinaris is orthodox. 17]. it is tion. In which case. iv. and consequently it is left incapara[e of eary to assert that the soulless body. 3]. v. also. De Sectis. A. act.] remarks what affords to heresy. yiii. that aU the suiferings of the Mediator were borne by the Son Himself as such.* it is reasonable to infer that the charge Apollinaris' ^ This.^ tarius. both in its earlier and later form. v. Vincent. 10. made In the of the dust of the earth. Lirin. M.^ sufficient to say that it has been rejected by the Church as inconsistent with Christian psychology. in words so doubtful as to leave it uncertain whether he intends to maintain the conversion of the Godhead into flesh. To this second stage belongs the narrative of Epiphanius regarding himself. but does not state the grounds of the aversion. In the second form. states from much cavilling and many questions. that the Son cannot have assumed it. consecrated by Lucifer. becomes man. qua the latter but not the former. quoted at the Lateran Council. Suidas. allowing that Christ assumed " Mentem. man. Gieseler writes that Apollinaris was perhaps misled by his aversion to Origen. and the heretical doctrine raised on its foundaEegarding the metaphysical tenet.]. /J-ia Kal oicla. after his condemnation by the Council. or voepa ^Tjcrts is so essentially the seat of sin [ii.] . as well as a spiritual man \a. but partaking of the natures of both. Common. ^ Gregory of Nyssa begins his Antirrjieticus with the statement that Apollinaris assigned to the Son a certain incarnation. clear contrariety is found in the two concerning the fundamental proposition of Apollinaris. 17 Leontius. is stated by Theodoret [M. A. 25. 649 'Opyavov Kcd rb Kivovv. sank deeper than before into heresy. * ii. since Origen makes the voCs and the ^vxfl to be essentially the same. and the testimonies there are to Apollinaris' orthodoxy concerning the Holy Trinity. and with this stage Athanasius deals. ii. the Son greater. defuisse animse hac ipsum Verbum in eo fuisse dixerunt" [Augustine]. who refers also Athanasius assumes that Apollinaris retained the Nicene faith regarding the Trinity. Eccl. and then adopted the Platonic distinction of voCs and Y"^X''? [Socr. and all the sufferings of the Mediator which belong to that highest part are. A. own writings.D. Hist. cap. 46.D. 3] It is simply incredto have been a part of his teaching. Hcer. II. rationalis est Christi. to Philostorgins. if man at all. Considering which. These are quoted by Lardner. who joined Apollinaris. Cledon. that VitaUs.. but says. and the divine nature that divine nature being in the place of the Nerational soul [Epiph. 17]. soul and spirit. E. vi. written human this first stage of Apollinarist heresy the soul of Christ was altogether denied. Theodoret repeats the statement. as by Pope Martin at the Lateran Council. Vitalis was a presbyter of Meletius. 8]. chap.] Epiphanius relates that in a conference with these two bishops. handles it sect. 41 . iv. ible that he admitted and taught it. that Christ was perfect man.

as in a prophet. v. returning from banishment after the death of Constantius. Timotheus. that the ^edrijs of the Son suffered.]. [2] that the Body of Christ passed through His mother as through a channel . The epistle speaks in general terms of all who deny the perfect humanity of our Lord. lOJ an Epistle of Damasus to the Oriental bishops concerning this condemnation. "Epiphanius and Photius are not without reason suspected of mistake in charging. 378 or 379. iv. 15. the Lord. Ki5/Dtov. i. The Synod of Alexandria. 373. while contending with the latter heretics for the consubstantiality of the Word . arpeTrras. [3] that the Manhood was first formed and then the Divine Nature superimposed ." The sect was one of the reforming sects of the middle ages. Valesius some time after . Concil. aStaipe'rMS. . in its synodical epistle. Kegarding the Chiliasm of ApoUinaris. [False Apostles.d. To the private Christian they thought every meal was a Eucharist. one of Mary . ^ The council condemned generally the errors which are more or less connected with the name of ApoUinaris. Ever- • The charge is made by Basil [Ep. Millbnarians. Basil. a denial of St. p. Par. prescribes the mode of their raception on returning to the Church.] that K the sect of Antidicomarianites sprung from Apollinaris or one of his school. is passible.] We — — APOSTLES. Serm. held a. i. Bernard. refers also to a condemnation of the heresy at Antiooh in a. Yiov. and Athanasius' reply. near Cologne. i. after so little notice had been taken of it during the Arian troubles. E. It is sufficient to state that the ApoUinarists were subjected to the full penalties of Theodosius' edicts against heresy. : founded only on statements relating to a subordination of office. ApoUinaris was condemned in a Eoman synod. Their rules of discipline were correct. The intermediate state they denied along with the mediseval purgatory. H. in Col. [4] that there are two sons : one of God. Ixvi. from which it follows that the Godhead Itself. p. St. Bernard says. 301. He may have foreseen that heresy would take that course. " Take us the foxes. namely. d)((opia-T<as yvoipL^o/xevov. find St. a. by Athanasius and other bishops.D. 370. invocation of the saints. to which he assigns the council. of those who say [1] that Mary is not fieoTdKos. chap. 152.] . Another synodical letter of Damasus [Theod. even if they did not condemn marriage. is an example of Athanasius' prescience. the deoTtji of the Father. rection laid aside His Body . by grace . Basil using this point as a mutually confessed one. letter of Ambrose and other Italian bishops to Theodosius.d. A. a. in Cantiea. [5] that the Divinity worked in Christ. Canon I. The heretical tenet condemned was held by the Arians and perhaps we are justified in considering that its special condemnation.^jrv)(OV. ed." [Basil. xxvii. It anathematizes what has been defined as the proper Apollinarist heresy. used of Christ's human generation in Matt. stated by Epiphanius [Hcer. Basil expresses a doubt whether the writings on which it is founded were genuine. unction. 25 though no other children certainly followed as an illustration of a corresponding use of the word respecting the Divine and ineffable generation of the only-begotten Son. Epictetus' letter to Athanasius. V. The charge of Satellianisnii is sufficiently explained by the direct conclusion from the leading Apollinarist tenet. for to their allegation of the Apostle's words. vinus asked Bernard to reply to their errors in his commentary on the words. eVa Koi rov avrov X/dicttov. Veter. as weU as a follower of his. Ixxviii. iii. 381. Mary's perpetual virginity. Celibacy they preferred to marriage. It states that ApoUinaris.d. 381-2. 42 .2 There is in Theodoret [H. [See Mausi. ocxllv. ovS' dvalcrdrjTov. This was before Apollinaris avowed his heresy. FALSE.] APOSTOLICALS.d. [6] that the Crucified is not to be adored [7] that Christ was advanced to the Godhead as a reward of His virtue. provost of the Praemonstratensian monastery of Steinfeld. prayers for the dead. anathematizes the ApoUinarists. and these were in a. adv. is A summary of these edicts in Gibbon's Decline and Fall. cclxv. a. He mentions ApoUinaris frequently in consequence of the report spread by Eustathius that he was a follower of : ApoUinaris. in which the desire of reformation was so largely mingled with fanaticism and error. At Constantinople. ov&' dvorjTov eTx^v 6 Swt^/d.d. eclxv. severally on the ApoUinarists and Eunomians. and St. tom. 1839. 844]. But the decrees of these inferior synods need not be dwelt upon in the presence of the decisions of an (Ecumenical council. 11] belongs probably to the Eoman synod.Apollinarians is Apostolicals Incarnation not the oeconomy of an incarnation in which the body lacks either soul or mind. TrpwroTOKos. as if they implied merely a precedence of primogeniture among angelic creatures. Analect. Neither does he appear to hare been well informed regarding ApoUinaris he states that he had read but few of his writings {Ep. [9] that the Flesh of Christ descended from heaven [10] that hope is to be placed in a Christ who is man without a human soul. Infant baptism. probably before he had adopted it. 362. declared OTi ov o"c3/xa a. Baronius considers it to have been written at the time of the council. viz. Ixv. by the seal of Lastly. Eunom. but both agree as to the condemnation in the year 373. Canon VII. printed in MabiUon. except that they had the plague-mark of allowing spiritual sisters to those who professed ceUbacy. TTpuiTOTOKos irao-rjs KTtcrecos. The Council of Constantinople. mark the outbreak of Apollinarist heresy. mentions the Apollinarist heresy as proper to be added to those regarding which the Emperor had written to them [Harduin. a synodical epistle declared that the Fathers held the doctrine of an entire and perfect : jxovoyevri. They abstained from all flesh. 382. Our information regarding them is from a letter of Evervinus. he opposes the term. the Definition of Faith made at Chalcedon sets forth. This name was assumed in the twelfth century by a sect which formed itself in the neighbourhood of Cologne. had been deposed. their baptism being allowed.]. MiU. under the year 377. On the Brethren of 414. A It is i. or that adoption by that Christ on His resurHe was God [8] . lib. The latter is the more probable opinion. Ep. kv Svo (f>va-e(riv d(TvyxvT(as.d. they condemned.

Eccard's 450. But there were some. or White Brbtheen. vii. going joyfuUy to the stake. and there suppressed by Pope Boniface IX. Sagarelli required his followers to clothe themselves in white. Dolcino gathered large forces together. a really dangerous class of fanatics. The Apostoolians arose in opposition to the Galenists. These two divisions of the Waterlanders still exist in Holland. If soon he wish not here to follow me. Milman's APOSTOLICI. Latin CJir. according to a well-known saying of St. Alex. who advocated this renunciation without practising abstinence. quoad property. however. Corpus Hist. Joachim's prophecies did. acquired the name of "Dolcinists ") was a native of S"ovara. [JSTat. Thou. then. Epiphanius confesses his 43 . They called themselves Apostolici. a. 55. in which the differences of opinion in matters of doctrine were waived. The Albati. ii. in addition to the usual ascetic tenets of their sect. to arm him. His mendicant teachers were not permitted to marry. Epiphanius comments at length upon the permission in the Church of voluntary poverty and celibacy. He charges them with heresy. tactics The main body of the Apowere Encratites. vii. taking Menname from a Baptist preacher of Amsterin the year 1664. and was chiefly confined to Lombardy and some districts of the Tyrol. of the type of the later Anabaptists. a man of great energy and courage. stimulate many to threaten the Papacy with a reformation by the sword. burned to death at Parma. So with provisions. but he adds that they were also said to hold certain other heresies. They in no small degree. The Apostolicals were determined foes to the Papacy in private. depending entirely on alms. addition to this danger the Apostolicals. 1853. [Dante's Inferno. It seems to be probable that they were merged in the sect of WaldenseSjthe principles of which were diffused even in the Rhenish provinces. from the Papal point In of view. The Beghards were also allied with them. Eccl. and mentions their likeness to the Encratites [Aug. 1748. holding their rule to have been the Apostles' rule. Ital. otherwise to gain would not he easy. in that year burned to death at Lubeck. and argues that the main error of the Apotactics lay in the attempt to enforce these as of necessity. It was founded by Gerard Sagarelli of Parma towards the end of the thirteenth century. were probably a portion of them revived under a fanatic leader in Italy. xli. held that a renunciation of property is necessary to salvation. portance of the rebellious war thus carried on by them is shewn by a passage in the contemporary poem of Dante. ix. like all the class of mediaeval sects to which they belonged. and opposing the Socinian tendencies of the latter. on society at large. Apostolici victory to the Novarese. xl. looking also for a fulfilment of the prophecies uttered by Joachim. Med. that no stress of snow May give the Which Epiphanius makes the Apotactics the same as the Apostolici. and under his leadership the Apostolicals carried on a fierce war The imagainst the Papal troops for two years. and the latter made use of the Sagarelli was Inquisition for their suppression. [Mosheim's Gesch. were formed into fraternities. were fanatic communists. des Apostel-ordens. in a popular tumult raised of against them. and. With him was also executed his female companion Margaret. after the manner of the Franciscans.] APOSTOOLIANS. Natal Alex. 906. abbot of Flora.^Svii. or whether they were merely in error in advocating an excessive and fanatical asceticism. Another mediaeval sect which took its name from the profession of its members to revive the apostolic life. but were attended by women whom they called sisters.]. Hist. endeavouring to dam maintain strict communion. The sect still survived. Hcer. xxviii. Evervinus two of the sect. as separating from the Church. some out of all these classes held it to be a duty to renounce private property . Augustine also identifies them with the Apostolici. It may be that the Encratite Apotactics called themselves Angelici. where Mahomet bids the poet. " ITow say to Fra Dolcino. 83]. London. was also 1402. or Ixi. and to live in the strictest poverty. to go bareheaded and unshorn. as the Aerians. Hcsr. tells Apotactics taken prisoner. Helmstadt. rer. Boniface VIII.1 . nonite IApotactics. But. but a new leader of the sect sprung up in the person of This man (from whom the sect also Dolcino. in which he seems to have been taking up one of the prophecies of Joachim. who was to enter Rome as emperor . Hist. and was executed with cruel tortures at Vercelli in the year 1307. indeed. Whether then they adopted the Gnosticism of the Tatianist or of the Severian Encratites. some of its members being found both in Germany and in the south of France so late as the year One of them. They are also enthusiastic Millenarians. but in a scattered form. APOSTOLICALS. most probably. and apparently of some military ability. He preached vehemently against the reigning pope. Paul. and were thus waging war. APOTACTICS. Ecc. In which case the party would be Angelici quoad marriage.] After several battles Dolcino was. and denying the salvation of those who did not follow their rule . who. is not certainly known. 87. viii." Apostolicals upon Maniohsean principles. Those who renounced aU private property. were thus opposed by the civil power as well as by the Church. Muratori's Script. because angels neither maiTy nor are given in marriage. and predicted that both he and all his wicked allies would shortly be slain by Frederic of Arragon. A division of the its Waterlanders. 355. and predicted its immediate downfall . on his return to the light. and thus those who trusted in them were. respecting the rise of a new and pure Church from the ruins of that which had become so corrupt.].. 1300. who perhaps wilt shortly see the sun. named William. from the mode of life which resulted.d. Samuel Apostool. and calls them an diroa-iraa-ixa T(ov Tartavov Soy/jLariav [Epiph. Marriotti's Fra Dolcino and his Times.

who was a priest of the diocese of Alexandria. but some years later. Hist. Hmr. c. Haires. and terminated its existence. and which therefore some authors name from the country where it first saw light. It had a distinct and well-marked place in the scale of heretical development. but said Palestine was the to have been their founder. and adds [Synopsis. "neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the substance. when a council of bishops was held [c. each pre[1] Symphonia Major and . Bingham. 23. Males. cap. discoursed so learnedly. with indulging in gross and open im- morality. lib. 20]. and. prominent doctrines characteristic of this sect are 44 . 20]. that the Arabic! in a body confessed their error. De Hceres. iu the reign of Constantius. It was thought that the uninterrupted life of the soul was inconsistent with the words applied to error in question and the Holy Eucharist. sects. xvi. Ixxxiii. Fab.. [Niceph. in part. 16]. and others hy the designation "Thnetopsyohitae. which taught that there was but one Divine Person. [2] They denied the inspiration of Holy Scripture. Anahaticum Isaice. to the followers of a great and widespread heresy which began to make itself heard in the Church about the beginning of the fourth century. and have the singular and unexplained custom attributed to them of washing the bodies Among the most of their dead in oil and water. Athanasian Creed guards against two opposite but consecutive forms of heresy in the words. [SaBELLiANS. AQUINAS.] AECHONTICS. whose founder is unknown. torn. 37. about the middle of the same century. i. Alienigenm.d. JEcdes. which [Thondhacians.]. Minor. in opposition. ing the Old Testament. original seat of this heresy. or from an anchorite Archon. gave rise to it. the one assumed for a brief time to work out the mystery of redemption. and main taining the distinction of the Divine Person?. that there were none left in his day. the other to infuse life into the Church. cap.] In their cosmogonal works. xl. a.l \Hmr. vi. vi. cap. with the exception of a few texts which they could quote in favour of their own views. asserting that the Sacraments were ordained by and administered in the name of the inferior archon Sabaoth. An ohscure sect. they asserted that there were seven worlds. but had managed to return. for whom Epiphanius wittily suggests that Atactus would have been a more appropriate name. [3] They denied the resurrection of the body. and to continue to preach and win over converts to his strange doctrines. [HTDROPARASTATiE. xl. Ixxxiii. Hcer. its principal opponent being Dioscorus. Saturninus. deriving their name either from those arch-spirits (apxovTes) who figured in their peculiar cosmogony [Aug. Hceres. 761. like other Gnostic teachers. 8. the effect of which was to " confound the Persons. i. A Gnostic leader mentioned in his Life of Plotinus. bishop of Crete . and was conveyed thence to Lesser Armenia by Eutactus. for example. and the imparted immortality possessed by the soul of man as a gift from Him. Prcedest.] God by St. they held that she was the handiwork of the devil. who had been convicted of heresy and banished to Arabia. especially ridicul- a career of some forty years. The Archontics agreed in many points with Simon Magus. though both would be recalled to life and reunited at the last day. but identified with the God of the Jews. [A lengthy refutation of these points may be found in Epiphanius.. after sided over by a subordinate angel or archon.J AQTJ^I. 11 . an imaginary inconsistency caused by oblivion of the distinction between the essential immortality possessed by God alone per se. and returned to the bosom of the Catholic Church. De Hceres. and other They are charged. Hcsret.] AEEVUEDIS. Menander. [Enoeatites. 478. Aquilinus ignorance of the leading tenet of the Angelici the following: entitled Arians lib. Be V. " Who some of which have been preserved. 20 Theodoret. . The world in which we live was under the rule of an archon called Sabaoth. 250]. [Schoolmen. and that the Word and the Holy Spirit were only emanations or functions of the Deity. Eutactus had derived his views from a certain anchorite named Peter. an inhabitant of Cabarbaricha near Hebron.] In arguing against this. it spread into Greater Armenia. The name given ." It arose in Arabia early in the third century. The heresy takes its name from Arius. [4] They rejected Baptism The was a belief that the soul died with the body. The ' AEIANS." The last and most important of these was Sabellianism. who had returned to Arabia on purpose to be present. during the reign of Severus and the pontificate of Zephyrinus. The place of Arianism in the history of heresies.Si. at which Origen. De Hceres. Antiq. hy Porphyry hut of whom nothing is known. during the latter part of the reign of Antoninus Pius [a. otherwise unknown.] AQUILINUS. and that all who married fulfilled the works of the devil. and Aug. and said to be the father of the devU. not the supreme power. adv. see also Aug. 1199.] AEABICI. as Symphonia Mujor and Minor. Hist. according to Epiphanius [Epiph. and to that country it was mainly confined. ch. AQUAEIANS. or Ix. and an eighth and a higher world governed by a brilliant parent power." The first of these is Sabellianism. and not of the Supreme Creator. [5] Eedemption was supposed to consist in a knowledge of the mysteries contained in their apocryphal books. its first open promulgator. I. Throughout the second century the Church was engaged in expressing definitely and defending the doctrine of the Holy Trinity against a series of attacks from heresies. iii. 40 . 138-161]. Paul. OR AEABES. Euseb. Aug. The first open irruption of Arianism into the Church is so startling a feature in the history of the time that the attention is drawn away from what preceded it. Hmr. though this fact is doubted by Tertullian.d. ii. A sect of heretics arose in the second century. the titles of only hath immortality" [1 Tim. who was the begetter and director of numerous ranks of spirits. [HYDEOTHEIT. to the Biblical theory of the origin of woman.

least impure. Practically. yet the origin and method of his heresy may be clearly traced to Antioch. Theodoret says that he was greatly disappointed that Alexander. Hist. The Divinity of our Lord had already been attacked at Antioch by Paul of Samosata. One further element in the heresy may also be traced to Antioch. he was connected with the Melbtian Schism. Arius himself Moreover. and on that account was excommunicated. the whole view can be put in two leading propositions Once the Son was [1] not. not in kind. Avians human knowledge and These were experience. for the first six years of his episcopate. the open denial of the Divinity of our Lord. [3] a low tone of Christian life . and most subtle form. Baucalis or Boucalis. as it seemed. error. Arianism soon began to appeal to the immorality of the time. from a dread of Sabellianism. Arius was allowed full liberty of reply. If Arianism were true. Now Antioch was remarkable for a low tone of Christian life. and there began openly to pubUsh his opinions. and thus its historical position is clear. Eumours came to the bishop that he was privately disturbing men's faith as to the Uncreate and Eternal Being of Jesus Christ. the Christian citizens caught the tone of their luxurious habits. as may be seen from the use made by Arius of a metre associated with licentious poetry in the songs composed by him to spread his opinions among the multitude. in charge of one of the great city churches. where the Divinity of our Lord had already been openly assailed. viz. who afterwards suffered martyrdom. the Incarnation. in which he exhorted the followers of Arius to renounce his heresy and submit to the Church. Such was the conclusion to the avowal of which Arianism was driven in its later days by the necessities of argument. 2]. If Sabellianism were true.d. who was deposed from the see about a. and they were aided in their development by the influence of a large body of nominal Christians in all parts. for the faith. and among his pupils were several who afterwards became Aiian leaders. The hirth-place and causes of Arianism. [2] [1] the secret influence of Judaism . ready to fall into doubts as to that part of their creed which enforced the necessity of personal selfrestraint. i. most prominent at Antioch. II. Lucian was a learned and able teacher of philosophy and theology. it " divided the Substance. it sprang. To avoid. and openly attacked the His line was to speak of Deity of our Lord. the arguing from things earthly to things heavenly. But his name is first with heretical opinions about A. it is generally thought.d. Afterwards he regained his position. Arianism crept in.. was Lucian. but nothing resulted from this. from the things of man to the things of God. iucluding. and we find him. JEccl. then. Alexander was obUged to take more public and decided measures. and [2] the Son differs from other creatures distinctly connected : : in degree. while its inevitable tendency was to a definite heresy. The early facts about Arius and his first open declaration of heresy are somewhat involved. was appointed to succeed Achillas in the see of Alexandria. owing to the presence of a large colony of Jews. 270. so far. He had a great reputation as a logician and a preacher. [4] a rhetorical and dialectical habit of mind. and were therefore. namely. Alexander. but with limitations.D. which tried to evade mystery and reduce it to the level of argument from merely But the — — [Theod. Arianism in the fourth century. Arians there falling into an opposite that of using language which would imply Tritheism. who had become such not because they were attracted and subdued by its life-giving doctrines. The grounds of this view were in the main three [1] Argument from the idea of human sonship. Finding.] Connected with Paul. by the end of a. 319. having been ordained deacon by Peter of Alexandria. 319. The first step taken was a private remonstrance. and he attacked the doctrine laid down by Alexander as involving Sabellianism." and so practically attacked the doctrine of the Trinity from the opposite side. though they were to be found in other parts of the Church. Though Alius was a priest of the Church of Alexandria. III. instead of himself. the two opposite dangers of Sabellianism and Tritheism. And thus a number of causes combined to give scope and start to the heresy dread of Sabellianism . First. Paul was himself accused of open offences against Christian morality. under Achillas. but because the decay of heathenism had left them without a religion. They were accordingly a fit preparation for one peculiar characteristic of Arian controversy. the arguments used in support of the heresy of Paul. [2] repugnance to Sabellianism [3] a dread of dividing the Simple Essence by deriving the Son from the Father's very Being. Him as the Eldest and Highest of creatures. and. the bishop then prevailed on the majority of his presbyters and deacons to join with him in subscribing a pastoral letter. : A Finding private remonstrance with Arius to useless. [SamosaTENiANS. however. to call Him God in a certain sense. Arius gained more and more support. as well as for strictness of life. that all hopes of a peaceable arrangement were at an end. the central truth of Christianity. and the general cast of arguments current in the schools of theology at Antioch. he assembled a public conference of the clergy. and that his heretical opinions took easy root in a mind which had long been prepared by discontent and envy was a danger of battlefield of both these heresies was the same. were of a rhetorical and dialectical kind. But the heresy circulated widely and quickly. and at the same time was most hated by aU followers of Judaism. Jesus Christ was not God. a presbyter. in which he himself spoke at length on the mystery of the Holy Trinity. and continuing to work in this position under the successor of Achillas. and to some extent involved in his condemnation. In its earliest. Here. the Incarnation became a mere accident of time. and it became necessary to be bring a proportionally larger extent of influence 45 . but it seems clear that. so far as it was sincere.

Eccl. against who Nicomedia. 324. were far removed from one another. including Thebais. to this great council will important effect on the Arian heresy The number of bishops better understood. 6. which filled all Europe. 15]. He wrote letter after letter to various bishops. and the Then we. ii. but in body. " They. and the whole city became a battlefield for the opposing parties. eontr. was sent with this letter to Alexandria. withdrawing and more his extreme statements. accordingly.d. iii. having been openly avowed and sifted. after complaining of the intrigues on behalf of the Arians. about the end of the year a. 5." •writes bear upon it. then with Eusebius of priests. the only result of which. Cappadocia. and he was recognised by a synod of Bithynian bishops. i. i. And of the royal city (Rome) the Bishop was absent for age. Eccl. 7]. Hosius. Libya. Hist. and exhorted both sides to peace and unity [Euseb. 63-71]. 6]. § 3]. first with Paulinus of Tyre and Eusebius of Csesarea. 3] a most important letter. In it Alexander argues against and denounces the heresy as unheard of and as contrary to Holy Scripture. was to prove that the discussion caused by it could not be allayed by ordinary means. De vita Const. at that time a deacon. millers. the Encyclic. has been preserved by Socrates. Proconsular Asia. bishop of Cordova. he addressed a letter In this he treated the to Alexander and Arius. Achseans and Epirots. Hist. held a council. He had just year Constantino interposed. Thebais. and country and place and nation. and some of those After this he wrote to his namesake Alexander of Byzantium [Theod. About the end of the same written a. Arius and his adherents. triumphed over Licinius. and one city received all. Pentapolis. advised the Emperor to summon a general assembly of bishops from with ral all parts this advice. Hist. which put forth a letter urging other prelates to take the same line. on condition that he should seek to be reconciled to Alexander [Sozom. the bishops of Egypt and Libya. nearly one hundred in number. 323. Eccl. Hosius.. and was directed against the efforts made by Eusebius of Nicomedia to procure for Arius the favour of various bishops. variegated with beauteous make flowers. 10. which was signed by the bishops of Egypt. and by those of Libya. among them Theodotus of Laodicsea and Patrophilus of Scythopolis. but he wrote a letter in which he said that Christ was " not very God" and question at issue as trivial and unimportant." writes Eusebius. and. and there. and from Spain itself the very A celebrated (Hosius) one. and Persian those who came from Mesopotamia. nor was a Scythian (Goth) wanting to the choir. Alexander. at Mcsea in Bithynia A few details as its whole Church to be held in June of the year 325. 22]. however. 17]. and were even taken up by the jesters in society and in public places of resort. were brought together . De vita Const. worked on steadily against the heresy. and had become master of the East. those moreover of Egypt. while the bishop and faithful clergy became the mark for shameful accusations before the civil tribunals. finding the whole Church distracted by the controversy. were excommunicated and anathematized [Socr. "for it befits us as Christians to keep aloof from those who think or speak against Christ" [Socr. sitting with many. and disseminated these among " sailors. Secundus and Theonas. six to Avians About the same time he drew up a "Tome" or doctrinal formulary. he sought to spread his views by poems written in a metre connected with immoral associations. A nans " It had spread. was to treat the differences as unimportant. On travellers" [Athan. L 6]. and he joined with two other bishops. enumerates those who had been deposed and anathematized for holding it. He wrote to Alexander in a calmer some of the other hand. Pamphyha. sent their representatives the Thracians and Macedonians. Constantine of his Empire. and they were attended by a multitude of other ecclesiastics. Cappadocia and Asia and Phrygia. And one house of prayer as it were enlarged by God contained within it at once Syrians and Cilicians. Meanwhile the principles of the new heresy began to be a matter of fierce controversy at Alexandria. and six deacons. Lycia. and exhorts his fellow-bishops not to receive the excommunicated persons. Arius found shelter. Tr. he went at length into their heresy and argued in Syria. but his presbyters being present filled his place" [Euseb. in which. De 8yn. Hist. were condemned. Phoenicians and Arabians. Eccl. but probably about twenty were more or less favourable to the heresy. in compliance summoned a gene- council of the [Athan. and. with the aid of Athanasius. Africa and Asia. Paulinus and Patrophilus. there were collected together the first-fruits of the ministers of God. Several prelates espoused his cause. being assemlsled with Tipper Thebais. Alexander. in allowing Arius to hold services for his adherents. The sacred subjects in dispute became the common talk. Hist. The number of Arianizing prelates has also been variously stated. tracing its substantial origin to those in former times had sought to lower the This was probably dignity of the Son of God. and the next five years were occupied in arguments and remonstrances on both sides. The whole aim of Arius. and those of Palestine. i. at this period of the heresy. Libya. At this provincial council the Arian opinions. it. From aU the churches. Pontus also. The amount of sympathy shown by EuSebius the historian is not certain. and Galatia and Pamphylia. Its 46 . "through all Egypt. only made of moment by the harsh rigour of Alexander and the orthodox. present is not exactly known. Arius and his friends then withdrew to Palestine. and those who dwelt yet more exceedingly further . " who not in soul only. Arian.d. i. as it were a great chaplet of priests. among whom were two bishops. but at the same time to spread the heretical opinions in every possible way. as regards Arianism. anathematized both them and their followers" [Athanas. respectful tone. One of these. bishop too was present at the synod . but there were certainly more than three hundred.

Ecd. fessed in express terms the Catholic doctrine. and on their return he was condemnefi in his absence. and Arius. pp. U. As it has been said. all intended to attack the faith which had been declared at Nicsea. In the same year MarceUus of Aneyra was accused of Sabellianism. whether He was literally of and in the One Indivisible Essence which we adore as God. that were allowed to present a fresh declaration of their belief. was under the weight of the Emperor's displeasure. who also engaged with the other chief Arian bishops. 60]. and Theognis. though not to be viewed as separable from Him . [3] the Arianizers or Eusebiansj [4] a party composed of those who. Arius was recalled a. having made another profession of faith before the Emperor. He was a creature . ii. and banished by Constantine [Theod. or Eustathius of Antioch. therefore. Eustathius of Antioch was accused of heresy and other crimes. He was accused of having resumed his see without the sanction of a council. Da oUd Const." and was in fact intended to supplant the Nicene Creed by a politic omission which might seem to promote comprehension and peace rather than by opposition. Hist. drawn up by Eusebius of Csesarea. 334 [Theod. was set up 338 [Socr. framed their creed. and deposed by a synod at Constantinople . and that Greek philosophers were also present to question [Sozom. in which terms of honour were given to the Son of God. Hist. and all the subtleties of the most fertile ingenuity could not alter and could not hide this fundamental difference" [Newman's Arians. Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis signed it without the Other Arian prelates gave way for and in the end only Secundus and Theonas stood out. and guard most carefully against Arian versions. Ecd.d. the Emperor's sister." To the creed were added anathemas against the Arians. The death of Constantine [a. and the Emperor banished him to Treves A. and. i. But the subsequent and conclusive work of the council was to frame a creed which should state earlier The private: Arius moderate phraseology so as to avoid exciting It called the Son of God. Ecd. persecutions. . a hostile body of inquirers was sent to gather evidence against him. 9]. Hid. Charges having been laid .d. By the mass of bishops it was received in its integrity: Eusebius of Csesarea accepted it after hesitating as to the " Homoousion" [Soor. and afterwards the Avians was chosen in his place. the bearer of the Emperor's letter to the Church of Alexandria. and it was offered to the bishops individually for subscription. 3 But again accusations were brought against him. 273]. which in the end led to his banishment. "i. fear of penalties. suspicion. but were not so much alive to the bearing of the points at issue. Athanasius was made the object of a series of charges. Ecd. Sozom. was to gain the favour of the Emperor. ii. and we enter upon a long and weary history of intrigues. At first the Emperor was induced to take his part and to condemn the violence of the so-called council. Ecd. Constantius.D. Eusebius of Nicomedia. Afterwards. as the sole alternative. Two noting. and to commit the whole Church to one form or another The first step in this direction of the heresy.ce here to give a brief palace.D. Ecd. named Pistus. viz. was ordered to be restored to communion in the same city. by means of court influence. 330 [Socr. 21. 272. he having in the meantime gone to Constantinople to intercede with the Emperor. In this interval of rest Alexander of Alexandria died.e. the Catholics that He was very God. Hist. discussions of the Council were had an opportunity of declaring his belief and of disputing with Athanasius. This change again gave the Church an interval of rest.Avians president was either Hosius of Cordova. Maris. Eor a brief space after the Mcene Council the Church was comparatively at rest. Hist. They were condemned and excommunicated with Arius. oyiioova-tos 0e<u. Arius and some of his companions. But all the accusations were refuted.d. Hist. notwithstanding the worthlessness of the evidence (the falsity of which was afterwards conby the principal witness) was deposed by an Arian synod. The creed wasreceived with joy by the'orthodox. The different elements of the Council may be stated as follows: [1] The Athanasians J [2] the determined Arians. anathemas. 28]. "The plain question at issue was whether our Lord was God in as full a sense as the Father. 328 troubles began again. but his enemies then accused him of stopping the allowance of public corn made to the clergy. and Arius. Constantine. but which was so contrived as to obscure and evade the point at issue. or of a substance which had a beginning. 18]. 28]. Ecd. on the whole. 16. iii. 26. and the crucial point of it was the use of this word " Homoousion.d. and it may sufB. i. Hist. Hist. Hist. i. 336. Eus. probably the former: and the place of meeting was first the great church of the city. and Athanasius was restored to his see in a. and violence. The Arians said that He was a creature. and Athanasius 47 Sozom. some say through Constantia. or whether. as a rival bishop. ii. 2]. 27]. and an excommunicated Arian. with his followers. It was couched in A summary. widows and virgins at Constantinople [Sozom. Towards the close of A. His sudden death the very evening before the day appointed is one of the most awful facts of the history. 337] divided the power of the Empire between his three sons. begotten of the Father before all ages. " God the Word. other minor particulars are worth laymen skilled in dialectic were allowed to attend and take part in the discussions. The Catholics. After having refused to attend the Eusebian Council of Csesarea in a. i. Ecd. detailed history of the method pursued in the council would belong rather to a history of councils than to one of heresies. The Arians offered a formula. sympathized with the supporters of Alexander and Athanasius. and Constans. iii. he was arraigned before another Eusebian Council at Tyre in the following year. Ecd. The next effort on the part of his adherents was to remove out of the way some of the more eminent of the orthodox bishops. i.

"' Accordingly. Arian." " like in Homoion. was ii. " The whole world groaned and marvelled to find itself Arian" [Hieron. iii. Liberius the Pope to Thrace. but attempts were now made to Arianize the entire West. period.d.d. Here he was favourably received. in which a canon was. Thus by the year 357 Arianism seemed to be triumphant in the West. 345] refused to accept a Semi-Arian Creed called the Macrostich [Socr. 355]. and insisted on the " Homoiousion. and running great risks of capture. the heretic Aetius was patronized and put forward by the Bishop Eudoxius [Aetians]. 6].d. had been chiefly an Eastern one. Poictiers was banished to Phrygia. while. 347] once more affirmed the truth of NicEea. with which may be Semi-Arian formula " Homoiousion. from Acacius of Caesarea. enacting that no bishop who should officiate after a canonical deposition should ever be restored or even heard. did much for the Church. recalled by Constantius.d. The dispute. but finding time to compose epistles and orations against the Arians. and in that year a large number of bishops were in communion with him.Avians against Avians from a council Mm before Julius of Eome. Eccl. 362. joined the Eastern Council of Seleucia [Socr. 10]. Hist. and Sardica. and asserted that the Son was esseniially unlike the Father [Anomceans]. de Two events must be noted in this Fugd]." and explaining its true sense. was then allowed to return to Spain. as they thought. Julius. Liberius having endured two years' banishment. Hilar. and Apol. and a succession of creeds. His second exile lasted until the year 349.. JEed. Sozom. In this interval. on his deathbed. and the faith of Nicaea was affirmed but when the Council of Seleucia had held a fruitless discussion. ii. 22-24].]. Semi-Arian. 353] and of Milan [a. but the restoration of Athanasius in a. About this time. 39. 350] brought the West under the rule of Constantius. Hist. by anathemas against Arian opinions. was rejected. On the other hand the Council of Ancyra [a. after having sufi'ered a year's imprisonment as well as He bodily punishment. 358] condemned the "Homoion" and "Homoousion" alike. xli.]. 356. The murder of Constans [a. Arianism. the pupil of Eusebius. while Alexandria became the scene of the greatest brutality and violence. and signed a Semi-Arian creed. The Councils of Aries [a. The attempt of the Emperor to restore heathenism was combined at first with cynical indifference for all those whom he termed " Galilseans. Cordova. 357] followed Hilary of one another in rapid succession. while another had changed the old Eusebian or Hist. the Council of Milan [a. Egypt [Athan." drawn up under the sanction of the Emperor. Cyril of Jerusalem was deposed and exiled. had split up into many factions.." Eudoxius and Aetius were both compelled to retire.d. by its orthodoxy and moderation. . . the bishops were persuaded to accept it. Homoean.d. and to watch with fatherly interest the trials of the Church [Athan. and this canon was made the ground for the condemnation of Athanasius. But in Here he lived for five or six years. though which creed is doubtful [Athan. Sozom. Hist. a 48 . Arian. gave up Athanasius. At the same council three creeds were framed. Ms innocence letter was solemnly asserted by a of the orthodox prelates of 3-19]." What is known as the " Dated Creed. vi. The first Conference of Sirmium produced an Homoean Creed.d. urging them to accept the " Homoousion. 359]. 20 . and thus division broke up the Arian ranks.d.d. or Anomoean in character. and Hosius. where they again condemned Athanasius. and Hosius the aged bishop was imprisoned. Hist. vii. Athanasius. and confine themselves to asserting the " likeness" of the These are generally known Soil to the Father. hitherto. and Homoean in character. the two Conferences of Sirmium [a. at this date. It is to this time that St. This was succeeded by two years of open persecution and secret intrigue.d. along with the Bishops of Eome. 349 gave a triumph to the orthodox. Fragm. 361] there follow a succession of councils. Arian. Treves. ii. when he a. Hist. often having to fly from one place to another. The most noteworthy of these is the Western Council of Ariminum [Athan. 81]." by which they professed to avoid the term "essence" altogether.d. in the East. first passed. at Antioch. Athanasius was able to return to Alexandria. Eecl. but avoided the test word "Homoousion" [Athan. as AcAciANS. and great outrages were inflicted both on the persons and churches of the orthodox at his installation. all of which came as near as was politic to the truth. Prom this date to the death of Constantius [a. and the delegates on both sides from Ariminum had met before the Emperor. This council. Hist. and the Council of Sardica [a. De Synod. and for several years were able. was induced to sign it. where a councU was held in a. who had been summoned to meet Athanasius at Sardica." to " rages. Of the former it has been said. About the same time Hilary of Poictiers attempted to bring about an understanding with the triumphant Sbmi-Aeians of the East. De Synod. 19. 341 the Eusebians held a council at the time of the dedication of Constantine's church at Antioch. xlv. in the end. The reign of Julian gave two years of com: parative rest. while the Arian and Semi-Arian prelates. Lucif. Athanasius being compelled to find refuge from Arian fury among the monastic cells of Egypt. one of which had puslied the heresy to its logical conclusion. St. Apol. and defended by the bishop. guarding it. that it had " a good beginning and a foul conclusion. withdrew to PMlippopolis. Eecl. the same Creed was sent back to the council by the Emperor. Eor party purposes both acted against the adherents of the Nicene faith. withdrew to Eome. . Socr. and. adv. Gregory of Cappadocia was made Bishop of Alexandria. meanwhile.d. he retracted [Athan. with the aid of the imperial power. to inflict on them the gravest outessence. but two years after. Jerome refers in his well-known exclamation. 40] held at the same time [a. iv. Eccl. and a storm of trouble again fell upon the Church. Hist.

whahad become Christians about a. Infy D. The results of its wisdom were immediately felt. where. became Catholic about a. and an edict was put forth giving toleration. like others who signed the same creed. when the edict of Valens [a. which began with a jealousy for our Lord's Divinity and ended practically in the denial of the true humanity [Apollinartans]. many of the bishops who had been persuaded to sign the Creed of Ariminum now repudiating it [Hieron. and gave free scope to its extreme supporters. which included all the sects connected with the Arian dispute The mission of St. Chrysostom. viz. xix. Ostrogoths.had arisen among the orthodox. Michael Servetus. 375]. Hist. while the conquests of the Franks served to bring back some of the other nations Thus the Burgundians to the Catholic faith. to a very large extent. 413. a native of Spain. except the Anomoeans. began to absorb attention. under the first two kings of the Vandals. at the time of their conquest by the Visigoths. its success had been due in the main to two causes [1] court influence and violence . 12.d. and the Church as a whole was once more and two successive Western councils under Damasus. and was^a source of constant anxiety to St. Hist. Ecd.D. Eccl. Hist. Socr. but by the middle of the seventh century — it was practically extinct. during his episcopate at Constantinople [a. The end of the same centuiy was the season of a fierce persecution of the Catholics of Africa. The Burgundians. Basil. Spain and Africa.d. and it adhered firmly. St. though with moderation.d. He died in the year 373. and the open patronage of Theodosius and.d. iv. a few years later. death in the same year gave the whole empire to Gratian. and Spain was also restored towards the end of the same century. and tried to win over its adherents by having services in their language. and though. At a later date Athanasius was again compelled to fly for safety from the hatred of Julian. yet newer heresies gradually took its place and absorbed the attention of the Church. adv. Hist. bishop of the Goths. Arimiism among the Goths and harharkms. published — own 49 ranks. Under Valentinian the orthodoxy of the West gained strength. No less than twenty creeds or a formulas had been put forward by councils or by in work in 1531. 378. which he openly attacked the doctrine of our . Ecd.indeed were allowed to reassert their formula at Lampsacus in A. of which it held possession for several centuries. a revived Arianism found a place. who had succeeded his father in the empire of the West [a. vi. which accompanied the Reformation movement in the sixteenth century. IV.d. 365. and introduced Arianism to a new field. parts of Gaul. year. During the sixty years of its course. and was therefore. it gave trouble to St. but fifty-nine of their bishops conformed to the faith before Liberius in the following Arians individuals. [2] the negative character : free to teach the faith in its integrity. it anticipated the possibility of new heresies as to our Lord's Incarnation (notably that of ApoUinaris). and brought general favour to the orthodox . Valens put an end to Arian ascenHis dancy and recalled the orthodox exiles. to some extent. H4st. Arianism was driven from both those countries. Lucif. 517. by his gentle perseverance. Eccl. Gratian. 367] had again let loose the tide Athanasius was once more of persecution. reoeLved the heresy about the middle of the same century [Socr. Erom this date to that of the Council of Constantinople the controversy was less vehement.d. but the rule of Valentinian and his brother Valens changed the aspect of the Church once more. to the ITicene faith. the city which for forty years had been the stronghold of the heresy. committed to Arianism. 398-407]. and the Suevi in Spain. Illyricunij and Gaul all made profession of the old faith . The short reign of Jovian for one year was the signal for his return. towards the end of the fourth century. banished. Valens espoused the Arian side. But at a later period. and the latter had naturally resulted in divisions in its V. The Semi-Arians. had subscribed the Creed of Ariminum. though possibly. But by the downfall of the Vandals in Africa and of the Ostrogoths in Italy in the sixth century. the successor of Liberius. his whole life to the maintenance of the faith of Nicsea. having devoted 13]. The heresy of ApoUinaris. Through these and other barbarian tribes. The Epistles of St. Ecd. The heresy lived amongst the Lombards for some forty years longer. and by ordaining clergy from among their own people. vi. was the work of Arian teachers. the one Creed of Nicsea had been stedfastly maintained. through the influence of Justina. had to deal with it among the Goths who were in that city. and he took back to his people the Emperor's Arianism [Theod. Ulfilas. Ambrose at Milan. and again Alexandria became the scene of shameless outrages. he had done so vnthout meaning to abandon the Catholic faith [Sozom. the mother of Gratian. while. Gregory of Nazianzum to Constantinople. after a brief outburst of persecution under the Gothic king LeovigUd. The former had now failed. vii. 30]. Genseric and his son Hunnerie. on the other side. Italy. bring us to the rapid fall of Arianism.Avians It explained differences of phraseology -which . Revival of Arianism at the time of the Ee^Among the many sects and heresies formation. entitled De Trinitatis Erroribus. 37]. of its tenets. Basil describe the sufferings Of the Catholics in the East. Arianism once more came into contact with the faith in the various countries overspread by them. especially as to the word Hypostasis. On the other hand. iv. 381]. especially in the West. The heresy was proscribed by imperial edicts . in the reign of Valens.]. he was sent to ask for help against the heathen Goths. This was now reaffirmed at the Council of Constantinople [a. Visigoths and Vandals. but was shortly afterwards recalled [Sozom. ^The conversion of the Goths and other barbarians to Christianity. he won back to the faith. 37]. denounced Arian opinions.

that this revival of Arianism was one which. Until the Council of Chalcedon [a. The followers of an Egyptian named Harmasius in the seventh century. and Dr. of the Fourth Century. In this way he repeated the old attempt had Geneva. But the most remarkable and the closest following of Arianism was that of Dr.] AEMASITES. in part. in which occurs a clause respecting God the Word. William Whiston. Sozomen. Hist. Eccl. and each in turn incurred the charge of heresy. whose names are almost forgotten. Eastern Mildert's ed. Sherlock.] AEMENIANS. From a. and were predisposed to favour Eutychianism. any more found accurate. Dict. at last its logical result in the more lasting and widely-spread heresy of the Socinians. the Armenians remained in an isolated position very unfavourable to the maintenance of orthodoxy. East. and is undoubtedly. few years later Dr. and in the immediately preceding period it had firmly withstood the progress of the Nestorian heresy. Hist. " that He had one Person. Clarke's works.. however. and when the report of that council was carried to Armenia. Eccl. Ixix.). — A others Cudworth and Stillingfleet j and worth noticing that the former was accused of favouring the Arian view in his Intellectual System. presided over by an Itahan named Lismanini [Hardwick's This. Dean of St Paul's. a statement embracing the Monophysite heresy. and was united in one Nature. and did not as in earlier times gain a hold over large mass of the people. VI. in 1712. 0pp. only had interest for the learned. for the most part. Eccl. Hist. with the other partial Ref.d. The works of Bishop Bull were called forth. and hence the impression was conveyed.Avians He had before this been at Lord's Divinity. however. one Form. in his " Dissertation on the Claims of the Armenian Church to Orthodoxy" [Neale's Hist. Daniel Waterland. The Armenians. years he continued teaching his heresy. ii. Apol. Sherlock being accused of Tritheism and Dr. de Fuga. the council had proclaimed two Persons. Hmres. Their method of disputation was essentially speculative and metaphysical. Eccl. a work in 1714. and Valentine GentiUs of Naples. [Eusebius. 1690 to a. where the doctrine of the Holy Trinity was attacked in a literary club. Philostorgius. maintaining that " whenever the terms one and only God were used in Holy Scripture they invariably meant God the Father. who For twenty tried to make him retract. South. The consequence of this dispute among those who professed to maintain the Creed was the revival of Arian opposition to it. and Arian tracts were republished and largely disseminated. that Jesus Christ is essentially God. that of the former Clarke had published. beheaded at Constance in 1529. They professed to deal with the question as one of pure reasoning. Historical Tracts. and they have always been infected with Monophysite error. Arianism. Cambridge. In the Armenian language there is only one word to express both Nature and Person. of being an Antitrinitarian. They were among the last offshoots of the Monothelites. John Campanus at Wittenberg. and professed to prove his views directly from Holy Scripture. and some supported him. They have a Confession of great antiquity. travelling He was in various parts of Italy and France. Many eminent persons took part in the controversy. Neale. Waterland's Works (Van Neale's Hist. Dr. able to attend the Council of Chalcedon . The fuUest answers are those of Dr. and neglected almost entirely the arguments from Holy Scripture and the Fathers." he drew inferences derogating from the Divinity of our Lord. The Arians Gibbon (Mihnan's ed. were involved in a controversy. Other individual Eeformers of less note revived the heresy in one form or another." 50 it is among Newman. [Abians.] AEIOMANIT^. Vit. an Anabaptist. Canon of Christehurch. Athanasius. to find a mean between the Catholic faith. especially the use of the terms "self-existent" and "unoriginated. 1730 was a period of much controversy among certain divines of the English Church on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. of Antitrinitarianism. by those of a number of writers.d. therefore. entitled The Scripture Doctrine of the Holy In this he disclaimed the notion Trinity. which they attribute to St. — — . as far as its words go. Theodoret. Samuel Clarke and his friend Mr. The case of the latter was brought before Convocation in 1710." this clause strangely enough concluding a statement that He was incarnate of the Blessed Virgin Mary . and maintained His subordination in nature. among them Lewis Hetzer. rejected the Council of Chalcedon.d. EpiArian. Contr. Socinian or Aiian in theii' opinions. Hist. executed at The fear of persecution in in 1566. Being thus divided from the Eastern Church. South of Sabellianism. and to some extent revived the recollection of Ajcian profanity. Their language was not always reverent. and the extreme form of heresy which holds Him to be a creature. Arian. sqqP\. 528. i. Socrates. at last brought before the municipal council of Armenians From this and other arguments. Ch. Many eminent writers opposed and answered Dr. that in recognising two Natures in our Lord. Gregory the Illuminator (their Apostle of the third century). or as would perhaps be JBerne of the fourth century. of Church. 1078]. No bishops from Armenia were. misrepresentations and ambiguity of expression prevented its rulers from understanding the truth as to Eutyches and his heresy. 285. Damasc. phanius. 451] the Armenian Church appears to have been remarkably free from error. De Synodis.) vol. p. Basle with the Eeformer CEcolampadius. Const. [Joann. Switzerland drove some of the heretical teachers into Poland. Arianism in England in the eighteenth century. in which each tried to explain the doctrine of the Holy Trinity in such a way as to satisfy human reason. to the exclusion of the other Persons of the Godhead. Thbol. Hist. i. and was burnt alive by its order in 1553.. Master of Magdalene It is important to observe College.. revivals of Arianism. Patriarchate of Alexandria.

III. Prince Maurice was at first in favour of the Arminian party. V. but still continued in his post until he was appointed Professor of Divinity at Leyden. the Arminians wishing for peace with Spain. but the Stadtholder soon changed his mind. Grotius. as follows I. While he was stiU a very young man. It was composed entirely of Calvinist divines. The Prince of Orange and the States-General at last determined to summon another and larger assembly of Protestant divines. 1575 to 1582. does not yet sufficiently appear. resulted in his conversion to the opinions which he had been set to oppose. and to His grace yet that this grace compels no man against his will. thus convened. His championship." the Calvinist or Gomarist party being " Counter-Eemonstrants. In 1588 he was appointed to a congregation at Amsterdam. which was in the year 1603. the two parties became even more virulently opposed to each other than they were before. synodal conference was proposed between Arminius and his followers on the one side. com- . and perfects aU that can be called truly good in man and therefore all good works are ascribable to no one except to God only. That this Divine grace or energy. and others . But all attempts to reunite the Armenians with the Eastern Church have hitherto failed. That those who are united to Christ by faith. commences. on the other. he was obliged to leave Geneva through fear of persecution for his bold speculations in theology . and must be ascertained by a careful examination of the Holy : : Scriptures. and the theological question was also mixed up with a political one. of himself. and continued to sit until the end of April 1619. AEMINIANS.: " . produce or generate faith in his own mind . should be bom : ment of Anti-Calvinist school of Protestants which derives its name from James Harmensen (Latinized into "Arminius"). and abandoning the common Calvinistic belief in predestination and the Divine decrees. in their usual persecuting spirit called for their suppression " by blood " if it could not be effected otherwise. the professorial colleague of Arminius. Equally powerless was a conciliatory decree promulgated by the States-General in 1614. and before any steps were taken towards the convocation of the proposed synod he died. and the strict Calvinists. and became their most bitter opponent and perse: and renewed by God. But the controversy preyed upon the health of Arminius. and that the accusation of Monophysitism brought against the Armenian Church on account of their peculiar "Confession" is not reaUy more true than the accusation of Calvinism which has often been brought against the Church of England on account of expressions contained in the Thirtynine Articles of Eeligion. for Christ's sake. Arminians their doctrine in the form of a " Eemonstrance " in five articles. advances. as did also another held at Delft in the year 1613. and further controversy forbidden. he went to become a pupil of Grj^naeus at Basle. He avowed this change of opinion in 1591. however. born at Oude- in the year 1560. and Grace. An Arminius was a water in cutler's son. He studied at Leyden from a. which are. which heals the soul of man. IV. and became so violent that the Arminian party raised a militia in self-defence. refused to obey this edict. in which (under the influence of Grotius and Barneveldt) toleration was declared towards both parties. Election.d. the decision of cutor. who is by nature evU and incompetent i^neiptui) both to think and to do good. That God. These five articles of the " Remonstrance became the watchword of the Arminian party. Arminians expresses his belief that the theologians of the Armenian Church completely reconcile the sense in -which the clause is understood with that of the Eastern Church at large . 1609. decreed to bestow eternal salvation on those whom He foresaw would keep their faith in Christ Jesus inviolate until death and. the Arminian party presented a state- which would be final The Synod of Dort. on October 19th. and from thence HoUand again. His lectures on the Epistle to the Eomans soon raised a fierce and wide controversy so fierce that the government of the State was obliged to interfere. are furnished with strength abundantly to overcome the snares of the devU and the allurements of sin . and lose their faith or not. 1618. II. That no one can. where he was shortly put forward as champion of the Supealapsabians in one of their endless controversies with the Sublapsaeians about Predestination. but that it is necessary a man. The Calvinists grew more and more confirmed in their bitterness towards the Arminian party. while they had supporters at court in Barneveldt. That Jesus Christ. met at Dort or Dordrecht on November 13. through the Holy Spirit. before the foundation of the world. he came round to the side of those who believe that Christ died for all men. to consign over to eternal punishments the unbelieving who resist the invitations of God to the end of their lives. and not only for an elect few. Hoogerbetz. in substance. by His death. made expiation for the sins of aU and every one of mankind yet that none but believers can become partakers of this Divine benefit. led by Francis Gomar. but whether they can fall from this state of grace. After the death of Arminius." The Hague Conference of 1610 failed to bring about any reconciliation of the two parties. on the other hand. though it may be repelled by his perverse vrill. who were hence called " Eemonstrants. and afterwards for some time at Geneva under Beza. or by the powers of his free will. and the Calvinists urging the Prince of Orange and the States-General to undertake a war." and the dispute between the two parties was dignified with the name of "The Quinquarticular Controversy. a Calvinist minister at Amsterdam. When the Conference met at the Hague in the year 1610." The articles became known as "The A Five Points. or from eternity.

an edict of toleration towards the Arminians was once more passed. English Arminians have never become a disIn the reign of Charles I. 1139]. passed away from the High Church to the Latitudinarians . Mchol's Life and WorJcs of Ai-minius. Bishop of Llandaff. From that time the Arminians shewed a marked tendency towards Eationalism. afterwards Bishop of Salisbury . having written a tract against Vorstius. but fine. one of their leaders. it was the tinct sect. Episcopius formalized the theories of Arminius. 1135-1155]. and from England the latter being prising.d. was kUled on .] The nature of the assembly was at once shewn by its refusal to hear Episcopius and his friends in any other way than as accused persons who were on their defence . one of the Leyden Professors of Theology. and Arnold was summoned from Zurich to become th« leader of the movement. under Pope Innocent II. They were. however. o/Theol. of course. His principles had spread so widely that the Eomans raised an insurrection in the year 1143 for the purpose of establishing a republic on the ancient model. transl. and although not excommunicated. [a. he was once more obliged to fly through danger of fresh persecution. After two years' imprisonment. About the year 1135 he began to indoctrinate the people of Lombardy with the it is wrong for the clergy to possess any property. were imposed upon all aged senator. Holy by his own conceptions of They have been growing fewer HoUand 62 during the present century. This teaching coincided with a movement which the Lombard tovsms were making to establish themselves in a always popular notion that position of independence as free cities. and the doctrine of Universal When before the Synod of Dort. 1829. Hist. where he lived for about five years. whose wealth was a hindrance to the development of republican institutions. and one after another of the doctrines held by orthodox theologians being eliminated from their system. ii. under the leadership of Simon Episcopius. and being in danger of imprisonment as an enemy of the Church. art. [Doet. the dreadful dogma of Calvinism respecting Predestination and Election has been held by comparatively few persons. and which it in a position of much danger for about twenty years in the middle of the twelfth century AENOLDISTS. but encountering the opposition of St. Church of England. Bernard. who began the proceedings by an attempt to confute The Arminians appeared the opinions of the Calvinists. seeking safety with his friend Abelard . indeed. and Whitfield becoming the founder of the Calvinistic Methodists. if possible. Wesley taking the Arminian side. [Heylin's Quinquarticular Mosheim's Ecd. is not disputed by any theo- logians of importance. Arnold was condemned (in com- pany with may in regulate his belief Scripture. placed [a. some from the Presbyterians of Scotland. his successor in . Arminianism. 1825. their sect in the end has recognized Christianity as little more than a system of morality. Wesley and of the TiUotson school. besides those of : Arnoldists not now to be found in any number except iB Eotterdam. should be expelled from their offices and excommunicated. It was also decided that the Arminian ministers. but it is hardly necessary to say that the decisions of the Synod of Dort never had any authority whatever in the James I. and are the Pbtrobusians) at the second Lateran Council. Hall. English divines were sent by James I. was. condemned in their absence. who numbered about three hundred. II.d. was put to death. x. vol. and Ward. he ventured to return for a few months to his native country. and Episcopius returned to open a Eemonstrant College in Amsterdam. He retired to France. the name Arminians. (Brandt Brandt's Hist. he fled to Zurich. Whitfield struck out divergent lines of theology. Pope Lucius II. Synod of. Barneveldt.) Wesley's Worlis. the opinions of the Counter-Eemonstrants being adopted and enforced in ninety-three canons. 1720. In still more recent times. finding that their controversial opponents were assembled. and a pupil of the the vain and restless Abelard. between the Continental Protestants and the Church of England. in which he had declared that the latter ought to be burned as a heretic. responsible in some degree for the subsequent persecution of the Arminians. The the Margaret Professorship of Theology. In the year 1634. DiCT. Some refused to submit to the decree of the synod. for which Arminius chiefly contended. not to confer with them. afterwards Bishop of JSTorwioh Davenant. and the High Church party were thus called After the Eestoration. at least in the Church of England. and thus the people were excited to look upon the bishops and clergy as political enemies. Grotius succeeded in escaping by concealing himself in a linen chest. was a Eemonstrant Professor of Divinity at Amsterdam. and extended them in the direction of Socinianism and Universalis m. and when. and exile Eedemption.: Arminians Holland and Germany. the Arminianism of England thus running parallel at this time to that of Holland. but he was an object of bitter hatred to the Dutch Calvinists all his life. Grotius and Hoogerbetz were sentenced to imprisonment for life while the bulk of the party escaped to Erance and England. imprisonment.] The supporters of a movement against the temporal power of the Papacy which was led by Arnold of Brescia. who resisted. but never going further in the direction of Eationahsm than the half-developed Universalism Carlton. was banished from Italy. declined to have anything further to do with the synod. in which every person protector. the original form of the dispute between Arminius and the Calvinists was revived. from a politic desire to promote some sort of union. in 1631. and the Arminians. 4. but to be their judges. Reform. History. ed. fashion to brand with the name all who were opposed to the cruel and false dogma of the Calvinists respecting divine decrees to perdition. The who had been their Arnold was a monk of Brescia or Brixia in the north of Italy. from Switzerland.

[Lnc. Shortly after his death Arsenius was restored by Palseologus. excommunicated by Victor [a. Hist. Bernard points in the same direction. whom the patriarch crowned a second time on the occasion of the re-capture of Constantinople from the hands of the Eomans [a. but on being warned of his error by a severe flagellation (attributed to angelic hands) during his sleep.] AEEHABONAEII. communion with Germanus and would hold no and although he . the inventor of this heresy. 1155]. Arnold was in close alliance with the anti-sacramental heretics of his day. On the death of the Emperor Theodore Lascaris [a. but died after holding oflioe for a year. but they regarded their leader as a saint and a martyr. who maintained that the Holy Eucharist conveys no present gift of grace. 1258]. Palseologus was Altar : " Preeter htec. but fresh disputes arose out of the question of union between the Eoman and Eastern Churches. being revived by Paul. both as regards the number and Among them distinction of those who joined it. 260-270]. xxi.d.d. 1140. but by denying the Divinity of the Second and Third Persons. and Holy Ghost were three phases of one Divine Monad. however. Ephesus. Arsenius and Michael Palaiologus became guardians of his son John Lascaris.] The new sect met with considerable success. caused Arnold to be dehvered into the hands of the Pope.d. and that his republican notions made him sympathize at least with the Paulician heretics who at that time existed in considerable numbers in France and Italy. [Neale's History of Church of Alexandria. ii. Artemon. and the latter determined to displace him from the patriarchal throne. [Theodotians. then only eight years of age. and made Germanus of Adrianople patriarch of Constantinople in his The Patriarch Nicolas of Alexandria regarded this as a schismatical act. 311-321. during the reign of Septimius Severus. Monarchian views however lingered on for more than a century in the Christian Church. After ten years of violence and disorder the Arnoldist party was thus broken up. The name given by some Eoman theologians to a small school of Polish Anti-SacramentaUsts. Eugenius III. with Praxeas. and the ashes of it thrown into the Tiber [a.] AETEMONITES. Son. a certain portion 53 .d. sect holding Monarchian views on the subject of the Triaity. cover possession of -while Artemonites re- endeavouring to and the rebellion was carried on by Arnold and his adherents through the reigns of the two succeeding Popes.d. de rebus gestis Frid. hopeless of persuading him to do so. Mcephorus. 20. who began to broach his errors in the earlier part of the third century.Arrhabonarii Tebruary ISth. Exactly similar doctrines had been taught a few years previously by Theodotns. withdrew. but would not give any formal acknowledgment that he had vacated it.d.. in Bibl. gradually shewed that he was determined not to redeem his pledge. in Murator. 28]. Otto Eris. and called after its founder Artemon or Artemas. The Englishman Hadrian IV. On his death in a. when he was immediately hanged as a traitor. who was soon after imprisoned and cruelly blinded by Palreologus. shortly afterwards made successively despot and emperor by the army. There can be little doubt that he had originally imbibed a free-thinking tone of mind from Abelard. metropolitan of ' died within a year of the deposition of Arsenius the Churches ceased to hold intercourse with each other during the reign of Michael Palseologus. The new emperor. ii. After his death the party of the Amoldists was little heard of.] fessor of Hebrew at Cracow. having suppressed the rebellious movement in Lombardy. Max. condemned in a synod held a. as mere man. but the pledge or earnest (appa/3wv) of a gift to be bestowed in Heaven. and he himself was accused of unsoundness in respect to Infant Baptism and the Sacrament of the tlie Capitol. however. written a. in spite of the absence of any historical proof to that efi'ect. council of compliant bishops was called. Tudens. was then made patriarch. a currier of Byzantium. 1261]. At this second coronation the patriarch required no promise of abdication in favour of the young John Lascaris. was a distinguished confessor named Natalius. and the patriarch. which occurred through the deposition of the Constantinoplitan Patriarch Arsenius [a. AESENIAIT SCHISM. bishop -of Samosata [a. and Anastasius IV. 351. and he at once brought the Eomans to submit to his authority by placing the city under an interdict. and was readmitted to the Church by Zephyrinus [Euseb. with whom. The opinion was first broached in the year 1543 by Stancarus.d. attempted to solve the mystery of the Triaity and Unity not by supposing. who consented for a time to become their bishop. and the two patriarchates were only reunited when the general persecution of Eastern Christians by the Mahometans in the beginning of the fourteenth century merged minor troubles in the greater one of an antichristian tyranny.d. de sacramento altaris et baptismo parvulorum non sane dicitur sensisse. A few months after-wards the Emperor Erederic I. and accounting A for the superior character of Christ by asserting that after His birth. declared the de- A position of Arsenius. 1265].d. Arnold himself taking refuge in Campania. pro[Stancarists. XXV. place. and Arsenius consented to crown him on condition of his taking an oath to resign the empire to John Lascaris when the latter attained his majority." The opposition of St. 1283 a temporary reconciliation was effected. This name is given to the disturbance of communion between the Churches of Alexandria and Constantinople. 247 . of this cruelty Arsenius excommunicated Palaeologus. v. Artemon is popularly classed. and afterwards by Photinus. succeeded to the Papal throne at the end of the year 1154. 192-201]. as do the terms in which he speaks of Arnold in his 195th Epistle. Heel. the first which they had ever experienced. who hstened to the emperor's complaints and accusations. 1145. Upon hearing. that Father. ceased to fulfil the duties of his office. his dead body being burned. Lugd.

v. party so called Mon- but Theodoret reckons the the bystanders said.d. Ecd. a follower of Theodotus the leatherseller of Byzantium. during which they danced on skin or leather bottles [dcrKOi] and imagined themselves to be fulfilling the words of Holy Scripture. a German Unitarian divine [a. Hist. Ecd. So named from Asclepiodotus. and gave her a morsel of cheese. Aristotle ASCIT. first ASCODEOGIT^. Ittigius [de Hceres. Theod. Pseudo-Jerome. They have been considered by some to be the same as the AsciTiB. A Hwr. [Ascodeuti.D. Bibl. Artemonii Initium Evangelii Johannis. The inference was drawn. 15901633]. He welcomed her. was given to Perpetua . and from the use of cheese by the Artotyritse. and with whose spirit they imagined themselves to be fiUed when they danced around a richly-vested inflated wine-skin [ao-Kos] placed on an altar in their fanatical revels. are who 54 . 180-193]. Diatribe de sect. August. and by others to be identical with the Passaloetnchitbs. . while all this These fanatics appeared in Galatia towards the close of the second century. Origen [TJepl Eux^s] mentions 10]. were of the fruit of the flock as well as of the fruit of the ground. and consequently renounced even the Sacraments. Hoer. xliv. 257] finds a reference to custom in the acts of Perpetua and Felicitas. " ISTeither do men put new wine into old bottles . with his disciples.d. 17]. Stemmler.] ASCODEUPIT^. and to form their opinions according to the subtle precepts of Church is neglected for the study of geometry. in Galland. rejected all outward in religion.!!. All agree in connecting them with the followers of Montanus. fab. Artemonit. who. v. and both are preserved" [Matt.d. else the bottles break. spoken of by Theodoret as having arisen about A. these. and one is unwilling to think that Perpetua was of the fanatical sect of the ArtotyritsB. Hist. [See the Acts. More than a thousand years afterwards. so called from their holding periodical religious revels. such as the excommunication of Theodotus by Victor \vide suprd\. which are directly incompatible with it. was excommunicated. It is supposed therefore that Perpetua was of that sect. A fanatical offshoot of the Montanists towards the close of the second century.] He aisQ a.] This a corruption of the ASCODEUTI. altered the vision to suit the practice of his own party. whom they regarded as the Paraclete. the author of L. like his master. rule of faith. ASCODEUGIT^. ii.] sources external to Christianity. pp. name might be thought tanist Ascodrogitffi. and Theophrastus are the objects of their admiration. men who take away all that can i. and cheese was their symbol of the former. 224. for suppressing heresy. [a. _ et Artemonit. view was Christians from makes identical with that of the Eoman the first foundation of their Church till the time of Zephytinus . XVI. and the wine runneth out. Above aU. by Pope Urban. names this sect [Cod. The primitive offerings. [AscoDRaGiTjs. 428].— ArtotyritcB of the Divine ISTature Ascophites it unlikely that the Artotyritse existed at Carthage so early as a. 173. p. [Theodotians. Hist.] : [Euseb. saying that grace could not be conferred through material means. ASCLEPIODOTIANS.sserted that this imparted to him. and they corrupt the simphcity of the Gospel by the refinements of human reason" earth.'] party of the later Phrygian Montanists which used cheese (tv/oos) as well as bread (apros) in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist [Epiph. Perpetua is said to have related that she saw in vision an old shepherd milking his flock. and their method of proceeding is thus summed up by Eusebius " They presume to alter the Holy Scriptures. assumed the title of Artemonite to distinguish himself from the Socinians. taught that Christ was a mere man. v. August. The Artemonites appealed largely to and Possinus. Canon.^E. and who. 65]. with the notes of Holstein was [Beron. the history of Montanism A section of the Aechontics. The tenth constitution of the same title names Tascodrogitae. John Crell. who was certainly a Montanist. 175. . which she received with joined hands. xlix. to philosophy and geometry. was actually introduced into the greater oblation. in the reign of Commodus [a. from the custom of giving the Viaticum to martyrs. mulgebat:" Augustine's report of the vision is that a " buocella lactis. a. p. Hcsr. 185. They are alleged to have rejected ASCOPHITES. c. and the bottles perish but they put new wine into new bottles. ii. xliv. and they express an unusual reverence for the works of Galen. according to Ittigius. Artem. But there is a difiiculty in the words " de caseo quod and describes Montanist signs Gnostics. 202. They are with great probability identified with the ASCODBUGIT. but there are several. Hceres." a mouthful of mUk. Amen. in support of their peculiar tenets. From this she inferred that she was to suffer martyrdom. Perfect spiritual knowledge was their redemption [Theod. de Hceres. and ate. their practice as the reverse of the among the Marcosian They practice. It might be thought that this fruit of the flock was only presented at the altar. 28]. ix. but Epiphanius' words can be interpreted only to mean that it AKTOTYEIT^.S!. Sohaffhausen. such as be perceived by the senses. and they made justification and sanctification equivalent terms for a knowledge of mysteries which they had borrowed from the Valentinians and Marcosians. to : abandon the ancient logic. a confusion between the name of the present sect and that of the Tascodbunqit. a practice forbidden in Apost. 28.d. Their errors are derived from the abuse of the arts and sciences of the infidels. yet not only are there no facts on record which support such an assertion. xxviii]. They denied altogether the validity of the Sacraments. OR ASCODEUPITiE. they argued. For which reasons it appears to be more probable that the compUer of the Acts. [Euseb. M. The Constitution of Theodosius and Valentinian III. and they lose sight of heaven while they are employed iji measuring the science of the The Euclid is perpetually in their hands. and use neither baptism nor Eucharist.

Epist. and Atheism in its strict sense can hardly be said to have existed except in the gross Materialism of some benighted The dualism of spirit and matter is elsewhere universally acknowledged. and to have destroyed the sacred vessels in churches through hatred of the Holy Eucharist. [Buckle. in Engl. while Pantheism believes in spirit that is of a higher nature than brute matter. directly or indirectly. the Arian. BION. ASTEOLOGEES.] of the many small and ohscure sects of Donatists. however. in the earlier part of the ninth century. Thus those who accept the teaching of revelation often look upon all without the pale of the Church as Atheists . practically. 394]. beyond whose limits the sect never extended. on the other hand denounced the Christian brotherhood as Atheists because they refused to burn incense on the altars of paganism. often. has not been between various forms of Atheism. Atheism thus understood has its objective ASSUEITANS. with respect to the spiritual principle that is supreme. for the more plain and intelligible teaching of the Bible. though often aided on the side of Eationalism from within it. but between Theism on the one side and Pantheism on the other. and thereby. and its subj ective sides . II. [Theod. Int. but were suppressed by his successor Michael Ehangabes [a. 29]. a. Theism beheves in a spirit superior to matter. and bind his creatures by wise laws. a. Parmen. caUed in Latin " Instabiles"]. formulated into a statement of belief in the absolute non-existence of Deity. but is a mere unconscious principle of life. for the notion of Personality gives a broad mark of distinction between Theism and Pantheistic Atheism. which was attended by three hundred and ten Donatist bishops [contr.d. as divine Providence. 10." which certainly reject aU notion of a God . Pantheism therefore. 811-813]. Baron Holbach. its highest manifestation being the intellect of an aggregate manhood. having for their object the uprooting of faith from every heart. If we except Materialism. A. Yet Pantheism is virtually Atheism. Those who deny the existence Such denial is rarely. but the spirit of Theism is self conscious. and in that spirit there is always something more or less divine. all else have believed in a spiritual principle greater and mightier than matter. according to Strabo contemporary with the Trojan war .Assuritans tie Old Testament Scriptures. One Eagai or Vaga in Numidia [a. and reward or punish according to their obedience or rebellion. it has no belief in a personal deity overruling the afiairs of the world. Bear. Seoes- ASSOCIATE PEESBYTEEY. and gave expression to Atheism as the latent principle of Materialism. and which. Hb. to have denied tlie use of good works. if we except also the wild ravings of Comte and his deification of Humanity as "le Grand Etre. H. They rose in the reign of Constantius II.d. 1789].d. and upholding all things by an active control. That Being alone is to be termed God who can hear prayer. lies Deism. That which was formally called "Atheism" is now seen to be " Pantheism. leavened heathenism beThe heathen fore and after the day of Christ. CONSTITUTIONAL. an outflow from the hylozoic 55 savages. and therefore in no respect an object for man's adoring regard.'] about that time. irrational as the brute matter that it quickens . [Antiburghees. fab.] ATHEISTS.]. and so does Pantheism . Similarly. which adopts the Stoic notion of a passive Deity. whereas there is no Atheism in such a system as that which Plato taught." as denying the true divinity of Christ . would never have an end. divine principle that is impersonal clearly can have no sympathy with man in his trials and sorrows. of God [d Ocds]. is nothing else than Atheism .d. mentioned by Theophanes. as regards any moral control of the creature. eternally removed from all concern about the lower world of its creation. and are mentioned by St. i. was emphatically termed "Atheist. its most virulent exponent. They have been at various times identified with the Antiganians. however. ASSOCIATE SYNOD. Between these two. but nearer to Pantheistic Atheism. part of the Maniohsean They met with some encouragement from the Emperor Nicephorus [a. &c.1 to Atheists principle of Epicurus. Believers in a divine principle will sometimes apply the term to those who do not symbolize with the same religious idea as their own. . also as being delivered over to Satan under the excommunication of the Church. and therefore can be no object of love and adoration. the various forms of philosophic thought that substitute the deductions of human reason. o bj ectively it is engendered from without by theoretical and subtle reasonings. d. and wholly bound by it. When heresy openly attacked the Church. and by some Erench writers [Pere Goar. and therefore personal and of individual existence. ASTATHIANS [a— ?o-ny/xt. of Civil. iii. 1723. I. who rose in Phrygia. and therefore it is atheistic. impersonal. sec. like matter. Thus in modern days the great contest without the Church. The life of man under such a system could in no sense be redeemed from Atheism. 802-811]. antecedently coeternal with matter. and therefore cut off from the people of God. a wealthy native of Heidesheim in the Palatinate [b. and who A received the greater errors.]. 358]. receiving the law of its existence from necessity. This was a name given to the followers of a certain Sergius. The Deism of Hobbes was essentially atheistic." a term which in Cudworth may generally be substituted for the former. [Mathematici. while Liherius was Pope [c. Such were those numerous publications that made their appearance in Paris about the middle of the last century. Augustine as having been condemned by the Council of which may be traced back Moschus [Cudworth. and the setting up of the abomination of desolation in the temple of every soul. with the wandering bodies of "Bohemians" and "Egyptians" which appeared in Erance during the Middle Ages. are often classed under one wide category of Atheism.D.d. a nature per se. 3yst.] [Burghees.

who. and grope in all A the noon-day as in the night" [Job v. 1794. The cowardice of SheUey in the storm at sea. and occupies the soul by an approach so stealthy as to be imperceptible. and the decades of each month were the only hohdays. however. The laws of motion are eternal material." III." But the abyss of vrretchedness was too horrible even for the red republic of 1793. was borne along the streets in a triumphal car. Atheism. Failing to account for the origin of matter and motion. impersonating the Goddess of Eeason. Marmontel. Grimm. An account of his Didionnaire des Athees is given in the Dictionary of Dooteinal and Historical : — - — — Theology. There is nothing iu existence. 1770] as a posthumous work of Mirabeau. printed chiefly at the Baron's expense. in alternate prayer to the God whom he had defied. The famous Systhnie de la Nature. the shrieks of terror that his doctor could only compare with the agony of Orestes. which appeared soon after the Systeme de la Nature. SeKinterest lies at the bottom of every human action. accepted his no-creed as a Turk or a Jew accepts the religion under which he is born. and in no slight degree prepared the way for. deny the existence of God. dripping with the blood of his victims. ou des lois du monde physique et moral. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame was desecrated by a solemn renunciation of the Christian religion. or by a staff of writers. more dreadful than the "Lasciate ogni They embodied the active principle of the Materialism and Atheism which preceded. physical and moral. He died in the first year of the Eevolution [a. Eaynal. and Hist. for which services he was duly honoured with their honorary diploma by the Universities of Mannheim. an Atheism that crops up while men sleep. He himself. Condorcet. Man is no more free than he is immortal.d. p^distes. [DioT. Secretary of the Academy. was interdicted . Atheism. or Grimm." let it never be forgotten. the rosary. 1789]. Helvetius. But there is a subjective Atheism lurking among imperfectly instructed masses. was formally proscribed as the foe of equality and liberty. save matter and motion. and that a solemn festival in honour of the Supreme God should be holden. "Death is an eternal sleep. of Atheism became rapid and uninter- Everything suggestive of religion in public and civil life was roughly torn away and replaced by the utterances of Atheism. and which may convince any reasonable intellect that it is the fool and the fool only who can " say in his heart there is no God. all ^Numerous atheistical pamphlets and papers. In the end religion.d. that there is no God and no Providence. is seen in the historian of Atheism Mar^chal. were issued by this fraternity. " They meet with darkness in the day-time. horrible wickedness. 14]." speranza" of Dante " The reign of Atheism. so dreadful that his nurse would never after tend a dying infidel. Eobespierre. Duclos. but was composed in reality by Holbach. and induced the National Assembly to pass a resolution to the effect that for the future the existence of a Supreme Being should be asserted . his utter desertion by God and man these are the encouragements Atheism holds out to its disciples. and his horror of conscience. was the "reign of Terror. and his Histoire Critique de Jesus-Christ. The reaction of society. o/Doot. and enthroned upon the high altar of the cathedral. and as a public avowal of the persuasion that there is no future life. Other were professedly vraitten by Holbach Le Christianisme devoile [1758]. 1793]. was the author.] Its tone is that of a materialistic Atheism. with translations of English Deistical treatises. that belief in the immortality of the soul should be re-established as an article of GaUican faith. without is there where hymns were sung and incense burned in 56 troubhng themselves with speculative subtleties . even in this miserable degree. from some misfortune perhaps of early association. and generally anonymously. who living under the clear light of the Sun of Eighteousness. Laharpe. it declares. It is of such that Job says. only more dreadful in his last moments when actually struggling for the dear life the dying bed of Voltaire. Thought and will Man is altogether atheistical productions throughout the book. Such were Diderot. 10th. as it was said. The wayside crosses were demolished . Thenceforth it was accepted as the creed of France. Atheists As the crowning act of all thia her honour. the lowest of [Nov. "furiis agitatus:" also the close of the infidel Paine's life. mere modificaBelief in God and of tions of cerebral matter. and St. the curses before which his atheistic friends took flight. For a moral as well as an intellectual Atheism an obliquity of judgment in those who. and of all laws and morals. a. Atheism. in its subjective phase. Petersburg. the soul's existence are fallacies arising from a mistaken distinction of matter and spirit. and Atheism was openly proclaimed in the National Assembly. and the march rupted. there is a are petitio principii and invariable. an inscription was placed over the entrance of each cemetery. the first scathing foretaste of the fire that never can be quenched. formed the nucleus of a clique of freethinkers afterwards famous as the Encyclo- . The era of infidelity had now set in. existiag as attraction and repulsion.— Atheists having established himself in a noble mansion at Paris. constituted himself the priest of Deism . the old French Revolution of 1790. was a type of the reaction that has always given to the dying atheist the fearful anticipation of the worm that dieth not. which was more probably the case. and on May 7th.d. because in their lives they have never known Him. d'Alembert. appeared [a. of every attribute of life. the Bible was burnt in public by the hangman. and for a time at least Eousseau. and Buffon. and under the new republican calendar the Lord's Day was abrogated. and in its reaction of blasphemy. stripped of every accessory of honour. Atheism could not be endured long by the human spirit . Berlin. A.. and by its re-dedication as the Temple of Eeason woman. the low. Theology. of nearly fifty pieces . La Grange. the emblem of private devotion.D.

such avarice. by the heartlessness of the rich. the heady height (vf'iDfj. in works denying the existence of a moral Governor of the universe. and as it is only by being brought under subjec- God that man's will recovers spontaneous action. tion to the will of its perverse will. Whatever suits not its prejudices and presentiments it rejects . Akin to these negative qualities. The moral coward and the unbelieving. Johnson noted the fact in his own way when he told Boswell to go home and count his spoons after an infidel had heen his guest. Atheists themPaith and a good is evil heart of unbelief. nor the badges of our religion that make a Christian. imperious will. the strong delusion that. or the laeard a philosopher. It is not the name of a Christian. x. There may be a creed in the mouth where there is no faith in the heart. are in the same category of condemnation. that will is our high exemplar. but to whatever conclusion it may be led it is prepared to justify conscience are inseparable the carnal heart always more or less dark with unbelief. and by the force of religious example in the Christian home. Dr. Pride is the very It is a proud.n beHeve there is a God and so affront Him 1 can he believe that Christ reigneth in heaven and so despise His laws ? Can a man believe a judgment to come and so little regard his Me? a heaven and so little seek it? a heU and so little shun it? Faith. i. and act the lie it believes. the perverse sense." But there is no school of Atheism so sure of doing its work as a vicious life flowing from tho various germs of evil above noticed. is not so rife ." says Barrow. and that presence is in practice denied. 11]. is the manifestation of "Where pride is the active prmciple of a man's unbelief. hatred and envy on the part of the poor. the natural growth of the self-corrupting heart . Paul teacheth us [Tit. its issues.a) "that exalteth itself against the knowledge of Pride too is vile before God" [2 Cor. . The standard of right. and. however wrong. may be true. such universal carnality doth reign. If Atheism is precipitated in the social cauldron from the presence of incompatible elements with no afiinity for each other .fji. were these words only suitable to cavalier consciences. its growth is also forced on by the plastic energy of evU. some sins smell rankly of it" [Serm." more hope of him who has learned the parrot-talk of Atheism than of the heart which is darkened by a pride that can never confess its erring. which implies some exercise of the judgment and of reasoning. and have they no vis viva at the present day? Such practical Atheism is a far more active agent in the dissemination of infidelity than the productions of all the infidel presses in the world. "there is more hope of a fool than of him . 16]. 5]. act teaching of an everyday faith. essence of Satanic being. and a cross impressed on the forehead of an infidel. that horrid profaneness of discourse. " Ye say ye see. self-conceit. Pride knows no retreading of any path of error . of God's being. therefore. more than a cowl doth make a monk. such lewdness. and lazily sinking without an effort in the " thick clay" of worldly vice and folly. 8t€(rTpafi. and selfishness everywhere .: Atheists and sophistical arguments. and obedience to the divine wUl is a virtual acknowledgment. so there is an irresistible logic in the life. and treats with scorn the homely 17] are its every sin hath a spice of it. can faith be there 1 Can a ma. on the Creed]. therefore your sin remaineth. commencing in early life with the neglect of positive discipline in the ways of religion and moral training . ii. It is a of the unregenerate wUl is atheistic. but it is the blank Atheism of a heart living without God in the world. more com- will that starts aside from this general sense of humanity is altogether opposed to God's wiU. and is as a false varnish concealing internal defects with a specious assumption of It is the soul of every atheistic superior wisdom. the The will of essence of man's fallen nature. aTrio-Tos Kal xvii. such sluggishness has its natural issue in practical Atheism. The present is scarcely the occasion for exhibiting the antidote of Atheism. that effectually blind the soul to all consciousness of God's presence. as God's judgment upon sin.€vrj [Matt. i. SeiXoi koX aTTiaToi. But practical Atheism is not oidy of this negative character . by the training of a religious education. ^ I"V". •without talking selves into Atheism. if the practical Atheism that they engender is to be killed down in the it mon than we take to be 1 Atheism and immorality go Land in land. Christ was wholly one with the will of the Father. . The presence of God does not come home to the senses. or desolation of God's law i "Where such luxury. Is he not an infidel who denieth God ? such a renegado is every one that liveth profanely. that strange neglect of God's service. fostered by a spirit rendered gross by gain by the continuous pursuit of cowardice of shrinking from selfsacrifices that are painful to flesh and blood . the sight of the eye and the hearing of the ear have a reality in them that overrules the inner teaching of the hidden sense of faith. while disobedience The active tendency is the denial. such uncharitableness. what meaneth that monstrous dissoluteness of life. are possessed with the it. coupled attributes. It results principally from negative conditions of the soul and conscience . that is of the very self-indulgence or . infidelity is . whatever its practice. This must chiefly be administered in the way of prevention by taking care that the young are led to a knowledge of God and of His ways. 57 . man as being the outcropping of untruthfulness. these elements must be subdued and eliminated. paradox. " Infidelity. many infidels do lurk under the mask of a Christian profession. as St. is a disregard of truth. It fills a man with of which it is only a phase. . It may not be the prey of any active form of infidelity. "hath a larger territory than we suppose . which humanity at large by its shews to beGod's will to the collective soul of that humanity. . compels it to believe a lie [2 Thess. It may reasonably be asked. Arid have we not many such renegadoes 1 If not.

where he converted many of the Goths. practice. 1. they advanced in opposition to Church doctrine the heretical tenet of Anthropomorphitism. 1. them Vadiani. who calls Hist. as established whom by the Council of Nicsea. ATHINGANI [a— ^tyyava.] [AuDiANS.- Athingani rising generation. cent. [Anthropothe custom of Quartodecimanism. August. In his old age Audius was banished by Constantius to Scythia. 5. A title bestowed in the eighth century upon a sect of Paulicians which rose in Asia Minor in the reign of Constantine Pogonatus [a. there can he faith in the Disposer of the various estates and conditions of men. [Jansenists. \Y.d. Audius (or Audseus) formed his sect. [Athingani. [Epiph.] tality of the soul. About the time of the Council of Nicsea.. [Protestant Confessions. AUD^ANS. Audians is Where little there no faith. ' So Epiphanius expressly states. reproving to their face ATTINGIANS. He took upon himself the office of censor of Church morality. persecution drove them from the country of the Goths. by love unfeigned. later than a. 10].] AUGSBUEG. by the Holy Ghost. Heretics of the thirteenth century who rejected the doctiine of the immor\Geiit. E. and cut themselves off from all connection with the hierarchy of the dominant party." instead of the Catholic formula. In order to have specific points of difference from the Church they had left. the fifth century. and states that some assert them to have been in Egypt in communion with the Catholic Church. They began to be so called in the days of the Empress Irene [a.d. Prmdest. Johannites. appears to have been that of baptizing with the words " I am the living water. by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left" [2 Cor." because they rejected image. and in opposition to Church bishops and clergy living covetously or luxuriously. xv. but by the general tone of society that surrounds it. by the power of God.] AUDIANS. Atheism is preeminently so. Isa. local also bishops of the sect among the Goths.] AUGUSTINIANS. from other Paulician heretics. Many bishops carried on the sect in MesopoThere were tamia. " by pureness. and has set in motion those discordant vibrations that in the end become the habitual jarring of the evil heart of unbelief. They were also called Paulo apart Their distinctive practice. and the assertion of selfwiU. The name by which the Jansenists were accustomed to designate themselves in the early days of their history.] designation used by conAZYMITES. CONFESSION OP. by the word of truth. 668-685]. where Zenon. If sin is the reproach of any nation. Atheism must be rooted out from the great population-beds. led into schism through the workings of intemperate zeal.] In addition to these. and established monasteries of strict and admirable rule. the time of which is not known. 7]. for it is caused not merely hy the viciousnessof the individual intellect.d. Theodoret refers it to the reign of Valens. i. Ixx. iv. Theodoret charges the Audians with adopting from Manichseism the tenet that the Creator was not the Pormer of fire and darkness \Hkt. is named as their chief opponent.. comp. Uranius being their chief. Magd. vi. 264 {H. in humanity. MOBPHITBS. Hter. when they acquired the name of Attingians or " Separates. a Syrian bishop. 10. 10. and was irregularly consecrated bishop by a bishop who had joined his schism. Eccl. by long-suffering. by knowledge. 7]. Theod. But this doctrine was not avowed by them. Here he remained till his death. All have their work to do in the reparative process. he considered to be He was beaten. His adherents adopted a monastic life both in town and country. Hcer..worship. QUAETODEOIMANS. ATHOCIANS. and in very much diminished numbers they collected in Chalcis in Syria and by the The sect disappeared by the end of Euphrates.e. and suffered other indignities. with the veneration of the cross and of relics. The history of the sect requires the earlier date. 797-802]. troversialists of the Eastern Church for those who consecrate unleavened bread for the Holy A A Eucharist.^ He was a Syrian of Mesopotamia. xlv. Unable to bear them he separated himself from the Church. iv. 6.]. 58 . an upright and zealous man. by kindness. Eccl.

and became a Franciscan monk at Oxford." The work that he prepared by command of Clement IV. from a leader disciple and successor of Josephus EpapliToditus. He is the connectiiig-Hnk between the scholasticism of the Middle Ages and the philosophy of Europe in times. he means not the authority which God has committed to his Church. and in the first instance these three languages were as the keys of all knowledge [Opus Tertium. Even the " angelic " Thomas was " vir erroneus et famosus. see in such statements the same independence of now be opened We Bacon was thoroughly convinced of the importance of geographical and ethnological science. ad Ann. These were notions that had never yet been heard in the Schools. i. might well put to shame the far inferior wisdom of contemporary guides. the Fathers he says that they not only permit to us the correction of whatever is spoiled by human ignorance. whUe. If he had his own way. might be sent forth. If the vitium originis of the Schools was a love for disputation and endless wrangling. " nuUum ordiuem excludo. 10. Hist Munich." and. 810. Experience is the true handmaid of knowledge. who could declare to savages the marvellous works of God in. If Eoger seems. he said. still K — 59 . to depreciate authority. he would burn every copy "Si haberem potestatem super libros Aristotelis. et causa erroris multipUcati " [comp. he had a profound veneration. A.] BACOJf. with a knowledge of Uving languages. to some local sect of the Paulicians in Armenia. named Baanes. Baronius. the spirit. their own tongue . EOGEE. The ethics of Aristotle. but they themselves advance statements which afterwards they with humility retract. which raised the name of Descartes to the highest rank. Pagan men. Authority is valueless unless it gives its reasons. He endeavoured to recall the learned from their blind idolatry of Aristotle. and the Arab. This was the queen of sciences. as Peripatetic philosopher. the noble and exalted moral teaching of Cicero. had never yet been taught in the Schools as it had been of old. then only known in faulty Latin translations of a corrupt text.D. the Greek Church might become one with the Eoman through the fraternity of a common speech j and all mankind might be made one family by commerce and the amity of familiar intercourse. Bacon lays down rules for the prosecution of such studies that can scarcely fail to have helped forward the "Advancement of learning "after four more centuries had passedaway. He afterwards went to Paris. Bacon declared it should out to aU. however. Philosophy as yet had grown only upon three stocks of the human family the Hebrew. a A name given. Theol. had attained a height by the mere force of reason. Greek. but that which is the assumption of blind prejudice. But this refers only to those parts that subserved the dialectics of the Schools. " non sapit nisi detur ejus ratio. In this there is a touch of the sensualism of Locke and of the method of Comte. or that which results from merit and worth. which had precedence of the rest. that investigates the truth for itself. the same love of order and simplicity. and of an accurate knowledge of learned languages and grammar . was intended to suggest to his patron the necessity of reform. and enabled Lord Bacon to lay the foundation of modem philosophy. that the onward progress of Antichrist might be stayed. age. and is not indebted to antecedent systems. and transmitted to him. the Athens of the where he graduated as doctor. [Petrus Sicul. missionaries. probably. Ethics. and ignorance. and demand for clear intelligible reasoning. it was to be cured by diverting the attention of the learned to sounder studies in the way of experimental philosophy. every man's hand was against him. 1214. where the language of the Vulgate and the mass was deemed to be all-sufficient." Eeasoning can only amount to demonstration when its results are verified by experience and practice.B BAANITES. that had as yet been inaccessible to Christian doctors. without the light of grace and faith. Even comparative philology was dimly present to his mind. he said. he said. and had Eobert Gros-tete as feUow-student and friend. amOf the authority due to bition. ego facerem omnes cremari. about the year 810.] Mathematics he held to Ije the principal science. quia tantum est temporis amissio studere modern : in iUis. the treatises of Seneca. taint of error his Wherever he suspected the hand was against every man. inasmuch as the spiritual and eternal is only to be learned by the bodily and finite. 2]. at Brasenose Hall. they had lived to time present they would have improved and altered many things that are allowed to exist. He was born at Ilchester. For Aristotle. studying. in consequence.

by their teaching anticipated revealed truth. however inconceivable might be its rapidity. declared March 22nd to be the equinoctial day . He and the Bacon more than once launches pations of the possible Mechanism. Like all his predecessors of the Schools he classed philosophy and theology together . All wisdom. first air. It was in strict keeping with the spirit of his age. The composition of gunpowder was among the secrets of his laboratory. and to such marvels of startling anticidiscoveries of science. he said. that his vast erudition and sagacious power of observation should be compromised by a belief in judicial astrology. Bacon. Bacon seems scarcely to have troubled himself to ascertain the difference between realism and nominalism. pedantic. and in 4266 years. The lunations were no less faulty . Caro to apply himself to its of old. Infidel philosophers. and in the midst the guide wOI sit who. when he said that they were no true stars. Similarly the equinoxes were observed to fall earlier by a day in every 124 years. The invention of telescopic and microscopic lenses is attributed to him. In fact he was too correctly orthodox in his theology. and too earnest an advocate of the supremacy of canon over civil law. His but they shine by their own brilliancy. totle was in error when he deemed the action of to be instantaneous . Arabs and Jews.d. another for swimming and floating on its surface without risk of sinking. and threw out hints that were turned to account by Copernicus. " corpora parvse quantitatis .d. under Gregory XIII. and indicated the He showed that Arispossible use of the retina. a. to run in the same groove with the early advocates of nominalism. who order the them moving in a vicious circle of ahstractions. and enable a man to lift himself and others from the lowest depths to the clouds. proposed by him in earnest terms to Pope Clement IV. says. and ignite by the rapidity of their movement. he sent at the same time a lens. for it gave the exact date for calculating the lapse of time since Ptolemy. 1582. vjrhich made them utterly incapable of appreciating the real and the natural . was cramped and illiberal. Bacon's reform of the calendar. and in the transmutation of metals by alchemy. by John of Paris. but comparatively of small bulk. His knowledge of astronomy enabled him to detect the error of the Julian year. The light of the stars. Bacon was the precursor of Newton he himself profiting by the discoveries of Arab philosophers. but he was no partisan. wiU suffice to raise and lower enormous weights. in 306 years the error of the calendar amounted to an entire day. Yet he first made known the delicate mechanism of the eye. to the teaching of Holy Writ. the movement of which. which was longer than the astronomical year by about eleven minutes. is contained substantially in Scripture. and a constant cause of error. His strictures upon the unsatisfactory condition of the Vulgate text captious Church feasts by so fluctuating a scale of error. The principles of perspective were not unknown to Bacon. hence that the spirit of of the Schools. and much harm to himself by these invectives. Carriages wiU roU along with an inconceivable swiftness without a team. he said. and he accused as at Bacon. will cause huge wings to unfold themselves and generate a bird-like movement. who. a few inches long and wide. 300]. was only realized three centuries later. but of the two he favoured the latter class of opinion. Roger tl« full. will be invented. was not derived. The error had its use in chronology. Another implement wiU have such tractile force as to enable a single operator to draw a thousand persons along. A smaU implement.. 298. He ascribed the highest authority. by touching a spring. and when he presented his Opus Majus to Clement IV. If ever the holy men indicated the refractive power of the rationale of the rainbow. theory of shooting stars and meteors made a near approach to modern notions. whereby the largest vessels vrill be propelled without rowers. and the carelessness of Christian prelates. One apparatus will be devised for walking at the bottom of the sea. but it was a reproach to astronomy. In other respects also. et instruxi eum in demon- stratione et figuratione hujus rei occultte" 31]. it was because the traditions of paradise had never quite died out the torch transmitted from hand to hand had never been wholly obscured by the smoke of this world's folly. Roger Bacon toldly laid to the charge of Schoolmen a profound ignorance of sacred and profane antiquity." that light they traverse the earth's atmosphere. is still appreciable \Opus Maj. and more rapidly under the guidance of a single man than vri. though without the precision of EosoeUin or the greater subtlety of Abelard . Bacon shewed the faultiness of the Ptolemean theory. Machines will fly through the air. a. 140. and were both equally derived from the reasonable Word that was made flesh and dwelt among us. he at least prepared the minds of succeeding generations for the emancipation of the human spirit from scholastic trammels. Tertium. when 60 .th a fuU crew. or the wiser spirits among the heathen. which prevented them from detecting the various fallacies of the day . they both formed one truth. \Opus caused Hugh de St. the moon entering on her first quarter. with instructions " Johannes portavit crystaUum spherifor its use : cum ad experiendum. over the Church and everything else. Nearly all the evil that abounds in the world arises from our ignorance of Scripture.: . troubling itself so little about the Vforks of nature and of God. Bridges wUl be thrown across rivers without piers or arches . which must then be subtracted. regard with amazement the stupidity of Christian astronomers. and would have the laity also study it in the original languages. he nature shall have been compelled to reveal her secret laws. disputatious and If Bacon did no good in his generation. and to descend again at his will. In optics. he said. would be marked -in the calendar purification. too ardent a maintaiuer of the sovereign authority of the Pope. and artificial. Its development is canon law and philosophy. in 128 years this would amount to an entire day. c.

a work recently recovered by M. [Baooni Opus Majus. for the purposes of necromancy . Although not accepting the Manichaean theory as to the origin of evil in its customary form. because tradition declared that it would fall when a greater man than Bacon passed — — corezenses. Gesch." where he was placed under rigid surveillance and harsh discipline that continued for ten years [a. Dogm. His books and mathematical instruments were taken from him. for. to stem the tide of prejudice that opposed the onward progress of the human spirit. as Papal legate in England. de Descartes. He gives a touching description of these trials in the introduction to his Opus Tertium.d. Concorrenses. et Disc. taken from his works before the Pope Pius V. daring nobly. Free. and were declared heretical. 1294. The pronounced Augustinianism of Baius excited opposition from the Franciscans.D. and a brazen head which gave responses to his questionings upon the deep of nature and futurity." He the name of Baius was not mentioned. in the last years of his life. How may a rampart be thrown round England ? was a question propounded by Bacon and one of his experts. BAGNOLENSES. to teach. The oracle was silent. or BAJUS. corresponding with the Albanbnses in most particulars. and Tr. and water by a rebel spirit. placed seventy-six Ijeneath. they still maintained that matter being created by God it was moulded into the four elements earth. de Sci: Neander." The mildest discipline. and at the cost of personal safety. or his proud spirit of independence and heroic energy. They also revived the heresy of the Docetse respecting the human Nature of our Lord.. 1560. Cousin from an ancient MS. He first indicated ia its dawn the brilliant future that awaited scientific induction. was made Pope. Baconi Opus Tertiuin. 1278 to 1292. who. [Bagnolenses. and where he raised up fresh opponents. of a theologian of Louvain named Michael de Bay. from a. Bacon having been detected in writing to him was at first treated with greater severity. a town of Provence. propositions 61 . but in the BuU of condemnation "Ex omnibus afilictionibus. when he returned to England. Lond. sect of the Anabaptists who considered it sinful to carry any other arms than a staff. Fhil. and the utterance was for ever lost. The Bagnolians were also known by the names of Concordenses. d. "propter quasdam novitates suspectas. but attention was absorbed in their work. 1551. with the title of Clement IV.] BACULAEII. who owed his elevation to the influence of Jerome of Ascoli.] BAIUS. and are considered by Mosheim and some other ecclesiastical historians to have been the original Albigenses. Presently it spoke. Chr. whether we spirits ^ It was said that Dr. like Seneca. had heard of his fame. " Plus d'un bon Anglais de nos jours se prendra a regretter que la tgte d'airain de tikie Baeon n'ait pas 6t6 conserv^e . and his followers of Mahomet. Cousin. Gladstone!" Bacon's depreciation of the scholastic system secrets ! A A drew down upon him a bitter and life-long persecution. And truly he was a wonderful character. de Mathemat. it was said." all persecution of the object of their wonder notwithstanding. See also Saisset. Baius was born at Melin in the territory of Aeth in the year 1513. Such was Eoger Bacon. alleging that the Scriptures altogether forbid the use of the sword to Christians. ed.] Baius consider the extent of his varied knowledge. whose theories respecting grace and predestination were the foundation of Jansenism. he could be no true Christian who meddled with black arts . He died in A. 38. Eighteen propositions taken from them were condemned by that body in a. and they returned to their alembics. et Disc. his only ambition was "discere ut doceam. He adopted an independent line of teaching instead of that ordinarily received from the Schoolmen. 1257-67]. et qu'elle ne puisse pas dire son secret a I'oreille attentive de Lord Pahnerston. a. general of the Eranoiscan order. worse than all. K. Saisset observes sarcastically.^ He only studied his Moorish philosophers. He was accused of dealing with familiar in his observatory tower at Oxford. and believing in One only First Cause. Saisset. and was succeeded by Nicolas III. at Douai. Gesch. He was content to be the victim of contemporary ignorance. 1733. from the Douai MS. but afterwards released. Cyril Jackson always avoided walking under this tower. composed a Summary of Theology.d. Bacon's long imprisonment then foUowed. inflexible bigot. was solitary confinement on a bread and water diet. Conooretii. and he was forbidden to write and. founding it especially on the Pauline Epistles as interpreted by St. if only he might be an associate of the wise in every age. Augustine. Que d'alarmes et d'argent dpargnfe a I'amiraut^ Anglaise Que de soucis de moins pour M. his astrology alone condemned him. x. They derived their name from Bagnolo.d. The Latinized name but Baius still continued in his office In 1563 he was sent as delegate to the Council of Trent. Jebb.d. Hope revived within him when Guy Foulques. and having been educated at Louvain. Hist. Free. Unfortunately for him Clement died the next year. where he took a prominent part in the discussions which took place. if he resented such treatment. who. became Professor of Theology there. de Descartes. Roger science there will be no apparent limit. after his return to Louvain. iv. termed by his contemporaries " Doctor mirabUis. and Con- Bacon had the credit with his contemporaries of having invented a burning mirror that could consume an entire army. Usher. or Baiolo. A. Eitter. These propositions were condemned by the Pope in the year 1567. fire. The rulers of his convent at length sent him for trial to Paris. and that from these the world was formed. BAIOLENSES. sect of mediseval Cathari of the thirteenth century. air. who brought his lectures to the notice of the Sorbonne.Bacon.D. but not holding precisely the same Dualist or Manichasan theory as to the cause of evil. having. shortly at Louvain. a narrow-minded. [De Mirah.

then of London. and had attempted to reduce the Church of England to the platform of foreign Protestantism . Fortunately there was pubhshed in 1719." said Tolet. that the writings of the disputants are now in general unreadable. and ecclesiastical authority . and then of notion of the course the controversy ecclesiastical He wrote in all the controversies of the Memoirs of Life hy Disney. to impugn doctrines — such as Kennett's on lay deprivations. Trapp^ defending Snape. the Test and Corporation Acts. Then came Hoadly's sermon. But much opposition was raised against him by the Bangorian Controversy point of the N"onjuring question.] In the year 1717 there met in literary contest the three great parties into which England was divided." Jesuits. though it may do so when united with the satisfaction offered by our Lord. and he lost his chaplaincy to the King. = Head Master of Eton. some of appeals to foreign Protestants. secondly. Translator of Cyprian. Peter's at Louvain. and took no prominent part in theological controversy for the rest of his life. Baius submitted to this condemnation. " nihil doctius. " On the nature of Christ's kingdom. continuing in that state even without the assistance of Divine Grace. and a reply on other grounds made to the Nonjurors by Pierce^ and others. a systematic Account of all the Considerable Pamphlets. But the pamphlets most deserving attention are Bennett's Letters to the Bishop of Carlisle on the nomination and deprivation of English prelates. Deeply important as its topics were. Dissenting preacher of Exeter. in which was claimed obedience to the deprived bishops. WiUiam Law. we may by the list he gives form a sufficient ^ Thomas Bennett of Cambridge. Essay on the Articles. some of the rights and powers of Convocation. Some tracts are still read by students. a converted Jesuit living with Hoadly. Bishop of Bangor (from whom the controversy takes its name). Before Convocation could act Snape^ rephed. a connected series of the tracts. that of a humble-minded man who sought truth and the good of the Church rather than the spread of his own opiaions " Michaele Baio. and of the constitution of the Church of Christ as established in this country. 214].* from the status of the Nonjurors. Sykes' also took part. and that for all times. and Law's on the priesthood and its powers. and friend of Sacheverell. &c. so much of merely personal and temporary interest entered into their handling. ^first. the members of the Church who had submitted to William. author of History of Forms of Prayer. branching off on the one hand into the topics of the sacraments. Church ordinances. it widened to the general consideration of the nature of the Church of Christ. and the Ifonjurors who had set up a rival episcopate. but had defeated the attempt to alter the constitution of the Church . retracted his opinions that he might obtain absolution from Cardinal GranveUa the Legate. 63 .Bangorian Controversy therefore continued in his office of Divinity Professor. all three weU known in English BANGOEIAN CONTEOVEESY. * day. Hoadly wrote anonymously. of the three disputing parties. Church history. the validity or invalidity of lay deprivations of bishops. " ^ James Pierce. and was therefore commented on.d. Winchester. Francis Tolet. then of Colchester. to subvert all government and discipline in the Church of Christ. and consequently the Church of England under Tenison schism. ISTathanael Marshall. works whatever are sinful unless done from pure love of God . Hoadly. and on the other hand into the topics of religious sincerity. that after the Fall all his works which are not done under the influence of Divine Grace are sinful works . Vj9i5. 1589. His answer was not thought satisfactory. and even became Dean of St. with episodes some purely personal. author of The Penitential Discipline of the Church of England. after Baius had re- [Jansenists. that all men being born in sin it is impossible that penance by itself can offer satisfaction for sin. 1716. The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ. Cambridge. and continued in 1720. and at the instigation of one of them. and without adopting the criticisms and judgments of the writer. and to reduce His kingdom to a state of anarchy and confusion. : The condemned propositions of Baius maintained the theory that man might have merited eternal Life if he had continued in a state of innocence. that The dispute began when the Government at the time of the Scotch rebellion seized many copies of Hickes' Collection of Papers. and a second concerning the character of De la PiUonnifere. Oxford Professor of Poetry. An episode occurred upon Bennett's being charged with having advised Hoadly regarding his sermon [see Life of Bennett. and positions contained in the Sermon and the Preservative was. 6 took. Then appeared Hoadly's Prethe Principles servative against and Practices Louvain and Douai even canted. nights of the Olergy. and the priesthood. and answered the Nonjurors' charge of schism. then Provost of King's College. of a conforming Churchman. may be named as representatives Marshall. This second stage. Sykes appeared for Hoadly. p. Arthur Ashley Sykes of Salisbury. and they were still taught at all Bennett^ attacked them. His first letter to Hoadly passed through seventeen editions in one year. and a Committee of the Lower House represented that the tendency of the The controversy was long and very voluminous. nihil humilius. Convocation moved. Beginning with the main Joseph Trapp. and amidst a cloud of anonymous pamphlets Hoadly rejoined." was carried on by Burnet and Whitby. disputed some of Hoadly's arguments. Church communion. and Wake was charged with The first stage then regarded the Non- jurors' pretensions. but it may be safely assumed that few living men have read or would or could read. was confirmed in the year 1580 by Gregory XIII. the party which had transferred the allegiance of the nation to the foreign Prince WUliam of Orange. Some of these opinions were revived by Jansen and by the Quietists. He thus justified the character given of him even by his opponents. the sacramental test. and Chancellor of the University. the Bull of Pius V. which lasted until a.

&c. putting forward an alleged sincerity of good intention as aU in all. which was performed the 12th of September 1633. excommunications. The powers denied and destroyed were. These being generally identified with the foreign Anabaptists. the attempt failed. Dean Stanhope. and was formed into a distinct community only in the reign of Charles I. and so own more than could in these times of persecution conveniently meet together. however. nuUity or validity of God's ordinances to the people. has not only condemned the abuse. [Heme's Account of all the Considerable Pamphlets. But for some reason which is not known. the Prolocutor. Sykes and Pierce stood up This brought up the question of for Hoadly. . would dissolve the Church as a society.] . "There was a congregation of Protestant Dissenters of the Independent persuasion in London. is said to have written one of the seven pamphlets against the archbishop. whereof Mr. " "When you are secure of your integrity before God. were reprinted in 1812 in The Scholar Armed. But there [Sb-Baptists] and then his followers. first baptized himself leader. and were both composed of English Puritans. so they looked upon the baptism they had received in that age them the Dean of Ely. Meanwhile Law had answered Hoadly's fresh reply to Snape. His Sermons were edited by Snape. the special point to which he addressed himself being Hoadly's assertion. Moss^ defended the report. baptism only to adult persons baptizing them not to make them children of God. to shew its character and importance. Henry Jacob was the first pastor. to extravagant degrees of Church power. The foregoing is but a very brief statement of the heads of the controversy. In this society several persons finding that the congregation kept not their first principles of separation. not only powers of government. and not being able to obtain baptism from the Dutch. their John Smith. Sherlock turned the controversy in the Convocation branch to the particular point of the Test and Corporation Acts. and after him Mr. These Brownist Anabaptists. so happened. endeavoured at a later date to ally themselves with the Mennonites of Holland. in his extreme opposition to certain unwarrantable pretensions . and believing also that these persons acted from a principle of conscience and not obstinacy. agreed to allow liberty they desired. community at Amsterdam. : impeach tlie regal supremacy in causes and the authority of the legislature A sect whose distinctive prin- to enforce obedience La matters of religion civil sanctions. without which the Church as a society cannot subsist. was accused of inconsistency. upon account of niceties and trifles. from whom have sprung the Mbnnonites or German Baptists of a later time. it is notorious. said the Committee of Convocation. and reduce all It has its ordinances to mere human inventions. the doctrine which. 1783. Hoadly replied to the report. Infant baptism was repudiated by most of the mediJBval Anti-Sacerdotalists and by the AnaBiPTiSTS of the Eeformation age. his account being thus printed gathered in the year 1616. afterwards by Zachary Grey. and in that of Queen Elizabeth. with a Life. by Sherlock. and of course included the question of a sacramental test. 1 ' Proctor for Sarum diocese. 63 . William by Crosby. that this Eight Eeverend Bishop. desired that they might be dismissed from that community. and it is probable that they were converts of the Dutch Anabaptists who emigrated to England in the time of Henry VIII. Master of the Temple. The Nonjuring questions and the questions of the Test Acts are now only of historical interest. authoritative benediction. were called by the same name. The narrated true origin of the English Baptists is by one of their founders. and the later sect of beyond the fact that both bodies rejected Infant Baptism. and looked upon it as invalid. they were now grown very numerous. and by which our national constitution next under Christ is chiefly supported. occasional conformity. and parties of them emigrated to Amsterdam in the years 1606 and 1608.^ and Dawson^ being for the defence. 1720. who was their minister at this time. but even denied the use and destroyed the being of those powers. And as they believed that baptism was not rightly administered to infants. but as a sign that they have ciple is that of administering become so. Of permanent interest is the main subject. this wUl lead you not to be afraid of the terrors of men. Archdeacon of Norfolk. considering that sentiments.Bangorian Controversy and ecclesiastical Baptists BAPTISTS. the author of the Independent Whig. In 1712 he tried in vain to procure a synodical condemnation of Brett's Sermon on Remission of Sins. Some sharp skirmishing took place concerning a letter to a Zurich professor containing bitter It was said to have invectives against Hoadly. and a side-quarrel ensued between him and Sykes. having signed this report. But the sect commonly known by the name of Baptists among English-speaking people is an offshoot of the Bbownists or early Independents. and that they should be constituted a distinct church. < Law's Three Letters They are the most valuable of all the tracts. John Lathorp. is no historical connection between this English Baptists. or "Enthusiasts" as they were often called [Enthusiasts]. Among the Brownists there were always some persons who objected to Infant Baptism. It is sufficient. but such only as professed faith in Christ. and being also convinced that Baptism was not to be administered to infants. or the vain words of regular and uninterrupted successions. or any other the like dreams. been written by "Wake. but also of the valid administration of the sacraments. and allowed to form a distinct congregation in such order as was most agreeable to their The Church. the repeal of which Hoadly had urged. Cannon. the emigrants formed a separate community at Amsterdam. Hoadly's Works. Kiffin. and the controversy raged in attack and defence of the Committee . Gordon. ^ Robert Cannon." Burnet defended Hoadly.

or " Arminian Baptists. and lasted the sect as its standard of doctrine for seventeen years. i. the various congregations of the sect had become suflSciently organized into one body to enable them to hold a representative assembly in London. He was afterwards involved in a controversy with a congregation of the sect which had been formed in a similar manner at Bewdley. States. shall. learned men have differed both in opinion and practice. another was issued of a totally different character under Presbyterian influence. of Purit. and others being of the same judgment. dismissed to the said Mr. Spilsbury's congregation. but for their opinion against the wlierenpon most or all of them baptism. Green. About the same time also the sect was being developed in the North American colonies by an emigrant priest of the Church of England. Their minister was Mr. the third and fourth articles setting forth the doctrine of general redemption. iv. William Kiffin" (the writer of this narrative). was sent over to Holland. 1648. iii. and Captain Spencer" [Crosby's Hist. in an early page of his Autobiography. and in pursuance thereof shall baptize any person formerly baptized. Hist. which was reprinted with many more subscriptions in 1691." are so called because they hold the Arminian doctrine of redemption. 277-321. In the year 1639. Paul Hobson. of Relig. n. instead of the Calvinistic. 64 . Bap: new tists." composed of twenty-five articles. tending to the disturbance of the government and peace of all states . "Mr. in former ages as well as this. Baxter writes. pt. that he made acquaintance with the "Anabaptists" first at Gloucester. named Eoger Williams. where he was baptized by John Batte and on his return he baptized Mr. with great gentleness and reason. i. 41]. This was promulgated in March [Bancroft's Hist. be ordered to renounce his said error in the public congregation of the parish where the offence was committed . or by his own confession. In 1 646. and 35 of these were among the 800 (commonly spoken of as 2000) who refused to conform to the customs of the Church at its Eestoration. Nonoonfoemists]. Large numbers of them enlisted in the Parliamentary army. and violence. whose political importance has given him a chapter in American history somewhat similar to that occupied by William Penn the preceding account Unit. and in case of refusal. there were said to be fortysix of their congregations in and about London. Mr. From all rapidity. and at this a "Confession of Faith" was drawn up which was reprinted in 1644 and 1646. ii. and many of his supporters belonging to the sect. The same the "new baptism" writer also records that of these early Baptists was baptism of infants. and the help thus given to the revolutionary party won for the sect a declaration of the Lords and Commons in their favour. upon conviction by the oath of two witnesses. This marks the time of their separation from the body of the sect. They published a " Confession of Faith. effected nonites. of infants is unlawful. What number thej' were is uncertain. . i. where about a dozen young men having conceived opinions against Infant Baptism had been rebaptized [Baxter's Life and Times. Thomas Wilson. ed. Shortly before the Eestoration. and which even in the height of their prosperous times were in a constant state of disintegration. They shared. in which it was said that "the name of Anabaptism hath indeed contracted much odium by reason of the extravagant principles and practices of some of that name in Germany. General Baptists. it is only a difference about a circumstance of time in the administration of an ordinance wherein. 214. or shall say the Church government of Presbytery is antichristian or unlawful. were. in the year 1660. and not only an elect few. believing that Christ died to save all men. 216. which declared " Whosoever shall say that the baptism : 101]. or that such baptism is void. after time the sect spread with some is no evidence to shew whether the congregations of Baptists which are soon this but there found existing originated from that of which is given. 242. he shall be committed to prison tiU he find sureties that he shall not publish or maintain the said error any more" [Neale's Hist. or to others ordained according to the custom of the Church [Stoughton's Ecd. i. it attained considerable political influence during the time of the Great Eebellion. another congregation of Baptists was formed whose place of meeting was in Crutohed Friars. within a short distance of the town of Kidderminster. There were also not a few of them licensed to ofiS. of which he was vicar during the time of the Puritan ascendancy. Mr. Baptists as invalid received a Baptists 1647. Samuel Blacklock. Mr.ciate in the churches from which the clergy had been ejected. John Spilsbury. being acquainted with the Dutch language. p. 1852]. 148]. because in the mentioning of the names of about twenty men and women it is added 'with divers others.' In the year 1638. the eighth and ninth that of election [Murray's Hist. upon their request." Shortly after this edict of Parliamentary toleration.. and were hence obliged to give place to the old clergy whom they had ousted. 375]. however. And though we could wish that all men would satisfy themselves and join with us in our judgment and practice in this point yet herein we hold it fit that men should be convinced by the Word of God. a division of the sect had taken place into the General and the Particular Baptists. and this division has been maintained ever since. however. and that such persons ought to be baptized again. This was an ordinance of the Lords and Commons passed on May 2nd. in the general mediation with which aU religions except the Church were treated by Cromwell. which opinions and practice we abhor and detest. In 1643. of Eng. Eichard Blunt. the two then baptizing others to the number of fifty-three \ihid. the chief promoters of which were Mr. and not beaten out of it with force by communication with the Dutch MenOne of their number. or whether they were sporadic offshoots from the fermenting bodies of Puritans which had now become so numerous.

" Unitarian. 13]. and a more elaborate training in Calvinistic theology. 2]. fid. lingering on chiefly through the circumstance that their chapels are endowed. number of actual members of the sect amounted in 1871 to 233. [Croshy's Hist Ung. Campbellites. the personality of Christ and of the Holy Spirit being thus practically allegorized away. In the following century this portion of the Baptist sect became so largely imbued with Unitarian principles. He was by some supposed to be the tutor of Clemens Alexandrinus. The "New Connection" is believed to number about 200 congregations.Bapt lYimey'B Hist. a man of great learning. receive taking the name of the "New Connection of General Baptists. 1861. : Within the last fifty years the Baptists have made some vigorous endeavours to provide a more respectable education for their ministers than is common among dissenters. but this is not established. Bel]. Truth. iv. Emulation. as seems to have been the case with the Nicolaitanes. as by Epiphanius. fab. is mentioned in connection with the Nicolaitanes by Philaster \Hmr. stUl known as " General Baptists.000 in number .000 annually in India. Sb-Baptists." and hence since the secession of the Arminian portion of the sect have distinguished themselves from them by the prefix indicating that dogma. The names Borbelitse and Borboriani are given to the Gnostics in general by some writers. Bapt. " the son of the Lord. from jiopfiopos. who was the special object of their veneration [Iren. 100 Sunday scholars. in the year 154. now wholly BAEBELIOTES. Bap^rjXioTai iJ'yoDv Bop/Sopiavol. xxxiii. says Irenteus. each having on an average 90 members.: Baptists At the Eestoration. but some of these are composed of very few members. a Syrian of Edessa in Mesopotamia. AugusGnostics.].600 places of worship. denied that there was any future judgment. congregations of both being admitted into the "Baptist union" (a society for co-operation founded in 1812).]. Bardesanians an elementary education in the learned languages. They are again subdivided into two sections on the question of free or strict communion. The Baptists are one of " the three denominations" to which a sort of constitutional recognition has been accorded in the right to present corporate addresses to the Crown (the other two being the Independents and the Presbyterians). xxv. Wales. orthod. They have as many as ten colleges in England. Prom Barbelo sprang Light. Frbe-Will Baptists. rather A In the United States they number 1. xh'i'li 13 [Bar Belah]. SeventhDay Baptists. were all personified. London. ed." there was a sect in Iberia which called themselves after the name of Barbelos. and Light being anointed by the Father became Christ. that they gradually split up into two bodies. 1872. Hence they acquired the name of Borborians. Early Eng. those who seceded in 1770 ed. [Theodor. " the son of the Lady. and the Unitarian Baptists about 100. form separate sects. the "free communionists" admitting to the Lord's Supper those who have been baptized only in infancy. xxix. according to the Edessan Chronicle [a work of the sixth century Lardner. whUe the "strict" or "close communionists" only admit those who have been baptized as adults. 2]. the General 1764]. and Epiphanius \Hcer.400.000 members.] the multitude of "like mushrooms growing out of the ground. and Prudence. ed. Evans' Hist. and that they were probably adopted in their mysteries. and a similar explanation being given by Nicetas Choniatus [Nicet. Among who hadsprung'up Particular Baptists represent the original Baptist sect as it first seceded from that of the Brownist or Independents in 1633. and being also attended by persons not actually memThe whole bers of the sect but allied with it. Grace. Haeres. de Hceret. that he was ready to encounter death or any suffering the prince might inflict." or else from ^j.]. p.000. Understanding. This Barbelos. Handbook. Envy." and adopting as their standpoint the original Arminian tenets of the body from which they seceded. and it is supposed that the name is made up of two Hebrew words. ii. and others Sabaoth. Baptist Handbook (annual). From a noble answer of his to Apollonius. i. adv. BAEDESANIANS. Scottish Baptists. as also Lust. but shortly afterwards a large body of them are said to have become followers of Biddlb the Unitarian. Old School Baptists. Bapt. and in these about 240 young men 65 . being fewer by 4000 than In the in 1870 {Bapt. Wayland's Principles arul Practice of Baptist Churches. Tunkbrs. English Colonies there are about 60. Great Britain and Ireland they number about 2. The Particular Baptists are mostly intended when Baptists without any other designation are named. which together expend about £40. 25]. Immortality. as well as those who have been baptized as adults . the majority of whom are negroes in the "West Indies. Will.675. Thesaur. and are a numerous and rather influential body In the whole of among English dissenters. They continue to hold the Calvinistic doctrine of "particular redemption. Hard-Shbll Baptists. in common with other licentious heretics of their class. however. Their system was mixed up with obscure ideas which shew that licentious practices were familiar to them. These two classes do not. and the West Indies. a friend of one of the Emperors Antoninus. 319]. is Eng. The elder fragment of that body. an jEon of the Gnostic mythology. Oxf. and other vices . and Scotland.3 13 [Bar tine \H(Br. being born. Baptists claimed to be 20. sect founded by Bardesanes." This Barbelo they affirmed to be the offspring of the Father. as indeed also are those of the New Connection General Baptists. or Barbelo. filth or mud Theodoret expressly giving this play upon their original name as the application of it. vi. Philaster states that the Borbeliotes. Six-Principle Baptists. They have also two Missionary Societies. China. and of a Mother whom some named Jaldabaoth. He flourished in the latter part of the second century.

shipwrecked in sight of harbour.d. The costly bales. more or less. but said the flesh with which He seemed to be cessive generation of aeons. John of Damascus says that they derived their name from Barsanius. tried before a council in a. Saviour's at Constantinople. monks. belonging to the order of St. GrcEc. Mosheim. laden with Barsumas lonian and Syrian Bardesanes. Persia. Syria. nor actively opposed to Catholic teaching. tracted to the oriental philosophy. The chief founder and leader of the ITestorians in Chaldsea. Arabia. the fanciful ideas of some of the Eastern Gnostics. Barlaam was at the same time condemned by the influence of the Quietists. also. Tartary. not. and after that time we hear no more of the Bardesanians. and the adjoining countries. as Epiphanius says. were finally silenced by one held at Constantinople in a.] BAELAAMITES. we have two other fragments preserved by Porphyry and cited by Cave. but one of the more conspicuous among his own adherents. India. [Tillemont. A Syrian archimandrite who .]. Assuming also the identity of the Baby- a pretender of the name of Barsanuphius. v.d. and partly held with their opinion of the suc[Basilidians. He was ejected from the school of Edessa. Hid. He adopted. 454. Eusebius has preserved a very considerable fragment of this [Euseb. in which they were severely censured. de Hceres. one good. with the monk of that name mentioned in the ecclesiastical history of Evagrius. In a. of Alexandria. Assjrria. Basil. Barsanuphius is not to be confounded 137]. and doubtless their continued use in Syria helped to retain a belief in some of his distinctive opinions. for their leader and having were never numerous. but became bishop of ]!^isibis [a. 33. he is said then to have been held in high respect. &c.] his disciples into Greek. Erom this Cave infers that Recog. BAESA. While sound in the faith (so Eusebius and Jerome but Epiphanius makes biTn a Valentinian from the iirst) he wrote numerous works. iv. and this was the was light seen in the Mount of Transfiguration again opposed by Acindtnus. His chief work was De Fato. He is said by Eusebius to have been an excellent Syriac scholar.Bardesanians than deny his faith. — BAESUMAS. de reb. and China. had a refined body adapted to his unfallen nature. he relapsed.d. it seems most likely. 60. God united and more material body. viz. A sect of the Acephali. in the Clementine Eecognitions [Clemn. whom he had been directed to visit and and whose strange practice he regarded fanaticism. like the preceding. ii.] against Marcion and others. St. Towards the end of his life he his soul to a grosser The dogma which had become the subject of controversy that God dwells in an eternal from His Being. his native country. After the Eall. The adherents of Barlaam. as did his son Harmonius. These were translated by conclusive. many of which he produced [Euseb. and most keen in Atdisputation [Euseb. much learning. great problem of the day. They were used in churches . with Palamas (afterwards archbishop of Thessalonica) for their advocate. He also founded the school of Nisibis. these — Porphyry speaks of a Bardesanes of Babylon as alive in a. created by God. as the opponents of the Quietists were now called. when endued was from Heaven direct. 19. were acquitted.NUPHITES. . not wholly.d. iv. written against an astrologer Abidas. word for word. which would account for the existence of a sect of Bardesanians for nearly two centuries after his death. as mere the The charges brought by him were 1341. like a goodly ship. 10]. Hence he would not admit that Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. ante Const. loc cit. — light.]. They are identical with the Semidalitbs. Bardesanes was the author of these Eecognitions. he denied the resurrection of the body. a propagator of the Theodosian and Gaianite heresy [Damasc. vi. 599. abbot of St. Frcep. ix. but. and immediately leaving Constantinople he joined the Latin Church. His followers. [Fabricius. The use of his hymns was discontinued in the fourth century. are certainly still : Biblioth. he has been reckoned a confessor [Epiphan. M6in. however. to which he was heing urged. who falsely claimed to have received consecration as a bishop. There is no question that his moral system was unimpeachable. Persian sovereign Pherozes to expel the orthodox from their sees and churches. Eccles. being originally written Epiphanius seems therefore in error in Syriac. 218 . a friend of Barlaam. inspect. Eabric. 1351. and the Barlaamites. 316. This was dedicated to Antoninus. is also found. which. 247. one evil. when he makes Bardesanes skilled in Greek as BAESANIANS. Several other councils were held on the subject. 30]. and believed that the body with which the Saviour was clothed was a celestial and unsubstantial one only.]. 1337 he brought a complaint against the Hesychast monks of Mount Athos. he endeavoured to solve by supposing two co-equal supreme principles. and in his early hfe a strong controversialist on the side of the Eastern Church against the Latins. Hwres. from which K"estorian missionaries carried the heresy in the following century to Egypt. well as Syriac. The fragment above mentioned as given by Eusebius. and were reunited to the Jacobite communion at the end of the ninth century [Neale's Patriarch. the emperor. The original man. One of the small and obscure sects into which the AcephaU broke up in the latter half of the fifth century. iii. and to substitute Nestorians in their place.] No doubt. in which he eventually became Bishop of Giersece in Calabria. Evang. though perhaps not most reasonable. They separated off from the Acephali at the end of the fifth century. ii. as errors. II. BAESUMAS. but does not affirm it as an established fact. distinct renounced. Biblioth. Lardner has given many reasons for identifying him with Bardesanes of Edessa. the existence of evil in the world. Ivi. 22. Gr. 435 He persuaded the 437]. He wrote also a great number of hymns. in his controversy with the Hestchasts or Quietist Barlaam was a man of mystics of the East. it seems. ii.d.

verbum). moratus est. Hoer. he held there was a great First Cause. xh. which was made up (according to the Greek system of numeration) by adding together the numbers represented by the letters of which it is composed. Power. Clemens Al&x. xlvi.] Basilides.' Strom. Apostles he lived at the same time as their disciples. ing [vov's. This Glaucias is unknown to history. This name he associated with the number 365. and aU fell into sin together after the creation.d. mens) was created . : the lowest order of angels the world was created . It is likely that the more fantastic forms of heresy. John's death. 365 in all. who was not only a contemporary but an inhabitant of the same city as Basilides. as is stated in the dispute between Arohelaus and Manes [Eouth's Beliq. and taught corrupt man the heavenly knowledge they had allowed themselves to lose. is some evidence that Basilides had been in Persia as well as Egypt. BASILIDIANS. illustr. [Fleury. which was a compound of the Pythagorean philosophy. The chief features in his system.D. Eacl. and His people by His instigation put Jesus to death. Epiph. 190. and on whom it seems we certainly rely for this point. 43. [Sianda. says Tertullian. Mr. De Prcescrip. and Christian revelation. and thus the interests of the angels became conflicting. Their distinguishing errors are said to have been. or perhaps more strictly " Hallowed be The Name" [King's Gnosties. and so on by successive generations were produced Providence. the sun-god of the Persians. This correspondence is thus shewn 1 2 1 "When the acts of the by the Council of Chalcedon Barsumas was driven from it by the general 100 1 2 100 1 40 10 8 40 6 10 9 100 7 60 1 200 1 100 1 voice of those assembled as being the murderer of the holy Flavian. Oxf. of this order was the God of the Jews.] seems to suggest that he is altogether imaginary. flourishing early in the second century.d. 275]. Polem. This was the case with the Basilidians.d. but He had against Jesus.] says that he abode. This name is evidently of Coptic origin. Over them all Abraxas presided. xxviii. and afterwards convicted of heresy as a follower of Eutyches. crucified. King has pointed out an instance where the Egyptian word "Abrak. and &om one Glaucias whom he made the intimate disciple (interpres) of St. That Christ did not become truly incarnate. in Alexandria at the time [a." for kneeling down to worship. false council were annulled effects Basilidians Sacr. 18. Cave places him a. So called from their founder He was of Alexandria. the God of the law and the prophets. to whom he gave the name Abraxas. in the reign of the If not actually a contemporary of the 138]. Some read mortuus est in this passage . 112. Hcer.] By The main problem which the philosophers of the second century set themselves to solve was Since many the existence of evil in the world. Tertull. He claimed to derive his doctrine from St.d. tradition. Matthias. He died about a. The different orders of angels each made a separate heaven. " contrived any wild supposition imaginable to evade it. His followers in the next century much exaggerated his original teaching. Eighteousness. iv. principalities. and the earliest and he was certainly alive Emperor Hadrian [a. They recognised. Basilides taught that Understand- «. xxiv. 135] that Cochebas persecuted the Christians. some make him later. Peter. and powers. if we may judge from the much stronger terms used against them by Tertullian than had been used by Clemens Alexandrinus. Peace. from these came again the lower order of angels. Jerome \de Vir. the First Cause. oriental. but assumed a celestial 200 200 365 60 365 365 200 365 460. 117- of the Egyptian Gnostics. it followed that they frequently denied the Christian doctrine of the resurrection of the body. 8-15.] BAEULI. "Who joined Himself to the man Jesus. Other angels of this order protected and took charge of other nations.]. one Supreme God. His may death may therefore be approximately assigned to A. The correspondence of this number with that made by the word Mithras. "Wisdom. from the Understanding came the "Word (Adyos. that souls were all created before the creation of the world. From Abraxas. He and his monks so kicked and otherwise maltreated Flavian that he died within a few days from the of their violence. A kind of body . : . but Clemens Alexandrinus. who knew Basilides personally. were in process of formation much earlier. is actually retained in the Hebrew text of the Scriptures at Gen.. 36]. Baruli took the side of Eutyches at the Latrocinium or BO-called second Council of Ephesus. [Massuet's Dissertationes in IrenoBum. Refut. were these First. Oxf. among whom he reckons the Basilidians. From these in turn proceeded the higher order of angels. ed." Their refusal to accept 67 . 41. and aU in time became corrupt and the God Supreme sent down from heaven His Son (voiJs)." says "Waterland [v. and means the Sacred Word . Hist. vi. xxi. xxvii. the ancient visionaries. of them maintained the essential evil of matter. a half-resurrec" Being ashamed perhaps to confess Christ tion. Aug. 123. except as claimed by Basilides and Waterland [v. 139. Lexio. Basilides denied that salvation was promised to the bodies of men. ed. vii. iv. whom Basilides thus made an angel only. says that he lived into the reign of the elder Antoninus. Hippol. Hoer. sect of the Albanenses belonging to the twelfth century. BasUides had dwelt some time in Syria before settling in Egypt. The God of the Jews had no power against the Christ. for between the death of the Apostle John and the beginning of Hadrian's reign twenty years only elapsed. He was a disciple of Menander at the same period as Saturninus. s. but kept back during his lifetime. which developed rapidly after St.

and formed no part of the teaching of the founder of the sect. Paith. and was not the result of instruction. or heavenly power. ov [if/v Sk fi. because not present some men by nature . The mere denial of a resurrection of the flesh would tend to do this. which left Him before His death. 9 [lib.]. &c. 197. were therefore strangers in the world." Suffering and fear came on men like rust on iron. ir po(Tavi\(av ovk (TravcraTO. as being elect by Epiphanius is much the dignity of their nature. but yet there were many features in his moral system which would seem to encourage the unprincipled among his followers to continue in sin. They say it is only the ignorant no opportunity altogether deny He even said men had two souls. or. He relied for this part of the argument on the Scripture. but those only committed elect in ignorance . though they. avis. and. although deliberately sinning. and The that such men became like God by nature." one which we share with the brute creation. quae sub lege non esset. The impurity of morals attributed by the later writers to Basilides is another instance of the corruption of his followers being laid to his There is little doubt that he taught and charge. He held consequently that the sufferings of confessors and martyrs were kinds of punishment. spending the whole night previous in religious exercises. Alex. who pronounces them purely heathen and destitute of aU Christian character [viii. But Basilides went further than and endeavoured to frame a scheme to ac- many. and inflicted necessarily " metum et laborem in martyre esse necessaria. His opinions upon faith and the knowledge of God are involved in much obscurity. he held that it was inborn in them. he could not explain this except by saying that they had sinned elsewhere. according to him. "belluina. The hope of rising again into a perfect man supported many martyrs through tlie Basilidians In this he would differ from other forms of Gnosticwhich they were usually made antagonistic. Hcer. But this question has been investigated anew by Mr. who lose in istud corpus venirem. in the absence of any extant work of his. this passage is cited as an authority for his belief in the metempsychosis. et ima- Utuntur autem ginibus. The descent of the Holy Spirit was the indwelling of an aeon. saying that the faithful disciples were afflicted with torments because of sins committed in some previous stage of their existence.Basilidians doctrine of the Resurrection obliged them to They explain away the Resurrection of Christ. antequani /iCTei/o-co/taTwo-ts. 31 faith 371. They were very particular in the celebration of the anniversary. 3]. Kal fxayyaviKal'S . All sins would not be forgiven. The question of the gems known as the Abraxas gems is slightly discussed by Mosheim [i. He con- 68 . et reliqua universa periergia" [Gontra Hcer. lest be should be found adoring Simon. Epiphanius makes the same charge dX. " The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. and looked forward to salvation. et incantationibus. " A in connection with et hi magia. : " Dixit and after him Lardner. xxiv. atque homiuem ad agendum semper impelli. let us " continue in sin that grace may abound.vlai<. preserved by Origen in his commentary on Rom. where references are given]. that there is any evidence of this profession of magic. v. pecudis scilicet. in eam speciem corporis vixi. Kal irepiepyian 6 aTraTeoiV." charge of men who understood no science against learned students of mathematics and physics. and therefore the doctrine of the atonement had no place in his system. i. as Origen calls it body : the original teaching. at the earliest period of the heresy." And even Clemens. Comment. ism. et invocationibus. He adopted in the first place a metempsychosis. or any exercise of judgment. was an assent of the soul to some proposition not apprehended by the and was peculiar to senses. in . 24].Xa. Irenseus mentions magic Basilides. All sins must be expiated in the sinner's own person. King [The Gnostics and their Remains.ir]\a. This belief in an apparent suffering Christ satisfied the impugners of the Resurrection doctrine. but was common their sufferings. In a fragment of Basilides. ii. practised purity of life . more severe in his charge of impurity [Epiph. accordingly said that Christ did not suffer on the cross. enim Apostolus. this." Clemens Alexandrinus. v. and in process of this expiation the soul passed through various bodies. and more fully examined by Lardner. Beausobre. that faith should be greaterorless in any man according to his natural powers. 1864]. can only be But he seems to have held that conjectured. that He was a phantom or appearance only without substance of our flesh. or transmigration theory. The theory he held on the baptism of Christ was not peculiar to his system. sosupra-mundane by nature. that Simon of Cyrene was crucified in His stead. amongst whom no doubt was Basilides himself. vel of trying to exculpate heretics. for he vigorously depreciated the glories of martyrdom. tells us that some did use this argument. This fantastic theory was an aftergrowth. believing in the destruction of the at death. vii. or conviction. compliance with the orders of the heathen always exempted them from suffering. sec. His disciples retained a great veneration for this event. quia ego vivebam sine lege aliquando hoc est. and one which is our excellence above it. as in many other things. and that therefore no Christian ought to profess faith in the crucified One.]. greatly obscured to count for these sufferings. Tricmv a/xa koI eKAoyijK oIkcmv etvai Ka& cKoa-Tov Sida-Trifia^ [Clem. And this belief of utter destruction of the body at death led him to another position strongly antagonistic to the prevailing feelings of Christians. The opinion for instance on election would be perverted by some into a license . who certainly held the reality of the body of the man Christ Jesus. One of his arguments was from the known sufferings of infants . whose authority on such a point will be admitted by all." " rationalis. in his answer. journers. maintains that the argument about punitive sufferings is worthless from the simple consideration that it was always in the power of Christians to suffer or not. and knowledge were co-ordinate. Strom.

[Barbeliotbs." [Masbotheans. 175]. 21]. In the following century many of these communities of Beguines were formed in Germany and France." The first two of these names appear not to occur elsewhere . 1220. votional stage of their history is still represented on the feminine side by the Beguines of Bel- gium. viii. 75]. common English sense of the word. and Matthew Paris says that the number of Beguines at Cologne in the year 1250 was one thousand." name was But from being associated with prayer the corrupted by the subsequent habits of the sect into a mere association with mendicancy. The most important authors against it are referred Jerome \^Ep.] A fragment from the thirteenth book of these commentaries is quoted by Irenseus. " spurcissima per Hispanias Basilidis hseresi sseviente. and as their numbers increased the importunity and "professional" character of their begging increased also. Strom." Jerome mentions several other sacred names used by Basilides \ETp." which signifies to beg earnestly or heartily . Bassus. " ceteraque magis portenta quam nomina. 75. Several passages are quoted [p. and Bassus is not named by any other heresiologist. et instar pestis et morbi. and giving up aU labour they professed to keep the strict Franciscan vow of poverty by living on the labour of others. as the Epistles to the Hebrews.. the first on record being one at Louvain. and another by Clemens from the Beghards BEGHAELS.d. iv. mentions them as having recently shewn considerable activity throughout Spain. Armagil. and take away the imThere can be little doubt mortality of the soul. 1263]. were names under which the Deity was worshipped by the Iberians.] [Protestant BASMOTHEANS. The one cited by Origen has [AH may be seen in Migne's reply to Patrolog. Clemens speaks of a well-known book of Basilides A Barcobas and Barcoph called Prophetia Chami. 36.d. theans. 31. In this early development of the Beghard communities they were mostly affiliated to the Dominicans or Franciscans as brethren of the third or Lay Order. 81] which seem explicable only on the supposition that the "Pantheus upon our gems was actually intended to symbolize the deity styled Abraxas. He rejected the authority of the Old Testament. and there is but scanty allusion to it in later writers. and it was not long before the incorporation of many of the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Sfirit with 69 . many of them being also of that never-failing character which leads to the ready acceptance of any excuse for idleness and wandering." "Evangelicals. no doubt C. 805]. Matthew mention gospels. and thus as " Beguines" were " praying women. Par. Confessions. twenty-third book.same century . but as the Coloebasians are not elsewhere named by him. and religion became a thin cloak for mendicancy. p. The heresy did not survive very long. spurious and Female societies of Beguines appear to have been formed in many towns in the Netherlands towards the end of the twelfth century . 6] " Even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies: for there the Basmotheans.] In the prologue to Jerome's Commentary siders it satisfactorily established that the is made of some amongst them one by Basilides. BASLE. or Tertiaries and this de." The fullest and most exhaustive of the replies extant is to be found in Clemens Alexandrinus. Titus and Timothy. began to be formed early in the.. which he said were not St. been given above. This is probably the same with the twenty-four books of commentaries mentioned by Ensebius \llist. Aniiq. Barbelon. This name is found in the Apostolic Constitutions [vi. the last two. while elsewhere in Germany an "innumerable multitude" of them had sprung up [Matth. which was founded a. But the Beghards had adopted vagrant habits. 400] to above.] An alliance very quickly sprung up between the Beghards and the Fraticelli . and say that the world is made by spontaneous motion. who deny Prowere vidence. a. xliii. totas infra Pyrenseum et Oceanum vastante provincias. [PhDast. The German name for a very widely spread sect of mediseval heretics who were closely allied in their origin with the Italian Fraticelli and the Brethren op the Free Spirit. of PhOaster a whose name is written C. Oroeca. Leusiboras. Balsamus. Bassus is a corrupt BASSUS." that "Basmotheans" is a corruption of "Masbo: .Basmotheans form engraved on these gems was the invention of Basilides himself and intended to he used as a talisman j it was the reduction of his system to a visible representation. &c. Paul's. Thus they wandered about through towns and villages with the constant cry "Brot durch Gott" ("Bread for the sake of God"). were also names of prophets to whom Basilides appealed. About the same time they are found also in France under the name of Boni Pueri (Bons Garjons) or Boni Valeti (Bons Valets) [Gramaye. this was written by Agrippa Castor. iv." Beghards were " praying men. associating together for prayer and labour. CONFESSION OF. They obtained aU their converts from among the ignorant labouring classes. and the Beghards were popularly so called because they were pertinacious "beggars" in the on St. 7. pp. Ser. De Hcer.] In some MSS. and certain portions of the New Testament. Thus mechanics and field labourers left their work to become Beghards. and it is supposed that they arose out of the disproportion between the sexes caused by the number of men slain in the Crusades. heretic appears reading for Colorbasus. Similar communities of men. The name " Beghard" was originally an honour- able designation for those who devoted themselves to a life of prayer. but this also has perished [Hieron. de Viris illustr. 12. Ecd." Both are derived from the old German word " beggen" or " beggeren. and were thus analogous to such designations as "Pietists. meaning respectively Son of God and Lord of Heaven. Brahmd. written c.

but that it had been disturbed by that event . thus written by him. delivered a discourse upon the free intercourse of the sexes. The Dutch form of the name Beghabd. On one occasion he fell into a trance while gazing on the dazzling light of the sun's rays broken upon a tin vessel Afterwards. and exemplifying in his own person the state of innocence. in Allseidenberg. more properly mystic who gained many followers on the Continent and in England. On such occasions one of their "apostles" came forward." After this mysterious visit the boy grew more and more serious and visionary. and down to the time of Luther. when he was left alone in the shop. "was to restore the pure primeval state. and especially on the nights of festivals. which the law of marriage. another leader named Berthold at Speyer in 1356. requires only to act in the consciousness of this unity. and in the kingdom of joys. was born. was lent to a friend. it Quietism and Communism. Goncil. and the Paradise state of unity and equality restored. The French form of the name them with heresy. Under these persecutions the Beghards decreased in number. and to forbid their assembling in caverns and other secret places for preaching [Mansi." says TJllmann. he tended cattle. had supplanted. but shalt be great. book called Aurora. that prior to the fall he possessed such a consciousness to the full. To bring this about in defiance of the imposing power of the Church. and the stranger. Jacob. was of Their peculiar custom made impossible of course that they should escape the charge of immorality. [a. and where by night. and summoned to ' The principles of a sect which appears to be a remnant of the Beghards were investigated by order of the Austrian GoTemment in the year 1848. which they called Paradises. 70 . Beghabd. There can be no doubt that the Beghards were largely infected with the Antinomianism and licentiousness of the Brethren of the Free Spirit. he had a new faculty opened in him to discern the virtues of plants. and reverence His word. said. and fixing his bright and piercing eyes on him. 1330]. in 1575. 998]. At twelve years ho was It apprenticed to a shoemaker in Gorlitz. who made a copy of it. ports were those of eye-witnesses. but they spread along the banks of the Ehine and overran both France and the Netherlands as well. taking him by the hand. but traces of them are found in the fifteenth century. for God loves and is gracious unto thee. but be courageous. a third at Strasburg a. 1317. three were burned at Constance in 1339. and nature. and several at Strasburg in 1366. and persevere. such an one as the world shall wonder at . and from the number of women among them the Germans called them " Sisterers" (schwestriones) with an evident ironical meaning. contrary to nature. stood still. and many were burned as One of the first to suffer was a leader heretics. BOHM. and remained to his tenth year without instruction. and a few years later Pope John XXII. the divine life of The idea they fteedom. and taking off his clothes.d. Years passed. xxiii. with no design of publishing his visions to the world. JACOB. Read diligently the Scriptures. BOEHME. From the absence of any notice of heresy in this canon it may be doubted whether it had as yet developed itself among them. wherein thou hast comfort and instruction. "Their professed object. " Jacob. " Jacob. and Mosheim considers that there is no reason to doubt their truth [Mosheim. despising the sacraments and sowing other errors abundantly. and he was still only known as a pious and harmless mechanic. but only for his private satisfaction. named Walter. but of grave and reverend countenance. Meanwhile the Inquisition had been let loose upon them. innocence. another in 1310 by a council held at Trfeves. The Council of Mayence [a. The headquarters of the sect were at Cologne. and that their religion— such as It IS—may be defined as an admixture of Stoical The sequel. BEGUINII. and this fell into the hands of Eichtel the primate of Gdrlitz. thou art little. But charges of licentiousness were brought against them very early. happened one day. BEGUINE. BEGUTTE. that a stranger in mean apparel. a German maker in Gdrlitz. and become another man. and called with a loud voice. fear God. a village In his childhood near Gdrlitz in Upper Lusatia." At nineteen he married. who was executed in 1322. He began to write. Accordingly they constructed for themselves remote and often subterraneous habitations. It was found that they still practised the custom of stripping themselves naked at their religious assemblies.Beghards their body infected Behmen a kind which forbids description" i [UUmann's These reReformers before the Reformatiori\. but that these ought now to be done away. therefore be pious. Meantime his visionary faculty grew greater. entered and bought a pair of shoes. if we may credit the reports. published a Bull against them [a. who originally stood upon a level. come forth " The boy obeyed. and in 1604 became a master shoeor ! BEHMEN. the only way open to them was by secret societies and clandestine meetings. by whom the author was A denounced from the pulpit. four sons were born to Behmen. walking in the fields. then going out of the shop a little way. One of the names given to the Fraticelli in the Bull of Pope John XXII. and at one time "was for seven days surrounded with a divine Hght.d. 1259] directed the clergy to read admonitions to them on three successive Sundays or festivals. in which they are declared to be persons who have wandered away from the Catholic faith. for thou must endure much poverty and suffer persecution . de Beghardis et Beguinabus]. and to follow unrestrained the divinely implanted impulses and inclinations of his nature in order to be good and godly. persons of both sexes used to assemble. and stood in the highest contempktion.d» 1317] ordering their suppression. that the law had introduced differences among mankind.d. formed of that state was that man being in and of himseK one with God. In the year 1306 a decree against them was issued by a council held at Cologne.

His writings utter in their the deepest philosophical conceptions. 1215]. that the sound might enter. and declared himself convinced by a special revelation of the truth of his doctrines. One of the most important of his works is. He was ordered to write no more. founded a sect called the Philadelphians. But in 1616. which Berengarius devoted adherent in the divine and physician John Pordage. 1802. This identity was acknowledged by Hegel. he ventured to publish Aurora." The power of seeing duality in things is spiritual-mindedness. Walton's Introduction to Theosophy. edition appeared in Pasohasius Eadbeetus [a. and the magistrates recommended him to leave the city for the sake of peace. but with full temples and bright blue eyes." But the proceeding of creature from God is at the same time the ingoing of God into creature .d.'] BEEENGAEIANS. Besides Germany and Holland. 831-865]. with a large admixture of the terms of the mystical chemistry then in use. The end of the philosophy of Fichte. a sect valued for their Another and benevolent life. Berengarius. or unconditioned terms which denote the same principle which was the root of the mystical contemplations of Behmen. and Tennemann's Manual of Phil. and expired. Berengarius had studied the work of Eatramnus. we learn that Sir Isaac Newton was a diligent student of Behmen. But when he was about forty-two years of age [a. or creature.^ or the Morning Redness. The first collection of his writings was made in Holland by Betke in 1673 a more complete one . From writing in his native language at a time when Latin was generally used. Thereafter he was summoned before the Elector of Saxony. The latest edition is by Schiebler. An English translation of Behmen was published in 1764 by William Law. 1836. p. They consist of speculations on the Deity and the origin of things. Leipsic. and when it was at hand. and is called "contrariety. Behmen appear before the senate. of Schelling. where he died in 1624. . Eichter now again bestirred himself against him. 1040] he became Archdeacon of Angers. Description of the Three Principles of the Divine Being. He foretold the moment of his departure three hours before it came.. The life of Behmen was written by his admirer Abraham von Frankenberg. without haste and without correction. of which he was also canon. and in England he gained a virtuous. especially of a novel pronunciation of Latin which he wished to introduce. of Hegel. a large number of extracts from whose works was found in the handwriting of Newton amongst his papers [Brewster's Newton. Jane Lead. written against this view of the Eucharist. was at the head of the school attached to the cathedral of Tours. for the study of his writings in 1697. at the age of forty-two. his character gentle and retiring. The leader of a too small school of divines belonging to the eleventh century who opposed the ultra-Eoman definition of the Eeal Presence.d. Stuttgard. a female enthusiast. " the silent nothing becomes something by entering own way Behmen and his doctrines see Arnold! Hist. with a low forehead. [For a favourable early account of His voice was weak and sweet. the temperamentum. bade him open the door. work of an entirely spiritual mind. On the authority of Law. which had now become formally received as authoritative by many theologians.j BEEENGAEIUS. [BEEENaARius. 371]. The interest in Behmen was revived by the great speculative movement in Germany about he did. Behmen was a small thin man.. silent. and during the remaining seven years of his life poured forth about thirty other publications. the beginning of this century. and of the idea returning into itself. Behmen was acknowledged in France by Pierre Poiret as a man of deep •spiritual insight. he asked his son Tobias whether he did not hear sweet music and when his son answered that ho heard nothing. was the cognition of the absolute. the author of the Serious Call. under the title Theosophia revelata. who wrote a commentary on his works." or principle of negativity Behmen. On his deathbed. in 1682 by Gichtel [10 vols. and was promulgated as the doctrine of the Western Church by the Fourth Council of Lateran [a. who appointed six Doctors of Divinity to examine him. Hence origin of things of cast of his which was the own Hegel placed Behmen at the head of modern philosophy. ii. in which she was joined by Pordage and his celebrated disciple Thomas Bromley." The Divine Unity is itself a Trinity. or Berenger. of the idea representing itself in nature. and obeyed the order for seven years. who died in 1652. life by an unknown author was also published at Dresden. from whom the followers of Behmen have received the name of GichteUans. His gentle demeanour and answers won the good opinion both of the Elector and the examiners. in two volumes more complete in six volumes. proceeds therefrom. and he was charitably dismissed. He wrote at a steady rate. but 71 . But his intellectual boldness was shewn soon after he went to Angers by his opposition to the Eucharistic theories of Eadbertus. For a modern German account see Die Lehre des Deutschen Philosophen Jacob Bohm. Amsterdam]. He returned to Gbrlitz. the silent nothing. he got the name of the Teutonic philosopher. Amsterdam in 1730. Ecclesiastica de Hceretica. shortly after which time he first comes into notice in connection with the Eucharistic controversy.d. In the earlier part of his life. As a schoolmaster he had shewn an independence and originality of mind which had brought upon him some degree of censure as being fond of novelties. delivered in the form of Divine revelaThe Deity is to be contemplated first in tions. who saw in the " silent nothing. which had originated with and are the A into duality. AU that he produced was welcomed by a constantly growing circle of admirers and disciples. His own existence as " the eternal one. a forecelebrated division of philosophy into the science of the idea existing in and for itself. WuUer. Their phraseology is drawn from the Scriptures. 1831-4:0. Nature. bade his son turn him.

notwithstanding this recantation. De Veritate Corp. he signed a recantation. where he had latterly lived in great retirement under the protection of the Bishop of Tours. 1088 in the island of St. in Arabia about a. bishop of Langres. from all controversy on the subject of the Eucharist. Ebrard's Doctr. A A : fidelium dentibus atteri " [Lanfr. 1054].d. •was "written to him [a. but being then in the Abbey of Tours he was prevented from attending by Henry I. Frankfort. and some others founded upon it. and once more. manibus sacerdotum tractari. which were followed by a public disputation. in which the doctrine which he had so long opposed was stated in as extreme a form as before [Mansi. into a denial of the Eeal Presence. to go mucli furtlier to and — — A two years afterwards with mann. On his return to France Berengarius took up his former line. without waiting to know whether he had any explanation or defence to offer. Berengar. held private conferences BEENAED. 0pp. but many . Valentinian heretic mentioned by Hippolytus. in Fabric. then Archdeacon of Lifege. Bibl. Spicileg. i. and a demand that he should suffer death Either in fear of death. or from teaching any one except as a means of reclaiming those whom he had led into error. in which he acknowledged Transubstantiation in His words. sed in veritate." was levelled. afterwards perverted his opinions and these were named Berengarians. Hippolytus writes respecting him that he and some others had forsaken the delusion of Valentinus only to fall into deeper errors. got into public controversy with Hugo. who considered that he would run into danger by carrying out his wish [Mansi. But he was also commanded to abstain 413]. he was not able to withstand the demand of the Cardinal* Once that he should again be called to account. Dow. but falling into heresy. 1045] by an old friend and schoolfellow. abiding in its own natural essence. At this council Berengarius declared his belief that " Panis atque vinum altaris post consecrationem sunt Christi Corpus et Sanguis. 543]." and Hildebrand being satisfied with this declaration. incomparable. and working according to its own nature" [Hippol. when Hildebrand was present as the Papal representative [a. acquiring an iSca ireptypa^ij. This warning was repeated Beryllus Gregory VII. et sensualiter non solum sacramento.u. Condi. Origen. Adelmann. The special heresy of Beron appears to have been that against which the clause of the Athanasian Hymn. and not otherwise known. De Eucharist. affectionate earnest- ness. not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh. and aU who should presume to call him a heretic were by this document anathematized [D'Achery. [Lanfranc. His death took place a.] BEEYLLUS was bishop of Bostra HUdebrand became Pope as with Beryllus. 1050] as containing heresy. Subsequently Berengarius was summoned to Eome. in a was said opinion. and Hist. The result was that Beryllus was convinced of his eiTor and returned to the 72 . contra Beronem et Heliccm. did not permit him to carry the explanation of his opinions into detail. [Eatramnus. where he appeared in the year 1059. but by taking of the manhood into God. "What the Divine Nature was before the Incarnation that it was afterwards in Its Essence infinite.] sect. other unknown reason. "One. unchangeable. much mortified and humiliated by and not really altering the opinions which he had so long held. Lanfranc. Goncil. 1845. but released him from the sentence of heresy which had been passed upon him. and engaged in a controversy with Lanfranc which lasted for many years. the second letter being still extant [Adelet Sang. who by this time had become bUndly violent in defence of the doctrine of Transubstantiation. stating his views and endeavourThe ing to secure Lanfranc's support for them." fragment of Hippolytus remains in which he controverts this error of Beron. impassible.] BEETEAM. council which was held in Pebruary 1079.d. more. p. hut although he had protected Berengarius hitherto. 1770]. et Corpus et BEEON. the letter of Berengarius did not reach him until its contents were known to others. Aetbmonites]. Groec. and afterwards [a. therefore. 773]. 757. council Berengarius wished to be present that he might make his defence. or for some as such. of the Lord's Supper. xix. He held that at the Incarnation the Divine Nature of the Second Person in the Blessed Trinity became circumscribed or limited so as to be compatible with the Human Nature to which it was united. Berengarius left Eome on this occasion with a Papal certificate of his orthodoxy. iii. and during the course of which the former was occasionally in danger from the populace. 225. council convicted its author. and the sentence was confirmed at VerAt this latter celli in the September following. He was a man of learning and piety. the mover of this controversy was summoned to Eome. King of Trance. and ceasing to be " Immensus Filius. declare. xx. BrunsBerengarius having by this time wick. Ccena. incomprehensible. . Cosmas near Tours. and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury).. saying. Berengarius never formed a his recantation. wrote a letter to Lanfranc (then Abbot of Bee. [Schoolmen. he was then persuaded by Cardinal Humbert to sign a form of recantation.d. abbot being then at Eome. de 8aar. Verum .d. 1048] Bishop of Brescia. as given by its most extreme form.Berengarius from the received maintain that the consecrated elements are only symbols "figuram quandam et similitudinem "• of the Body and Blood of remonstrance against this teaching Christ. frangi. a synod was held at Bostra to judge his case. Sanguinem Domini nostri Jesu Christi esse. who attended the synod.. God the Son thus becoming self-emptied. " Panem et vinum . in the year 1073 . and the consequence was that it was laid before a council which was sitting at The the time [a.d. inconvertible.. Four years after this condemnation a Legatine council was held at Tours. ST. There was a popular clamour against him as a heretic. 230. He lived for several years longer. on the subject. 232].

seemed ^ tfteiTTdvai Tiv SuT^/ja Kol KiSpiov ii/iOv \iyeiv ToKfidv /I'i) TpoijKar lUav oifflas Trepiypaipriv vph ttjs eis ivSpdiirovs imSTj/iias. 33]. tiam Patris ac Filii asseverant. and therefore superior to all human souls. Sist. but Eusebius records that an Epistle on Schism was written to him by Irenseus. makes Beryllus to have been bishop of Philadelphia. The Bezpopoftschins have been dividedinto fifteen or twenty sects. There is no evidence that Blastus ever V. A name the Fraticelli. and to suppose that Berylsays that the opinion. condemning that community [a. but aU the smaUer and fanatical sects have sprung from them.] with Artemon and Marcellus. iii. De rebus Christ. before His Incarnation. 20]. = Gennadius [cap. and accordingly Bishop Bull \Jud. was that the Patripassians retained the names of Father and Son to be used as the varying action Beryllus of the One and same Person required. [a. who became a Valentinian [Euseb. in error. the later SaThe words of Eusebius can be bellian doctrine. 7]. cent. signifying "the numerous Eussian sect of the eighteenth century. 14] when considered with amounts to this that Christ did not exist before Mary. - frequently assigned the order of events in Eusebius it appears to have been before the death of Gordian. A name dumb. the reader is referred to the article under is : common to 73 Beryllus and Photinus. [Pbbpeotionists. and used contemptuously as a name for the mediaeval writers. has distinguished between the doctrine of Beryllus and of the Patripassians. sec. 244. attention. employed the cruellest forms of torture. v. [Brtanites. in Ep." given to a not very lus held.] He is doubtless the same person as the Eoman Blastus named by Eusebius as being nearly involved in the faU of Florinus. as being a portion of the Divine nature. ne illos quidem Beghards by some for sine periculo est ecclesise numero sociari: sicat et illos. ad Titum]. Hist." or in French " Besace. iv. Ecd. [Albati.36] mentions the denial of the pre-existence note. i.^ Against this it may be said that Origen. 23. : of "pope" or that of the Presbyterian or Independent ministry. qui ante adventum carnalem substantialiter et proprie non extiterit. The acts of the synod of Bostra. Nic. fab. 4. perhaps by anticipation. Ecd. unam personam duobus nominibus subjacentem. but that a Spirit issuing from God Himself. Ecd. yideantur duos deos dicere. the former of them being that to which Beryllus belonged. except in such a form as BEZSLOVESTNI. Cathol. By some it is derived from " Bizzoco. ex Comm. Hist. BIANCHI. The passage is as follows " Sed et eos. he is declared to have been desirous of introducing Judaism. iii. III. Ecd. piTiSi liTjv eedrrrra ISlav ixeiv. and that He was Divine because there dwelt in Him not the proper Divinity of the Son. a. um BICHINI.] Siberia. satisfied only by the earlier SabeUian or Patripassian doctrine. This synod 247 or 249. was united to Him at the time of His birth. 3.] BIBLE CHEISTIANS. A Quartodeciman of this name mentioned by the author of the book against heresies which formerly went by the name of Tertulhan and on the ground of his teaching that the Christian passover should be kept on the day fixed by the Jewish Law. xxii.] BIBLE COMjyrUlsriSTS. 17] classes Beryllus with Praxeas." on account of the waUet which they carried to hold the provisions which they begged from door to door by others from " bigio. neque rursum negare Salvatoris deitatem. mentions Beryllus together iii. Socrates [Hist. actually became a Gnostic. is He From BESOCHT. qui superstitiose magis quam religiose. 1317]. whose members after conversion became perpetuaUy speechless. Very little is known of their tenets. Eegarding the interpretation of these words. solam in se habuerit deitatem. Noetus. 243. of Christ as . Pseudo-Hieronymus [cap. the disputation of Origen and Beryllus. Hceret. in the passage quoted by all commentators \Frag. oKK' ip. Fid.iroK{. but the Divinity of the Father. unam tamen virocrTaa-Lv subsistere.] . unam eandemque i. subsisten- duo quidem nomina secundum diversitatem causarum recipientem. that title." The only difference between the two classes.T€VOfUvrjv avT(fi pAvTiv rijv irarpiK'^v [Euseb. Def. and BeryUus' letters to Origen thanking him for saving him from heresy. heim \Ecd. For the particulars of his association with the QuartodeciMANS. Beryllus asserted that our Lord. sian dissenters [BizooHi. 34. v. and tickling the soles of their feet with feathers. pouring hot sealing-wax on their flesh. and is dated by Cave A. the principal of which are the Duohobortzi. and the PoMERANB . e. 15].^ The first proposition needs no comment. when made flesh. as well as one on the Monarchy of God to Florinus [ibid. e. to have disdained this affectation of retaining the names while aU distinction of Person was denied.d. ssec. [Bizochi. But we are not entitled to infer from this that BeryUus combined Patripassian and ApoUinarian doctrine.] BEZPOPOFTSCHINS.Beryllus Catholic to the year Blastus says. are unhappily lost. cap.D. assumed not only the flesh but also the soul of man. [Theod. This appears to be an explaining away the " Paternal Divinity " which was asserted to have dwelt in Christ. and Sabellius. in its letter to BeryUus. i. did not exist in the distinction of His own Person . sed quod homo natus Patris : named Pestal. vi. iii. asserted that Christ. but without avaU. in a somewhat marked manner. found in the Bull of Pope John XXII.d. uti ne BIZOCHI. qui hominem dicunt DominJesum prsecognitum et praedestiuatum. see Valesius' and Mosheim. a governor general of That division of Euswhich does not retain the office priest. BLASTUS. [Pseudo-Tertull." which indicated : qui latine Patripassiani appeUantur. Mosfaitli. the Philipoftschins. A term coUoquiaUy signifying " idiots" among the Italians. in the reign of Catharine II.] BICOENI. The second has been somewhat variously interpreted. sect. that the synod of Bostra. the grey colour of their garments.d. 1762-1796]. In order to extract some information.

D. and the cup was withdrawn from the laity. they adopted an allegorical interpretation of Scripture. during his mission work. from some fancied resemblance in doctrine to the earlier Semi-Pelagian heretics of that name. Like other Paulicians. and attributed the murder of Abel to the jealousy of Cain. The Eastern Church. and made poverty and ignorance chief We and necessary tenets. and its eternal hostility to spirit. Sophia. By this rule. Wittenberg. Shortly afterwards the celibacy of the clergy was forced upon them." or " wearers of the girdle. towards the end of the ninth century. which is still to be read in his work. and in the following century Latin was made the language of their Liturgy in direct opposition to the Sclavonic vernacular. [Protes- BOHEMIAN BEETHEEK This name was given to a semi-religious. At the close of the entertainment. semi-political party which sprung up in Bohemia. as of St. one of their chiefs or apostles (for. They were converted to Christianity by the labours of Methodius. [AH that is known about this obscure and illiterate body has been collected in the work by Joh. In 9 6 8 they were brought under the Papal supremacy. who use and glory in the dissonant Greek world under the title of "Phundaites. and for a long time they knew no other form of Christianity." from the habit which poverty or the commands of Basil forced them to adopt. brought about by external power. Pursuing the same line of reasoning. with the existence of the unhappy Bogomiles. with the title of Bogomiles. composed a full account and refutation of the Bogomilian errors. and Anne. may justly claim them as her own sons. Their Bible consisted of seven books the Psalms. Alexius invited the leader of it. yet they took upon themselves the revision of the Scripture Canon. early in the fifteenth century. Historia Bogomilorum. 1712. They appear to have separated off from the Paulicians. which received further increase in consequence of the close connection of the country with England. but for the missionary zeal of Alexius Comnenus. The Bohemians were a branch of the Sclavonic race. Christ. in the middle of the sixth century. was the name assumed by a who appeared the Bulgarian city of PhUippopolis. whose dioceses were situated in the original seat from which Paulician Manichseism (the parent of the BogomUian heresy) had emigrated into Europe. There the contumacious herethe scene of his siarch was publicly burned execution being the open space before the gates By command of the emperor. taught the innate evilness of matter. But Latin tendencies gradually prevailed in spite of strong opposition. Bogomiles BOCASOTI. CONEESSIOlSr tant Confessions.. sister of King . But these changes. a Constantinopohtan council formally anathematized the heresy of the followers of Basil . were fitted. were only primitive Paulicians. the Manichsean heretics who were predominant in the Danubian provinces from the ninth to the thirteenth century. the Acts.: . entitled the Aoy/tariK^ IlavoTrAia. a monk of the Eastern Church. It may. Basil emulated the organization of primitive Christianity) disclosed the name of their leader Impelled by a desire to eifect to the emperor. each of the four Gospels. They supported their belief in a Docetio or fantastic Christ. and by his orders kept 74 BOHEMIA. In A. a Greek priest of Thessalonica. Basil was seized by the officers of the emperor. The total dispersion of the sect ensued upon the death of their founder. the more complete extermination of the heresy.] or (as it is corruptly written) sect of in the twelfth century in Bohemian Brethren in close confinement until the return of the court to Constantinople. [BizocHi. 1140. he extracted from him a full confession of his guilt. Clement and Leontinus. iii. They directed their efforts to preserve the religious independence of their country from the exorbitant claims of the Pope. Wolf. the Prophets. however. we are informed by his daughter Anna Comnena. was made acquainted. might have remained unmolested in their obscurity. Dissert. in the guise of a disciple. be reasonably supposed. who seem to have equally misconceived both Christianity and Manichseism. but three years later. having subdued the original inhabitants. The founder of the 3ogomiles was an heretical monk named directed his followers to name of BogomUe. that these perverts. Euthymius Zygabenus by name. excited a strong feeling of discontent. with the Epistles and the Apocalypse. heretics. also meet with them in contemporary literature under the name of Massilians it is presumable.] OF. That emperor. Diblatius. and "mU" His mercy. they denied all mysterious efficacy to the sacraments. while they assigned to Adam the paternity of ATdcI. This sect was drawn from the dregs of the population. arising from the marriage between our own Eichard II. to a banquet. and their constitutional freedom against the pretensions of the princes of the house of A-ustria. like Mani himself. "Bog" signifying God. They were better known to the orthodox Basil.] : BOGOMILES. and occupied the country of the Teutonic Boii. These rude and ignorant heretics. whose piety or policy induced him to undertake the conversion of the Paulicians. and rejected altogether the baptism of water. two bishops of Cappadocia. whose tenets. by a reference to the distinctive quality of His baptism. They were originally called Czechs. whose birth they referred to a union between Eve and Satanael (the eldest son of Jehovah). in default of a more exact nomenclature. BoGAEMiT^. as opposed to that administered by John. an appellation compounded of two Solavic roots. all learned persons were excluded from their body. The last mention af the heresy is the condemnation of a monk named Niphorion about the middle of the twelfth century. being discovered to resemble (though with material differences) those of their Bulgarian brothers. were condemned for holding these opinions. therefore. The creation of the world they conceived to be due to a wicked Demiurge. at which. Basil.

caused a religious truce for thirty-three Each party agreed to years to be concluded. [3] that there should be perfect liberty of preaching to all ecclesiastics. Not a single heresy could be laid They were of the old national to their charge. party. This was in 1435. Augustine Lucian. obtaining shelter and toleration under their name. was united against him as one man. under the mUd but somewhat weak rule of Wenceslaus. owing to the influx from Germany. was compelled to grant the Bohemian charter. coupled with the Papal schism that was then raging. peace was restored to the country. "When Sigismund found that he could not subdue the Bohemians by force of arms. appeared most opportunely for them. and they were commissioned to use all efforts of influence and persuasion to bring the people back into unity with the See of Eome.] that history has recorded. and for a time a hollow truce existed matters continued until 1556. until King Ladislaus. In leOff. the Eomans. made the following four demands of the Counin cil [1] That the Communion should be : both kinds. gave rise to a party. when the Jesuits were introduced. and the Protestants (Lutherans and Calvinists). and exhorting them all to live in peace with each other. so that in 1450 they sent an embassy to the Patriarch of Constantinople. But though the embassy was well received. first under the leadership of John Ziska. kept alive the suspicions and jealousies of the Bohemians. and infecting the Bohemian Church with their peculiarities. freedom of preaching was allowed. on and to . was one of the most remarkable. Catholic so far as doctrine was concerned. and gave strength to the extreme men. which they now openly They also claimed abjured as antichi'istian. the privileges of the national party were confirmed. The larger. and if possible effect an accommodation. the latter found some difficulty in preserving the succession. ism began to infect the national party more and more. Political troubles followed in Bohemia. who had departed as much from the principles of Huss as the modern Wesleyans have from those of "Wesley. and this well-known fact. This proposal was scornfully rejected by the Taborites. Sigismund had gained his object. [Hussites. notwithstanding the execution of Huss. or Hussites proper. and yet anti-papal Church. the advance of the Turks and other changes prevented anything from coming out of it. Catholic. But Lutheranthe peace did not continue for long. country was kept in a state of religious ferment by the contests between the two parties. he made use of this distinction to divide his opponents. Shortly after they sought for and received ordination from The consequence was that the the Armenians. At one time. and the compacts of Basle were reaffirmed against the Papal opposition. and the Bohemians were allowed to con* tinue members of a national. while. yet national and therefore anti-papal in spirit. So and subdue them in detail. and had but little in common with the Taborite followers of Ziska. But what the whole power of the Empire and of the Papacy combined could not effect was soon brought about by internal dissension. Sigismund was acknowledged as king. which comprised almost aU the clergy and the greater part of the nobles. but at the same time. and the war which followed. and joined the national party of the Bohemians. The following century saw a great change in the Bohemians. After fierce discussion the first of these was granted. so that as the former were favoured by the rulers. [2] that the secular power should have dominion over the persons of criminous clerks. on the ground that they had originally derived their Christianity from the East. of which the celebrated Huss was the chief ornament. He invited them to send deputies to the CouncU of Basle. and had never willingly submitted to the Bohemian Brethren wards the more extreme Taborites were utterly crushed as a political party.'Bohemian Brethren Wenceslaus of Bohemia. as a national uprising against a powerful foreign foe. For a time. which excited and alarmed the whole country. Through this Wicklifife's writings were diffused in the latter country. There were two chief parties among the Bohemians. in 1482. refraia from annoying the other. These causes. To each of them was allowed full liberty to build churches. between the national Bohemian party and Eome. he at once took measures to assert what he conFor a time the nation sidered his just rights. of all such wars the most bloodily waged on both sides. and eagerly accepted by These latter the Catholic or Calixtine party. and afterwards under that of Procopius. But the Papal court could not rest permanently content with anything short of absolute submission. who now began to appear as the Taborites. the restoration of the cup to the laity. and shortly after75 hold their own ecclesiastical courts. The natural successor of "Wenceslaus was his brother Sigismund. the Bohemians. The public education was placed in their hands. was Catholic. which led to the loss of the ancient constitutional rights of the people against their sovereigns. and although the crown was elective. The differences between the Eomanizing and the national parties became the more marked. They were usually styled CaUxtines or Utraquists. to quiet apprehension. to found schools. after various efforts to enforce uniformity. where they might state their grievances. in a Diet held at Kuttenberg in 1485. the emperor who had weakly given up Huss to death at Constance. Eudolph. when the archbishopric of Prague was purposely kept vacant by the authorities who favoured Eome. an Italian wandering bishop. but anti-papal. claims of the Pope. and the subjection of the spirituality to the temporal power in aU things temporal. But the death of the king kindled the flame of a religious war. [4] that the clergy should not be allowed to hold civU offices. desiring to be readmitted into communion. allowing complete toleration to the three parties. the public peace was maintained. coupled with small annoyances and petty persecutions. The Lutherans of Germany crowded into their country.

iv.] [Perfecti. He names no other charge against Bonosus than that relating to the case it BOLINGBEOKE. v. can. 1616]. Hisp. legitimate means of conversion used by the Jesuits were added others of a more questionable The government put forth all its character. In the present facts.-Hier. . Collect. and Gregory to the later practice. [Beghaeds. Suspicion united the old Bohemians and the later foreign bodies against him.] BONOSIANS [BoNosiANi or Bonosiaoi]. Hist. and every effort was made to bring back the To the natives to the communion of Eome.]. Catholic. but the national. an identification made by the second by adoption only and commenced his reign with the destruction of altars. Bishop of Alexandria. vinists among them.\ How soon Bonosus and his followers reached this stage of complete Photinianism is not known. Arel. Ill. as delegates of the Synod of Capua." " Vos enim totius Synodi vice decernitis. " Vicem enim Synodi recepistis. quoted by Lardner. Still they It were early forgeries. and they may be taken as evidence of facts where the object of the forger did not call for misrepresentation. [Sceptics. Henceforth they submitted to the power of the house of Austria. during which the party was gradually drifting into the open denial of the pre-existence of Christ. xvi. in his own hereditary dominions of Styria (the crown of Bohemia was elective). iii. This was the last effort of the Bohemians to maintain their religious liberties by force of arms.— Bolingbroke the other hand Eudolph's successor. 14. Ambrose replied that the contradiction. and monumental tombs in Prague. xlii. Bishop of Thessalonica. destroying his hopes. . Bishop of. make mention of Bonosus more than once. It is easy to conclude (and it agrees with the natural course of heresy) that the council refers to the early practice of the sect. Gennadius states. sceptical nobleman of the last century [a. ed. it is doubtful whether any are genuine. and the uprootMoreover. Bishop of Sardica. to which they have ever since The Jesuits whom Frederick been attached. Bonosians BONI PUERI. It proved the commencement of the Thirty Years' War. can. testantism pure and simple had never found great favour in the eyes of the people. Gregory says as unhesitatingly that they do not baptize in that name [Decret.^ The council [II. the quartering political opponents. xvii. and with the political decay of the national party. The Decretal Epistles of Innocent I. did their work. says it is was referred to them by the synod. crucifixes. nos quasi. Isid. The letter to Laurentius. whereby he alienated the old Bohemian party. The insurgents elected Frederick Count Palatine to be their king. and xvii. stained by the usual atrocities on both sides. of soldiers upon the disaffected. Eoman Catholicism his unfortunate Council of Aries. chiefly of German extraction . children. [Beqhards. v." But privately he approves their sentence. A Blessed Virgin [Ambrose. the peculiar An religious fire of the nation was quenched. he fled from the kingdom j taking with him the crown jewels. and the lower classes. wrote against the Photinians. For in no other way can we reconcile the high authorities of the Council of Aries and Gregory the Great. Bonosus was condemned by Theophilus. a remnant also of the Hussites still lingers on under the name of Bohemian Brethren [Hussites].. pars. There appears to have been an intermediate stage. originated in England that supercilious and superficial style of infidelity which looks upon religion as an useful institution for women. of Theol. after our Lord's birth.] manifest that the Bonosians baptize in the name of the Trinity. 1672-1751] who promoted among the higher classes that flippant infidelity for which they were so conspicuous during the reigns of Queen Anne and the first two Hanoverian Kings. and Anysius. In the year 389 or 390. but Bonosus continued to ordain those who applied to him. Hi vera hceretiei]. I]pist. papal party has long been extinct. he was not fitted Catholic doctrine. therefore. and that was not his place to give a judicial opinion. liii.] would be not to misrepresent the but to ascribe the conduct held towards Bonosus to the principle of obedience to the See case his object BONI HOMINES. i. immense majority of the people is now Eoman There are a few Lutherans and CalCatholic.] The sentence was of suspension from his episcopal functions. which are seemingly in direct also was made the established religion of the country. a Spanish bishop. liad banished were restored . by firmness of character to be the leader in any great movement. Dict. Deism. Bohemia. " who are now called Bonosiaci" \de Vir. and which is worth the support of a government as a means of preserving order and the rights of property. Proing of families. Cred. The two bishops wrote to Ambrose inquiring his opinion. 76 of Eome. The larger number of the epistles are no doubt forgeries . but he was a rigid Calvinist. Ferdinand. for teaching that the Blessed Virgin. osus held that Jesus Christ is the Son of God [Pseud. and others. which had never (at least as a body) abandoned either Catholic ritual or Moreover. sect A formed in Macedonia at the end of the fourth Boncentury by Bonosus. cap. cap. ex Synodi auctoritate judicare non convenit. had distinguished himself by a zealous persecution of the Protestants. in November 1620. bore children to Joseph. This identifies his doctrine with that of Photinus . but leaving Bohemian followers a prey to the vengeance of the merciless Ferdinand.] BOXI VALETI. Ixxxix. and which he himself had learned Bolingbroke may be said to have in Paris. and a civil war followed. for Dionysius Exiguus accepted them. can. that Audentius. and anti[Palacky. and orders.d. strength to crush those who were regarded as Persecutions. dist. q. and his first defeat on the White Mountains near Prague. converts from them to be received with chrism and imposition of hands. seems then that after his condemnation on this point Bonosus fell by degrees into Photinianism. [Antidicomarianites. art.

named Bartholomew de Cordt. from unknown foreign accretions. Hceres. she also possessed great conversational powers. [Pra- teol. Vade Mecum. In its present form it differs widely from the primitive religion. HOMMES. These are four in number the Eig-Veda. but looking to those of their founder as the great source of spiritual knowledge. It derives its name from the title of the chief caste of its votaries. and died at Franeker in Friesland in the Madame Bourignon imagined that year 1680. written in the Sanscrit language.'\ BOUGEES. being thus analogous to the English Quakers. Their distinction from the Mennonite body at large was that they professed an austere life and rejected all external ordinances of Divine worship. his exposition of its principles being printed in 1713. France. which may be regarded as an appendix to the Brahmanas. [Perfecti. a Calvinistio minister of considerable learning. These commentaries are all of much later date than the hymns. they are known as the Veda. which Prateolus century.] How long the sect existed is not known. and the hope of being received as of the clergy.Borrelists Senia in Dalmatia. the Sanhita or Mantras. Collectively. who deny Christ to have been born of the Substance of the Father before the world. is by far the most ancient and important. written originally in French. from — knowledge and practice. or the Hindoo rehgion. entitled TheDivine CEconomy. her collected writings filling nineteen volumes . the oldest of which are of extreme antiquity. Switzerland and England. but of A sect of the Manich^ans. ists A sect of French Quiet- seventeenth century. from which alone the priests are taken . a lady of Flanders. but it is also known as Hindooism. or an universal system of the works and purposes of Ood. There is a further class of works called Aranakas and Upanishads. This name has been given BOUENEANS. she devoted herself to the task of forming a new community of which she should be the living instructress . [Barbeliotes. which she alleged to have been lost in the midst of the controSetting her face versies which it had raised. or Vedas. followers of Antoinette Bourignon de la Porte.] EOEEELISTS. or Magianism. insix volumes. being the basis of the other three. as is The Eig-Veda Sanhita evident from their style and contents. which are hymns to the gods. which places the final punishment of impenitent sinners not in suffering but in the total extinction of their existence. xxxiii. and the Brahmanas and Sutras. and probably her conversation also. but these. the YagurVeda. or Veda of Praise. her qualification for that office being based on a claim that of the the true spiritual meaning of Holy Scripture had been specially revealed to her. the Brahmanas with their appendix preceding the Sutledge. which are liturgical books for the use of the different orders of priests and Each ministers who take part in the sacrifices. [Bulgarians. were largely borrowed from the mystical theology of an earlier date. she had received a direct inspiration from God to restore the Christian religion. arising partly from the development of religious thought. who was born at Lisle in the year 1616. I. and at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century held a position not unlike to that of the Swedenborgians in later times. bishop of Naissus in Dacia. studying the works of the Quietists and Pietists in general. Brahminism is the oldest of the religions that have sprung from the Aryan family of mankind. directs that the Defensors of the Church drive away the Eonosians. Traite de la Religion des Hollandais. who maintained the most extreme form of the doctrine of annihilation. The latter was an energetic coadjutor of Madame Bourignon. [Barbeliotes.000 people in the peninsula of India. the SamarVeda. partly. the same root as olBa. owing to successive corruptions. The religion of Brahminism is professed by about 150. Some still kept up their connection with the churches or sects to which they had previously belonged. a man of good station and learning. in the latter half of the seventeenth century. and states that many who despaired of obtaining orders in the Church procured ordina^ tion from Bonosus with the view of returning to the Church.000. Veda consists of two portions. The primitive form of the Hindoo religion is known to us only from the sacred books. The most distinguished of the Bourignonists were a Jansenist priest of the Oratory of Mechlin. is assigns to the end of the third which nothing known. and alone deserves the name of Veda. not in BEAHMINS. and after her death became the leader of her sect. A BEACHIT^. ras. Buddhism was a schism and an antagonism. The religion of Zoroaster. partly from impositions devised for the purpose of maintaining and extending the power of the Brahmins or priestly caste. meaning originally knowOf these the Eig-Veda. as it appears.] BOEBOEIANS. that religion consists in emotion and conscious feeling. and the AtharvarVeda. others separated themselves from all Christian societies and followed a life of private contemplation.I BOEEELITES. and these qualities gained her many converts even among persons of high education. and Peter Poiret. directs that they who were ordained by Bonosus before his condemnation be continued in the clergy. Full of enthusiasm. [Johnson. [Stoupp.] BOUEIGNONISTS. sect of the Mennonites or Dutch Baptists which originated with Adam -Eorrel. to the disciples of a EONS Birmingham preacher named Bourne. The leading point of her system was that common to the Pietistic mystics. commentaries in prose. ii. That to Martianus.] Brahmins The Bourignonists spread from Holland to Germany. She was also a most industrious author. It is derived from and professes to be based on sacred writings in the Sanscrit language. which is alone the true — 77 . against all churches and sects. That to the bishops and deacons of Macedonia warns that the reception of some ordained by Bonosus which has been already allowed is not to be made a precedent. 301. is an offshoot from it.

yet the evidence. chap. 10-17 . are said by the Brahmins to have " seen " the respective portions they transmitted. Max-Miiller. the Maruts. mean. which is found in some other religions [Mahometanism]. rewards and punishments for the good and evil.C. in a chamber set apart for the purpose. there is little that ia positively bad. In a few passages the different gods are regarded as but different names and powers of one supreme deity. Some of the deities mentioned are plainly of this character. but there is in the later hymns a manifest tendency to the worship of symbols. and there are frequent prayers for forgiveness. of India. chiefly for material benefits. of cakes. and vii. the conception of them is in The transitional form of Brahminism from this simple elemental religion to the later system is especially seen in the works called Brahmanas hymns — and Upanishads. Mrs. [For a brief summaryseeMax-Mtiller's Chips from a German Worlcsliop.o. They contain legends and allegories which have their germ in the Veda. the heavens once theirs. vol. On these legends is based a most complex and artificial ceremonial The Upanishads. and other simple viands. as the horse. There is no mention of either idols or temples . his relation to the human soul. and of offerings. and app. and listen to the praises of their worshippers. as a rule. Indra. . of the moon. i. and to have been revealed to mankind through the agency of " Eishis " persons raised above the level of ordinary humanity. 5th ed. on the other hand.— . Elphinstone. In the later period we read of animal sacrifices. pass out of sight. and no mention at all is made of other deities which are now most popular. seemingly. The Upanishads are the basis of the enlightened and philosophical faith. iv. material nature. [See for further details.rupting a text of the Eig-Veda. in the Veda itself to countenance this theory. however.C. » Others appear as proper names. who were therefore preserved from error in the reception and tradition of truth. the fire. i. especially of the horse. In the earlier hymns these consist only of clarified butter poured on the fire. while the others. Though all our MSS. the process of creation. i. While the signed contain much that is literally childish the product of the infancy of religion. the wants expressed are mostly of an earthly. . nor of suttee or widow-burning. of sin and moral evU is expressed. the beginning of the day or year. rather than its by moral evil. the placed by some authorities as high as B. Cowell. The gods. parched grain. But their anger is chiefly represented as excited is by some failure of service or offering — to themselves.- and Chips from a German Workshop. the firmament. There is nothing. But this polytheism is of a earliest are hymns the universe. addressed to various deities. it is phenomenon — these date from at least B. There is no recognition of the Hindoo Triad of later times Brahma. But there is also much that is true and sublime. 2000. Brahmins consists of ten books. Colebrooke. pt. somewhat vague indeed. Vishnu. The latest of Brahmins may be seen that a physical the foundation. of praises. The worship was offered only in each man's house. 1200. and the post to which the sacrificial victim was tied. 1500. but in — — — — very peculiar character. riches. T. good crops. the soma plant. H. and great spoils. To al- place a belief in actual personal immortality. i. commonplace. and of the intoxicating juice of the soma plant. and the like . explaining the natureof the Supreme Being. also the same writer's History of Ancient Sanscrit Literature!] The Veda is held to be absolutely the work of the Deity. as just yet merciful. There is an entire absence of any consciousness of that limitation of the powers of the respective gods which seems the necessary consequence of a plurality of deities. sometimes from absolute misunderstanding of expressions. ture. The Eishis. prosperity. by others at about b. History of Ancient Sanscrit Litera. and of low and unworthy. even of the objects of sacrifice. but some of them at times are present with men. and of expressions that seem to im- many respects ply the contrary. for the moment. The gods are generally spoken of as immortal. storms. and yet ^s forgiving. H. There no sign of a belief in metempsychosis. the symbol of and offering to the sun. bk. with. record of tlie primitive faith containing 1028 (or excluding 11 generally held to be spurious 1017) hymns by many different authors. are modern. tedious. The former are a development on the ceremonial side.. of India. having so far lost the natural aspect which was Varuna [Ov/aovds]. B. Surya. as in speaking of the birth of 78 . Degrading passions and acts are ascribed to the gods . The most prominent deities are Indra and Agni. the sun. no one god being ever regarded as superior or inferior to any other. i. It is often said that the heavens and earth were created by certain gods. . draw near to the sacrifices. to whom nearly half the hymns are addressed. contain a development from the philosophical and theosophical side. which was a later introduction supported by cor. Hist. Agni. the sun-light . Essays and Lectures. vol. "Wheeler. derived iii many cases from divine epithets personified. J. There is no trace of the existence of caste. who were in fact the authors. and may be regarded simply as an expression of dependence on the Divine Being. success over enemies and in the chase. but occasionally ignorance is confessed of the beginning of certain — gods. A low level is also assigned on the whole to human nature . edited by E.'] II. Siva. Mitra. dwell in heaven. most all . Hist. internal and external. &c. no mortal having composed a single line of it. Ancient and Mediceval India. consciousness. Wilson. in diilerent hymns are these attributes as- MiscellaneoiLS Essays. the rising of the sun. Manning. consisting of prayers. for an extremely early date is incontrovertible. By the worshipper for the time being each god is looked on as absolute and supreme . The religion of the Eig-Veda is apparently a gross polytheism derived from the deification so natural to the childhood of the human race of the powers and aspects of nature. It was of a very simple character. i. The A gods are represented as rewarding good and punishing evil.

i. having only one temple in aU India. said to be 330. deities. system is found in all its rigour. and festivals. The religion taught in the Institutes of Manu is mainly the worship of Brahmk. most reverenced of these are Krishna and Eama. however. is also looked on as the principle of renewal. and hence the necessity of constantly consulting the Brahmins. and held to be of supreme authority. This transition period is often called the epic period. though not a revelation in the same sense as the Veda. in But this fact. the world derive their existence from whose substance they are.000 in number. still the great text-book of Brahminism. an emanation from and the creative energy of Brahma. of various dates. scribed as sectarian in character. The germs of the doctrine of the Triad are found. History of India. to a host of local gods. and for a time it obtained the supremacy. worshippers of Vishnu j 79 . The legends respecting the gods are of the most The three gods of the extravagant character. preserving. philosophical speculations.mostly identical with those of the Veda. vol. animal and human ten in The number. and this although the The popular reascetic may be a wicked man. and entered upon a fresh development. and whom. anomalies. The doctrine of metempsychosis is also set forth in its most developed form. but incorporating older materials. &c. Siva. is no regular system of subordination of the gods. The danger of offending the gods by imperfect service is set forth very vividly. sometimes incarnations or avatars of the more famous gods.e. Each god is regarded as votaries. 49]. The images have in most cases a monstrous In character. Brahma. to which its most assiduous worshippers are borne after death. in a less degree. Tantras. which also compensates for all deficiencies in them. of which one is yet to come. though they are all accepted doctrines of various sects. which have been plausibly supposed to come from a foreign source [see Wheeler. are offered at her temple near Calcutta. it contains elements entirely alien to that religion. and are the only portions of the sacred literature that are much read and studied at the present day. frord the eighth to the sixteenth century a. being the most important. and hence is worshipped under the form of the lingam. works called Puranas and.000. especially with great sacrifices. They all begin vrith a cosmogony. as incontrovertible authority.. Vishnu. and also a Besides the wicked. its chief illustration being derived from the great Sanscrit epics. fragments of history. 48. ligion extols the eflScacy of faith. and yet There quarrel and fight. with power to bless or to harm. and contradictions. In his honour frequent and bloody sacrifices are — — piled at latest three or four centuries B. There is a universal belief in the existence of good and evil spirits pervading the universe. Brahmins the different systems of Hindoo philosophy. veneration is paid to the planets. where they are attended by good spirits . instructions in ritual. the The Puranas are eighteen in number. or bodies. who were alone held to be acquainted with the details. includes spirits and demons of by the exclusively to the cultus of one deity are exceedingly numerous. ^the Maha Bharata and the Eamayana. the supreme Other inferior deities are spirit of the universe. identical with the ancient phallus [see Herod. especially in regard to the objects of worship. This work contains materials of vyious dates. the legends extraordinary power is ascribed to asceticism. Hence arise various inconsistencies. The existence of a supreme being is indeed from whom aU other beings the men.]. and Their religion may be decountless legends. But a reaction came in favour of Brahminism. — — and burdensome character. including many of those menIndra. While morality and purity of life are inculcated. Agni. which succeeded in expelling Buddhism from India altogether. the great Triad (Trimurti) Brahma. They may be divided into three chief classes —Vaishnavas. besides other animals. ^manifestations on earth in or incarnations various forms. The ritual and ceremonial is systematized in the so-called Institutes of Manu. number. mentioned. Varuna. Modern Brahminism. it is taught that neither they nor any separate deities hell for the whose worship is theogonies. spread more or less over the country. tioned in the Veda. and their development may be seen in the epic poems. and his votaries inflict horrible and protracted tortures on themselves. Besides these. reliance and entire dependence on and submission to some one deity. with many heads.d.o. though once supreme.. supporting the also and so they do not form a consistent whole. the creating. It is said that 100 goats per month. the principle of destruction. Most of the other deities have no separate temples. either to these three or to one another. and wound each other. which are of the most complicated. The religious sects which devote themselves direction of devotion to a multitude of This deities. The gods universally acknowledged are seventeen in number. arms. Against this system of priestly domination Buddhism was an uprising. but was comvarious Brahmins kinds. having a separate heaven. each village has its own local gods. The other deities are mostly powers of nature. and Siva. But the main point is the ritual and ceremonial. — — religious forms avail without this faith. ii. to many sacred rivers. embracing The caste almost every act and moment of life. is but little worshipped now. but have their especial images. they in some sense constitute. Vishnu is mainly worshipped under the form of avatars. III. monotheism or pantheism is practically obscured still set forth. offered. While professing to be based on the Veda. Of the three great gods. and contain precise. even the deities are sometimes represented as subdued by it. This forms the third and last period of BrahminThe sources of this development are the ism. Triad are supposed to be equal in power. which are sometimes the spirits of men who have in any way distinguished themselves while living. Vishnu and Siva have attracted almost all the veneration. His consort Devi is also much worshipped. with the corresponding female divinities. ii. and destroying principles.

There are also small sects worshipping some one of the inferior gods. and of which it is a part. duties to and nails. longed for offspring . comes into existence again. existing in unapproachable. they profess also that they look on images simply as aids to the mind in meditation on and prayer to the one supreme deity. the use of the mystic word " aum. of the They teach that ancient Greeks or Eomans. deity. and souls were attached Souls may animate all species of to bodies. and destroyer. the law prescribes how to eat. a text of the Veda used as a prayer. till the balance of evil is expiated. all other forms are. cut hair to relieve nature. there is but one God. organic Hfe. and decay this latter was deified as Siva. are consubstantial with the deity. under the several forms of Brahma. demons. The members of th e different sects are distinguished by painted marks on their foreheads. remarkable the dominion of Siva. Then this world came into being as a place of trial. — : one's self. and a careful performance of the prescribed ceremonial of hfe and action. the soul is limited. after a purification by intense sufferings. All these comprising the whole universe. possessing but a semblance of This semblance of reality is due to May4. The world and all that is in it passes through three stages. from the highest to the lowest. which is to determine their future existence. through which the whole creation. prayers and praises. may rise through the scale of being again and attain to bliss. or of a removal to one of the heavens of bhss belonging to one or other of the deities." a feature which is almost peculiar to it. beasts. sacrifices and offerings. called Brahma. In each case. Knowledge is attained through one of the various systems of philosophy. Almost all acts are regarded as either merits or demerits. and thereby separated themselves stUl further from the divine essence. he again puts forth his power. [4] the offering of rice to the spirits. became a synonym for delusion and unreality. the Triad and all the inferior gods pass out of being. the universe ceases to exist. by faith. feature of Brahminism is that of " cycles of existence. or of suffering in one of the heUs of the deities. the earth. The supreme point of bliss is to escape from the evil of a limited and separate existence by being absorbed or incorporated into the essence of the deity. Many of them have monastic orders attached to them. This limitation was one result of the wish of the supreme for offspring. There are also other observances. by a series of emanations first Brahmi. both for males and females. This is to be obtained either by works. preserver. Works consist of devotion to the deities. and rise by a succession of births through different bodies up to the human. of Siva. and from him gods. whereas he is unlimited. divine and human. or to the powers of nature generally . perfection. for instance. as to their material properties. while The — : is the power that. emanations of his glory. The rewards consist either of a superior lot in future existences. Brahmins First Cause alone exists in his primeval single- Each of these classes contains numerous subordinate sects. clothe ness. but through envy and ambition they fell. are surrounded by many complicated ceremonies. upon philosophy. solitary supremacy. Beings and matter owe their existence simply to the impulse of liis The various forms that matter assumes are will. polytheism could not commend itself to the regarded. and each subdivision of a 80 . Vishnu.Brahmins Saivas. Saktas. who have intellect and philosophizing spirit of the With them religion is based educated Hindoos. growth. scintillations. aU pure illusions. being most precise and exact. especially the first. men. selfcentred. The ceremonial is that prescribed in the laws of Manu. who is the basis underlying aU the forms which they assume. but. and the Vishnu limits A But. in which distinctions of caste are comparatively dis- The sects also have appointed heads. drink. differing in each case. and even how and assigns special rights anil each caste. All these. [2] the offering of cakes to departed ancestors. a monotheism derived from pantheism. It is held that at the end of a cycle of prodigious length. the end and cause of all things. [3] the pouring of clarified butter on the fire as a sacrifice to the fire. transient sparks. very great influence and power . also in his development. mere keen — illusions as to their spiritual attributes. of one of the female associates of the gods of the Triad. after a long course of ages. originally a personification of the longing for offspring felt by the deity. is yet a pure abstraction. This process is being continually repeated. the stages of existence begin anew. The soul of man is regarded as part of the divine spirit. who is opposed to Brahmk. Five "sacraments" are prescribed for the daily use of the " twice-born man" the superior castes [1] The reading of the Vedas . which. Even the worst of men. in so far as they have true existence. The punishments consist either of misery or degradation in future existences." and of the Gayatri. the creative power of the supreme Brahma . the deity is the world undeveloped. by preserving all things. In fact. the world is the deity The supreme deity. and Siva . such as the three suppressions of the breath in honour of Brahma. Besides these distinctly religious acts. after ages of enjoyment or misery. Souls were originally possessed of freedom and happiness. and absorbed in self-contemplation. reality. The learned Brahmins earnestly disclaim polytheism such as that. where the soul remains till it has been sufficiently rewarded. or by knowledge. taken out of his substance and of his nature. and the individual soul is rewarded or punished according to the balance of them. manifesting himself primarily in his several functions as creator. [5] the exercise of hospitality. The system of religious philosophy that is regarded as most orthodox teaches that the only truly existing being is the deity . or supreme soul from which the soul sprung. and there are mystic ceremonies of admission. Then their trial begins. bathe. Such is the form which Brahminism assumes But such vulgar at this day among the masses. the creator. from this desire has sprung every existing thing.

but indications are found of a class below the people for whom the Veda was given. gradually monopolized them. and was spent simply in contemplation. and Swmdja. and the exclusiveness of the system through contact with the English seems to be dying out. The three former are called twice-born. WUson. and the great bulk of the people —the The and mercantile class. and either by abbreviation. 2 . Muir. Ori. according to legend.. in some simply knowledge. &c. [3] in the contending claims of religion and philosophy. the Kshatryas. Bunsen. by the entire subjugation and eradication of the passions. and by means of ascetic practices to obtain the power of abstracting his thoughts from all material things. and of religious obligations. and began to attempt a general control of life and Then came a struggle for supremacy habits. through which Brahmiuism has obtained such power. supposed by some to be the source of and oc- Buddhism. -which. the universal supreme spirit and the individual soul . or Supreme Cause of the Universe. The Woi'lcs of Colebrooke and Professor H. which.000 gods. and superstitions of such an extravagant character as those of the Yogi devotees. accompanied and purified by asceticism.] : • BEAHMOO SOMAJ. tradesman. which leads men to embrace other religions to be free from it [2] in the exclusiveness of the caste system. The original division was simply into four the Brahmins or priests. Three such changes have been considered possible : [1] either the restoration of a decaying Brahminism. and knowledge. Institutes of Manu Church of the One God. while in the The Institutes of Manu it exists in fuU force. the Creator. while the men of the lower castes simply repeat the name of their patron god as they bathe. The first period is that of the student of the sacred books. performing his various duties to the gods. and were probably the earher population whom the Aryan In the Brahmanas the berace conquered. from which arises a low standard [Hardof morality. of the Brahmin caste. lay making them more difficult by additions and the like. Origin and Development of Religious Belief. and the means of subduing and quenching aU desires for material things. and as equally capable of leading to unity with the supreme spirit. : Brahmoo Somaj Brahmins than for the other castes the student. The second period was that of the married man and householder. so as to bring every part of life under the intimate control of religion that is to say. have gradually been transmuted into hereditary societies. especially in the Sankhya system of KapUa. established to preserve the respectability and privileges of their respective trades. and all with the same end. . embracing different trades — if performed fully. and thus signifies " the ultimately destroyed. Brahmins But in practice these injunctions are very generally disregarded." The religion of India appears at the present day to be in a state of transition . H. For the most part the gods of the Hindoo pantheon are ignored. vol. The third period was that of the hermit. followed when this latter power was obtained. the Vaisyas or — cupations. Maurice. devolved these duties upon the Brahmins. themselves alone remaining. But the systems differ in the means prescribed. however. the Kshatryas or warriors (including kings). the authorized expounders and teachers of it. The attribution of a sacred merchants. who. and the orgies of such sects as the Maharajahs. are contracted into half an hour. Christianity and Hindooism. and the isolation it produces among individuals who are thus led to apostatize . The weakness of Brahminism consists [1] In the horrible theory of transmigration. ginnings of the system are seen. The Eajpoots. These afterwards became the Sudras. The pursuit of philosophy again is regarded as of equal excellence with the life of religion. Kshatryas. and those who know the country expect the occurrence of some important change. means by which the distinction was established The seem to have been nearly as follows.000. During this time. which was begun at various ages earlier for the trading. to escape further existence in the world of sin and evil through absorption into the deity. The fourth period. Lectures on the Religions of the World. pt. would take four hours. or [2] the — — 81 . and fixing them only on the deity. the devotions of the Brahmins. during which the twice -born man learned to mortify his passions and desires altogether. to whom he was bound to pay almost servile devotion. Ballantyne. or BEAHMO SAMAJ.. under the guidance of some distinguishedBrahmin. A Hindoo sect of Monotheists originated in recent times by the contact of Brahminism with antiThe name is sacerdotal forms of Christianity. of faith. It remains to sketch briefly the system of caste. an assembly . caste. working. BaringGould. Below the Brahmins now exist a great number of subdivisions. and some others. between the Brahmins and Kshatryas. who originally offered the sacrifices and performed the religious ceremonies for themselves. in which the latter were vanquished. — — There is no trace of such a division in the Eig-Veda. learned all the religious observances. all more or less pantheistic. From' the struggle arose the distinction between the Brahmins. identifying the deity and the iiniverse. into four distinct phases . or by the doctrine of faith mentioned above for instance. There are six different systems of philosophy. who declare that both the other castes of the twice-born have died out. with its 330. These have apparently arisen from trade guilds. and the Sudras. This system is still followed' among the Brahmins. Christ and other Masters. and. i. wick.ginal Sanscrit Texts. works. the state and his fellows. in others meditation. character to the castes is a mere imposition of the Brahmins to support their power. and were regarded as being on a very different level from the fourth. Ood in History . contend that the Kshatryas still exist with them. Eowland Williams. that of the devotee. contain an attempt to map out the adult life of every man of the three twice-born castes to his burial. derived from the Sanscrit words Brahmd. Christianity contrasted zuith Hindoo Philosophy.

to negotiate an increase of the East India Company's allowance to the King of Delhi. to which he afterwards added Hebrew. 1814]. He was at this time twenty-three years of age.d. been published in England. Chunder Sen visited England [a. including Westminster. and sailed for India from Southampton. The next aggressive step was the opening of a Sunday school at Calcutta [a. including Bath. An Essay on the Vedas. and the numerous enemies visit to arising in his own caste and kinsfolk." Its founder Brahmoo Somaj coronation of William IV. where he was courteously received.D. without much life or propagandist energy. The early death of his father [a. 8uoli a faith is helieved by its supporters to be provided by the Brahmoo Somaj. and Sanscrit. and was welcomed at a soiree in Hanover Square Eooms on April 1 2th. five Lord Lawrence.d. was again entertained at a Hanover Square Eooms.d. Bristol. Leeds. which enabled them to retain a place of worship called the Brahmoo Somaj of Jorsauko. The public hostility which it provoked. August 13th. Eamohun Eoy received a good education. and in most of the large provincial towns. and moral passages.. move to Calcutta [a. a. About this time he successfully opposed an appeal made by the Hindoos to the King in Council against an enactment of the East India Council abolishing the suttee. and was entitled Against ihe Idolatry of all Religions.d. "the Eeformed Ifa- In September [a. The Queen granted him a personal interview at Osborne. and as opposed to the idolatrous teaching of the later Hindoo books . His first book was written in Persian with an Arabic preface. The small community which Eamohun Eoy had established at Calcutta continued to existfor about a quarter of a century after his death. as nature-worship. several persons of distinction being also present. and an abridged translation of the Vedant. Greek. Manchester. at the cost of an open breach with the older members of the sect [c. led him to Stapleton Lodge near Bristol.d. During the months which he spent in this country he Louis and involved him for many years in controversy with members of various Christian bodies. and finding a welcome among several dissenting bodies.Brahmoo Somaj conversion of the whole population to Christianity . with a collection of extracts of pure. acquirwith ing while Persian. In the next year [a. 1774]. on which they professed to base their faith. or Baptist. grandson of Eam Kamal Sen. he first gathered a few intelligent Hindoos around him in regular monotheistic worship [a. and spoke at public meetings in London. as well as with his Hindoo antagonists. Enthusiastic in the cause of the reform of religion he issued (with the assistance of Hurro LaU Eoy. such doctrines souls. and English. soiree at the 17th. tianity. a. by invitation of the Committee of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. may be described as a pure or "pectoral" theism. For a complete list of the works of Eamohun Eoy which have September 4th. &c. He shewed early signs of dislike for the gross forms of religion by which he was surrounded. which its founders hope wiU develope into the national Church of India. The latter work shewed a careful acquaintance with Chris. His object was not to found a new religion. as prescribed in the Vedas. 1831 he came to England. which is therefore sometimes called tional Church of India. and had graduated in the college at Calcutta. and those of Dwarkanauth Tagore. but to revive the pure monotheism of the primitive Hindoo faith. Congregational. and free to express those sentiments which regard for paternal authority prevented his previously publishing to the world. 1870. Edinburgh. 1804] and of his two brothers left him in the possession of a large property. simple. with the title of Eajah. Appendix A. p. and was abandoned by the more advanced school. Birmingham. supported by his bequests. who discovered that the Vedas.d.d. and Nottingham. a Guide to peace and happiness. being assigned a place among the ambassadors at the In preached iu different dissenting chapels. Liverpool. The new sect. still young a knowledge of Arabic. religion of this General character of the Brahmoo Somaj. and to chronicle their proceedings in a monthly magazine entitled the Tattwabodhini Putrika. 1864]. for the purpose of giving young men a regular course of instruction in Brahmic theology and ethics. chiefly Unitarian.d. 1870].'^ and Tlie Precepts of Jesus. Glasgow. September ^ ton. 1860] they made a convert of Keshub (Kesava) Chunder Sen. 247. by a miscellaneous collection of ministers and laity of ten various denominations. taught. 1833] he went to was Eamohun Eoy (Eama Mohuna Eaya). which had been taught by its founder. and during a Thibet in his fifteenth year excited the animosity of its inhabitants by ridiculing the worship of the Llama. where. at which house he died rather suddenly of fever. 1820]. at that time president of the Brahmoo Somaj. four years later. 1859] under Debendro Nath Tagore. a man of distinction of the Vaida or physician caste.d. 1818] from which time may be dated the commencement of the Brahmoo Somaj as an organized His next important works were community. transmigration of many grotesque rites and ceremonies. A. or [3] the rise of an indigenous and more enlightened faith on the ruins of the dead Hindooism. and being left an orphan had been educated in an English school. and.d. the Dean of Blanc. a talented Brahmin) various tracts. 82 . see Miss Carpenter's Last Days in JEngland o/ BamohMn Boy. who was born of Brahmin parents in the district of Bordouan [c. and which seemed the connecting link between his teaching and that of the old Hindoo religion. in Sanscrit and Bengalee [a. rejected the doctrine of the infallibility of the Vedas. September 12th. amid much that was true. an object which eventually caused a schism in the Brahmoo Somaj. He preached a farewell sermon in the Unitarian chapel at Isling- 1 The Vedant is a digest of the still older Vedas drawn up by Vyas two thousand years ago. After landing at Liverpool he proceeded to London. Leicester. more especially the Unitarians.

the future Church will recognize a [p. Brahmoo Somaj entirely evolved out of man's Brahmoo Somaj " Soci^td de la Conscience Libre. 253. but has failed. and the heroic enthusiasm of Mahometanism and the It will uphold moral precepts of Christianity. and His birth on the boun- dary line between Europe and Asia but when He honoured above others. may be made the foundation of doctrines quite at variance with (what I conceive to be) the tenor of the rest of the Scriptures. God manifests Himself to us through external nature. Eamohun Eoy. this new religion will resemble the theistic society recently established by Mr. writing to Dr. In the earlier days of the Brahmoo Somaj. it is to be an eclectic religion. or of the blood of God shed for the payment of a debt. put myself forward as a Christian. gratitude. . 145. The Christian Scriptures. and I never will" [p. and thoroughly set its face against every form of creature-worship. aU their normal cravings for spiritual aids. come unto me. In short. and consequently their sincere conversion to Trinitarian Christianity must be morally impossible. addressing a Unitarian audience. but the present leader of the sect makes the unambiguous declaration. in representing one side only of Christianity. when taken singly. I should be a traitor to the universal Church of Theism to which I belong. if we except a very smaU manual of occasional prayers drawn up by Chunder Sen. 75]. wUl be duly satisfied. of the appearance of God in the bodily shape of a dove. But they would not scruple to embrace. 254]. 256]. 236]. p. pp. through the inner spirit. or undergo the rite of baptism. as (if not the greatest and truest. have trinity of divine manifestations. and the prophet worshipper wiU Their delusions.. There seems to be much fascination for the Indian mind in the idea of His Asiatic descent. This charge may have had some foundation in those days. for there will be no teacher. the timid heroic. if my heart and soul were not capacious enough to take in the whole length and breadth of the Christian Church. and prayer the latter is by far the most important. brothers and sisters of England and Prance. et du Theisme Progressif" in France. many persons imagined that its members would not accept the name of Christians. after all. [Eng. no priest. 322]. Here. I should : is . and that instead of being debased into petitions for rain. — — provided that its nature is rightly understood." &c. ments in various places of Jesus Christ. " has tried to realize the kingdom of God. seem entirely heathenish and absurd. and has succeeded. Many years before. It wUl worship Him alone. contain a superstitious element along with much that is admirable. which have not only a subjective utility. August 1866]. . 135]. and ushers it into the very presence of the AU-Holy" [Frasei^s Mag. between the superstition of Brahmins and the materialism of Buddhists . "that I felt quite at home in all Unitarian assemblies private and public" [p. as the best means of affording intellectual and moral exercise to the mind. Come unto me. spiritual holiness knowledge. brothers and sisters of America. rejecting the dross while extracting what is good out of the profound devotion of Hiadooism. argued out by any appeal to books or to deductions of logic [p. shadowy. own consciousness. This is not so much one of hostility as of patronizing condescension. and mean. A. find what they severally want. yet) a great and true benefactor of mankind. But while admitting the unity of the divinity. and no books. it is no dogma of books nor tradition of venerable antiquity. Ware. the idolater. but the genuine aspirations of their nature. H. "Every Christian sect. Of the three component elements of worship adoration. and the ignorant wise. no rites or ceremonies. and not based on any external support of revelation or tradition. Hence the importance attached to the study of mental philosophy and psychology. the absolute infinity and unity of the Divine Creator. Its attitude towards Christianity. therefore. of a Man-God." says Chunder Sen. Sen. Visit. the corrupt righteous. errors. and without attention to their contexts. or the 83 There are plentiful acknowledg1825. it is confined to its proper objects. 147]. Fox. and. where all mankind will worship with one heart the Supreme Creator This homage will be [Lectures. the pantheist. it neither borrows an idea of God from metaphysics. pp. extremely simple. 197]. and Italy and all Europe. it relies upon no evidence. Though the Brahmoo Somaj is thus not to be described by the epithet " Christian. nor a narrative of God from history it bows its neck to no logical or historical deity Prayer is not a matter which can be [p. C. lightened members of Hindostan the ideas of a Triune God. the Unitarian system of Christianity. London. 1824. Faith is defined as a direct vision. or at least to encourage. and aims will certainly be destroyed . were it inculcated on them in an intelligible manner" [Correspondence with Rev. and for pleasant breezes. simply because of the social persecution which such a step would involve at the hands of their relations and the members of their caste. and spiritual 241. and will suffer no created thing to usurp His sovereignty. as the Incarnation of Deity. there wiU be upreared in the fulness of time one vast cathedral. like the Hindoo Vedas. p. instead of a hundred hostile churches." it is decidedly Unitarian in form and " I tell you candidly. Voysey in London." said Chunder tendency. " I never . and worthy of being classed with Vyasa in the honour and esteem demanded at the hands of humanity. " Prayer makes the weak powerful. and for outward prosperity. we are to understand the superiority accorded to be one of degree only. " To the enhad made a similar assertion. Thus purified and spiritualized the Brahmoo Somaj is to form a golden mean between mysticism and scepticism. English Visit. p. "Had not experience too clearly proved that some of the metaphorical expressions. 309].D. and wiU have no mediation. and through moral greatness impersonated in man. Ware. but also an objective value as the means of attaining the truths of theology and ethics \LeduTes and Tracts. Germany and Switzerland. spiritual power. Prayer lifts the soul above aU that is earthly.

our Maker. the latter bearing the name of the Five of the Somajes are in Veda Somajum. That which is one the wise call by divers names. four other magazines in native tongues. and of the souls of mUhons of your countrymen. a burden more intolerable on man account of the practice of polygamy. But they do not involve. as the idolatry. which were unknown Visit. National Paper. [Tunkers. Thirdly. two in the Northwestern provinces. of which fifty are in Bengal. the safeguard of the Erahminical priesthood. 167]. who is God of gods. Lord of lords. and when. Gregoire. London and Calcutta. the establishment of girls' schools. as will be evident from the following passage in the Vedas " They called him Indra. and Agni. who manifests Himself and is worthy of all reverence" [English Visit. on wider grounds. on fundamental points of doctrine from the teaching of the Catholic Church. iv. Eight of these churches have established religious schools for instruction in the tenets of Brahminism. and in a promotion of practical reforms. and even a high class Brahmin. which has been proved to be physically. Calcutta. and two more native newspapers in Dacca [Indian Mirror. [Lectures and Tracts by Keshuh Chunder Sen. it is nevertheless engaged in a crusade against abuses. predict for it the position of the Hindoo Church of the future. the oldest of them being in its thirtysixth year. leaving fifty women doomed to perpetual widowhood. and. a cipher in society. Chunder Sen estimated its number of adherents at about six thousand. Mitra. and are mostly assisted by Government grants. and two others of the same name published in Urdoo and Telegu. In the course of lectures delivered in Scotland [a. and the alteration of the rule by which woman is treated as a menial in the household. established and instituted by the leading members of the Calcutta Somaj. Cobbe. Jan. There are seven periodicals regularly maintained by the body . There are also boys' and girls' schools in connection with ten provincial Somajes. says Chunder Sen. Aug. or a division of society into trades and professions.] 84 . p. cap. could misconceive the clear and distinct assertions they everywhere contain of the unity of God and subordinate nature of His messenger Jesus Christ" [Eamohun Hoy's second appeal to the Christian public in defence of the Precepts of Jesus. by M.Brahmoo Somaj have Brahmoo Somaj pulsory widowhood. 1866. Its present strength as to numbers and position. and hunt it out of the country for the sake of your souls. Varuna. 492]. at Bareilly and Madras. and morally pernicious j by the abolition of the law of com- BKETHEEN. which win the sympathy of every civilized man. if left to the guidance of their own unprejudiced views of the matter. 1. and ready in their social solitude to become victims to all the mortificsr tions which the Erahminical priesthood has invented for persons in their condition." This is in accordance with the teaching of the older Hindoo writings. you must acknowledge only one Supreme and true God. Preserver. edited by S.d. 1870. p. the Mirror and the seeks the abolition of caste. not unfrequently dies. For secular education. is to accept as wife a low class Sudra. if so inclined. : There are fifty-four Brahmoo Somaj es in India. but you must discountenance it in others. a Kshatnya is not to look down on a Vaisya. " must you not worship idols yourselves. by the promotion of female education. The more sanguine adherents of the Brahmoo Somaj. looking forward to the time when a grand national organization shall have been effected among the one hundred and eighty millions of the population. Carpenter. report of its position was furnished to its repre- had no hesitation in submitting indiscriminately the whole of the doctrines of the NewTestament to my countrymen . and seeing the scant success which has attended the attempts to introduce Christianity among the natives of India. it aims at the abolition of idolatry and " Not only. it bulwark of Hindoo by religious sanctions. First. and Moral Governor. two newspapers in English. and one in Madras. buoyed up by its past development. to p. 26." and from the later books of the TJpanishads. Its future prospects. D. 1866]. " Let us endeavour to know the Euler of the universe. Histoire des Sectes Religieuses. and the number of places of worship at about sixty. Twenty-five new ones have been added in the last ten years. Deity of deities. above all. in one of his appeals to young India. p. so much as a return to the purer system and teaching of the older Hindoo reUgion and sacred writings. London. one in the Punjaub. 1870]. Collet. Hours of Work and Play. aU distinctions of religion and caste being destroyed. the monthly " Tattwabodhini Putrika" at Calcutta.1 the earlier Hindoo writings [English 494]. differ . which was originally a system of social distinctions. 123]. All these are under the direct management of the members of the local Somajes. as an audacious and sacrilegious violation of God's law of human brotherhood. Special reforms aimed at iy the Brahmoo Somaj. For the future. 1866. became in later times fortified Secondly. any approximation to Christianity. by the alteration of the custom of early marriage. and of the doctrine of the equality of all souls in His sight. P. as they appear to do on first sight. F. Caste. it desires the reform of the zenana. intellectually. or amelioration of the condition of the women of India. Last Days in England of Ramohun Roy. almost exclusively men. " the Church of one supreme Lord" will be established throughout the length and breadth of the country the [English Visit. as I should have felt no apprehension that even the most ignorant of them. Eraser's Magazine. there is the Calcutta College. Keshuh Chunder Sen's English Visit. However far this new Indian sect is thus seen to A sentative council some years ago. torn. ibid. 1867." restoration of a pure monotheism. and a victim to a life-long seclusion . As there is no initiatory rite or formal admission into the Brahmoo Somaj it is not easy to obtain The following precise information on this head.

[Christiait BRETHREN OF THE COMMON BRETHREN OF THE FREE later LIFE. and in later times were represented by the Familists. — Brethren of the Free Spirit BEETHREN. It was an octavo volume of 434 pages. New- CHRISTIAN.] Broad Chtirchmen critical power of Newman. Arnold. " For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death For as many as are led by the Spirit of God they are the sons of God" [Rom. a man of much higher intellectual mark than Dr. the Atonement. 2. Professor of Theology in King's College. but it is scarcely a fitting designation. A a volume of Theological Essays. the doubts indicated in the Essays. After the end of the thirteenth century they seem to have been identified with the Beghards. to the positive conclusions at which other forcible thinkers were arriving. The greatest literary success of the school was however a composite work of —but now historical. —should A BRETHREN. BROAD CHURCHMEN. From that time Dr. was brought to bear upon the Bampton Lectures on the scholastic theology which the new Professor had delivered four years previously. Maurice. They were at once accepted by Broad Churchmen as a statement of their opinions. on the nomination of Lord Melbourne in 1836. The name was assumed from the words of St. as well defined opinions of a positive kind are not included. by Mr. and the Convocation of the University passed a vote of censure upon their . They were simply Antinomians of the most extreme form. in reality. But he was only one of a band of intellectual men who floated on the stream of reaction from the High Church movement and he did no more to originate the reaction than was done by Hare. namely. Brethren. and the substitution in their place of what has been aptly called a " Negative Theology. 1853. In 1848 he was appointed to the Bishopric of Hereford. or Maurice. percondemned by some as a nominee of the Whig party. This school of thought is generally traced back to Dr. ever have raised so great a storm of controversy as they did. 14]. SPIRIT. composed of those clergy and laity of the Church of England who dissent from the principles developed during the revival of exact theological learning. name for the sect of the man's pamphlet. Its real origin is to be traced to the instinctive opposition raised in the minds of forcible thinkers whose occupations had led them in other directions than that of theological study. and likely to unsettle the minds of the theological students . with the subsequent correspondence respecting future punishments and the final issue of the day of judgment. to be of dangerous tendency. Paul. and it is difficult to understand how it was that his lectures which have long been relegated to the usual Bampton Lecture shelf at the top of the library. its rejection of traditional beliefs. and Eternal Punishment. were dealt with in language remarkable for its beauty." stimulated a growing discontent with the appointment. Mr. and for its inconsistency with the opinions of orthodox Churchmen.. Although far below Maurice's Essays in talent. the Essays and Reviews volume 85 . Newman and Pusey of the other. The book was not at all remarkable for originality. Maurice afterwards held office as a Professor at Cambridge. The sporadic elements of this school were aggregated into a party by the " Hampden Controversy. and contained nothing remarkably unorthodox author haps. and that sacred name was given to them by their followers. work much more expressive of Broad Church principles was published in the year 1853. Hampden was never again heard of in the theological world . on October 28th. Maurice's continuance as Professor would be seriously detrimental to the interests of the College. PLYMOUTH. and have continued ever since to influence them. and an unsuccessful attempt was made to prevent his consecration. ErEITH'RT^'W 1 [Plymouth modern school of Latitudinarians. " Elucidations of the Bampton Lectures. viii. The liberty thus claimed was. but was strikingly so for the boldness with which it revived old sceptical theories. such as would alone secure their reception in the present day. who made theological study the special object of their lives. a vote in which Dr. The designation " Broad" has been assumed as expressive of the comprehensiveness which the theology of this school offers to men of various opinions . and. In these the doctrines of the Holy Trinity. secondly. and no writer did more to mould the opinions of the Broad Church School.] [Friends op God. declared the opinions expressed. the searching jected. — third-rate merit. The teachers of the sect wandered about from place to place in imitation of the Apostles. freedom from the guilt of sin. Notwithstanding this dismissal. then Fellow of Oriel. and the skill with which they were clothed in decent language. Hampden. Whately. . They brought over to their opinions many of the Waldenses and most of the Beghards and their fanatical lawlessness led to the revival of the Inquisition in Germany in the fourteenth century." When Hampden was appointed Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford. The most distinctive characteristic of the Broad Church School is. containing seven articles on theological questions of the day by as many writers (who were said to have written quite independently of each other). and edited by Professor Jowett. Inspiration. The controversy was revived with great bitterness. and subsequently became a London incumbent. which was published in February 1860. Hampden was. and further decided that Mr. The Coun cU of King's College. freedom from outward ordinances. A Oetlibbnses and Amalrioians. Whately and Arnold were obviously representative men of the one class. among others. Master of Rugby School from 1828 until his death in 1842. London. entitled Essays and Reviews." in which much is doubted and reand very little believed. first. the Incarnation.

WUson afterwards a " non-natural sense. The second Essay is by Dr. The object of it may be stated to be to prove that the world has gone through several stages of religious education. The prophets did not ^predict events. the writer says. at that time Master of Eugby School. as. but subsequently Bishop of Exeter. 1862. theological revival. we ought not to be content with the interpretations to which our forefathers bowed down. on February 8th. simply wrote down what proves to be full of mistakes. C. This author deals with what is called Scripture cosmogony. at least in the interpretation of the Holy Bible or the Prayer Book. Moses before Pharaoh. Goodwin. &c. and afterwards Eector. and miracles are "nature" improperly described by ignorant people. Rowland Williams. 1864. when it was subject to positive laws and restrictions upon its freedom. The Annunciation " may be of ideal origin " also. These two writers were both condemned by the Court of Arches. and its chief object appears to be to lower the authority of Holy Scripture by showing that very little of it was inspired in any ordinary sense of inspiration. His own examples of this kind of interpretation are among the most dreadful things in the book. or that He created the world. but living in a time when he had no geological discoveries to guide him. The fifth Essay was written by Mr. WUson by Mr." came to think that this inestimable privilege is the birthright of every enlightened Churchman. and is an evidence of the way in which people sometimes argue against an opponent so vehemently that they end by converting themselves to that opponent's side. Vicar of Great Staughton." It is a sort of adaptation of the Bible to the theories contained in the previous Essays . in which conscience is supreme. according to opinions and circumstances. and subsequently Master of last The Scripture. there being in each the three stages of childhood. Churchmen combined High Churchmen and Low in censuring the work the : : : John at Jerusalem? The fourth Essay is by the Eev. and that now we have arrived at such a highly educated stage of the world's history. 86 Williams by Bishop Hamilton of Salisbury. B. e. few would have attached much significance to his Essay if it had not appeared in such objectionable company. It was not an angel or supernatural being that slew the first-born. it is not nearly so much opposed to Christian interests and Christian principles as the others . who invented a theoretical account of creation. and while many would have differed from the author's views. A parallel is drawn between the history of the individual man and that of the world.000 of the clergy signed a protest against it and the Convocations of Canterbury and York passed a synodical condemnation upon "the pernicious doctrines and heretical tendencies of the book" in July 1864. the Temptation did not really happen. This judgment was reversed on appeal to the Queen in Council." The fifty-third chapter of Isaiah describes the sufferings of Jeremiah. The third Essay had for its author Mr. and against Mr. Temple. and has now reached a higher development of religious knowledge than it has reached before. He considers many of the " traits in the Scrip- and that it is make anything out tural Person of Jesus" to belong to an ideal rather than an historical person .g. but is an imaginary scene put into the Gospels to complete the picture. Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. This has been followed by the world's manhood. The agitation raised by the publication of Essays and Reviews was greater than any that had taken place during the progress of the Balliol College.Broad Churchmen obtained an enormous circulation.g. but the " Bedouin host. It is on "the Tendencies of Eehgious Thought in England from 1688 to 1750. Lushington on December 15th.. a Welsh College in which young men are educated for Holy Orders. and affected opinions of so many superficial thinkers that it will be proper to state shortly what is the nature of its contents. of Lincoln College.. at the time of writing Eellow. bishops were all opposed to its teaching 9. and much more to the same purpose. The Old Testament ages were the time of the world's childhood. the Judicial Committee fenc- . Oxford. and is written to prove the unreasonableness of believing that God ever worked miracles. Eendall. This synodical judgment was suspended for some time on account of ecclesiastical suits which were being prosecuted against Dr. Essay is on the "Interpretation of by Mr. but wrote down past or current history. &c. each being suspended from his benefice for a year by the sentence of Dr. Baden Powell. Vice-Principal of Lampeter. Jowett. He tries to prove that the ordinary ways of understanding the Bible are a mistake. tlie Broad Churchmen to The first Essay is by Dr. what greater mistake could there be than to suppose that creation is an evidence that there is a Divine Being. Such being the case. The sixth is by the Eev. The author of this Essay was one of the leaders in a very intemperate attack on the writers in the Tracts for the Times for a supposed claim made by them to interpret the Thirty-nine Articles in St." and is substantially a plagiarism of Lessing's Essay on the same subject. The world made itself somehow or other in the course of millions of years. H. a layman. not those of the Messiah. e. Mr. Mark Pattison. youth and manhood. The New Testament age was the world's youth. Peter and the height of intellectual subtlety of anything. or St. and the manner in which he does so is sufficiently explained by saying that he considers the Book of Genesis to have been written by some Hebrew man of science." Although a very dry and uninteresting history of the subject. It is entitled " The Education of the "World. or that miracles are evidence of the Divine Being having commissioned those who work them. then Eegius Professor of Greek at Oxford. when external discipline was supplanted lay example in the Person of Christ. and the only limitation of freedom is that which it imposes. Wilson.

he was tried before a Broad Churchmen From that time Bishop Colenso was little heard of as a leader of the Broad Church party. a solemn sentence of excommunication was published against him by the Bishop of Cape Town. On the design and general tendency of the book called Essays and Reviews. 1866. The offer was accepted." The practical religion of the school is based on philosophical views of morals.: Broad Churchmen ing their judgment by adding to it this paragraph " desire to repeat that the meagre and disjointed extracts which have been allowed to remain in the reformed Articles" of the suit " are alone the subject of our judgment. and everlasting punishments. not only sneeringly of the idea of a positive external revelation. is recognised. rather than grace. But successive controversies have developed out of the original Broad Church party an extreme school. of denying the inspiration of Holy provincial synod value about equal to an essay written by the pupils of the middle classes of our colleges. and all those of Ireland. however. and on the effect or aim of the whole Essay of Dr. among parrots. AU these Essays tend toward atheism.' whom the old EngUsh freethinkers and freemasons had not dared to attack" [Evangelische Kirehenzeitung. This deposition was subsequently declared nuU and void by the Queen in Council on the ground that the Metropolitan of Cape Town had not authority over the Bishop of Natal. It is only the echo of German infidelity which we hear from the midst of the English Church. by means of which he endeavoured to make the high-road of Biblical interpretation so very broad that the most arrogant sceptic would find no difiiculty in walliing along it. Cases. Eccl. that with only this distinction. of believing in the justification of those who have no knowledge of the Saviour. Williams. He uses several expressions. " manliness" rather than " godliness" being set up as of its the true ideal of Christian life. he was formally deposed from the see of Natal on November 27th. . as a record of On the matter of fad. 1863. David's. On his positive refusal. Bat what indications are there that he published it at large. and of depraving and impugnHaving been ing the Book of Common Prayer. restricted almost entirely to the human aspect of . Colenso. 289]. whose theology is of a much more positive character. in which self-control. 1862]. the judgment being considered as a triumphant vindication of the theological laxness which its members advocate and practise. Vorwort. and Griffin of Limerick. . wrote an united letter to the Bishop of Natal requesting him to resign his see. common they imitate more or less perfectly. a distinguished professor of natural sciences at the University of Munich. The theological tendency of the Broad Church school in general is to drift through the channel Its Christology is of Unitarianism into Theism. But after some time it was returned with the remark. "There is not the slightest reason to suppose that the first writer of the story in the Pentateuch ever professed to be recording infallible truth. veracious history 1 " appearance of this volume which looked very learned to unlearned people Colenso was at once elevated to the post of choragus by the bulk of On the other hand. is considered as the power by which holy living is to be accomplished. as the book was beneath all criticism. he even raises himself against the ' Architect of the world. . It was probably under the encouragement of this supposed victory that Dr. and so Scripture. book was placed before the court in a way which made its thorough judicial criticism impossible did not. even to the people of his own time. which has hitherto formed the basis of all systems of the Christian faith. and in their want of courage to declare this Only Baden Powell forms in this knowledge. to subject this treatise to an examination from the standpoint of natural science. Bishop of Natal in South-eastern Africa. the Divinity of our Lord. Bishop of St. on charges of denying the Atonement. Wilson. the first principle of the author being indicated by the words. The Essay of Goodwin on the Mosaic cosmogony displays the naive assurance of one who receives the modern critical science from the second or tenth hand. that belief in His Deity has no real place in the personal creed of many Broad Churchmen . aU the Broad Churchmen. in the Cathedral of PieterMaritzburg. This school is of a distinctly rationalist type. The editor" (Hengstenberg) " asked the now deceased Andreas Wagner. "The authors of the Essays. and with it of all Holy Scripture . Their subordinate value is seen in the inability of their authors to recognise their goal clearly. damp the satisfaction of the Broad Church party. scientific The treatise of Temple is in its — — at Cape Town. except Thirlwall. The purpose of this work was to minimize to the utmost the authority of the Pentateuch. On the short extracts before us. our judgment is that the charges are not proved" [Brodrick and Fremantle. They appear to us as parrots. carrying Broad Church views about inspira- 87 . we neither can nor do pronounce any opinion. . But on January 7th. . "have been trained in a German school. He wrote certainly a narrative. that he must take back his promise. Divine aspect. respect an exception. except the less distinguished Fitzgerald of Killaloe. The opinions of a better informed posterity respecting the theological productions of the Broad Church school will probably be in accordance with that expressed by the learned Hengstenberg. in which the grinning spectre makes He speaks his appearance almost undisguisedly. Christ's earthly life little and ministrations . or the whole Essay of Mr. but his works are said to be extensively used by the We Buddhists as a controversial authority against Christianity." he wrote. published his speculations on the Pentateuch. and all they have to say about our Lord is " Ecce Homo. or even actual histm-ical truth. or of His present work. and subsequently a new Bishop was consecrated to take charge of the Colony. the bishops of England. This significant intimation that the p. and the book given to him. found guilty of these charges. of Christ's Pre-existence.

and lived together in a society numbering forty-six members. and which bore. and on her deathbed communicated to the few who remained with her (among whom was stiU Mr. and such must be the logical outcome of its opinions when they are taken up by men who are not satisfied to rest in negations and generalities. in December of the in Dumfriesshire. to the north of the present Oude. that she should not now die. Buddhism. and various other persons. Buddhism was on one side the result of a protest against the rehgious and social despotism of Brahminism. is professed by 455. but on her marriage about 1760 joined the sect to which her husband About belonged. China. Her infatuated followers in consequence would not bury her. until the neighbours procured an order from a justice of the peace for her interment. bom The date of his birth is variously given by M. which had wound itself round every act and moment of life. and Ceylon [Max-MiiUer. with their Lord. The Eohlers were both of them executed in the year 1753.o.]. regarding the world as close to its end. but his original name seems to have been Siddhartha [Saint-Hilaire. 3]. i. Buchan. the capital of a kingdom of the same name in Central India. but would be caught up to meet the Lord. with a common stock and purse. Reg. 589. and She was originpreviously a domestic servant. 26. Being assaulted by a mob at Irvine in April 1784. 1785 . Saint-HUaire. Brtanite. from first to last. ii. pp. a merchant. Mongolia. and the Woman spoken of in the Eevelation as clothed with the sun. they moved to a farmhouse near Thornhill Here. i. i. It is said that Mr. probably under the influence of some religious excitement which deranged her mind.' BUDDHISTS. Though many of the metaphysical doctrines of Buddhism may be found among the philosophers of Brahminism. common length of IJnitarianism . \Scots Magazine. they were again attacked by a mob. of the human race. same year. 590 . or by the title of Buddha (the enlightened) which he afterwards assumed. introd. Chips from a German Worlcshop. number of Mrs. foundress was Mrs. 1780 she began. tended been surreptitiously supported with spirits and She died in June 1791. In a village within that canton two brothers named Christian and Jerome Eohler blasphemously pre[a. pp. A small sect of fanatics so called from the Swiss canton of Brugglen. fixed it in a corner of a earn. better known as Sakya-mouni. in its later development. and from which his religion is named. One of her latest pretended revelations was. [Independents. Chron.] An insignificant sect which existed in Scotland for a few years at the close of the last century. Ann. like that of Buddha. of the family of the Sakyas and the clan of the Gautamas . and then awake and lead them to the New Jerusalem. relating the tricks and impositions which she had practised.] . that no one of those who became her followers would die. 462. Brugglenians ture Buddhists goods which they contributed to the stock. the king of the country. though it is doubt- — ful whether this name. at the foot of the mountains of Nepaul. Nepaul. who would soon have died had they not of the tion to the length. This was immediately attempted by some. introd. 461. a writer to the signet. the two religions are entirely at variance with each other. 214. Buohan's followers returned to their homes at Irvine. and that whUe all the wicked would be at once struck dead for a thousand years. Train's Buchanites 1791. but when compelled by the process of water. 1746] to be the two witnesses of the Book of Eevelation . Such is the natural terminus of the original school. though it has now disappeared_fEom IMia. yet. She soon numbered among her followers a Eelief Minister named Hugh Whyte of Irvine.] BEUGGLENIANS. Whyte then went to America. Le Bouddlia et sa Seligion. and occupied in the sole work of watching for the Great Appearing. J. hence the son was called afterwards Sakya-mouni the solitary of the Sakyas. the believers in this immediate coming would. some correspondence to fthe subseIts quent sect of Southcotians in England. forsook their worldly occupations. On another side it was an attempt to escape from the terrible theories involved in the doctrine of metempsychosis.]. 622 [Le Bouddha. possess the earth for that period. [Methodists. The founder of Buddhism was at Kapilavastu. 88 .d. the wife of a workman in a delf manufactory at Glasgow. B. was not adopted by him in later life [Chips. 1846. that of the Burgher Secession. being 31-2 per cent. and the fanatic'^m soon afterwards died out among their followers. 1786 pp. His father. was 205]. Tartary. Whyte) that she was none other than the Blessed Virgin.. and the former of the two promised his followers that on a certain day he would ascend to Heaven and carry them with him. Burmah. Broad Church views about everlasting punishment to Universalism and Broad Church views about the priesthood and the Sacraments to an utter denial of their reality. BEYANITES. from the name of his clan. but only sleep for a while. renounced marriage and attention to the duties of married life. and which were supposed to have for their aim the exhausting the patience and fidelity of her disciples so as to secure for herself the undivided possession decay to place her body in a coffin. ally an Episcopalian. that she had been on the earth ever since the days of our Lord . 1784. Tliese forthwith. The believers in a faith origi- nated in India about 2500 years ago by Siddhartha. of practical disbelief in ScripBroad Chm-ch views about our Lord to the . Japan. Saint-HUaire and other writers at b.000. p. 148. in practical bearing and social relations. Thibet. Edinb. He is also known as Gautama. BUCHANITES. in Cashmere. for which thirteen of the assailants were fined In 1786 a in the Sheriff-court at Dumfries. Siam. and by Professor MaxMuller about seventy years later [Chips. ii. BEOWNISTS. to teach that the millennium was close at hand. that in order to be fit to ascend to Christ a previous fast of forty days and nights was requisite. 27.000.

preaching. or. who vainly desired thus to drive away his melancholy. i. and about the end of the fourth century b. on various occasions. of one dying of fever and overcome by the fear of death.d. 217. but a great impulse was given to its extension about the fifth century a. and various geographical difficulties. and never recovered the slightest footing there. From Ceylon it spread to Siam and Burmah. the mass of miraculous legend that had grown up about him. to be preserved as relics in different parts of the country. and. A conversions in China and Central and Eastern and has never had since that time to lament any serious permanent losses. was established in that country by King Asoka or Piyadasi. considers it doubtful whether such a person as Buddha ever existed. set him on thinking how to escape from the miseries and the fear of old age. however. a regular plan of missions was developed by teaching. and seeking only to obtain self-conquest determined Buddha to retire from the world. 246.. 7. his exercises and set himself to elaborate his own system. and Central Asia especially. and became the pupil. then of a second. lived a hfe of austerity. or 477 [Max Miiller]. i For a while of Buddha (the enlightened). In the next century. was committed to writing about the first century B. pp. where Buddhism flourished greatly. about B. and deliverance from the He gave up fears with which he was troubled. vast mass of childish legend and fiction had grown up around his history. Manual chap. from the prince to the outcast. he died while sitting under a tree in a forest near the city of Kusinagara.o.] The most striking feature in the history of Buddhism is its spirit of proselytism. seventy. The story of the life of Buddha was handed down by tradition. Streams of pilgrims came into India from China. by which it was utterly expelled from that country. Gliipa. [For some account of these. and relics . ii. Cashmere was the first country converted . 48-78 . pt. unless indeed it has suffered in any way by the rise of the curious A creed of the Chinese rebels. as we now possess it. of the 218]. He afterwards travelled over many parts of India. At the end of this time he became convinced that the austerities availed no more than the doctrines of Brahminism in producing peace of mind.C. but compassion for the sufferings of man prevailed. as the son of a king. tails are sec. Maurice \Lfictures on the Professor Wilson. in his Essay on Buddha and Buddhism. and carried back with them sacred pictures. Mongolia. He went to Benares. and at the same time it spread largely in other countries. in which it has been surpassed by no religion except Christianity. and all his relations. It speedily made way in India. the Himalayan countries and Thibet soon followed while in the south Ceylon became almost wholly Buddhist.C. but he was vehemently opposed and persecuted by the Brahmins. where he preached and lectured with great success. b. making conSeveral of the kings. i. retired for six years into solitude. of a man overwhelmed by the miseries and infirmities of age. and. Buddhists He was.d. having reached the age of cussion. see Saint-Hilaire. the mythical character attaching to several parts of the story. of eighty years. embraced his doctrines. of the most famous of the Brahmin teachers . supported only by alms. He left no writings. From this time he adopted the. see Max Muller. his remains were divided into eight portions. amid thousands of his followers. Religions of the World\ gathering up the different dates assigned to him. over whom however he was victorious in every disAt last. But many of the difficiilties of the history have now been solved . which were originally 89 . the sacred city of the Brahmins. at one of the great councils of Buddhism. He then. 218. sionaries were first sent to some of the countries beyond India . An encounter with a mendicant or devotee one who. he imagined that he had at last arrived at the true knowledge which discloses the cause. and this theory is not accepted by the most recent students of Buddhism. first of one. From boyhood he was noted for his talents and beauty. including his father. Spence Haidy. For this loss it gained compensation by extensive Asia. renouncing all pleasures and desires. which it taught. 543 [SaintHis funeral Hilaire]. books. of a funeral attended by the lamenting relatives of the deceased. according to some accounts. but from them he learned no means of deliverance for man. but his discourses were collected by his disciples from tradition. subjecting himself to the most frightful penances. \ ^ and now form a portion of the Buddhist sacred writings. and publishing translations of the sacred books.] Though many of the de- doubtful. and also for his melancholy temper and loTe of solitary meditation on the problems of life and death amid the shadows of the forests. with five companions. After long meditations and ecstatic visions. Le Buuddha. The sight. Kshatrya or warrior caste. 65 was admitted as a state religion by the Emperor Ming-ti. it received a formidable blow from the great uprising of Brahminist feeling in India. The tenets of Buddhism are contained in the canonical sacred writings. in compliance with his father's wishes. This spirit arose from the feeling of sympathy and brotherhood between all men. many of whose edicts are preserved in In this king's reign misrock inscriptions. After his body was burned. It is necessary to notice a theory concerning Buddha propounded by the late Professor Wilson. rites were celebrated with great solemnity. It was alternately persecuted and favoured. without passion or envy. [For a refutation of it. and in a. — — herent in title life. The first mention of a Buddhist mission in China is about B.C. he hesitated whether he should communicate hisi knowledge to the world . He left his father's palace by night in secret. and adopted in part by Mr. He married early. The only means adopted for its propagation was persuasion. disease and death. and so removes the fear. the general outline of his life may be accepted.o. of all the changes in- Buddhists of BvddMsm. 217. verts wherever he went.: .

M. of less importance. H. not to kiU. by Mr. gave himself up to the study of the Buddhist literature in that language. in spite of great difficulties. in its widest sense. the two latter. held in different parts of India. to abstain from unseasonable meals. the two former derived from the Sanscrit. That moral code is. [2J the cause of these is our affections and passions and our sins . not to one class or caste but to the veriest outcasts. and also some historical works in Pali. but with important additions in his latter years. and Siam also Ceylon. living as a beggar a life of the utmost privation. namely. humility. [2] to wear only three garments. : 90 . whereon he offered his body to be devoured by them. proclaiming a deliverance from the religious and social despotism of the Brahmins. The Four Verities are followed by a body of moral precepts. before the whole congregation. [7] right memory . 308. not to lie. made by their own hands from these rags . from having a large or soft bed. These Pour Verities alone comprise the earliest teaching of Buddha . not to steal. or the choice of an upright purpose in aU words and deeds . [2] right judgment. of the Buddhist canon was made known by M. Hodgson. which treats of metaphysical questions. Hence it is that the social and moral code of Buddhism is far more important than its metaphysical theories. made from the Thibetan. and Burmah. in the original Sanscrit. though in the Buddhist system they are closely connected with each other. Political Eesident in that state. patience. a knowledge of Thibetan. the ancient sacred language of China. B. in universe. purity. from the Pali. who published some extracts in 1829. from expensive dresses and personal ornaments and perfumes. of faults and sins. or three in B. love for and dutifulness to parents and relations. The first are the Pi>ve : : Great Commandments binding upon all. [4] right purpose. hypocrisy. or the pursuit of a religious life . [1 1] when once settled not to move the sitting-carpet about. containing aU that has reference to morality. Ceylon. [3] right language. [6] to take no food after noon . The first two contain each five separate works. ChrisIt contains tianity. of which little is known. or the study of perfect and unswerving truthfulness . the means of deliverance. The title given to those who follow these last precepts is Sramana. almsgiving or charity. and the Abhidharma. or the following all the precepts of the Buddhist law. being divided into three parts. [3] pain and sorrow can cease by Nirvana . But it contains elements of both. These virtues are inculcated in. patience. Mongolia.. baskets. entering towns only to obtain alms. of volumes. but have been translated tbe languages of Thibet. observances of the severest character are prescribed [1] To wear only clothes made of rags cast away by others . Obstinately refusing to recognise aught else but man. speculations could have been followed by very few among its votaries . the Sutras or discourses of Buddha. courage. the same period the existence of a Mongolian version. Alexander Csoma. [10] to sleep there. dispersing all uncertainty and doubt . [7] to live in forests and solitary places. vol. and knowledge. a theory of knowing and being. this it was that caused its rapid spread. He saw one day a tigress starved and unable to feed her cubs. To the people at large Buddhism was a Its metaphysical moral and religious reform. G. having acquired. namely. J. Buddhists uncharitableness. not to commit adultery. Buddhism is not a religion as Judaism. Por those who embrace a religious life. mostly translations from the Sanscrit works discovered by Mr. when they were discovered in Nepaul. They comprised sixty Shortly after. he taught them indeed to the last. [8] right meditation. Csoma published an analysis of this immense About bible in the Asiatic Researches. twelve The Buddhist canon was settled at three great councils. [3] to wear over these rags only a yeUow cloak. Petersburg. L. It forbids even such vices as pride. dancing. One of the most remarkable of Buddha's institutions is that of public confession. and enjoins such virtues as forgiveness of injuries. [4] to live only on the alms they have collected . contemplation. were enjoined the Six Ordinary Virtues. or orthodoxy. Burmah. taken by itself. further great discovery was made in Ceylon by the Hon. [12] to meditate at night among the tombs in the cemeteries on the vanity of aU things. Mahometanism are religions. the last It is called the Tripitaki. " victors over self.C. the ordinary sense of the term. Schmidt of St. but the sight of a prince throwing away all his splendour. This way to Nirvana consists of eight parts [1] Eight faith. Japan. it confounds man with nature. The basis of the morals of Buddha is the Foui Great Verities [1] Pain and sorrow exist. Hodgson. their very fullest extent. one of the purest in the world. [5] right practice. the last seven. [6] right obedience. in the midst of which he lives. not to get drunk. from public spectacles (music. [5] to eat only one meal daily . [9] to rest only sitting at the foot of a tree. modesty. possess Buddhist literatures. binding on professed disciples. Next come five precepts. Japan. [4] points out the way to Nirvana. the Vinaya. which consists of about 330 folio volumes. and from receiving gold or silver. that has had such a great force with the multitudes. These vera entirely unknown to Europeans until 1824. [8] the only shelter is to be the shadow of trees . An instance of Buddha's charity is given for imitation. A humility. Turnour of a version of the Buddhist canon." On ordinary persons. not a trace of the idea of God from first to last it acknowledges man as the oidy being in the Keither is it simply a philosophy. but resting against the tree . and withal of the utmost purity and virtue. who could not attain such a height of virtue. contentment. while it stLU preaches earnestly It is the practical element the laws of virtue. without lying down. Koros in Transylvania. Buddhists composed in into Sanscrit. singing). opening the way of happiness. Among a number of minor precepts are included the government of the tongue. China. xx.

and generally of great size . To ascertain what Nirvana is. the subject can reason. or what is not nothing. Desire must be preceded by perception. which arises from desire. not merely animate.. the Buddhas and Bodhisatvas.. we must go on to consider the metaphysical side of Buddhism. Many of them employ themselves in study of the sacred The means of painful virtue described above. it is misery to be. it admits of no idea of sacrifice. virtue There is no means is rewarded. This can be done only by attaining to Nirvana. whatever of escaping the consequences of deeds as long as existence continues . namely. who appears to have regarded Nirvana as the absorption of the soul in itself.sire.] 91 . before the images and relics of Buddha. can distinguish. but in a less degree. Before this human life man has gone through a multitude of states of existence of all kinds . the effects which end in This distinction is existence. and does not proceed from Buddha. aU pleasure and pain have departed. a knowledge of the But the devotee stm has a sense nature of things. birth and pain. Even his own ideas are thus but illusions. who act as patterns of the presence. involving rest. Such a system would naturally. to some of them miraculous powers of motion have been ascribed. without any or The universe is a mere fleeting illusion reality. The idea of God is utterly banished from Buddhism. consisting simply of prayers and the offering of flowers. nothing remains but absolute apathy. Ignorance therefore is the primary cause of aU To know that ignorance as seeming existence. In Nepaul it lost its ^ There is reason to believe that the conception of Nirvana as annihilation is the work of later philosophers and theologians. of pleasure in his own condition. In attaining this state the votary acquires also omniscience and magic power. as near to that state as this life can attain. and was also reverenced. and preachers. and nothing remains but the desire for Nirvana. that is when he had attained to perfect Nirvana. What In the fourth stage these last remnants vanish . the region of nothing. and in consequence became divided into numerous sects. that is in fact utter annihilation. Eeverence is also paid to the statues of distinguished Buddhists. is The worship very simple.f growing perfection. distinction is the real cause of aU. called Bonzes. but also inanimate. the effects of ignorance. and with it all the effects which flow from it. or propitiation. and the satisfaction arising from the In the consciousness o. undisturbed by nothing. Not even is there the notion of a Universal Spirit common to so many Eastern reof ligions. the only one possible in this life. for and to whom He who was striving after this state. and other traces of his — and name. mediation. not to be must be felicity. have but little hold upon the mass of unintelligent men. Buddhists then is the end to he obtained by a life such self-sacrificing charity and humility'! That stated in the third and fourth of the Four Verities. was a Bodhisatva.^ In consequence of the atheistic character of Buddhism. In some countries there are also convents of women. a region where not even the idea of nothing is left. in this The great scene of misery. end of man then is to escape from existence by This cause of existence is extirpating its cause. Nirvana is the reward and the end of the life of communities often containing thousands of perunder rules strikingly resembling those of some of the mediseval monastic bodies. and illusion. but there remains still some it. But existence is not confined to human life nor closed by death. and in fact through all forms of every kind. third stage that satisfaction is extinguished. This contemplation has four stages. The ministers. there is a sense of freedom from sin. and he may pass through a countless number hereafter. what is distinct. and choose between what and in making translations of them in teaching young men and boys. and was greatly reverenced. pure indifference succeeds. He who had attained the incomplete Nirvana. perception by contact. In the first there is no desire but for Nirvana. that is. and lastly. was called a Buddha. in its pure atheistic philosophy. and from the circle of existences.. Hence it suffered corruptions and changes in nearly every country where it was adopted. But there is a yet higher state to be attained by passing through the four regions of the formless world the infinity of space. memory is gone. satisfaction. Existence then is for man but sorrow. especially after his death. these ideas are mere illusions. True wisdom consists in the desire for Nirvana. man is ever reappearing. vice punished. &c. sorrow. Eeverence also is paid to his footmarks. The transformations are regulated by the conduct of beings in their different states . or else simply as teachers sons. and a pledge of the future and perfect Nirvana. As the senses can only perceive what has form man. the infinity of intelligence. perfumes. not even the idea of the absence of ideas . and some amount of physical Nihilism. self-consciousness. In the dreary blank of Nirvana it held out no hope worth striving for. sternest self-renunciation. but had not yet attained it. This alone is perfect Nirvana. and especially to any spot where it is recorded that any remarkable occurrence happened to him. the root of all evil is identical with destroying it. The only being that can lay is — claim to any real existence the thinking subject. Buddhists pleasure. the universe seems to exist. Different sects and individuals select certain of these to whom they pay special regard. Buddhist . This is incomplete Nirvana. misery and trouble. are simply confraternities of mendicants. Nirvana. others gave no comfort from the protection of higher and conduces to the final state and what draws from In the second stage the use of these powers ceases. the effect of ignorance. "attachment" an inclination towards something. under some form or other. itself the result of conceptions or ideas . They usually live in As or extinction. where there is complete rest. and this contact implies the existence of the senses. entering into that state is by contemplation or ecstasy. 12-14. the novices of the convents. It hooks. more mighty beings. freedom from pain and de[Miiller. The statues of Buddha are very numerous.

and the various Buddhas and Bodhrsatvas. paid to the Buddhas. and consequently refused that degree of worship which the Socinians held to be due to Him. and form a separate Those who fulfil only ascetics. Saint-HUaire. so that even the professed religious are often utterly selfish. to abstain from gross vice. Legends and Theories of the Buddhists. B. mercy and deliverance. [Maurice. and. to whom different spheres are allotted one. intelligenoes of the first order.J It remains briefly to state the strength and weakness of Buddhism as a religion. They are only expected to acknowledge the general superiority of their religion. has come to be looked on as an incarnation of Buddha. &c. or rather of the universe. BudncBans to the life. by a gradual development. a second. but do not become enlightened. submit to initiatory rites. of the worshippers of Fo. On the other hand.Buddhists atheistic character entirely. In China.ritual and life with that of the mediaeval Christian Church. it became in some points assimilated with Brahminism. and the remarkable correspondence of its. [See Hardwick.tstehung. it preaches the most exalted virtue. Ood in History. are due to the influence of Christian missions. Adi-Buddha. the atheistic and nihilistic character of Buddhism takes from it aU the power it might have gained for man's good. Buddhism m Thilet. the ritual correspondences. called Bodhisatvas. who projects from his own essence five Buddhas. E. Under the charge of this last is a paradise. There are also many large communities of nuns . Hence the many corruptions it has undergone. one at least of each family being devoted to the priesthood. ^ Buddha himself looks on the old gods of India as Buperhuman heings. A Manual of Buddhism. but are obliged to submit to rigid rules of life and conduct. 8 n. In Thibet. as this system was not elaborated till the thirteenth century a. head of the country is the Grand Lama. their leader. ii. These inferior diviniregarded as agents in the hands of the as links which unite him with the lower orders of beings. iii. Bunsen. who and hence is really man-worship. Christ and other and apparently easily also a cause of its rapid allied with and adopted parts of those religions with which it came in contact. It propagates itself only by persuasion. L. Max — — three of colossal size. i. ] Schlagintweit. K. Buddhism there has adopted the belief in one supreme. devotees. statues. Origin and Development of Religious Beliefs. Lect. was deposed in 1584 from the ministry. It is said that he afterwards recanted. its birthplace. The great mass corporation. the poorer classes. Spence Hardy. though not as divine. ii. Masters. but totally free from the grossness of those in the Koran. and holds up for imitation ideals the founder and his chief followers of the loftiest character. progress.^ It has been suggested that. the Chinese corruption of Buddha. relics. &c. excommunicated with all his followers. immoral and contemptible. such as the elevation of Buddha to a god. that woods. who. &c. The remarkable features of the Buddhism of Thibet are the hierarchy of Lamas. 6. [Hue. Temples are very numerous.i In China it allows the worship of ancestors. who in turn produce five of the second order. to reverence the sacred writings. are rather tolerated than approved by the authorities of the sect. and Buddhism religion. no sanction to its precepts to inspire awe . and are treated with great reverence. and filled with images. who is ever being born again into the world for the guidance and help of man. As a means of attaining this. until Faustus Socinus succeeded in uniting them in one heresy. ^ Besides the Grand Lama. Lect. iii. Tramela in Tartani • Buddhist Nihilism. and of good and evil spirits. hills. There is no hope of future life . which are certainly very striking. The Lamas are very numerous. with the sanction of the Lamas. and to contribute to the support of the monks. the author of — MuUer.\ 92 .d. which was superseded by ties are Supreme Deity. ruling the world of intellect. no means of expiation for sin . Hence also the weak hold it has over so many of its professors. J. _ The Budnaeans denied the miraculous conception of our Lord. Simon Budnseus.. En. representing Buddhas. Its end is the salvation of mankind. on the Religions of the World. [Miiller. M. which had then become Socinian. Thus even in India. Baring-Gould. owing its discipline. and BUDN^ANS. the severity of the fervour of its moral tone. the only genuine Buddhists are the monks and mendicants. 214-219. it exhibits the most unbounded charity and toleration. and spiritual. Die Religion des Buddha und ihre One of the parties into which the Antitrinitarians of Poland and Transylvania were divided shortly after their separation from the Eeformed Churches in the year 1565. The supreme. all is dark and drear and gloomy. Le Bouddha et sa Religion.. self-existent intelligence. temporal. among which are always The only worship is are popularly regarded as deified. Von Koeppen. These alone have a common confession of faith. no beneficent Creator to love . ii. : for it it is one peculiarity itself of this numbers of those who adopt the religious they are allowed to work. these conditions attain a higher sphere of being in the next life. pp..'l joy and happiness in the family circle. who is also deputed to govern the whole earth . Admission to this paradise is obtained solely by faith and trust in the third of this triad of Buddhas. and the lowering Nirvana into a paradise of pleasures. or "living Buddhas " —these are recognised by certain signs. numerous other persons are regarded as incarnations of Buddha. of which the most glowing descriptions are given. app. cm Buddhist Nihilism. and was re-admitted into the sect. the doctrine of the incarnations of Buddha. Chips from a German Workshop. and the third and most important. Hardwick. i. Probably these features are connected with the previous religion of the country. the source of grace. One of its most important points is its practical character. Christ and other Masters. make offerings to the genii of the rivers.

and in a meeting of synod on April 1746. the circumstances of Their controversy as to its precise meaning. Agreement with — — Kirk. by the Associate Synod. this decision was then made by the victorious party now called Antiburghers They rejected." began to be put forward. Information by A. Burghers of Haddington wrote his HisAccount of the Secession. 93 . a preamble to the Confession of Faith was adopted which disclaimed approbation of any principle therein supposed to favour compulsory measures in religion. Campbell for the Managers of the Burgher Seceding Meeting-Honse in Aberdeen against Rev. a body which is now represented. and were at one on aU the articles of faith . J. an attempt to remove the Preamble was defeated in synod by 91 to 28. fenders of the clause offered for the sake of peace former to consent to an act of synod declaring it inexpedient for Seceders to swear the oath in the present circumstances. On September 5th. or Albigenses. Secessiojt. since its further union in 1847 with the Ebliep Secession. worship. which pledged them to their maintenance. \yindication of Adherence to the Principles and Constitution of the Church of Scotland. to an approval only of its " scope and design. and in the following year two distinct bodies were 9th. that the oath must be taken in the sense of its imposers . and a great home of the Paulicians. in consequence of an act which passed the General Assembly on May 25th. The principle of establishments (hitherto warmly maintained) was impugned. and also in Matthew Paris. In the year 1746 a discussion arose in the Associate Secession Synod in Scotland respecting the lawfulness of the religious clause of the oath administered to the burgesses of Edinburgh. and Glasgow. and not with the true religion proThe defessed and authorized ia the realm. and as their number of ministers in settled charges gradually increased to fifteen." while subsequently. under the old name of The Associate Synod. which would have carried a different meaning . 1799. and not of the faulty human manner of professing and settling it . as authorized by the laws of the realm since the Eevolution. that in their various testimonies they had solemnly approved the doctrine. they could not then caU the form of religion which was authorized by the laws the true religion. Stirling. the chief seat of the Bogomiles. and government of the Church of all my garded the constitution of the latter." and in the French forms "Boulgares. by which their ministers and congregations were admitted to full and equal fellowship." The name suggests a migration from Bulgaria. Brown. Hist. and consequently stiU retained their hostility to the Burghers. and excommunicated their Burgher brethren (as the maintainers of the oath were now called)." "Boulgres. viz." and " Bougres. on the other hand by some. civU magistrate for the maintenance of true religion was disputed as incompatible with these rights and with the duty of toleration. and left the nature and kind of the obhgation imposed by the Covenants an entirely open question. that the oath itself spoke only of the true religion professed in Scotland. renouncing the Eoman It was maintained by religion called Papistry. nor deIt was answered clare that they would defend it. and a change was made which limited the assent given at ordination to the old Act and Testimony of the Seceders. Will. 1800.. Perth. by the United Presbyterian Synod. opponents however would consent to nothing which did not declare the oath to be sinful and inconsistent with their testimony and engagement. but not of that as authorized. that it spoke indeed of the religion authorized by the laws. On October 2nd the Old-Light minority constituted themselves into a separate Presbytery. 1802. deposed a term of communion." some that for seceders from the Established Kirk to make this declaration was to place themselves at once in a false position . Account of the Secession. that having forsaken the Kirk on account of the abuses of patronage and the license given to teaching held to be contrary to the Westminster Confession and the other Presbyterian standards. BURGHEES. designing himAktibubghers. Bulgarians SBval Catharists. Edinb. as Erastian and founded on the will of the civil magistrate. they returned to the Established Scotland. Perth. the congregations belonging to the two bodies numbered about 200 they both professed entire agreement with the Presbyterian standards. Brunton. and is elsewhere found in the form " Bulgri. they carried a decision accordingly. In both bodies the rise of "free thought" tended to modify the earlier views. The Old-Light Burghers retained their separate existence until 1839. because they re- — with heart the true religion presently professed within this realm. when. Among the Burghers the " rights of conscience. they established a Synod in September 1805. in 1797. their and had declared their adherence to ordination vows. but the Antiburghers still torical given to the mediIt is found in the Chronicon Autissiodm-ense. and authorized by the laws thereof J I shall abide at and defend the same to my life's end. discipline. that their quarrel had been only with the corruptions in Church and State. 1809. written in the year 1211. A name When Brown professed that their own rehgion was different from that of the Establishment." the " right of private judgment and and the power assigned in the standard documents to the private opinion. and took the name of the United Secession. self the Minister. The clause was as follows " I profess and allow : BULGAEIANS. In 1820 the New-Light Burghers united with the New-Light Antiburghers.] constituted. 8th ed. and thereupon the Burgher body immediately split into two parties." " Bogri. amongst whom were the Erskines. called respectively (as in the case at the same time of the divided Antiburghers) the Old-Light and the New-Light.

o CACANGELICI. He very brief. xxxviii." associating their error with that of Balaam. Eor.]. For this reason. Annal. adv. xxxiii. and that Celsus had classed them as such in ignorance [Orig. adv. Caiana in the authentic work on which bears his name [Tertull. 1 2] . CADOLAIT. All such persons Korah. Hmr. he believed them." not a spiritual seed of the holy Eve [1 John iii.]. the two brothers being represented in exactly the opposite light to that in which they are shewn in Holy Scripture [Pseudo-TertuU. 1061]. Hmr. speaks of "a viper of the Cainite heresy" who an unmistakeable likeness between his denunciation of them and the description is and there given of the Cainites by Irenseus. 1061. xii. disputed. and Abel as her offspring by an inferior power. and the Sodomites. and Origen declares that the Cainites were not Christians at all. [a. it is probable. Gels. [Gaiana. contr. with the gainsaying of Korah.^. for Sophia always carried off to herself that Irenseus says they " declare that Cain Jude bring the name of Cain into in a their epistles way that is consistent with the idea that they were protesting against some misbelief associated with it." heresies Gnostic sects. as might have been expected. ad ami. But the account of them given by Epiphanius shews that . and was probably never used of any particular sect. set forth the struggle of good and evil under a rationalistic version of the murder of Abel. Jude expressly pronounces a " woe" against some who had gone in " the way of Cain.] strange sect of heretics men- tioned by IrenaBus and aR later heresiologists of the patristic ages. and that it was because his knowledge of it was in advance of that possessed by all others that he injury. iv. xiii." brought about the mystery of the betrayal. Prateolus.]. such as it was. The word KaKayyeXia as opposed to evayyeXiov. them as a separate sect.]. A [Gaianit^!. The designation is not used by Epiphanius or Augustine. St. 41]. XXV. suggested this name as that of heretics in general. i. John and St. of the sect. are heretical and apostate men [Iren. xxxi.]. according to him. Thus it is applied to the Lutherans and Calvinists by Hosius. de Bapt i. Jude is expressly written 19]. iii. For this reason he wrote his treatise on that sacrament [Tertull. The account given of them by Epiphanius does not appear to be founded on any further acquaintance with the heresy than that which might be derived from Irenaeus [Epiph. and who had made it her chief aim to oppose the ministration of baptism. derived his being from the Superior Power" of the Valentinian theory. John declares that Cain was a murderer as being of " that wicked one. that the philosophy. de Bapt. they acknowledge as being of their kindred. CAIANITES. Cain was regarded by the Cainites as the offspring of Eve by a superior power. and the "angels" of the devil [Matt. to have held some form of those dualistic theories of good and evU which characterized all the whether they were dicitur.]. 9]. in association with the idea that " the children of the -vvicked one" [Matt. against certain persons "who separate themselves. and is usually supposed to refer to them when he writes " Sunt et nunc alii Nicolaitse . and in Sianda's Lexicon Polemicum." He also states that the Cainites possessed an apocryphal gospel which they called the " Gospel TertuUian of Judas" [Iren. CAINITES. Har. The account of the Cainites given by is It is observable that both St. name given to the adherents of the Anti-Pope Honorius III. but merely as a polemical term.] A had led away a great number of persons in the locality where he was writing. many Probably these heretics were one of those early sects of Asia Minor which were so 94 . appears to have . as a play upon the sect of the Angelici. yet none of them had suffered from them which was hers. iii. de Prcescript. his name being Cadolaus. though the reading is hseresis still existing or not as a separate sect in his time. but Tertullian incidentally mentions a distinct "Cainite heresy" in his treatise on Baptism [Tertull. They say that Judas the traitor had diligently studied the truth. 38].d. 41 Kev. 13] though it is evident that he himself knew little or nothing about them. while St.] Later writers always class Hmr. Hmr. Irenseus speaks of them rather as a school among the followers of Valentinus than as a distinct sect. adv. they add. that they have been assailed by the Demiurge. "together with Esau. but he gives no further indication of the doctrines professed by the Cainites. Thus. and with the wickedness of Sodom and Gomorrah [Jude 11The epistle of St. [Baronius.

that he is spoken of by the Moravian Apology of 1538 as "Primus omnium communionem utriusque speciei in Bo- hemia practicare ccepit " [Apoloff. These. and the Hussites immediately banded together under Nicolas of Hussinecz and John Zisca for armed Diarium vi. [4] That all mortal sins. contrary to the precept of Christ. and who heartily acknowledged that either species was by itself " integer et totus Christus. and the abuse heaped on his memory by his contemporary has the air of being suggested by rivaby and disappointment.] CALLISTIANS. at Prague. with all three of which sects the Cainites are vaguely associated by ancient writers. as he held the theory of " concomitance. devoutly and reverently desired it. there was a large party of fanatics. They were called also " Utraquists. 1617]. Huss himself had been willing to conform to the custom of administering the Blessed Sacrament in the form of the bread only. or of wealth and temporal goods." Like the Gnostic sects in general they evidently professed to have some special revelation respecting their religion which had not been communicated to other Christians. 95 . 292. The in Dydii Waldensia. Such were the Sethitbs. "They find their pretext for this towards the dominant party in the Church. was so far modified and restricted that the priests in Bohemia and Moravia were to be permitted to administer it in that manner . as they say. Brzezyna or Byzynius. 4]. BoJiem. Prom this time the Calixtines began to draw Har. to all Christians not disqualified by mortal — command and sin. and these acted with great violence and committed inexcusable cruelties in their attack upon Prague [a. [Gaianitj!." which makes the virtue of the Presence of Christ to be contained But his in its integrity in either element. who were chiefly the adherents of Zisca. Dort. and heard unspeakable words. and the Nicolattanes. where they had first gathered their forces together to a Communion in which the cup was administered to a vast multitude.d.] CALIXTINES. in what the Apostle says of his having ascended to the third heaven. CAJANISTS. CALIXTUS. The principal article. Mobavians. and particularly public ones. 175. which was ratified at Iglau. Hist. but when the CouncU of Basle met [a. and their practical antichristianism is very evident. ii. in Ludwig's Reliq. belli Hussit.d. but to those only who. and resided in Eome) is 80 mingled with personal invective and bitterness. Refut. with whom the Calixtines had once been so closely allied. bishop of Eome [a. 218223]. revival of the ancient practice formed one element in the most bitter and violent contest between the ruling powers in Church and State and the Hussites after the Council of Constance [a. 2-7]. from Mount Tabor in Bohemia. i3Eneas Sylvius. [Syncebtists." the Latin word for the Eucharistic chalice. ix. by Hippolytus. Before the time of the Reformation arrived. to the prejudice of his office. while otliers had coalesced with the Taborites. Paul" ('AvajSartKov Ila-uAoD). The substance of the opinions attributed to him is that which was afterwards called Patripassianism. But the account given of Callixtus by Hippolytus (who was bishop of a suburban see. and to the injury of the State. should be properly punished by those to whom the duty of suppressing them belong. being come to years of discretion. 2. that respecting administration of the Holy Sacrament in both kinds.Calixtines adulterated. [2] That the Sacrament of the Divine Eucharist should be freely administered in both kinds. 1419]. that what Christian elements of belief had beea originally current among them hecame all but obliterated in the course of a few years. are the unspeakable words. and by reason of the law of God^ The war still went on for some years with the Taborites. [3] That any clergyman engaged in the pursuit of secular power." This compact was assailed over and over again by the Eomanizing party. a statement of their wishes which is contained in four articles. the former retaining the original name. and received their name from the " calix. or " Unitas Fratrum.d. who accuses him of compounding a new heresy from the heresies of Noetus and Theodotus. verce Doctrin. This name is given to the partizans of Callixtus. which it is not lawful for a man to utter [2 Cor. 1415] and the execution of Huss and Jerome of The University of Prague pronounced Prague. as follows [1] that the Word of God should : be preached freely and without impediment throughout the kingdom of Bohemia. A section who resisted the withdrawal of of the Hussites the cup from the laity of Bohemia in the fifteenth century. under the species of bread and of wine. first witli the dualism. should be forbidden such pursuits and made to live according to the Evangelical rule and Apostolic life which Christ lived with His Apostles.] M8S. This violence led to a separation of the more moderate Cahxtines from the party of Zisca. and their attempts were in some degree justified by the violence of the Taborites. the Ophites. rated [Hippol. xii. Hussites. according to the institution of the Saviour. that is. in favour of the Communion in both kinds. CaUixtus has always been reckoned among the martyrs of the early Eoman Church.d. that there can be little doubt it is exagger- Among their number defence of their practice. and become the ancestors of the Moravian Brethren. a large number of them had been gradually reconciled to the Eoman usage. and so general had the opposite custom become. Their relationship to the Gnostic family of heresies in general is shewn by thi statement of Epiphanius respecting their apocryphal book the "Ascension of St. In the year 1421 they made." from the words sub utraque specie. Callistians and secondly practices with the licentious theories and of Oriental heathenism. 1433] these four "Articles of Prague " were made the basis of a compact. follower JacobeUus de Misa refused to administer it except in both kinds." [Bohemians. and the latter being called Taboritbs.

large numbers of the Puritans became dissenters. first in French and then in Latin. at Geneva.Calvinists CALVINISTIC METHODISTS.] Calvinists [Metholaity was the necessary consequence.D. and being intended for holy orders received the tonsure at seven years of age from the bishop to whom his father was secretary. de Suisse.]. 1561 : "Canter- 96 . where he was about to take up his residence. Opposition between clergy and ended in the withdrawal of the bishop from Geneva to Gex in Savoy [a. against the heresy of the soul's unconsciousness between death and the resurrection. for a short time (during the supremacy of the Presbyterians) in England. and he settled down at Geneva as a coadjutor of Parel. and this was stimulated by the visit of an impetuous Prench CALVmiSTS.d. although copied by his followers in Scotland. to Edward VI. But when Calvin attempted a crusade against the wickedness by which he was surrounded they at once revolted. one of the reforming party. and therefore to the authority which they had project of reformation. 1534-5] he published. 1559]. as a leader of thought among Protestants after his death. and Calvin among others was invited to a conference at Lambeth [Jenkyns' A Granmer's Remains.] Some of his works had become known in England as early as 1542. and became distinguished at each for his industry and learning. when there appear in a list of prohibited books. to Luther. and which made him only second. but he also turned his attention to theology under the tuition of Melohior Wolmar. which he expanded into a much larger form in a subsequent edition [a. Reform. Before leaving Prance he printed a treatise entitled Psychopannyeliia. 395. and in the usurpation of the bishop's authority by Farel. settling first at Basle. But within a few months afterwards [a. 1534]. Calvinus. and. Hist.d. of the Huguenot party. where he shortly published a Commentary on Seneca's de Clementia. sister to Erancisl. The Lytell Tretyse in Fremche of ye Soperof the Lorde made ly Oallwyn. The founder of this school of Protestants. While Calvin held these benefices he was receiving his education successively at the High School of Paris. 1541. and as one of the chief " pastors" of the city [a. when his connection with the Huguenots made it impossible for him to hold the sinecure much longer. It was during the time of Farel's supremacy that Calvin visited Geneva on his way from Italy to Germany. and afterwards. Pocock's ed. and he escaped danger only through the protection of the Queen of l^avarre. few years later Cranmer projected a general union of foreign Protestants with the Church of England. 346]. 519. the last of which he sold in 1534. the Church had lost all influence. ministry. Geneva was a hotbed of immorality . his Irmtitutes of {he Christian Religion. down even to the present day. and he returned there on September 13th. Burnet's Hist. and in New England. On the death of his father he returned to Paris. 1536]. as the exponent of his theological system. Professor of Greek and the tutor of Beza. [PbesbtTBRiANS.d. a far more important work. being then twenty-three years of At this time Calvin became known as one age. con1 Calvin wrote to Farel on June 15th. Being introduced by a friend to the then chief man of the city the two proved to be such kindred spirits that Calvin was earnestly entreated to support Farel in his and threatened with the he refused to do so. never being definitely associated with his name. These persuasions and threats prevailed with Calvin. iv.. Mag. and divine grace. to the benefice of Marteville when he was eighteen. and the Universities of Orleans and Bourges. and a little later to that of Pont I'Eveque . Such were the abuses of the times that he was nominated to a chaplaincy in the cathedral of his native town when he was only twelve years of age. but wrote many letters to the Protector Somerset.d. (by Cranmer's advice). During the reign of Queen Elizabeth these opinions were also widely diffused in the Church of England. xxxvi. the first lawyer of the age. vengeance of God if recently rejected. whose tumult and bloodshed which the opinions of Calvin. He did not accept the invitation. For three years afterwards Calvin acted as Professor of Theology at Strasburg.d. when he was twenty-eight years of age [a. he was the ruler of Geneva in as absolute a sense as its former bishops had been. in the see being then declared vacant by the municipal council. But in 1534 he left his native country altogether. At the same time he never slackened in literary industry. his politicoreligious rule at Geneva being dependent chiefly on his personal influence. That large body of Pro- testants in various sects who profess to follow agitation led to Huguenot and doctrinnaire named Farel. and was also pastor to the French congregation.d. de J a Reform. and by this means acquired an influence which extended far beyond Geneva even in his lifetime. and often exercised his authority in the most tyrannical manner. and on leaving Orleans for Bourges the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law was conferred upon him. or in a Latinized form. twenty-three years later. At the time when Calvin first came into notice. 330. 1538]. At Bourges Calvin continued his studies under Alciati. Chauvin. first highly delighted with a divine whose principles were decidedly opposed to Episcopacy. was the son of a notary at Noyon in Picardy [a. if second. and when. i. at a later time. ii. Thenceforward until his death. But a fresh turn of affairs at Geneva led to his recall. John Cauvin. dists. banishing both him and Farel from the city [4. At Orleans he studied civil law with such success that he was occasionally appointed to supply the place of absent professors. and The Works every one of Callwt/n [Brit. especially as regards the the sacraments. It was as a leader of thought that Calvin became the founder of a great party.^ and to Cranmer himself. and the profligacy of the laity having extended to the bishop and some of the clergy [Euchat. there still remained many Calvinists among the Low Church party. 1509-1564]. The newly-fledged republicans were at 1536]. 277].

and some others. of themselves. Great XXXIX. 267]. however. in erecting the fabric of their Eeformation. and." the other that they were only God's foresight of the Fall. ii. and thus "absolute. Calvin's influence in England and Scotland was." The earlier followers of Calvin were principally bent on the substitution of his Presbyterian system for that of Episcopacy. and returned thoroughly impregnated with the spirit and principles of the Genevese leader. Both the elect and non-elect come into the world in a state of total depravity and alienation from God. and John A'Lasco. and it appears to have been in some degree through his influence over Somerset. greatly extended by the return of those who had fled from the Marian persecution." though the words were eventually altered to " ad mentem Augustini" [Hardw. elsewhere says. The Church of Scotland. app. Calvin's Institutions were recommended to me. III. that Christ died only ment of full stateand not for all men.] The condemnation of of man. but because God has so decreed in excluding them from the number of the elect. Zurich and Geneva. Inst. took the selfsame pattern" [Hooker's Eccl.] . pref. accompanied Knox." says Calvin. but in the beginning of the seventeenth century Arminius brought into special prominence certain features of Calvinist theology which he opposed as inconsistent with the love of God and the free-wiU [Arminians. 97 GUanirngs. which is still the authoritative Confession of the Kirk of Scotland. On the other hand. and in the original draft of the Lambeth Articles (approved by him but repudiated by the Church) certain expressions were said to be " ad mentem for holding that in eternal felicity." he Polit. bringing them into such a condition that their final perseverance in hohness is certain. Peter Martyr. 1643]. and irresistible grace as the distinguishing points of their system . Bucer. by a just and irreprehensible judgment. His grace.]. the non-elect or reprobate can by no means whatever attain to salvation. In the following century Bishop Sanderson wrote " When I began to set myself to the study of Divinity as my proper business. excluded from all access From to eternal life" [Calvin. as Art. 34]. and since that time the Calvinists have maintained the doctrines of times. do nothing but sin. Bishop Jewel. and is recognised as more or less for the elect A Calvini. 8].e. In respect of the elect the decree is founded in His unmerited mercy. Whitfield also separated bury has assured me that I can do nothing more useful than to write frec^uently to the King this affords me much greater delight than if I had received a present of a large . : have arisen among Calvinists respecting the Divine decrees. and Thus the they cannot finally fall or be lost. from 1549 to 1554) was pastor of a congregation in Geneva from 1556 until 1559. Synod of] . so that the perfectest divines were judged they which were skilfuUest in Calvin's writings. and Bishop Parkhurst. but the Queen declined to accept the volume in such Tudor language as brought from its author a remonstrance addressed to Sir William Cecil [Zurich Letters. John Knox (who had lived in -London as Chaplain to Edward VI. v. the doctrine of " Election" follows that of " Particular Eedemption. Arminius by the Synod of Dort gave additional authonty to the doctrines which he had controverted [Dort. from Wesley on account of the determined opposition which the latter offered to the Calvinism In the present day the number of the former. the same and more amongst the preachers of Eeformed Churches Calvin had purchased . assert. these doctrines God has decreed from eternity the salvation of some men. however. seizes hold of the elect. extraordinary extension of Calvin's influence beend of the sixteenth century is thus mentioned by Hooker in 1594: "Of what account the Master of the Sentences was in the Church of Rome. on authoritative controversies by aU Calvinistic sects. and were thus brought under the direct influence of Calvin ." i.Calvinists demning the Eeformation of the Cliurch. and can. and had lived during the greater part of Mary's reign at Frankfort. elect are saved without any will or work of their own. of England as incomplete. and must be eternally lost. sum of money" [Gorham's Beform. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth he sent her his Commentary on Isaiah. both under others abroad and at home in their own country. though not in personal intercourse with him.d. not because they have made themselves worthy of perdition by their sins. 11]. Goodman. had their opinions very decidedly moulded The by his during their residence abroad. many of them being as tenacious for Episcopacy as According to others are for Presbyterianism. " that men are accused of heresy fore the • Calvinists they were generally to aU young scholars in those as the best and perfectest system of Divinity. "that by an eternal and unchangeable decree God hath determiued whom He shall one day permit to have a share election. the one holding that those imagined decrees were positively issued. and urging them to carry it further towards the Presbyterian pattern of Geneva \8tat6 Pap. but those whom He delivers up to damnation are. who are called the "elect. and they are divided into two parties. Edward VI. without any regard to human worthiness . II. while many others." and the everlasting perdition of others. and that they never are clear if they find not somewhat Archbishop in Calvin to justify themselves?" Whitgift himself was strongly imbued with this deference to the Genevan Reformer's authority. predestination. 9. Dean Whittingham. Bishop Pilkington. G . by an irresistible power works cut their salvar tion. Whitaker. such as Fox the Martyrologist. His books were almost the very canon to judge both doctrine and discipline by. these dreadful opiuions may be found in the Confession of Faith set forth by the Westminster Assembly of Divines [a. and whom He shall doom to destruction. ii. that the alterations of 1551 were made in the Book of Common Prayer. all cast according to that mould which Calvin made. " Do we not daily see. and the fittest to be laid as the groundwork in the study of this profession. "We which the Fathers held. French churches.

iv. His adherents adopted a monastic life both in town and country.e. and the assertion of selfHe took upon himself the office of censor will.] About the time of the Council of NicEea. when they acquired the name of Attingians or " Separates. the time of which is not known. CONEESSION OP.] [AuDiANs. [Athingani.] AUGSBUEG. Eccl. a Syrian bishop. 797-802]..] AUGIJSTINIANS.] AZYMITES. Eecl. by the armour of righteousness on the right [2 Cor. vi. apart from other Paulician heretics.Athingani rising generation. comp. there can he little faith in the Disposer of the various estates and conditions of men. persecution drove them from the country of the Goths.. and established monasteries of strict and admirable rule. 7]. 5.. bishops and clergy whom he considered to be living covetously or luxuriously. They began to be so called in the days of the Empress Irene [a. led into schism through the workings of intemperate zeal. Hoer. Theodoret refers it to the reign of Valens. by kindness. they advanced in opposition to Church doctrine the heretical tenet of Anthropomorphitism. He was beaten. 264 [H. by the word of truth." instead of the Catholic formula. The history of the sect requires the earlier date. but by the general tone of society that surrounds it. [Cent. 10]. Heretics of the thirteenth century who rejected the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. They were also called Paulo- Their distinctive practice. and cut themselves off from all connection with the hierarchy of the dominant party.d. iv.] ATTINGIANS. and in opposition to Church practice. MORPHITES. QUABTODBCIMANS. by love unfeigned. Many bishops carried on the sect in MesopoThere were tamia. AUD^ANS. Audians is Where there no faith in humanity. troversialists A designation used by con- of the Eastern Church for those So Epiphanius expressly states. cent. 1. by knowledge. by long-suffering.D. where Zenon. 668-685]. Audius (or Aud»us) formed his sect. Atheism is preeminently so. reproving to their face ^ [Antheopothe custom of Quartodecimanism. hand and on the left" ATHINGANI [a— ^tyyavo)]. local also bishops of the sect among the Goths. and was irregularly consecrated bishop by a bishop who had joined his schism. Uranius being their chief. 10. " by pureness. appears to have been that of baptizing with the words " I am the living water. where he converted many of the Goths. Prcedest. i. AUDIANS. All have their work to do in the reparative process. Ixx. 10. Theod. Theodoret charges the Audians with adopting from Manichseism the tenet that the Creator was not the Former of fire and darkness \H\st. 6. and has set in motion those discordant vibrations that in the end become the habitual jarring of the evil heart of unbelief. of Church morality. But this doctrine was not avowed by them. Isa. later tlian A." because they rejected image-worship. an upright and zealous man. Magd. and states that some assert them to have been in Egypt in communion with the Catholic Church. In his old age Audius was banished by Constantius to Scythia. ATHOCIANS. Atheism must be rooted out from the great population-beds.] In addition to these. who calls Hist. The name by which the Jansenists were accustomed to designate themselves in the early days of their history. Holy 58 . Unable to bear them he separated himself from the Church. and suffered other indignities. If sin is the reproach of any nation. xlv. xv. Here he remained till his death. with the veneration of the cross and of relics. by the Holy Ghost. the fifth century. iv. Johannites.d. by the power of God. them Vadiani. A title bestowed in the eighth century upon a sect of Paulicians which rose in Asia Minor in the reign of Constantine Pogonatus [a. Hmr. for it is caused not merely by the viciousnessof the individual intellect. The sect disappeared by the end of [Epiph. In order to have specific points of difference from the Church they had left. A [Jansenists. as established by the Council of Mcsea. 1. [PkotesTANT Confessions. and in very much diminished numbers they collected in Chalcis in Syria and by the Euphrates. is named as their chief opponent.^ He was a Syrian of Mesopotamia. 7]. B. August. who consecrate unleavened bread for the Eucharist.

Bacon declared it should out to aU. every man's hand was against him. We Bacon was thoroughly convinced of the importance of geographical and ethnological science. and demand for clear intelligible reasoning. Bacon lays down rules for the prosecution of such studies that can scarcely fail to have helped forward the "Advancement of learning "after four more centuries had passedaway. If Eoger seems. but they themselves advance statements which afterwards they with humility retract. might be sent forth. amOf the authority due to bition. " nullum ordinem excludo. and transmitted to him. inasmuch as the spiritual and eternal is only to be learned by the bodily and finite. quia tantum est temporis amissio studere modern : multipHcati " [comp. 1214. sect of the name given to some local PauHcians in Armenia. ad Ann. and ia the first instance these three languages were as the keys of all knowledge [Opus Tertium. who could declare to savages the marvellous works of God in. Even the " angelic " Thomas was " vir erroneus et famosus. and enabled Lord Bacon to lay the foundation of modem philosophy. he had a profound veneration. that had as yet been inaccessible to Christian doctors. where the language of the Vulgate and the mass was deemed to be all-sufficient. it was to be cured by diverting the attention of the learned to sounder studies in the way of experimental philosophy. he means not the authority which God has committed to his Church. without the light of grace and faith. the Greek Church might become one with the Eoman through the fraternity of a common speech . A. 10. These were notions that had never yet been heard in the Schools. from a leader A named Baanes. at Brasenose Hall. he would burn every copy "Si haberem potestatem super hbros Aristotelis. Hist Munich. Philosophy as yet had grown only upon three the Hebrew. If they had lived to time present they would have improved and altered many things that are allowed to exist. that investigates the truth for itself. He is the connecting-link between the scholasticism of the Middle Ages and the philosophy of Europe in times. which had precedence of the rest. He afterwards went to Paris. had never yet been taught ia the Schools as it had been of old. Authority is valueless unless it gives its reasons. If the vitium originis of the Schools was a love for disputation and endless wrangling. 2]. then only known in faulty Latin translations of a corrupt text." The work that he prepared by command of Clement IV. i. and ignorance. and became a Pranciscan monk at Oxford. and is not indebted to antecedent systems. [Petrus Sicul. Baronius. Even comparative philology was dimly present to his mind. and of an accurate knowledge of learned languages and grammar . " non sapit nisi detur ejus ratio. see in such statements the same independence of now be opened . the Fathers he says that they not only permit to us the correction of whatever is spoiled by human ignorance. the same love of order and simplicity. he said. had attained a height by the mere force of reason. a disciple and successor of Josephus EpapliToditus." Eeasoning can only amount to demonstration when its results are verified by experience and practice. Ethics. Experience is the true handmaid of knowledge. the noble and exalted moral teaching of Cicero. whUe. in et causa erroris Theol. Greek. Wherever he suspected the taint of error his hand was against every man. in consequence. 810.] Mathematics he held to be the principal science. might well put to shame the far inferior wisdom of contemporary guides. still — 59 . But this refers stayed. probably. the Athens of the where he graduated as doctor. but that which IS the assumption of bhnd prejudice. or that which results from merit and worth. The ethics of Aristotle. If he had his own way. missionaries. and the Arab. however.D. which raised the name of Descartes to the highest rank. he said. as Peripatetic philosopher.B BAANITES.] BACOJS"." and. In this there is a touch of the sensualism of Locke and of the method of Comte. Pagan men. and had Eobert Gros-tgte as fellow-student and friend. and all mankind might be made one family by commerce and the amity of familiar intercourse. For Aristotle. he said. He was born at Ilchester. with a knowledge of living languages. studying. the stocks of the human family spirit. about the year 810. only to those parts that subserved the dialectics of the Schools. ego facerem omnes cremari. EOGER. to depreciate authority. was intended to suggest to his patron the necessity of reform. He endeavoured to recall the learned from their bhnd idolatry of Aristotle. age. their own tongue . the treatises of Seneca. that the onward progress of Antichrist might be ilhs. This was the queen of sciences.

over the Church and everything else. was not derived. declared March 22nd to be the equinoctial day . velopment is canon law and philosophy. he said. but comparatively of small bulk. His knowledge of astronomy enabled him to detect the error of the Julian year. "corpora parvae quantitatis . and in the midst the guide win sit who. and to descend again at his will. The invention of telescopic and microscopic lenses is attributed to him. a. Infidel philosophers. Another : A implement will have such tractile force as to enable a single operator to draw a thousand persons along. by John of Paris. totle was in error when he deemed the action of light to be instantaneous . under Gregory XIII. troubling itself so little about the works of nature and of God. by touching a spring. The lunations were no less faulty . He first indicated the refractive power of the air. was cramped and captious and artificial. small implement. Bacon seems have troubled himself to ascertain the difference between realism and nominalism. with instructions " Johannes portavit crystallum spherifor its use cum ad experiendum. a few inches long and wide. et instruxi eum in demonstratione et figuratione huj us rei occulta" \Opus Tertium. to the teaching of Holy "Writ. and in the transmutation of metals by The composition of gunpowder was alchemy. for it gave the exact date for calculating the lapse of time since Ptolemy. 31]. and too earnest an advocate of the supremacy of canon over civil law. will cause huge wings to unfold themselves and generate a bird-like movement. In other respects also. and indicated the He showed that Arispossible use of the retina. he says." that they traverse the earth's atmosphere. c. His but they shine by their own brilliancy. in 128 years this would amount to an entire day. Bacon shewed the faultiness of the Ptolemean theory. regard with amazement the stupidity of Christian astronomers. who order the them of moving in a vicious circle of abstractions. of perspective were not unknown to Bacon. and threw out hints that were turned to account by Copernicus. and in 4266 years. One apparatus will be devised for walking at the bottom of the sea. that his vast erudition and sagacious power of observation should be compromised by a belief in judicial astrology. who. which prevented them from detecting the various faUaoies of the day . when nature shall have been compelled to reveal her secret laws.: Bacon. but it was a reproach to astronomy.d. and were both equally derived from the reasonable "Word that was made flesh and dwelt among us. pedantic. Roger Bacon boldly laid to the charge of Schoolmen a profound ignorance of sacred and profane antiquity. he said. Similarly the equinoxes were observed to fall earlier by a day in every 124 years. was only realized three centuries later. in 306 years the error of the calendar amounted to an entire day. and the carelessness of Christian prelates. Bacon more than once launches startling anticipations of the possible discoveries of science. His strictures upon the unsatisfactory condition of the Vulgate text caused Hugh de St. which was longer than the astronomical year by about eleven minutes. and enable a man to lift himseK and others from the lowest depths to the clouds. they both formed one truth. Carriages will roll along with an inconceivable swiftness without a team. too ardent a maintainer of the sovereign authority of the Pope.. and much harm to himself by these invectives. but of the two he favoured the latter class of opinion. In optics. and he accused as at Bacon. however inconceivable might be its rapidity. Like all his predecessors of the Schools he classed philosophy and theology together . the movement of which. The error had its use in chronology. will suffice to raise and lower enormous weights. and a constant cause of error. it was because the traditions of paradise had never quite died out the torch transmitted from hand to hand had never been wholly obscured by the smoke of this world's foUy. though without the precision of Eoscellin or the greater subtlety of Abelard . Its deis contained substantially in Scripture. it in the original languages. or the wiser spirits among the heathen. floating on its surface without risk Bridges will be thrown across rivers without piers or arches . Mechanism. which must then be subtracted. Nearly all the evil that abounds in the world arises from our ignorance of Scripture. 140. disputatious and If Bacon did no good in his generation. he at least prepared the minds of succeeding generations for the emancipation of the human illiberal. by their teaching anticipated revealed truth. Roger tl« fuU. wiU be invented. proposed by him in earnest terms to Pope Clement IV. and ignite by The principles the rapidity of their movement. 1582. 298. to run in the same groove with the early advocates of nominalism. from scholastic trammels. is stni appreciable \Opus Maj. and the rationale of the rainbow. a. the moon entering on her first quarter. hence that the spirit of the Schools. and more rapidly under the guidance of a single man than with a full crew. would be marked -in the calendar Church feasts by so fluctuating a scale of error. and to such marvels of 60 . Machines will fly through the air. he sent at the same time a lens. and when he presented his Opus Majlis to Clement IV. which made them utterly incapable of appreciating the real and the natural . Yet he first made known the delicate mechanism of the eye. It was ia strict keeping with the spirit of his age. he said. Bacon's reform of the calendar. If ever the holy men of old. The light of the stars.d. and would have the laity also study All wisdom. Arabs and Jews. whereby the largest vessels will be propelled without rowers. but he was no partisan. theory of shooting stars and meteors made a near approach to modern notions. he himself profiting by the discoveries of Arab philosophers. 300]. among the secrets of his laboratory. Caro to apply himself to its purification. another for swimming and of sinking. In fact he was too correctly orthodox spirit scarcely to in his theology. when he said that they were no true stars. Bacon was the precursor of Newton . He ascribed the highest authority.

who owed his elevation to the influence of Jerome of Ascoli. 1551. if only he might be an associate of the wise in every age. 1560. and are considered by Mosheim and some other ecclesiastical historians to have been the original Albigenses. whose theories respecting grace and predestination were the foundation of Jansenism. In 1563 he was sent as delegate to the Council of Trent. placed seventy-six propositions taken from his works before the BAIOLENSES. inflexible bigot. a work recently recovered by M. Bitter. founding it especially on the Pauline Epistles as interpreted by St. for. et Disc. x. [Z)e Mirdb.d. And truly he was a wonderful character. whether we was said that Dr. He adopted an independent line of teaching instead of that ordinarily received from the Schoolmen. had heard of his fame. or BAJUS. Such was Eoger Bacon.d. de Descartes. but in the BuU of condemnation "Ex omnibus afflictionibus. Gladstone!" Bacon's depreciation of the scholastic system drew down upon him a bitter and life-long persecution.D. fire. The pronounced Augustinianism of Baius excited opposition from the Franciscans. he could be no true Christian who meddled with black arts . but not holding precisely the same Dualist or Manichsean theory as to the cause of evil. was solitary confinement on a bread and water diet. Roger science there will be no apparent limit. who. The Bagnolians were also known by the names of Concordenses. Concorrenses. He was content to be the victim of contemporary ignorance. ed. in the last years of his life. Cousin from an ancient MS.d. from a. The oracle was silent. if he resented such treatment. a town of Provence. [Baconi Opus Majus. with the title of Clement IV. shortly after his return to Louvain.] sect of the Anabaptists who considered it sinful to carry any other arms than a staff. and at the cost of personal safety. The Latinized name Pope Pius V. was made Pope. A. to teach. as Papal legate in England. His books and mathematical instruments were taken from him. They also revived the heresy of the Docetse respecting the human Nature of our Lord. 38. to stem the tide of prejudice that opposed the onward progress of the human spirit. Jebb. and that from these the world was formed. 1294. Saisset. where he took a prominent part in the discussions which took place. became Professor of Theology there. and beheving in One only Eirst Cause. Baius was born at Melin in the territory of Aeth in the year 1513. 1733. et Disc. when he returned to England. He first indicated in its dawn the brilliant future that awaited scientific induction. de Descartes. his only ambition was "discere ut doceam. et qu'elle ne puisse pas dire son secret a I'oreUle attentive de Lord Palmerston. 61 .] Bams consider the extent of his varied knowledge." He the name of Baius was not mentioned. Fhil. Hope revived within him when Guy Foulques.. Eighteen propositions taken from them were condemned by that body in a. composed a Summary of Theology. who.] BAIUS. Gesch. [Bagnolbnses.D. sect of mediseval Cathari of the thirteenth century." The mildest discipline. a narrow-minded. He gives a touching description of these trials in the introduction to his Opus Tertium. "beneath. who brought his lectures to the notice of the Sorbonne. but Baius still continued in his office at Louvain. ! BACULAEIL A A and his followers of Mahomet. and they returned to their alembics. These propositions were condemned by the Pope in the year 1567. and the utterance was for ever lost. and where he raised up fresh opponents. and Tr. and water by a rebel spirit. Although not accepting the Manichsean theory as to the origin of evil in its customary form. Oesch. alleging that the Scriptures altogether forbid the use of the sword to Christians. and was succeeded by Nicolas III. Hist. Bacon's long imprisonment then foUowed. Cousin. and were declared heretical. Que d'alarmes et d'argent 6pargn^s a I'amiraute Anglaise Que de soucis de moins pour M. He was accused of dealing with familiar spirits in his observatory tower at Oxford. They derived their name from Bagnolo. How may a rampart be thrown round England ? was a question propounded by Bacon and one of his experts. and Con- Bacon had the credit with his contemporaries of having inrented a turning mirror that could consume an entire army. and he was forbidden to write and. having. they still maintained that matter being created by God it was moulded into the four elements earth.Bacon. like Seneca. iv. of a theologian of Louvain named Michael de Bay. for the purposes of necromancy .d. or Baiolo. de Scr." aU persecution of the object of their wonder notwithstanding. K. Baconi Opus Tertium. nately for him Clement died the next year. general of the Franciscan order. "propter quasdam novitates suspectas. at Douai. Augustine. from the Douai MS. and a brazen head which gave responses to his questionings upon the deep secrets of nature and futurity. 1278 to 1292. d. Free. corresponding with the Albanbnsbs in most particulars. his astrology alone con- demned him. Presently it spoke. Cyril Jackson always avoided walking under this tower. a. Ghr. He died in A. it was said. Lend. Neander. Free. but afterwards Unfortureleased. tecause tradition declared that it would fall when a greater man than Bacon passed ^ It corezenses. de Mathemat See also Saisset. or his proud spirit of independence and heroic energy. daring nobly. and having been educated at Louvain. Dogm. Concoretii. 1257-67]. but attention was absorbed in their work. air. Bacon having been detected in writing to him was at first treated with greater severity. worse than all.^ He only studied his Moorish philosophers. termed by his contemporaries " Doctor mirabUis. " Plus d'un bon Anglais de nos jours se prendia a regretter que la tgte d'airain de fr^re Bacon n'ait pas ^t6 conserv^e ." where he was placed under rigid surveUlance and harsh discipline that con- — — tinued for ten years [a. The rulers of his convent at length sent him for trial to Paris. BAGNOLENSES. Usher. Saisset observes sarcastically.

* Translator of Cyprian. Dissenting preacher of Exeter. This second stage. that the writings of the disputants are now in general unreadable. author of History of Forms of Prayer. retracted his opinions that he might obtain absolution from Cardinal GranveUa the Legate. Sykes appeared for Hoadly. and on the other hand into the topics of religious sincerity. Mights of the Clergy. The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ. the members of the Church who had submitted to "Wilham. and continued in 1720. 1785. Convocation moved. and had attempted to reduce the Church of England to the platform of foreign Protestantism . the sacramental test. disputed some of Hoadly's arguments. ^ notion of the course the controversy ecclesiastical took. Baio. was confirmed in the year 1580 by Gregory XIII. some of the rights and powers of Convocation. and positions contained in the Sermon and the Preservative was. " nihil doctius. with episodes some purely personal. and was commented on. Oxford Professor of Poetry. submitted to this condemnation.d. nihil humiUus. and of the constitution of the Church of Christ as established in this country.] In the year 1717 there met in literary contest the three great parties into which England was divided. branching off on the one hand into the topics of the sacraments. author of The Penitential Discipline of the Church of England. But much opposition was raised against him by the fessor. a connected series of the tracts. Essay on the Articles. to subvert all government and discipline in the Church of Christ. but it may be safely assumed that few living men have read. William Law. and he lost his chaplaincy to the King.Bangorian Controversy therefore continued in his office of Divinity Proand even became Dean of St. Church ordinances. Hoadly. p. Fortunately there was published in 1719. Then came Hoadly's sermon.* from the status of the Nonjurors. The first stage then regarded the Nonjurors' pretensions. then of London. Bishop of Bangor (from whom the controversy takes its name). terest of the three disputing parties. and to reduce His kingdom to a state of anarchy and confusion . ilfemoirs o/ii/e by Disney. that all works whatever are sinful unless done from pure love of God . and they were still taught at Louvain and Douai even after Baius had recanted. 1716. Then appeared Hoadly's Preservative against the Principles and Practices [Jansenists. . Trapp^ defending Snape. the party which had transferred the allegiance of the nation to the foreign Prince William of Orange. and took no pro- minent part in theological controversy for the of his life. that aH men being born in sin it is impossible that penance by itself can offer satisfaction for sin. Before Convocation could act Snape* replied. and a second concerning the character of De la PiUonnifere. may be named as representatives Marshall. Church communion. and ecclesiastical authority . Deeply important as its topics were. a converted Jesuit living with Hoadly. Some tracts are still read by students. Peter's at Louvain. that of a humble-minded man who sought truth and the good of the Church rather than the spread of his own opinions " Michaele : widened to the general consideration of the nature of the Church of Christ." said Tolet. and _« Joseph friend of SachevereU. to impugn doctrines — such as Kennett's on lay deprivations. then Provost of King's College. the validity or invalidity of lay deprivations of bishops. ' Head Master of Eton. though it may do so when united with the satisfaction offered by our Lord. James Pierce. which lasted until a. of a conforming Churchman. that after the Fall aU his works which are not done under the influence of Divine Grace are sinful works . Nathanael Marshall. then of Colchester. Bennett^ attacked them. in which was claimed obedience to the deprived bishops. Sykes^ also took part. first. and a Committee of the Lower House represented that the tendency of the The controversy was long and very voluminous. An episode occurred upon Bennett's being charged with having advised Hoadly regarding his sermon [see Life of Bennett. and answered the Nonjurors' charge of schism. and Chancellor of the University. and without adopting the criticisms and judgments of the writer. but had defeated the attempt to alter the constitution of the Church ." was carried on by Burnet and Whitby. Church history. Baius Jesuits. it and at the instigation of one of them. secondly. and then of "Winchester. and Law's on the priesthood and its powers. all three well known in English BANGOEIAN CONTEOVEESY. some of appeals to foreign Protestants. or would or could read. and consequently the Church of England under Tenison and Wake was charged with the assistance of Divine Grace. so much of merely personal and temporary inentered into their handling. schism. He wrote in all the controversies of the day. and amidst a cloud of anonymous pamphlets Hoadly rejoined. But the answer was not thought therefore pamphlets most deserving attention are Bennett's Letters to the Bishop of Carlisle on the nomination and deprivation of English prelates. Bangorian Controversy point of the l^onjuring question. 2 Arthur Ashley Sykes of Salisbury." The condemned propositions of Baius maintained the theory that man might have merited eternal life if he had continued in a state of innocence. Beginning with the main 62 Cambridge. and a reply on other grounds made to the Nonjurors by Pierce ^ and others. His satisfactory. " On the nature of Christ's kingdom. &c. and the priesthood. the Test and Corporation Acts. Hoadly wrote anonymously. 214]. Trapp. the Bull of Pius V. a systematic Account of all the Consider able Pamphlets. and that for all times. His first letter to Hoadly passed through seventeen editions in one year. Some of these opinions were revived by Jansen and by the Quietists. rest He thus justified the character given of him even by his opponents. we may by the list he gives form a sufficient ' Thomas Bennett of Cambridge. Francis Tolet. and the Nonjurors who had set up a rival episcopate. continuing in that state even without The dispute began when the Government at the time of the Scotch rebellion seized many copies of Hickes' Collection of Papers. 1589.

upon account of niceties and trifles. Moss^ defended the report. But the sect commonly known by the name of Baptists among English-speaking people is an offshoot of the Beg whists or early Independents. were called by the same name. the author of the Independent Whig. to extravagant degrees of Church power. having signed this report. Among the Brownists there were always some persons who objected to Infant Baptism. endeavoured at a later date to ally themselves with the Mennonites of Holland. was accused of inconsistency. ^ Law's Three Letters They are the most valuable of all the tracts. [Heme's Account of all the Considerable Pamphlets. Cannon. to shew its character and importance. The narrated true origin of the English Baptists is by one of their founders. and the controversy raged in attack and defence of the Committee . his account being thus printed gathered in the year 1616. or any other the like dreams. John Lathorp. Gordon. and it is probable that they were converts of the Dutch Anabaptists who emigrated to England in the time of Henry VIII. would dissolve the Church as a society. putting forward an alleged sincerity of good intention as all in all. and were both composed of is English Puritans. nullity or validity of God's ordinances to the people. Of permanent interest is the main subject. The powers denied and destroyed were. so they looked upon the baptism they had received in that age ' Dean of Ely. Kiffin. The Church. and being also convinced that Baptism was not to be administered to infants. "There was a congregation of Protestant Dissenters of the Independent persuasion in London. In 1712 he tried in vain to procure a synodical condemnation of Brett's Sermon on Semission of Sins. His Sermons were edited ty Snape. In this society several persons finding that the congregation kept not their first principles of separation. ' Eobert Cannon. and after him Mr. Henry Jacob was the first pastor. and parties of them emigrated to Amsterdam in the years 1606 and 1608. said the Committee of Convocation. whereof Mr. The foregoing is but a very brief statement of It is sufficient. Dean Stanhope. the Procivil sanctions. John Smith. This brought up the question of occasional conformity. excommunications. been written by Wake. and believing also that these persons acted from a principle of conscience and not obstinacy. not only powers of government. the repeal of which Hoadly had urged. : A sect whose distinctive prin- baptism only to adult persons baptizing them not to make them children of God. ' Proctor for Sarum diocese. and allowed to form a distinct congregation in such order as was most agreeable to their own sentiments. beyond the fact that both bodies rejected Infant Baptism. Some sharp skirmishing took place concerning a letter to a Zurich professor containing bitter It was said to have invectives against Hoadly. Infant baptism was repudiated by most of the mediaeval Anti-Sacerdotalists and by the Anabaptists of the Reformation age. locutor. which was performed the 12th of September 1633. that this Eight Eeverend Bishop. but such only as professed faith in Christ. &c. and was formed into a distinct community only in the reign of Charles I. . And as they believed that baptism was not rightly administered to infants. first baptized himself But there [Sb-Baptists] and then his followers. and reduce all It has its ordinances to mere human inventions. These being generally identified with the foreign Anabaptists. no historical connection between this English community at Amsterdam. Sherlock turned the controversy in the Convocation branch to the particular point of the Test and Corporation Acts. But for some reason which is not known. so happened. " When you are secure of your integrity before God. it is notorious. the heads of the controversy. but as a sign that they have ciple is that of administering become so.] . William by Crosby. their leader. 1720. with a Life. the emigrants formed a separate community at Amsterdam. and in that of Queen Elizabeth. who was their minister at this time. considering that they were now grown very numerous. and looked upon it as invalid. Master of the Temple." Burnet defended Hoadly. Archdeacon of Norfolk.^ and Dawson^ being for the defence. agreed to allow them the liberty they desired. from whom have sprung the Mennonites or German Baptists of a later time. Meanwhile Law had answered Hoadly's fresh reply to Snape. 1783. or the vain words of regular and uninterrupted successions.Bangorian Controversy and impeach the regal supremacy in causes ecclesiastical and the authority of the legislature to enforce obedience in matters of religion by Sherlock. Hoadly's Works. and the later sect of Baptists. and of course included the question of a sacramental test. and so more than could in these times of persecution conveniently meet together. were reprinted in 1812 in The Scholar Armed. in his extreme opposition to certain unwarrantable pretensions . These Brownist Anabaptists. authoritative benediction. and not being able to obtain baptism from the Dutch. and by which our national constitution next under Christ is chiefly supported. the doctrine which. Hoadly replied to the report. without which the Church as a society cannot subsist. or "Enthusiasts" as they were often called [Enthusiasts]. this wUl lead you not to be afraid of the terrors of men. Baptists BAPTISTS. Sykes and Pierce stood up for Hoadly. afterwards ty Zaohary Grey. and a side-quarrel ensued between him and Sykes. 63 . but even denied the use and destroyed the being of those powers. but also of the valid administration of the sacraments. however. and that they should be constituted a distinct church. has not only condemned the abuse. desired that they might be dismissed from that community. the special point to which he addressed himself being Hoadly's assertion. is said to have written one of the seven pamphlets against the archbishop. The Ifonjuring questions and the questions of the Test Acts are now only of historical interest. the attempt failed.

with great gentleness and reason. the various congregations of the sect had become suflSciently organized into one body to enable them to hold a representative assembly " in London. the two then baptizing others to the number of fifty-three \ihid. 1648. 214. which was reprinted with many more subscriptions in 1691. of Purit. i.' In the year 1638. another was issued of a totally different character imder Presbyterian influence. In the year 1639. There were also not a few of them licensed to ofllciate in the churches from which the clergy had been ejected. and in pursuance thereof shall baptize any person formerly baptized. ed. believing that Christ died to save all men. Blunt. where he was baptized by John Batte . i. being acquainted with the Dutch language. it attained considerable political influence during the time of the Great Eebellion. of Relig. and not only an elect few. Spilsbury's congregation. within a short distance of the town of Kidderminster. Their minister was Mr. 64 . upon conviction by the oath of two witnesses. 148]. pt. He was afterwards involved in a controversy with a congregation of the sect which had been formed in a similar manner at Bewdley. whose political importance has given him a chapter in American history somewhat similar to that occupied by William Penn after Unit. where about a dozen young men having conceived opinions against Infant Baptism had been rebaptized [Baxter's Life and Times. ii. 1852]. which opinions and practice we abhor and detest. upon their request. and at this a " Confession of Paith was drawn up which was reprinted in 1644 and 1646. K'onconi'ormists]. shall. however. From rapidity. In 1643. i. 41]. of which he was vicar during the time of the Puritan ascendancy. Thomas Wilson. in the general modo-ation with which all religions except the Church were treated by Cromwell. be ordered to renounce his said error in the public congregation of the parish where the offence was committed . 216." Shortly after this edict of Parliamentary toleration. This was promulgated in March [Bancroft's Hist. the chief promoters of which were Mr. that he made acquaintance with the " Anabaptists " first at Gloucester. the third and fourth articles setting forth the doctrine of general redemption. and 35 of these were among the 800 (commonly spoken of as 2000) who refused to conform to the customs of the Church at its Eestoration. 375]. and on his return he baptized Mr. They shared. " Mr. and others being of the same judgment. and that such persons ought to be baptized again. And though we could wish that all men would satisfy themselves and join with us in our judgment and practice in this point yet herein we hold it fit that men should be convinced by the Word of God. or whether they were sporadic offshoots from the fermenting bodies of Puritans which had now become so numerous. Mr. a division of the sect had taken place into the General and the Particular Baptists. or to others ordained according to the custom of the Church [Stoughton's Ecel. in former ages as well as this. because in the mentioning of the names of about twenty men and women it is added 'with divers others. Mr. tending to the disturbance of the government and peace of all states . however. Large numbers of them enlisted in the Parliamentary army. learned men have differed both in opinion and practice. This marks the time of their separation from the body of the sect. in which it was said that "the name of Anabaptism hath indeed contracted much odium by reason of the extravagant principles and practices of some of that name in Germany. About the same time also the sect was being developed in the North American colonies by an emigrant priest of the Church of England. iv. another congregation of Baptists was formed whose place of meeting was in Crutched Priars. there were said to be fortysix of their congregations in and about London. In 1646. Baptists as Baptists 1647. John Spilsbury. and Captain Spencer" [Crosby's Hist of Eng. named Eoger Williams." are so called because they hold the Arminian doctrine of redemption." composed of twenty-five articles.. They published a " Confession of Faith. Mr. What number they were is uncertain. General Baptists. Samuel Blaoklock. or by his own confession. iii. were. Paul Hobson. Shortly before the Eestoration. Bap: new writer also records that of these early Baptists was eifected by communication with the Dutch MenOne of their number. or shall say the Church government of Presbytery is antichristian or unlawful. he shall be committed to prison tiU he find sureties that he shall not publish or maintain the said error any more" [Neale's Hist. which declared " Whosoever shall say that the baptism : 101]. but for their opinion against the invalid received a wliereupon most or all of them baptism. Baxter writes. and many of his supporters belonging to the sect. 277-321. and in case of refusal. and the help thus given to the revolutionary party won for the Beet a declaration of the Lords and Commons in their favour. and this division has been maintained ever since. and lasted the sect as its standard of doctrine for seventeen years. This was an ordinance of the Lords and Commons passed on May 2nd. or that such baptism is void. it is only a difference about a circumstance of time in the administration of an ordinance wherein. tists. Hist. i. Richard nonites. William Kiffin" (the writer of this narrative). in an early page of his Autobiography. States. all this time the sect spread with some but there is no evidence to shew whether the congregations of Baptists which are soon found existing originated from that of which the preceding account is given. Green. and were hence obliged to give place to the old clergy whom they had ousted. the eighth and ninth that of election [Murray's Hist. p. n. dismissed to the said Mr. or " Arminian Baptists. in the year 1660. and not beaten out of it with force and violence. of infants is unlawful. instead of the Calvinistic. and which even in the height of their prosperous times were in a constant state of disintegration. The same " the " new baptism ~ baptism of infants. was sent over to Holland. 242.

]. Hard-ShellBaptists. and a similar explanation being given by Nicetas Choniatus [Nicet. still known as " General Baptists. Truth. but this is not established. of actual members of the sect amounted in 1871 to 233. They are again subdivided into two sections on the question of free or strict communion. Hceres. " the son of the Lady. and Light being anointed by the Father became Christ. 2]. each having on an average 90 members. the tutor of Clemens Alexandrinus. 1861. 13]. Indies. Se-Baptists. says Irenseus. the "free commimionists" admitting to the Lord's Supper those who have been baptized only in infancy.000.000 members. Oxf.000 annually in India. however. They continue to hold the Calvinistic doctrine of " particular redemption. and a more elaborate training in Calvinistic theology. from /3opjSo/3os. as seems to have been the case with Hence they acquired the name the Nicolaitanes. IBaptists. were all personified. ed. and the Unitarian Baptists about 100. hut shortly afterwards a large body of them are said ed. Bapt. and Febb-Will Baptists. and other vices . Baptists claimed to he 20. Wales. Envy. The Baptists are one of " the three denominations" to which a sort of constitutional recognition has been accorded in the right to present corporate addresses to the Crown (the other two being the Independents and the Presbyterians). BAEDESANIANS.: Baptists At the Restoration. the majority of whom are negroes in the West number Epiphanius. Bardesanians receive have become followers of Biddle the Unitarian. This Barbelos." is now wholly Unitarian. China. whUe the "strict" or "close communionists" only admit These those who have been baptized as adults. a Syrian of Edessa in Mesopotamia. and that they were probably adopted in their mysteries. p. SeventhDay Baptists. and of a Mother whom some named Jaldabaoth. and others Sabaoth." there was a sect in Iberia which called themselves after the name of Barbelos. Eng.]. as well as those who have been baptized as adults . ed. [Theodor. Baptist Handbook (annual).675. [Iren. Particular Baptists represent the original Baptist sect as it first seceded from that of the Brownist or Independents in 1633. "the son of the Lord. Grace. From a noble answer of his to ApoUonius. but some of these are composed of very few members. They have also two Missionary Societies. which together expend about £40. xxix. Augustine \HcB7: vi. 2]. a man of great learning. a friend of one of the Emperors AntoniQus. filth or mud Theodoret expressly giving this play upon their original name as the application of it. taking the name of the "New Connection of General Baptists. Scottish Baptists. English Colonies there are about 60. He flourished in the latter part of the second century. xxv. that he was ready to encounter death or any suffering the prince might inflict. of Borborians. Philaster states that the Borbeliotes. From Barbelo sprang Light. The "New Connection" is believed to number about 200 congregations. that they gradually split up into two bodies. form separate sects. the personality of Christ and of the Holy Spirit being logy. 25]. London. TuNKEES. rather .400. iv. or Barbelo. in common with other licentious heretics of their class. Wayland's Principles and Practice of Baptist Churches.000 innumher. The names Borbelitse and Borboriani are given to the Gnostics in general by some writers." and hence since the secession of the Arminian portion of the sect have distinguished themselves from them by the prefix indicating that dogma. Eng. Thesaur. in He was by some supposed to be the year 154. Bapt. lingering on chiefly through the circumstance that their chapels are endowed. The elder fragment of that body. Within the last fifty years the made some vigorous endeavours more respectable than as is common among many 65 They have dissenters. as indeed also are those of the New Connection General Baptists. de Hceret. and the West Indies. Emulation.] BAEBELIOTES. and Prudence. A sect founded by Bar- desanes. and in these about 240 young men according to the Edessan Chronicle [a work of the sixth century : Lardner. and Epiphanius [Hcer. Among the multitude of Gnostics. orthod. Early Eng. fid." and adopting as their standpoint the original Arminian tenets of the body from which they seceded. BapfSrjXioTai ijiyouv 3op/3opiavol.600 places of worship. [Crosby's Hist. Great Britain and Ireland they number about 2. and it is supposed that the name is made up of two Hebrew words. as ten colleges in England. fab. In the United States they number Baptists have to provide a education for their ministers 1. The Particular Baptists are mostly intended when Baptists without any other designation are named. Old School Six-Peinciplb Baptists. Ivimey's Hist. 100 Sunday scholars. congregations of both being admitted into the "Baptist union" (a society for co-operation founded in 1812). being fewer by 4000 than In the in 1870 \Baj)t. In the following century this portion of the Baptist sect became so largely imbued with Unitarian principles. as by being also attended by persons not actually memThe whole bers of the sect but allied with it. two classes do not. 1872. Their system was mixed up with obscure ideas which shew that licentious practices were familiar to them. Bapt. 319]. rhv^ 13 [Bar Belah]. those who seceded in 1770 to an elementary education in the learned languages. Immortality. ii. Handbook. who was the special object thus practically allegorized away. Understanding. being born.]. who had sprung' up "like mushrooms growing out of the ground. as also Lust." This Barbelo they af&rmed to be the offspring of the Father. i. the General 1764]. Campbbllites. denied that there was any future judgment. and Scotland. Evans' Hist. xxxiii. and are a numerous and rather influential body In the whole of among English dissenters. an JEon of the Gnostic mythoof their veneration adv." or else from {jyn na [Bar Bel]. Will. is mentioned in connection with the Nicolaitanes by PhUaster [Hcer.

belonging to the order of St. which would account for the existence of a sect of Bardesanians for nearly two centuries after his death. his native country. Barlaam was at the same time condemned by the influence of the Quietists.] doubt. 11. tried before a council in a. India. were never numerous. Porphyry speaks of a Bardesanes of Babylon as alive in a. a propagator of the Theodosian and Gaianite heresy [Damasc. and having for their leader of Barsanuphius. Arabia. God united his soul to a grosser and more material body. Assyria. and were reunited to the Jacobite communion at the end of the ninth century [Neale's Patriarch. as did his son Harmonius. Barsmnas Ionian and Syrian Bardesanes. 22.] against Marcion and others. They separated off from the Acephali at the end of the fifth century. man. the fanciful ideas of some of the Eastern Gnostics. Prcep. 247. and partly held with their opinion of the suc- and in his early Ufe a strong controversialist on the side of the Eastern Church against the In a. he relapsed. He adopted. ante Const. like the preceding. He also founded the school of Nisibis. a friend of Barlaam. shipwrecked in sight of harbour. Persia. a Valentinian from the fast) he wrote numerous works. word for word. being originally written Epiphanius seems therefore in error in Syriac. John of the latter half of the fifth century. cessive generation of aeons. one good.ilfem. The chief founder and leader of the Nestorians in Chaldsea. but one of the more conspicuous among his own adherents. The charges brought by him were 1341. 599. The great problem of the day. His followers. these errors. from which Nestorian missionaries carried the heresy in the following century to Egypt. He is said by Eusebius to have been an excellent Syriac scholar. One of the smaU and obscure sects into which the Acephali broke up in St. he denied the resurrection of the body . and after that time we hear no more of the Bardesanians. in which they were severely censured. who falsely claimed to have received consecration as a bishop. though perhaps not While conclusive. when the but said the flesh with which He seemed to be The original endued was from Heaven direct. 316. iii. and whose strange practice he regarded as mere fanaticism.]. GrcBC. had a refined body adapted to his unfallen nature. [Fabricius. it seems most likely. laden with costly bales. No [Easilidians. 'Fahric. and doubtless their continued iise in. After the Fall. Ecdes. Basil. Assuming also the identity of the Baby- — BAESUMAS. light. in some of his distinctive opinions. created by God. and most keen in disputation [Euseb. against the Hesychast monks of Mount Athos. A sect of the Acephali. one evil. Several other councils were held on the subject. [Tillemont. ii. but does not affirm it as an established fact. 33. Hares. 435 He persuaded the 437]. and China.d. The fragment above mentioned as given by Eusebius. A Syrian archimandrite who 66 . with Palamas (afterwards archbishop of Thessalonica) for their advocate. abbot of St. and the Barlaamites. BAESUMA8. &c.]. ii.d. he has been reckoned a confessor [Epiphan. we have two other fragments preserved by Porphyry and cited by Cave.] BARSANIANS. like a goodly ship. Hid. Gr. distinct that God dwells in an eternal from His Being.. 60. There is no question that his moral system was unimpeachable. loo cit. Damascus says that they derived their name from Barsanius. with the monk of that name mentioned in the ecclesiastical history of Evagrius. vi. 454. Biblioth. They are identical with the Semidalites.]. iv. and the adjoining countries. Towards the end of his life he renounced. Erom this Cave infers that Recog. The dogma which had become the subject of controversy — viz. but. not. however. nor actively opposed to Catholic teaching. Tartary. iv. 218 . a pretender of the name Barsanuphius is not to be confounded 137]. 1337 he brought a complaint Latins. Mosheim. and immediately leaving Constantinople he joined the Latin Church. in which he eventually became Bishop of Giersece in Calabria. 1351. 19.Bardesanians than deny his faith. They were used in churches . is also found. Syria helped to retain a belief : monks. Attracted to the oriental philosophy. Bibliofh. de Hceres.] BAELAAMITES. as it seems. de reb.ii. Ivi. whom he had been directed to visit and inspect. Eusebius has preserved a very considerable fragment of this He wrote also a [Euseb. BARSANUPHITES. in the Clementine Eecognitions [jQlem. 10]. which. Lardner has given many reasons for identifying him with Bardesanes of Edessa.d. the existence of evil in the world. when he makes Bardesanes skilled in Greek as well as Syriac. and this was the light seen in the Mount of Transfiguration ^was again opposed by Acindtnus. of Alexandria. but became bishop of Nisibis [a. great number of hymns. and believed that the body with which the Saviour was clothed was a celestial and unsubstantial one only. These were translated by his disciples into Greek. still sound in the faith (so Eusebius and Jerome but Epiphanius makes him. ix. His chief work was De Fato. dedicated to Antoninus. as the opponents of the Quietists were — now called. . he is said then to have been held in high respect. v. many of which he produced [Euseb. The use of his hymns was discontinued in the fourth century. more or less. 30]. He was ejected from the school of Edessa.d. the emperor. were finally silenced by one held at Constantinople in a. Hence he would not admit that Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary. to which he was being tirged. Saviour's at Constantinople. also. he endeavoured to solve by supposing two co-equal supreme principles. Evarig. were acquitted. Syria. This was written against an astrologer Abidas. Bardesanes was the author of these Eecognitions. and to substitute Nestorians in their place. The adherents of Barlaam. are certainly most reasonable. in his controversy with the Hestchasts or Quietist Barlaam was a man of mystics of the East. not wholly.d. much learning. Persian sovereign Pherozes to expel the orthodox from their sees and churches. as Epiphanius says.

xxi. So called from their founder He was of Alexandria. but Clemens Alexandrinus. who knew Basilides personally. He and his monks so kicked and otherwise maltreated Flavian that he died within a few days from the of their violence. Peter. BASILIDIANS. 112.] says that he abode. oriental. Their distinguishing errors are said to have been. is some evidence that Basilides had been in Persia as well as Egypt. illustr.D. xxvii. Basilides had dwelt some time in Syria before settling in Egypt. that souls were all created before the creation of the world. some make him later. which developed rapidly after St. for between the death of the Apostle John and the beginning of Hadrian's reign twenty years only elapsed. which was a compound of the Pythagorean philosophy. 123. Polem. says that lived into the reign of the elder Antoninus.] effects false council BAEULI. xxviii. This Glaucias is unknown to history. Apostles he lived at the same time as their disciples. Cave places him a. He claimed to derive his doctrine from St. John's death. Eocl.. tradition. 460. were in process of formation much earlier.d.] seems to suggest that he is altogether imaginary. as is stated in the dispute between Archelaus and Manes [Eouth's BeJiq.d. ed. which was made up (according to the Greek system of numeration) by adding together the numbers represented by The corthe letters of which it is composed. he held there was a great First Cause. Matthias.d. 135] that Cochebas persecuted the Christians. [Sianda. Jerome [de Vir.l Basilides. : 67 . sect of the Albanenses belonging to the twelfth century. Oxf. except as claimed by Basilides and Waterland [v. It is likely that the more fantastic forms of heresy. to whom he gave the name Abraxas. and the earliest and he was certainly alive Emperor Hadi-ian [a. flourishing early in the second century. respondence of this number with that made by the word Mithras. 18. Lexic. That Christ did not become truly incarnate. and all fell into sin together after the creation. 41. one Supreme God. Baruli took the side of Eutyches at the Latrociniutri or so-called second Council of Ephesus. but assumed a celestial kind of body . Some read mortuus est in this passage . [Fleury. A V. and from one Glaucias whom he made the intimate disciple (interpres) of St.d. but kept back during his lifetime. the sun-god of the Persians. 8. 117- of the Egyptian Gnostics. The chief features in his system. in the reign of the If not actually a contemporary of the 138]. Hist. and afterwards convicted of heresy as a follower of Eutyches. and Christian revelation. He was a disciple of Menander at the same period as Saturninus. He died about a. moratus est. in Alexandria at the time [a. 139. His death may therefore be approximately assigned to A. were these First. This name he associated with the number 365. When the acts of the were annulled by the Council of Chalcedon Barsumas was driven from it hy the general voice of those assembled as being the murderer of the holy Flavian. and on whom it seems we he may certainly rely for this point.

i. 1864]. he held that it was inborn in them. preserved by Origen in his commentary A in connection with et hi magia. and one which is our excellence above it. " Dixit enim Apostolus. in earn speciem corporis vixi. v. many features in his moral system which would seem to encourage the unprincipled among his charge. quia ego lege aliquando hoc est. and after him Lardner. at the earliest period of the heresy. and was peculiar to some men by nature . King [The Gnostics and their Remains. &c. The mere denial of a resurrection of the flesh would tend to do this. elect were therefore strangers in the world. and endeavoured to frame a scheme to account for these sufi'erings. that Simon of Gyrene was crucified in His stead. vel avis. . as Origen calls it /AeTevo-oj/iaTwo-ts. on Eom. and that therefore no Christian ought to profess faith in the crucified One. 197. in doctrine of the Eesurrection obliged them to They explain away the Eesurrection of Christ. He con- 68 . and therefore the doctrine of the atonement had no place in his system. sec. The hope of rising again into a perfect man supported many martyrs through their sufferings. retained a great veneration for this event. and. greatly obscured They were very particular the original teaching. Irenaeus mentions magic Basilides. or. because not present . [Clem. supra-mundane by nature. as in many other things. pecudis scUicet. maintains that the argument about punitive sufi'erings is worthless from the simple consideration that it was always in the power of Christians to sufi'er or not." Clemens in process of this expiation the soul passed through various bodies. et reliqua universa periergia" [Contra Hcer. AU sins must be expiated in the sinner's own person." men like rust on iron. He adopted in the first place a metempsychosis. altogether deny that there is any evidence of this profession of magic. This belief in an apparent suffering Christ satisfied the impugners of the Eesurrection doctrine. lest he should be found adoring Simon. or conviction. in his answer. et ima- Utuntur autem ginibus. of his arguments was from the known sufi'erings of infants. There is little practised purity of life esse The opinion for followers to continue in sin. instance on election would be perverted by some into a license . " Alexandrinus. the indwelling of an son. ttkttiv ajxa koX cKAoyijv oiKuav iivai Kaff iKocTTov SLda-Ttjiia. 9 [lib. who lose no opportunity of trying to exculpate heretics. This fantastic theory was an aftergrowth. that He was a phantom or appearance only without substance of our flesh. Comment. can only be But he seems to have held that conjectured. 3]. let us " continue in sin that grace may abound. 371. Kal Trepiepyi'ais 6 aTrareoyv. He held consequently that the sufferings of confessors and martyrs were kinds of punishment. that faith should be greaterorless in any man according to his natural powers. he could not explain this except by saying that they had sinned elsewhere. for he vigorously depreciated the glories of martyrdom. believing in the destruction of the body at death. tells us that some did use this argument. Beausobre. this passage is cited as an authority for his belief in the metempsychosis. They say it is only the ignorant charge of men who understood no science against learned students of mathematics and physics. Epiphanius makes the same charge where references are given]. atque hominem ad agendum Suffering and fear came on semper impelli. xxiv. quae sub lege non esset. The theory he held on the baptism of Christ was not peculiar to his system. although delilserately sinning. in the celebration of the anniversary. But this question has been investigated anew by Mr. according to him. though they. Strom. who certainly held the reality of the body of the man Christ JesHS." " rationalis. His disciples left Him before His death. as being elect by Epiphanius is much the dignity of their nature. spending the whole night previous in religious exercises. His opinions upon faith and the knowledge of God are involved in much obscurity. faith and knowledge were co-ordinate.]. "beUuina." And even Clemens. or any exercise of judgment. He relied for this part of the argument on the Scripture. v.Basilidians tlie Basilidians In this he would differ from other forms of Gnosticwhich they were usually made antagonistic. : vivebam sine ov [irjv Si dXXa Kai iJuiyyaviKat'S fxrjyia. et invocationibus. The question of the gems known as the Abraxas gems is slightly discussed by Mosheim [i. Hcev. and was not the result of instruction.viais irpoaave^av ovk cTravcraTo. or heavenly power. amongst whom no doubt was Basilides himself. compliance with the orders of the heathen always exempted them from suffering. and looked forward to salvation.]. was an assent of the soul to some proposition not apprehended by the senses. but was common The descent of the Holy Spirit was to many." one which we share with the brute creation. 3]. accordingly said that Christ did not suffer on the cross. antequani in istud corpus venirem. saying that the faithful disciples were afflicted with torments because of sins committed One in some previous stage of their existence. et incantationibus." He even said men had two souls. more severe in his charge of impurity [Epiph. and ism. and formed no part of the teaching of the founder of the sect. and inflicted necessarily: " metum et laborem in martyre necessaria. whose authority on such a point will be admitted by all. The impurity of morals attributed by the later writers to Basilides is another instance of the corruption of his followers being laid to his which doubt that he taught and but yet there were . ii. who pronounces them purely heathen and destitute of all Christian character [viii. In a fragment of Basilides. would not be forgiven. and more fuUy examined by Lardner. " The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. Faith. soAll sins journers. 24]. but those only committed in ignorance . vii. Alex. But Basilides went further than this. in the absence of any extant work of his. and The that such men became like God by nature. or transmigration theory. And this belief of utter destruction of the body at death led him to another position strongly antagonistic to the prevailing feelings of Christians .

31." Beghards were " praying men.." The first two of these names appear not to occur elsewhere . 1263]. and this devotional stage of their history is still represented on the feminine side by the Beguines of Belgium. pp. Armagil.d. and certain portions of the New Testament." Both are derived from the old Gei-man word "beggen" or "beggeren.] [Protestant is : BASMOTHEANS. Antiq. of them had sprung up [Matth. meaning respectively Son of God and Lord of Heaven. Ser. and the Beghards were popularly so called be&c. but as the Colorbasians are not elsewhere named by him. and were thus analogous to such designations as "Pietists. the first on record being one at Louvain. [Barbeliotbs. The most important authors against it are referred Jerome [^p." The fullest and most exhaustive of the replies extant is to be found in Clemens Alexandrinus. De Hcer. and it was not long before the incorporation of many of the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit with 69 .] In the prologue to Jerome's Commentary Eiders it satisfactorily established that the Beghards BEGHAPDS. About the same time they are found also in France under the name of Boni Pueri (Bona Garjons) or Boni Valeti (Bons Valets) [Gramaye. The name " Beghard" was originally an honourable designation for those who devoted themselves to a life of prayer. totas infra Pyrenseum et Oceanum vastante provincias. They obtained all their converts from among the ignorant labouring classes. began to be formed early in the." which signifies to beg earnestly or heartUy . many of them being also of that never-failing character which leads to the ready acceptance of any excuse for idleness and wandering. and there is but scanty allusion to it in. but this also has perished [Hieron. The one cited by Origen has been given above." BASSUS. cause they were pertinacious "beggars" in the common English sense of the word. iv. 175]. Confessions. 75. and Matthew Paris says that the number of Beguines at Cologne in the year 1250 was one thousand.Basmotheans form engraved on these gems was the invention of Basilides himself and intended to he used as a talisman . Btrom. Thus they wandered about through towns and villages with the constant cry "Brot durch Gott" ("Bread for the sake of God")." Jerome mentions several other sacred names used by Basilides \Ep. and amongst them one by on St. In the following century many of these communities of Beguines were formed in Germany and France. no doubt C. [All may be seen in Migne's reply to Patrolog. 805]. The heresy did not survive very long.] An alliance very quickly sprung up between the Beghards and the Fraticelli. " spurcissima A A per Hispanias BasUidis hseresi sseviente. Several passages are quoted [p. 81] which seem explicable only on the supposition that the " Pantheus upon our gems was actually intended to symbolize the deity styled Abraxas. and say that the world is made by spontaneous motion. 7. But the Beghards had adopted vagrant habits. xliii. 12. iv. mentions them as having recently shewn considerable activity throughout Spain. were also names of prophets to whom Basilides He rejected the authority of the Old appealed. and another by Clemens from the twenty-third book. This name found in the Apostolic Constitutions [vi. Similar communities of men. CONFESSION OF. de Viris illustr." that "Basmotheans" is a corruption of "Masbo[Masbotheans. ISrahant. 1220.d. this was written by Agrippa Castor. as the Epistles to the Hebrews. later writers. p. Clemens speaks of a well-known book of BasiKdes Barcobas and Barcoph called Prophetia Chami. Female societies of Beguines appear to have been formed in many towns in the Netherlands towards the end of the twelfth century . Par. Ecd. 36. Testament. et instar pestis et morbi. which he said were not St. who deny Prowere vidence. In this early development of the Beghard communities they were mostly afiiliated to the Dominicans or Franciscans as brethren of the third or Lay Order. a. [Philast. Thus mechanics and field labourers left their work to become Beghards. 400] to above. which was founded a. or Tertiaries . Bassus. of Philaster a heretic appears whose name is written C. Leusiboras. associating together for prayer and labour. and as their numbers increased the importunity and " professional" character of their begging increased also. This is probably the same with the twenty-four books of commentaries mentioned by fragment from the Eusebius \llist. and giving up all labour they professed to keep the strict Franciscan vow of poverty by living on the labour of others. 75]. were names under which the Deity was worshipped by the Iberians. OroBca. and take away the im: . while elsewhere in Germany an " innumerable multitude" Matthew mention is made of some spurious gospels. and thus as " Beguines" were " praying women. written c.. and Bassus is not named by any other heresiologist. BASLE." name was But from being associated with prayer the corrupted by the subsequent habits of the sect into a mere association with mendicancy." "Evangelicals. 6] " Even the for there Jewish nation had wicked heresies the Basmotheans. There can be little doubt mortality of the soul. 21]. it was the reduction of his system to a visible representation. Titus and Timothy. Basilides. Balsamus. viii. The German name for a very widely spread sect of medieval heretics who were closely allied in their origin with the Italian Fraticelli and the Brethren op the Fiieb Spirit. Bassus is a corrupt reading for Colorbasus.] thirteenth book of these commentaries is quoted by Irenseus.] theans. Barbelon.same century . and religion became a thin cloak for mendicancy. and it is supposed that they arose out of the disproportion between the sexes caused by the number of men slain in the Crusades. the last two. Paul's. "ceteraque magis portenta quam nomina. In some MSS.

The sequel. It was found that they still practised the custom of stripping themselves naked at their religious assemblies. and to forhid their assembling in caverns and other secret places for preaching [Mansi. One of the first to suffer was a leader named Walter. it Quietism and Communism. and where by night. and become another man. de Beghardis et Beguinahus\. and remained to his tenth year without instruction. and stood in the highest contemplation. they called Paradises. and in the kingdom of joys. was born. Read diligently the Scriptures. persons of both sexes used to assemble." says UUmann. more properly mystic who gained many followers on the Continent and in England. with no design of publishing his visions to the world. There can be no doubt that the Beghards were largely infected with the Antinomianism and licentiousness of the Brethren of the Free Spirit. Afterwards. At twelve years ho was apprenticed to a shoemaker in Gorlitz. was of and this fell into the hands of Eichtel the primate of Gorlitz. such an one as the world shall wonder at . The headquarters of the sect were at Cologne. but they spread along the banks of the Ehine and overran both France and the Netherlands as well. 70 .d. and the stranger. and nature. for thou must endure much poverty and suffer persecution . The Council of Mayence [a. in which they are declared to be persons who have wandered away from the Catholic faith. wherein thou hast comfort and instruction. Meantime his visionary faculty grew greater. had supplanted. in 1575. and reverence His word.Beghards their body infected Behmen a kind which forbids description"^ [Ullmann'? These reReformers before the Eefonnation]. and several at Strasburg in 1366. and down to the time of Luther. On one occasion he fell into a trance while gazing on the dazzling light of the sun's rays broken upon a tin vessel. 1259] directed the clergy to read admonitions to them on three successive Sundays or festivals. The French form of the name them with heresy. It happened one day. 1317] ordering their suppression. which the law of marriage. therefore be pious. fear God. stood still. innocence. and to follow unrestrained the divinely implanted impulses and inclinations of his nature in order to be good and godly. and called with a loud voice. the divine life of freedom. Goneil. that the law had introduced differences among mankind. but of grave and reverend countenance. walking in the fields. despising the sacraments and sowing other errors abundantly. The Dutch form of the name Beghard. which among them. BOEHME. by whom the author was denounced from the pulpit. but that it had been disturbed by that event . another in 1310 by a council held at Trfeves. another leader named Berthold at Speyer in 1356. and Mosheim considers that there is no reason to doubt their truth [Mosheim. On such occasions one of their "apostles" came forward. BEGUINE. but shalt be great. come forth " The boy obeyed. One of the names given to the Fraticblli in the Bull of Pope John XXII. the only way open to them was by secret societies and clandestine meetings.d. and exemplifying in his own person the state of innocence. and especially on the nights of festivals. ports were those of eye-witnesses. said. for God loves and is gracious unto thee. xxiii. and the Paradise state of unity and equality restored. book called Aurora. who was executed in 1322. Jacob. Years passed. four sons were born to Behmen. that prior to the fall he possessed such a consciousness to the full. Accordingly they constructed for themselves remote and often subterraneous habitations. thou art little. who originally stood upon a level. " Jacob. may be doubted whether itself it had as yet developed But charges of licentiousness were brought against them very early. taking him by the hand. "Their professed object. and summoned to ' The principles of a sect which appears to be a remnant of the Beghards were investigated by order of the Austrian Government in the year 1848. when he was left alone in the shop. " Jacob. and persevere. and fixing his bright and piercing eyes on him. JACOB. but be courageous. 1330]. a village near Gbrlitz in Upper Lusatia. and he was stiU only known as a pious and harmless mechanic." After this mysterious visit the boy grew more and more serious and visionary. requires only to act in the consciousness of this unity. 1317. delivered a discourse upon the free intercourse of the sexes. but that these ought now to be done away. and in 1604 became a master shoeor ! BEHMElSr. and taking off his clothes. and that their religion—such as it is—may be defined as an admixture of Stoical Their peculiar custom made impossible of course that they should escape the charge of immorality. if we may credit the reports. who made a copy of Mm A it. He began to write. In the year 1306 a decree against them was issued by a council held at Cologne. "was to restore the pure primeval state. a third at Strasburg a." At nineteen he married. but traces of them are found in the fifteenth century.d. three were burned at Constance in 1339. entered and bought a pair of shoes. and many were burned as heretics. was lent to a friend. 998]. BOHM. that a stranger in mean apparel. The idea they formed of that state was that man being in and of himself one with God. Under these persecutions the Beghards decreased in number.d. and at one time "was for seven days surrounded with a divine light. and a few years later Pope John XXII. To bring this about in defiance of the imposing power of the Church. but only for his private satisfaction. BEGUTTE. [a. contrary to nature. he had a new faculty opened in to discern the virtues of plants. a German maker in Gorlitz. thus written by him. then going out of the shop a little way. lu his childhood he tended cattle. BEGUINII. From the absence of any notice of heresy in this canon it Beghard. in Allseidenberg. Meanwhile the Inquisition had been let loose upon them. and from the number of women among them the Germans called them " Sisterers" (schwestriones) with an evident ironical meaning. published a Bull against them [a.

of age [a. The power of seeing duality in into duality. He foretold the moment of his departure three hours before it came. Another in 1730. " the silent nothing becomes something by entering Unity is itself Lateran [a. An English translation of Behmen was published in 1764 by William Law. in which she was joined by Pordage and his celebrated disciple Thomas Bromley. and declared himself convinced by a special revelation of the truth of his doctrines. a Trinity.d. a large number of extracts from whose works was found in the handwriting of Newton amongst his papers [Brewster's Newton. proceeds therefrom. was the cognition of the absolute. Stuttgard. Berengarius had studied the work of Eatbamnds. and are the work of an entirely spiritual mind. the silent nothing. that the sound might enter. Berengarius devoted adherent in the divine and physician John Pordage. But he went his intellectual boldness was shewn soon after to Angers by his opposition to the Euchar- istic theories of Eadbertus. in two volumes. His own existence as " the eternal one. a more complete one in 1682 by Gichtel [10 vols. but . his Behmen and A speculations on the Deity and the origin of things. But in 1616. Walton's Introduction to Theosophy. Jane Lead." things is spiritual-mindedness. One of the most important of his works is. ii. On his deathbed. Description of the Three Principles of the Divine Being. which had originated with Pasohasius Eadbbrtds [a. From writing in his native language at a time when Latin was generally used. a forecast of his own celebrated division of philosophy into the science of the idea existing in and for itself. at the age of forty-two. The first collection of his writings was made in Holland by Betke in 1673 . . The life of Behmen was written by his admirer Abraham von Frankenberg. shortly after which time he first comes into notice in connection with the Eucharistic In the controversy. His voice was weak and sweet. he asked his died in 1624. written against this view of the Eucharist. who died in 1652. he ventured to publish Aurora. was at the head of the school attached to the cathedral of Tours. of which he was also But when he was about forty-two years canon. Thereafter he was summoned before the Elector of Saxony. the author of the Serious Call. p. a sect valued for their virtuous. and obeyed the order for seven years. Berengarius. without haste and without correction. The leader of a too small school of divines belonging to the eleventh century who opposed the ultra-Eoman definition of the Eeal Presence. As a schoolmaster he had shewn and benevolent life. delivered in the form of Divine revelaThe Deity is to be contemplated first in tions. of Hegel. Amsterdam]. All that he produced was welcomed by a constantly growing circle of admirers and disEichter now again bestirred himself ciples. son Tobias whether he did not hear sweet music and when his son answered that he heard nothing.] BEEENGAEIUS. and when it was at hand. or Berenger. His writings gentle and retiring. edition appeared in Amsterdam an independence and originality of mind which had brought upon him some degree of censure as being fond of novelties. with a low forehead. of ScheUing. the temperamentum.] BEEENGAEIANS. 1802. WuUer. which he did. man account see Die Lehre des Deutschen Philosophen Jacob Bohm. we learn that Sir Isaac ITewton was a diligent student of Behmen.. or the Morning Redness. and expired. 1831-40. bade him open the door. which had now become many and Holland. and was formally promulgated as the doctrine of the Western Church by the Fourth Council of philosophy. Behmen appear before the senate. earlier part of his life. He wrote at a steady rate.d. or creature." or principle of negativity which was the origin of things of Behmen." But the proceeding of creature from God is at the same time the ingoing of God into creature . and the magistrates recommended him to leave the city for the sake of peace. Behmen was a small thin man. sUent. The interest in Behmen was revived by the great speculative movement in Germany about the beginning of this century. and in England he gained a 71 received as authoritative by many theologians. especially of a novel pronunciation of Latin which he wished to introduce. Hence Hegel placed Behmen at the head of modern [For a favourable early account of his doctrines see Arnold! Hist. bade his son turn him. character utter in their own way the deepest philosophical conceptions. or unconditioned terms which denote the same principle which was the root of the mystical contemplations of Bebmen.d. The end of the philosophy of Fichte. On the authority of Law. For a modern GerEcclesiastiea de Hceretiea. a female enthusiast." The Divine Nature. with a large admixture of the terms of the mysThey consist of tical chemistry then in use. who appointed six Doctors of Divinity to examine him. who wrote a commentary on his works. He was ordered to write no more. under the title Theosophia revelata. more complete in six volumes. for the study of his writings in 1697. from whom the followers of Behmen have received the name of GichteHans. The latest edition Besides Geris by Schiebler. 1836. [Berbngabids. and is called "contrariety. 831-865]. but with full temples and bright blue eyes. 1040] he became Archdeacon of Angers. and of the idea returning into itself. His gentle demeanour and answers won the good opinion both of the Elector and the examiners. who saw in the " silent nothing. founded a sect called the Philadblphians. he got the name of the Teutonic philosopher. 1215]. known authorwas also published at Dresden. Leipsic. and life by an unTennemann's Manual of PMl. Their phraseology is drawn from the Scriptures. Behmen was acknowledged in France by Pierre Poiret as a man of deep spiritual insight. where he dismissed. 371]. against him. of the idea representing itself in nature. and during the remaining seven years of his life pouied forth about thirty other publications. and he was charitably He returned to GorUtz. This identity was acknowledged by Hegel.

On his return to France Berengarius took up his former line. without waiting to know whether he had any explanation or defence to offer. BEENAED. and the consequence was that it was laid before a council which was sitting at The the time [a. . and aU who should presume to call him a heretic were by this document anathematized [D'Achery. wrote a letter to Lanfranc (then Abbot of Bee. 1088 in the island of St. 225. he was then persuaded by Cardinal Humbert to sign a form of recantation.Berengarius said to go mucli further from the received opinion. unchangeable. Adelmann. 1048] Bishop of Brescia. council convicted its author. Valentinian heretic mentioned by Hippolytus.d. six. and during the course of which the former was occasionally in danger from the populace.] BEETEAM. stating his views and endeavouring to secure Lanfranc's support for them. abiding in its own natural essence." frag- A A ment of Hippolytus remains in which he controverts this error of Beron. [Lanfranc. and some others founded upon it. he signed a recantation. or from teaching any one except as a means of reclaiming those whom he had led into error. incomprehensible. Berengarius never formed a sect. or for some as such. et Corpus et fidelium dentibus atteri" [Lanfr. et A — — Papal certificate of his orthodoxy. manibus sacerdotum tractari. much mortified and humUiated by his recantation. where he appeared in the year 1059. but many afterwards perverted his opinions and these were De JEucharist. as given by its most extreme form. et sensualiter non solum sacrameuto. but although he had protected Berengarius hitherto. when Hildebrand was present as the Papal representative [a. 1054]. Grmc. Artbmonites]. 230. 1045] by an old friend and schoolfellow. Four years after this condemnation a Legatine council was held at Tours. who considered that he would run into danger by carrying out his wish [Mansi. But he was also commanded to abstain 413]. He held that at the Incarnation the Divine Nature of the Second Person in the Blessed Trinity became circumscribed or limited so as to be compatible with the Human Nature to which it was united. King of France. Berengarius left Eome on this occasion with a was similitudinem " of the Body and Blood of Christ. He was a man of learning and piety.] BEEYLLUS was bishop of Bostra The of his result HUdebrand became Pope as convinced error was that Beryllus was and returned to the 72 . and not really altering the opinions which he had so long held. Frankfort. incomparable. iii. and engaged in a controversy with Lanfranc which lasted for many years. At this council Berengarius declared his belief that " Panis atque vinum altaris post consecrationem sunt Christi Corpus et Sanguis. in Fabric.D. Ebrard's Doctr. and once more. notwithstanding this recantation. Subsequently Berengarius was summoned to Home. and to maintain that the consecrated elements are only symbols "fignram quandam Beryllus Gregory VII. He lived for several years longer. The special heresy of Beron appears to have been that against which the clause of the Athanasian Hymn. from all controversy on the subject of the Eucharist. which were followed by a public disputation.d. a synod was held at Bostra to judge his case. but being then in the Abbey of Tours he was prevented from attending by Henry I.. but released him from the sentence of heresy which had been passed upon him. contra Beronem et Helicem. et Sang. and working according to its own nature" [Hippol. he was not able to withstand the demand of the Cardinals Once that he should again be called to account. . Dom. and a demand that he should suffer death Either in fear of death. Berengarius having by this time got into public controversy with Hugo." and Hildebrand being satisfied with this declaration. Condi. "One. De Veritate Corp. and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury). and afterwards [a. Brunswick. frangi. Sanguinem Domini nostri Jesu Christi esse. saying. more. and the sentence was confirmed at VerAt this latter celli in the September following. i. but by taking of the manhood into God. held private conferences with Beryllus. into a denial of the Eeal Presence. ST. " Panem et vinum Verum . of the Lord's Sai^pe)-. but falling into heresy. 0pp. Spidleg. not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh. the mover of this controversy was summoned to Eome.] BEEOB". 1050] as containing heresy. council Berengarius wished to be present that he might make his defence. Lanfranc. in the year 1073 . "What the Divine Nature was before the Incarnation that it was afterwards in Its Essence infinite. Bihl. Cosmas near Tours. 773]. 757.d. in Arabia about A. [Schoolmen..d. : . therefore. The abbot being then at Eome. Berengar. who attended the synod. 232]. [Eatramnus. declare. in a council which was held in February 1079. the second letter being stiU extant [Adelmann. Cmna. sed in veritate. 1770]. This warning was repeated two years afterwards with affectionate earnestness. and Hist. Origen. its contents were known to others. who by this time had become blindly violent in defence of the doctrine of Transubstantiation. Hippolytus writes respecting him that he and some others had forsaken the delusion of Valentinus only to fall into deeper errors. de Sacr. Condi. other unknown reason. in which the doctrine which he had so long opposed was stated in as extreme a form as before [Mansi. in which he acknowledged Transubstantiation in His words." was levelled. bishop of Langres. on the subject. and not otherwise known. the letter of Berengarius did not reach him untU. acquiring an l&ia 7repiypa<^ri. His death took place a. named Berengarians. xx. 1845. God the Son thus becoming self-emptied.d. where he had latterly lived in great retirement under the protection of the Bishop of Tours. There was a popular clamour against him as a heretic. then Archdeacon of Li^ge. inconvertible. p. did not permit him to carry the explanation of liis opinions into detail. impassible. and ceasing to be " Immensus Filius. remonstrance against this teaching was written to him [a. 543].

A Quartodeciman of this name mentioned by the author of the book against heresies which formerly went by the name of Tertulhan: and on the ground of his teaching that the Christian passover should be kept on the day fixed by the Jewish Law. P^'>^ i/nroK^Tevovi. qui superstitiose magis quam religiose. that the synod of Bostra. sec. and istry. Def.36] mentions the denial of the pre-existence note. are unhappily lost. Ecd. as being a portion of the Divine nature. in the reign of Catharine II.] . when made flesh. 34.] BIBLE CHEISTIANS.] mentions Beryllus together with Artemon and Marcellus. seemed to have disdained this affectation of retaining the names while all distinction of Person the grey colour of their garments. makes Beryllus to have been bishop of Philadelphia." The only difference between the two classes.C)v /itJ V. and Beryllus' letters to Origen thanking him for saving him from heresy. subsisten- duo quidem nomina secundum diversitatem causarum recipientem.d. 1317].Beryllus This synod is frequently assigned Catholic faith.i]V Bedrrrra ^x"". in the passage quoted by all commentators \Frag. and tickling the soles of their feet with feathers. By some it is derived from " Bizzoco. cent. the disputation of Origen and Beryllus. unam eandemque i. the reader is referred to the article under that title. ^ BLASTUS." which indicated : qui latine Patripassiani appellantur. before His Incarnation. assumed hot only the flesh but also the soul of man. He BESOCHI. did not exist in the distinction of His own Person . a. whose members after conversion became perpetually speechless. employed the cruellest forms of torture. 17] classes BeryUus with Praxeas. [BizooHi. in its letter to Beryllus. but without avail. and accordingly Bishop Bull \Jud. the Philipoftschins. cap. [a. but Eusebius records that an Epistle on Schism was written to him by Irenseus. uti ne yideantur duos deos dicere. who became TJx SuT-^pa Kol Kipiov 4ieffTdvai. Cathol. BIANCHI. and therefore superior to all human souls. qui hominem dicunt Dominum Jesum prsecognitum et prsedestinatum. events in Eusebius it appears to have been before the death of Gordian. /ii. 4 . a governor general of and of the Patripassians. Beryllus asserted that our Lord. but the Divinity of the Father. The second has been somewhat variously interpreted. In order to PoMERANE extract Siberia. Socrates [Hist. vpoviStav oifflas Tepijpatpriv irph t^s eh dvSpdTrovs iifiuiii \iyuv To\p. was that the Patripassians retained the names of Father and Son to be used as the varying action Beryllus of the One and same Person required. iii. the sects beUian doctrine. 15].] BICHINI. BEZSLOVESTNI. ex Comni. amounts to this that Christ did not exist before Mary. IToetus. pouring hot sealing-wax on their flesh. but aU the smaller and fanatical have sprung from them. in error. [Pseudo-Tertull. [Theod.] BEZPOPOFTSCHINS. 14] says that the opinion. 3. /ii)5^ Mav Eegarding the interpretation of these words. v. condemning that community [a. of Christ as . The words of Eusebius can be satisfied only by the earlier SabeUian or Patripassian doctrine . III. neque rursum negare Salvatoris deitatem. From the order of to the year 247 or 249. in Ep. ne illos quidem sine periculo est ecclesiae numero sociari: sicat et : named Pestal. when considered with attention. 7].^ Against this it may be said that Origen. That division of Eussian dissenters which does not retain the office of "pope" or priest.] BIBLE COMMUNISTS. was united to Him at the time of His This appears to be an explaining away birth. = Gennadius [cap. Nic. /car' a Valentinian [Euseb. For the particulars of his association with the QuartodeoiMANS. iii. A name signifying "the dumb. sed quod homo natus Patris solam in se habuerit deitatem. asserted that Christ. Ecel. has distinguished between the doctrine of Beryllus . found in the Bull of Pope John XXII. 33]. imSriiiias. e. Ecel. Very little is known of their tenets. S8ec. There is no evidence that Blastus ever actually became a Gnostic.d. 20]. Ecd. A term coUoquiaUy signifying " idiots" among the Italians. as well as one on the Monarchy of God to Florinus [ibid. Pseudo-Hieronymus [cap. Fid. common to 73 Beryllus and Photinus. v. e.D. iii. Hist. but that a Spirit issuing from God Himself.^ The first proposition needs no comment. The passage is as follows " Sed et eos. unam personam duobus nominibus subjacentem." on account of the wallet which they carried to hold the provisions which they begged from door to door by others from " bigio. he is declared to have been desirous of introducing Judaism." given to a not very numerous Eussian sect of the eighteenth century._ see Valesius' and Mosheim. illos. Hceret. fab." or in French " Besace.] He is doubtless the same person as the Eoman Blastus named by Eusebius is as being nearly involved in the fall of Florinus. except in such a form as that of the Presbyterian or Independent minThe Bezpopoftschina have been dividedinto fifteen or twenty sects. Mosheim \Ecd. Hist. and that He was Divine because there dwelt in Him not the proper Divinity of the Son. in a somewhat marked manner. the former of them being that to which Beryllus belonged. was denied. [Peepeotionists. unam tamen mrooTaa-iv subsistere. But we are not entitled to infer from this that Beryllus combined Patripassian and ApoUinarian doctrine. 23. i. iv. . [Brtanites. the principal of which are the Duchobortzi. perhaps by anticipation. 1762-1796]. the later Sa: Blastus says. some information. qui ante adventum carnalem substantialiter et proprie non extiterit. Dc rebus Christ. [Albati. the " Paternal Divinity " which was asserted to have dwelt in Christ. 244.d. ad Titurri]. and Sabellius. A name for the Fraticelli. tiam Patris ac Eilii asseverant. lUvrfv avTifi iidvqv tt]V TarpiK'^v [Euseb. and to suppose that Beryl'lus held. iii. and used contemptuously as a name for the Beghards by some medisBval writers. [BizooHi.] BICOENI. BIZOCHI. 243. sect. The acts of the synod of Bostra. and is dated by Cave A. i. Sist. xxii.

They directed their efforts to preserve tlie religious independence of their country from the BOHEMIAN exorbitant claims of the Pope. and the cup was withdrawn from the laity. This sect was drawn from the dregs of the population. 1140. Christianity They were converted to by the labours of Methodius. each of the four Gospels. a Greek priest of Thessalonica. and occupied the country of the Teutonic Boii. who seem have equally misconceived both Christito anity and Manichseism. semi-political party which sprung up in Bohemia. The total dispersion of the sect ensued upon the death of their founder. being discovered to resemble (though with material differences) those of their Bulgarian brothers. iii. one of their chiefs or apostles (for. Christ. in the middle of the sixth century. original inhabitants. in the guise of a disciple. Dissert. composed a full account and refutation of the Bogomilian errors. In A. and its eternal hostility to spirit. that these perverts. whose piety or policy iaduced him to undertake the conversion of the Paulicians. and rejected altogether the baptism of water. Shortly afterwards the celibacy of the clergy was forced upon them. the Prophets. two bishops of Cappadocia. Bogomiles [BizocHi. sister of King 74 . the Acts. be reasonably supposed. to a banquet. which received further increase in con- sequence of the close connection of the country with England. early in the fifteenth century. BasU was seized by the oflScers of the emperor. [AH that is known about this obscure and illiterate body has been collected in the work by Joh. which is still to be read in his work. with the existence of the unhappy Bogomiles. "Bog" signifying God. entitled the Aoyyuart/c^ IlavoTrAia. [PeotesTANT Confessions. were fitted. These rude and ignorant heretics. This name was given to a semi-religious. The Eastern Church. at which. with the title of Bogomiles. and Anne. Alexius invited the leader of it. The creation of the world they conceived to be due to a wicked Demiurge.D. all learned persons were excluded from their body. an appellation compounded of two Sclavic roots. might have remained unmolested in their obscurity. and their constitutional freedom against the pretensions of the princes of the house of A^istria. a monk of the Eastern Church. but for the missionary zeal of Alexius Comnenus. Sophia. But these changes. By command of the emperor. whose dioceses were situated in the original seat from which Paulician Manichceisrn (the parent of the Bogomilian heresy) had emigrated into Europe. by a reference to the distinctive quahty of His baptism. taught the innate evilness of matter. The founder of the Bogomiles was an heretical monk named Basil. from some fancied resemblance in doctrine to the earlier Semi-Pelagian heretics of that name. were condemned for holding these opinions. excited a strong feeling of discontent. CONFESSION OF. the more complete extermination of the heresy. may justly claim them as her own sons. a Constantinopolitan council formally anathematized the heresy of the followers of Basil . "We also meet with them in contemporary literature under the name of Massilians it is presumable. brought about by external power. as we are informed by his daughter Anna Comnena. 1712. who appeared in the twelfth century in the Bulgarian city of PhUippopolis. yet they took upon themselves the revision of the Scripture Canon. as opposed to that administered by John. whose tenets.] or (as it is corruptly written) BoGAEMiT^. and made poverty and ignorance chief and necessary tenets. Wolf. like Mani himself.: . Clement and Leontinus. they adopted an allegorical interpretation of Scripture. during his mission work. Basil. BOGOMILES. It may. however. The Bohemians were a branch of the Sclavonic They were originally called Czechs. they denied all mysterious efficacy to the sacraments." from the habit which poverty or the commands of Basil forced them to adopt. and "mU" His They were better known to the orthodox title of "Phundaites. was made acquainted. having subdued the race. while they assigned to Adam the paternity of AlDel. Like other Paulicians. he extracted from him a fuU confession of his guilt. and by his orders kept Greek world under the was publicly burned the scene of his execution being the open space before the gates of St. and for a long time they knew no other form of Christianity. who directed his followers to use and glory in the dissonant name of BogomUe. Their Bible consisted of seven books the Psalms. and in the following century Latin was made the language of their Liturgy in direct opposition to the Sclavonic vernacular. Manichsean heretics who were predominant in the Danuhian provinces from the ninth to the thirteenth century. There the contumacious here- BOCASOTI. Wittenberg. They supported their belief in a Docetic or fantastic Christ. Diblatius. towards the end of the ninth century. At the close of the entertainment.] BOHEMIA." or " wearers of the girdle. and attributed the murder of Abel to the jealousy of Cain. but three years later. mercy. By this rule. In 9 6 8 they were brought under the Papal supremacy. therefore. Historia Bogomilorum. the Bohemian Brethren in close confinement until the return of the court to Constantinople. arising from the marriage between our own Eichard II. with the Epistles and the Apocalypse. Basil emulated the organization of primitive Christianity) disclosed the name of their leader Impelled by a desire to effect to the emperor. But Latin tendencies gradually prevailed in spite of strong opposition.] siarch : BEETHEEN. They appear to have separated off from the Paulicians. The last mention of the heresy is the condemnation of a monk named Niphorion about the middle of the twelfth century. That emperor. whose birth they referred to a union between Eve and Satanael (the eldest son of Jehovah). in default of a more exact nomenclature. Euthymius Zygabenus by name.. Pursuing the same line of reasoning. was the name assumed by a sect of heretics. were only primitive Paulicians.

the advance of the Turks and other changes prevented anything from coming out of it. The Lutherans of Germany crowded into their country. an Itahan wandering bishop. and afterwards under that of Procopius. until King Ladislaus. The larger. when the archbishopric of Prague was purposely kept vacant by the authorities who favoured Eome. the latter found some difficulty in preserving the succession. and yet anti-papal Church. and subdue them in detail. the public peace was maintained. who had departed as much from the principles of Huss as the modern Wesleyans have from those of Wesley. so that in 1450 they sent an embassy to the Patriarch of Constantinople. and infecting the Bohemian Church with their pecuharities. of all such wars the most bloodily waged on both sides. [Hussites. caused a religious truce for thirty-three years to be concluded. but at the same time. owing to the influx from Germany. and although the crown was elective. the Bohemians. But the Papal court could not rest permanently content with anything short of absolute submission.] that history has recorded. was united against him as one man. under the mild but somewhat weak rule of Wenceslaus. while on and to . was compelled to grant the Bohemian charter. and the Protestants (Lutherans and Calvinists).Bohemian Brethren "Wenceslaus of Bohemia. as a national uprising against a powerful foreign foe. and the Bohemians were allowed to con* tiuue members of a national. and gave strength to the extreme men. Shortly after they sought for and received ordination from the Ai'menians. things temporal. kept alive the suspicions and jealousies of the Bohemians. After fierce discussion the first of these was found schools. allowing complete toleration to the three parties. was Catholic. hold their own ecclesiastical courts. ism began to infect the national party more and more. the emperor who had weakly given up Huss to death at Constance. desiring to be readmitted into communion. [2] that the secular power should have dominion over the persons of criminous clerks. appeared most opportunely for them. Catholic. notwithstanding the execution of Huss. and had never willingly submitted to the claims of the Pope. where they Bohemian Brethren wards the more extreme Taborites were utterly crushed as a political party. To each of them was allowed full liberty to build churches. when the Jesuits were introduced. Sigismund had gained his object. made the following four demands of the Council: [1] That the Communion should be in both kinds. The differences between the Eomanizing and the national parties became the more marked. This proposal was scornfully rejected by the Taborites. gave rise to a party. after various efforts to enforce uniformity. and had but little in common with the Taborite followers of Ziska. But though the embassy was well received. so that as the former were favoured by the rulers. Political troubles followed in Bohemia. which they now openly They also claimed abjured as antichristian. For a time. These causes. In 160ff. The following century saw a great change in the Bohemians. in a Diet held at Kuttenberg in 1485. This was in 1435. freedom of preaching was allowed. first under the leadership of John Ziska. They were usually styled CaUxtines or IJtraquists. Sigismund was acknowledged as king. which comprised almost all the clergy and the greater part of the nobles. But what the whole power of the Empire and of the Papacy combined could not effect was soon brought about by internal dissension. and eagerly accepted by These latter the Catholic or Calixtine party. and exhorting them all to live in peace with each other. coupled with the Papal schism that was then raging. and shortly after75 granted. [3] that there should be perfect liberty of preaching to all ecclesiastics. The consequence was that the country was kept in a state of religious ferment by the contests between the two parties. was one of the most remarkable. or Hussites proper. and if possible effect an accommodation. Catholic so far as doctrine was concerned. At one time. of which the celebrated Huss was the chief ornament. Each party agreed to refrain from annoying the other. But Lutheranthe peace did not continue for long. and the compacts of Basle were reaffirmed against the Papal opposition. on the ground that they had originally derived their Christianity from the East. to quiet apprehension. Augustine Lucian. There were two chief parties among the Bohemians. and joined the national party of the Bohemians. coupled with small annoyances and petty persecutions. which excited and alarmed the whole country. [4] that the matters continued until 1556. the privileges of the national party were confirmed. Eudolph. Not a single heresy could be laid They were of the old national to their charge. in 1482. But the death of the king kindled the flame of a religious war. and the subjection of the spirituality to the temporal power in aU. party. When Sigismund found that he could not subdue the Bohemians by force of arms. but anti-papal. The public education was placed in their hands. who now began to appear as the Taborites. the restoration of the cup to the laity. to clergy should not be allowed to hold civil offices. he at once took measures to assert what he conFor a time the nation sidered his just rights. The natural successor of Wenceslaus was his brother Sigismund. which led to the loss of the ancient constitutional rights of the people against their sovereigns. and they were commissioned to use all efforts of iniiuenoe and persuasion to bring the people back into unity with the See of Eome. and for a time a hoUow truce existed between the national Bohemian party and Eome. and the war which followed. and this well-known fact. So might state their grievances. the Eomans. obtaining shelter and toleration under their name. peace was restored to the country. He invited them to send deputies to the Council of Basle. yet national and therefore anti-papal in spirit. he made USB of this distinction to divide his opponents. Through this Wickliffe's wiitings were diffused in the latter country.

Hisp. Catholic. therefore. originated in England that supercilious and superficial style of infidelity which looks upon religion as an useful institution for A he approves their sentence. " who are nowcalled Bonosiaci" \de Vir. and Anysius. He names no other charge against Bonosus than that relating to the Blessed Virgin [Ambrose. Hi vera hceretici\ It is easy to conclude (and it agrees with the natural course of heresy) that the council refers to the early practice of the sect. and xvii. cap. whereby he alienated the old Bohemian party. Suspicion united the old Bohemians and the later foreign bodies against him. for teaching that the Blessed Virgin. and his first defeat on the White Mountains near Prague.-Hier. Deism. dist.\ How soon Bonosus and his followers reached this stage of complete Photinianism is not known. Bishop of Sardica. Proing of families. and monumental tombs in Prague. Bonosus was condemned by Theophilus. Eoman Catholicism was made the established religion of the country. [Beghabds. pars." But privately totius BOLIISrGBE.] BONI VALETI. and anti[Palacky. he was not fitted Catholic doctrine.] The sentence was of suspension from his episcopal functions. did their work. xlii. and which is worth the support of a government as a means of preserving order and the rights of property. iii. There appears to have been an intermediate stage. quoted by Lardner.. nos quasi ex Synodi auctoritate judicare non convenit. but Bonosus continued to ordain those who applied to him. liii. It proved the commencement of the Thirty Years' War. q. Ambrose replied that the case it " was referred to them by the synod. stained by the usual atrocities on both sides. [Perfect:. a Spanish bishop. The insurgents elected Frederick Count Palatine to be their king. to which they have ever since The Jesuits whom Frederick been attached. after our Lord's birth. ed. can. The letter to Laurentius. and a civil war followed. Aries. The two bishops wrote to Ambrose inquiring his opinion. Still they were early forgeries. Bishop of 76 . in November 1620. and that was not his place to give a judicial opinion. 1672-1751] who promoted among the higher classes that flippant infidelity for which they were so conspicuous during the reigns of Queen Anne and the first two Hanoverian Kings. which are seemingly in direct contradiction. it is doubtful whether any are genuine. and which he himself had learned Bolingbroke may be said to have in Paris. testantism pure and simple had never found great favour in the eyes of the people. by firmness of character to be the leader in any great movement. Hist. CouncU of also states. Epist. Ored. of soldiers upon the disaffected. for Dionysius Exiguus accepted them. iv. but to ascribe the conduct held towards Bonosus to the principle of obedience to the See of Eome. i. taking with him the crown jewels. immense majority of the people is now Eoman There are a few Lutherans and CalCatholic." "Vos enim Synodi vice decernitis. during which the party was gradually drifting into the open denial of the pre-existence of Christ. In the year 389 or 390. had distinguished himself by a zealous persecution of the Protestants. vinists among them. which had never (at least as a body) abandoned either Catholic ritual or Moreover. v. legitimate means of conversion used by the Jesuits were added others of a more questionable The government put forth all its character. but the national. and Gregory to the later practice. This was the last effort of the Bohemians to maintain their religious liberties by force of arms. This identifies his doctrine with that of Photinus . HI.] BONI HOMINES. The larger number of the epistles are no doubt forgeries . the peculiar An religious fire of the nation was quenched. vengeance of the merciless Ferdinand. Ferdinand.d. 14. as delegates of the Synod of Capua. of Thbol.OKE. make mention of Bonosus more than once.]. had banished were restored . bore children to Joseph. Arel. Boliemia. the quartering political opponents.— Bolingbroke the other hand Rudolph's successor. converts from them to be received with chrism and imposition of hands. Bishop of Thessalonica. but he was a Bonosians BONI PUEET. and with the political decay of the national party. sceptical nobleman of the last century [a. but leaving his unfortunate Bohemian followers a prey to the rigid Calvinist. and they may be taken as evidence of facts where the object of the forger did not call for misrepresentation. and every effort was made to bring back the To the natives to the communion of Rome. he fled from the kingdom . and the lower classes. destroying his hopes. crucifixes. chiefly of German extraction j a remnant also of the Hussites still lingers on under the name of Bohemian Brethren [Hussites]. cap. Vicem enim Synodi recepistis. in his own hereditary dominions of Styria (the crown of Bohemia was elective). Bishop of Alexandria. The council [II.] BONOSIANS [Bonosiani or Bonosiaci]. xvi. In the present case his object would be not to misrepresent the facts. Collect. For in no other way can we reconcile the high authorities of the CouncU of Aries and Gregory the Great. an identification made by the second osus held that Jesus Christ is by adoption only [Pseud. Gennadius and commenced his reign with the destruction of altars. wrote against the Photinians. women. xvii. It seems then that after his condemnation on this point Bonosus fell by degrees into Photinianism. strength to crush those who were regarded as Persecutions. 1616]. Ixxxix. . Henceforth they submitted to the power of the house of Austria. [Antidicomarianites.] The Decretal Epistles of Innocent I. and orders. can. Gregory says as unhesitatingly that they do not baptize in that name [Deeret. [Bbghaeds.'\ that Audentius. sect A formed in Macedonia at the end of the fourth Boncentury by Bonosus. and others. papal party has long been extinct. v.] says it is manifest that the Bonosians baptize iu the name of the Trinity. [Sceptics. art. Dict. children. and the uprootMoreover. the Son of God Isid. can.

the YagurVeda. The latter was an energetic coadjutor of Madame Bourignon. being thus analogous to the English Quakers. partly from impositions devised for the purpose of maintaining and extending the power of the Brahmins or priestly caste. who was born at Lisle in the year 1616. The religion of Zoroaster. Buddhism was a schism and an antagonism. Vade Mecum. who maintained the most extreme form of the doctrine of annihilation.insix volumes. from the same root as ol^a. and the — ings filling nineteen volumes . 301. the Samar-Veda. or Magianism. as is evident from their style and contents. A BEACHIT^. a man of good station and learning. partly. That to Martianus. I.1 BOEBELITES. Brahmanas and Sutras. [Perfecti. she also possessed great conversational powers. which are hymns to the gods. The most distinguished of the Bourignonists were a Jansenist priest of the Oratory of Mechlin. [Barbeliotbs. xxxiii.] known. Traite de la Religion des HoUandais. or Vedas. or the Hindoo religion. and Peter Poiret. is an offshoot from it. the Brahmanas with their appendix preceding the Sutras. which may be regarded as an appendix to the Brahmanas. These are four in number the Eig-Veda. her qualification for that office being based on a claim that the true spiritual meaning of Holy Scripture had been specially revealed to her. and the Atharva-Veda. that religion consists in emotion and conscious feeling.Borrelists Senia in Dalmatia. which places the final punishment of impenitent sinners not in suffering but in the total extinction of their existence. These commentaries are all of much later date than the hymns. named Bartholomew de Cordt. her collected writ- Brahmins The Bourignonists spread from Holland to Germany. against all churches and sects. commentaries in prose. entitled TheDivine (Economy. followers of Antoinette Bourignon de la Porte. being the basis of the other three.000 people in the peninsula of India. is by far the most ancient and important. common to the Pietistic mystics. were largely borrowed from the mystical theology of an earlier The leading point of her system was that date. Full of enthusiasm. Some still kept up their connection with the churches or sects to which they had previously belonged. not in knowledge and practice. as it appears. sect of the Mennonites or Dutch Baptists which originated with Adam Borrel. but looking to those of their founder as the great source of spiritual knowledge. in the latter half of the seventeenth century. Collectively. which Prateolus sect of the Manichseans. bishop of Naissus in Dacia. and alone deserves the name of Veda. his exposition of its principles being printed in 1713. The primitive form of the Hindoo religion is known to us only from the sacred books. Each Veda consists of two portions. Their distinction from the Mennonite body at large was that they professed an austere life and rejected all external ordinances of Divine worship. studying the works of the Quietists and Pietists in general. and probably her conversation also. Of these the Eig-Veda. written originally in French. the Sanhita or Mantras. HOMMES. she had received a direct inspiration from God to restore the Christian religion. and states that many who despaired of obtaining orders in the Church procured ordina^ tion from Bonosus with the view of returning to the Church. who deny Christ to have been born of the Substance of the Father before the world. or an universal system of the works and purposes of God. from which alone the priests are taken. which she alleged to have been lost in the midst of the controSetting her face versies which it had raised. directs that tlie Defensors of the Churcli drive away the Bonosians. the oldest of which are of extreme antiquity. Switzerland and England. Brahminism is the oldest of the religions that have sprung from the Aryan family of mankind. written in the Sanscrit language. [Bulgarians. That to the bishops and deacons of Macedonia warns that the reception of some ordained by Bonosus which has been already allowed is not to be made a precedent. meaning originally knowledge. a lady of Flanders.] BOEEELISTS. In its present form it differs widely from the primitive reUgion. others separated themselves from aU Christian societies and followed a life of private contemplation. [Pra- BOUEIGNON A BEAHMINS. which are liturgical books for the use of the different orders of priests and ministers who take part in the sacrifices. It derives its name from the title of the chief caste of its votaries. and these qualities gained her many converts even among persons of high education.] How long the sect existed is not known. [Stoupp.] ISTS.^ BOUGEES. ii. a Calvinistic minister of considerable learning. [Johnson. or Veda of Praise. and the hope of being received as of the clergy.000. She was also a most industrious author. but of which nothing ted. Hceres.] BOEBOEIANS. arising partly from the development of religious thought. directs that they who were ordained by Bonosus before his condemnation be continued in the clergy. It is derived from and professes to be based on sacred writings in the Sanscrit language. There is a further class of works called Aranakas and Upanishads. from unknown foreign accretions. and at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century held a position not unlike to that of the Swedenborgians in later times. she devoted herself to the task of forming a new community of which she should be the living instructress . France. and after her death became the leader of her sect. owing to successive corruptions. but it is also known as Hindooism. and died at Franeker in Friesland in the Madame Bourignon imagined that year 1680. sect of French Quietists of the seventeenth century. [Barbelioteb. This name has been given BOUENEANS. but these. to the disciples of a BONS Birmingham preacher named Bourne. The Eig-Veda Sanhita which is alone the true — 77 . they are known as the Veda. assigns to the end of the third is A century. The religion of Brahminism is professed by about 150.

and A there are frequent prayers for forgiveness. — tedious. But their anger is chiefly represented as excited is by some failure of service or offering — to themselves. the process of creation. Wheeler. for the moment. derived in many cases from divine epithets personified. Cowell. his relation to the human soul. Siva. of sin and moral evil is expressed. vol. Essays and Lectures. i. The transitional form of Brahminism from this simple elemental religion to the later system is especially seen in the works caUed Brahmanas and Upanishads. and certain — gods. To alexternal. Hist. consisting of prayers. But this polytheism is of a There is an entire very peculiar character.C. rather than its by moral evil. the sun. edited by E. Hist. are modern. record of tbe primitive faith containing 1028 (or excluding 11 generally held to te spurious 1017) hymns by many different authors. • Others appear as proper names. but occasionally ignorance is confessed of the beginning of consciousness. commonplace. however. riches. By the worshipper for the time being each god is looked on as absolute and supreme . and may be regarded simply as an expression of dependence on the Divine Being. it phenomenon is — an extremely early date is incon[For a brief summary see Max-Miiller's Chips from a German Workshop. material nature. which was a later introduction supported by corjupting a text of the Eig-Veda. on the other hand. even of the objects of sacrifice. there is little that is. by others at about b. good crops. as a rule. pass out of sight. who were therefore preserved from error in the reception and tradition of truth. as just yet merciful. the Maruts. sometimes from absolute misunderstanding of expressions. iv. of praises. A low level assigned on the whole to human nature . ascribed to the gods . and of offerings.. bk. absence of any consciousness of that limitation of the powers of the respective gods which seems the necessary consequence of a plurality of deities. the wants expressed are mostly of an earthly. the earliest are placed by some authorities as high as B. Some of the deities mentioned are plainly of this character. of India. J. seemingly. and listen to the praises of their worshippers. The religion of the Eig-Veda is apparently a gross polytheism— derived from the deifica^ tion so natural to the childhood of the human race of the powers and aspects of nature. Elphinstone. There is no recognition of the Hindoo Triad of Brahma. posi- Degrading passions and acts are bad. The former are a development on the ceremonial side. T. the symbol of and offering to the sun. i. prosperity. Wilson. There is no mention of either idols or temples . to whom nearly half the hymns are addressed. 2000. Max-Muller. with. Manning. In the later period we read of animal sacrifices. the fire. H. Mrs. but there is in the later hymns a manifest tendency to the worship of symbols. and of 78 . The latest of these hymns date from at least B. of cakes. are said by the Brahmins to have " seen " the respective portions they transmitted. and the like . and of the intoxicating juice of the soma plant. chiefly for material benefits. and the post to which the sacrificial — — — most all . . of the moon. The Upanishads are the basis of the enlightened and philosophical faith. 10-17. in a chamber set apart for the purpose. and other simple viands. also the same WTiter's History of Ancient Sanscrit Literature^ The Veda is held to be absolutely the work of the Deity. In the earlier hymns these consist only of clarified butter poured on the fire. Indra. the soma plant. the beginning of the day or year. While the signed hymns contain much that is literally childish the product of the infancy of religion. . especially of the horse. internal Brahmins may be seen that a physical the rising of the the foundation. The most prominent deities are Indra and Agni. the firmament. History of Ancient Sanscrit Literature. the sun-light . which is found in some other religions [Mahometanism]. There no sign of a belief in metempsychosis. parched grain. rewards and punishments for the good and evil.c. who were in fact the authors. vol. explaining the natureof the Supreme Being. 1500. The worship was offered only in each magi's house. nor of suttee or widow-burning. and to have been revealed to mankind through the agency of " Eishis" persons raised above the level of ordinary humanity. draw near to the sacrifices. the heavens Mitra. Ancient and Medioeval Lidia. of India. It is often said that the heavens and earth were created by certain gods. But there is also much that is true and sublime. It was of a very simple character. 5 th ed. in different hymns are these attributes as- no one god being ever regarded as superior or inferior to any other. storms. in the Veda itself to countenance this theory. Surya. dwell in heaven. somewhat vague the universe. i. as in speaking of the birth of is also victim was tied. and vii. success over enemies and in the chase. On these legends is based a most complex and artificial ceremonial The Upanishads. 1200. and great spoils. sun. The gods are represented as rewarding good and punishing evil. Agni. and Chips from a German Workshop. having so far lost the natural aspect which was once theirs. as the horse. Brahmins consists of ten books. i. Colebrooke. for trovertible. The gods.— . Though all our MSS. H. no mortal having composed a single line of it. The Eishis. addressed to various deities. and of expressions that seem to imply the contrary. [See for further details. There is nothing. but some of them at times are present with men. chap. yet the evidence. whOe the others. . In a few passages the different gods are regarded as but different names and powers of one supreme deity. mean. &c. i.'] II. pt. Vishnu. There is no trace of the existence of caste. and yet ^s forgiving.C. The gods are generally spoken of as immortal. Varuna [Ou/javos]. but in place a belief in actual personal immortality. They contain legends and allegories which have their germ in the Veda. and app. i. B. contain a development from the philosophical and theoEophical side. and no later times mention at all is made of other deities which are now most popular. the conception of them is in tively many respects low and unworthy. Miscellaneous Essays. indeed.

where they are attended by good spirits . which are sometimes the spirits of men who have in any way distinguished themselves while living. The other deities are mostly powers of nature. reliance and entire dependence on and submission to some one deity. and so they do not form a consistent whole. ii. Against this system of priestly domination Buddhism was an uprising. is but little worshipped now. still the great text-book of Brahminism. with power to bless or to harm. vol. embracing almost every act and moment of life. but was compiled at latest three or four centuries B. with the corresponding female divinities. number. its chief illustration being derived from the great Sanscrit epics. This forms the third and last period of BrahminThe sources of this development are the ism. and hence is worshipped under the form of the hngam. especially in regard to the objects of worship. The gods universally acknowledged are seventeen in number. This transition period is often called the epic period. The is religion taught in the Institutes of Manu mainly the worship of Brahmk. especially with great It is said that 100 goats per month. is also looked on as the principle of renewal. Agni. sacrifices.]. existence of a supreme being is indeed from whom all other beings the derive their existence deities. 49].000 in number. ii. The germs of the doctrine of the Triad are found. though once supreme. Modern Brahminism. of which one is yet to come. with many heads. and Their religion may be decountless legends. and entered upon a fresh development. i. and festivals. which are of the most complicated. supporting the also and destroying principles. and hence the necessity of constantly consulting the Brahmins. worshippers of Vishnu 79 . Besides the spread more or less over the country. The religious sects which devote themselves exclusively to the cultus of one deity are exceedingly numerous. though not a revelation in the same sense as the Veda. scribed as sectarian in character. The legends respecting the gods are of the most The three gods of the extravagant character. 48. Vishnu is mainly worshipped under the form of avatars. inritual. in The still set forth. III. and whom. and contain theogonies. This work contains materials of vyious dates. men. Besides these. anomalies.. the supreme spirit of the universe. includes spirits and demons of fact.d. Vishnu and Siva have attracted almost all the veneration. which have Brahmins various kinds. structions in doctrines of various sects. arms. philosophical speculations. The images have in most cases a monstrous In character. and yet There quarrel and fight. and Siva. even the deities are sometimes represented as subdued by it. The doctrine of metempsychosis is also set forth in its most developed form. identical with the ancient phallus [see Herod. and this although the The popular reascetic may be a wicked man. Varuna. His consort Devi also much worshipped. though they are all accepted as incontrovertible authority. animal and human ten in The number. Hence arise various inconsistencies. Triad are supposed to be equal in power. The danger of offending the gods by imperfect service is set forth very vividly. to many sacred rivers. — — wicked. besides other animals. however. But the main point is the ritual and ceremonial. Indra. or bodies. and wound each other. the great Triad (Trimurti) Brahma. either to these three or to one another. it is taught that neither they nor any separate deities hell for the whose worship is religious forms avail without this faith. fragments of history. ^the Maha Bharata and the Eamayana. The caste system is found in all its rigour. but incorporating older materials. which they in some sense constitute. Brahmins the different systems of Hindoo philosophy. Other inferior deities are mentioned. of various dates. to which its most assiduous worshippers are borne after death. and for a time it obtained the supremacy. Each god is regarded as having a separate heaven. But this monotheism or pantheism is practically obscured by the direction of devotion to a multitude of This deities. sometimes incarnations or avatars of the more famous gods. mostly identical with those of the Veda. who were alone held to be acquainted with the details. each village has its own local gods.e. Most of the other deities have no separate temples. There is a universal belief in the existence of good and evil spirits pervading the universe. "While professing to be based on the Veda. and burdensome character. &c. They all begin with a cosmogony. veneration is paid to the planets. an emanationfrom and the creative energy of Brahma. In his honour frequent and bloody sacrifices are — — — offered. in a less degree. or incarnations ^manifestations on earth in various forms. most reverenced of these are Elrishna and Eama. the creating. said to be 330. . precise. being the most important. and also a votaries. are offered at her temple near Calcutta. the principle of destruction. works called Puranas and. Siva. the world from whose substance they are. and are the only portions of the sacred literature that are much read and studied at the present day. and their development may be seen in the epic poems. is no regular system of subordination of the gods.. and tracted tortures is his votaries inflict horrible and proon themselves. which succeeded in expelling Buddhism from India altogether. Brahma. While morality and purity of life are inculcated.o. But a reaction came in favour of Brahminism. it contains elements entirely alien to that religion. History of India. ligion extols the efficacy of faith. also compensates for all deficiencies in them.000. The ritual and ceremonial is systematized in the so-called Institutes of Manu. The Puranas are eighteen in number. to a host of local gods. and held to be of supreme authority. including many of those mentioned in the Veda. the Tantras. Vishnu. — been plausibly supposed to come from a foreign source [see Wheeler. having only one temple in all India. They may be divided into three chief classes —^Vaishnavas. the legends extraordinary power is ascribed to asceticism . and contradictions. Of the three great gods. preserving. froni the eighth to the sixteenth century a. but have their especial images.

Souls were originally possessed of freedom and happiness. is yet a pure abstraction. but through envy and ambition they fell. and souls were attached to bodies. being most precise and exact. Such is the form which Brahminism assumes at this day among the masses.. Then their trial begins. AU these. bathe. such as the three suppressions of the breath in honour of Brahma. tiU the balance of evil is expiated. the while creative power of the supreme Brahma is . All these comprising the whole universe. originally a personification of the longing for offspring felt by the deity. The punishments consist either of misery or degradation in future existences. Besides these distinctly religious acts. who the power that. as to their material properties. feature of Brahminism is that of " cycles of existence. The supreme point of bliss is to escape from the svU of a limited and separate existence by being absorbed or incorporated into the essence of the deity. reality. The world was that in it passes through three stages. and destroyer. It is held that at the end of a cycle of prodigious length. a monotheism derived from pantheism. and a synonym and all for delusion is and unreality. and there are mystic ceremonies of admission. called Brahma. Five "sacraments" are prescribed for the daily use of the "twice-born man" the superior castes [1] The reading of the Vedas . Brahmins First Cause alone exists in his primeval single- Each of these classes contains numerous subordinate sects. The soul of man is regarded as part of the divine spirit. The sects also have appointed heads. of Siva. the end and cause of all things. There are also small sects worshipping some one of the inferior gods. he again puts forth his power. after a long course of ages. and Siva . and even how to relieve nature. are surrounded by many complicated ceremonies. in so far as they have true existence. after a purification by intense sufferings. men. and decay deified as Siva. divine and human. or of a removal to one of the heavens of bUss belonging to one or other of the deities. — illusions as to their spiritual attributes. existing in unapproachable. from this desire has sprung every existing thing. transient But. are consubstantial with the deity. beasts. sacrifices and offerings. the world is the deity The supreme deity. Brahmins Saivas. Vishnu. In each case. and absorbed in self-contemplation. and rise 'by a succession of births through different bodies up to the human. in which distinctions of caste are comparatively disregarded. This is to be obtained either by works. [2] the offering of cakes to departed ancestors. upon philosophy. by a series of emanations first Brahmk the creator. may rise The deity. clothe — : one's self. they profess also that they look on images simply as aids to the mind in meditation on and prayer to the one supreme deity. comes into existence again. this latter opposed to Brahmk. and the individual soul is rewarded or punished according to the balance of them. the stages of existence begin. of the They teach that ancient Greeks or Eomans. emanations of his glory. the earth. the universe ceases to exist. Almost all acts are regarded as either merits or demerits. The system of religious philosophy that is regarded as most orthodox teaches that the only truly existing being is the deity . but. the soul is limited." and of the Gayatri. taken out of his substance and of his nature. ness. demons. and assigns special rights and duties to each caste. : growth. Souls may animate all species of organic life. sparks. manifesting himself primarily in his several functions as creator. who is the basis underlying aU the forms which they assume. preserver. all pure illusions. perfection. for instance. both for males and females. the use of the mystic word " aum. who have very great influence and power . especially the first. or to the powers of nature generally [4] the offering of rice to the spirits. and each subdivision of a 80 . Saktas. Beings and matter owe their existence simply to the impulse of his The various forms that matter assumes are will." a feature which is almost peculiar to it. drink. The members of th e different sects are distinguished by painted marks on their Many of them have monastic orders attached to them. cut hair and nails. a text of the Veda used as a prayer. The learned Brahmins earnestly disclaim polytheism such as that. or of suffering in one of the hells of the deities. which. possessing but a semblance of This semblance of reality is due to May4. the deity is the world undeveloped . or supreme soul from which the soul sprung. Works consist of devotion to the deities. and the Vishnu is A philosophy. Knowledge is attained through one of the various systems of praises. [5] the exercise of hospitality. [3] the pouring of clarified butter on the fire as a sacrifice to the fire. There are also other observances. became a — through the scale of being again and attain to bliss. mere foreheads. also in his development. from the highest to the lowest. and of which it is a part. all other forms are. of one of the female associates of the gods of the Triad. differing in each case. This process is being continually repeated. In fact. prayers and careful performance of the prescribed ceremonial of life and action. the law prescribes how to eat. Then this world came into being as a place of trial. there is but one God. But such vulgar polytheism could not commend itself to the keen intellect and philosophizing spirit of the With them religion is based educated Hindoos. the Triad and all the inferior gods pass out of being. The ceremonial is that prescribed in the laws of Mann. The rewards consist either of a superior lot in future existences. anew. Even the worst of men. by preserving all things. and thereby separated themselves still further from the divine essence. whereas he is unlimited. which is to determine their future existence. through which the whole creation. after ages of enjoyment or misery. longed for offspring . by faith. under the several forms of Brahma. This limitation was one result of the wish of the supreme for offspring. or by knowledge. remarkable limits the dominion of Siva. solitary supremacy. where the soul remains till it has been sufficiently rewarded. and from him gods. scintillations. selfcentred.

i. under the guidance of some distinguishedBrahmin. : Brahmoo Soma] Brahmins than for the other castes the student. The Institutes of Manu contain an attempt to map out the adult life of every man of the three twice-born castes to his burial. performing his various duties to the gods. Origirial Sanscrit Texts. lay making them more difi&cult by additions and the like. which. selves. BaringGould. The second period was that of the married man and householder. and the great bulk of the people the trading. Christ and other Masters.000 gods. supposed by some to be the source of if Buddhism. to whom he was bound to pay almost servile devotion. while the men of the lower castes simply repeat the name of their patron god as they bathe. that of the devotee. the devotions of the Brahmins. embracing different trades — performed fully. which. tradesman. through which Brahminism has obtained such power. caste. The first period is that of the — Church of the One God. The three former are called twice-born. and was spent simply in contemplation. and mercantile class. The Eajpoots. From" the struggle arose the distinction between the Brahmins. and superstitions of such an extravagant character as those of the Yogi devotees. an assembly . between the Brahmins and Kshatryas. from which arises a low standard [Hardof morality. — and ocThese have apparently arisen from trade guilds. to embrace other religions to be free from it in the exclusiveness of the caste system. themselves alone remaining. and the orgies of such sects as the Maharajahs. H. pt. Christianity and Hindooism. and as equally capable of leading to unity with the supreme spirit. religious ceremonies for who. Christianity contrasted lolth Hindoo Philosophy. by the entire subjugation and eradication of the passions. with its 330. and the Sudras. Ballantyne. contend that the Kshatryas still exist with them.] BEAHMOO SOMAJ. Brahmins But in practice these injunctions are very generally disregarded. and. have gradually been transmuted into hereditary societies. During this time. Below the Brahmins now exist a great number of subdivisions. ginnings of the system are seen. . and were probably the earlier population whom the Aryan In the Brahmanas the berace conquered. in which the latter were vanquished. and thus signifies " the ultimately destroyed. are contracted into half an hour. Lectures on the Meligions of the World.000. the universal supreme spirit and the individual soul j and all with the same end. vol." The religion of India appears at the present day to be in a state of transition . the Eig-Veda. estabhshed to preserve the respectability and privileges of their respective trades. The pursuit of philosophy again is regarded as of equal excellence with the life of religion. during which the twice-born man learned to mortify his passions and desires altogether. however. the authorized expounders and teachers of it. or [2] the S — which was begun 81 student of the sacred books. Three such changes have been considered possible : [1] either the restoration of a decaying Brahminism. 2 . derived from the Sanscrit words Brahmd. Origin and Development of Religious Belief. would take four hours. The third period was that of the hermit. accompanied and purified by asceticism. The means by which the distinction was established The seem to have been nearly as foUows. of faith. so as to bring every part of life under the intimate control of religion that is to say. working. who declare that both the other castes of the twice-born have died out. Eowland "WUliams. The WorJcs of Colebrooke and Professor H. while in the — — : - men [2] Manu it exists in fuU force. or by the doctrine of faith mentioned above for instance. and of religious obligations. the state and his fellows. and those who know the country expect the occurrence of some important change. For the most part the gods of the Hindoo pantheon are ignored. But the systems differ in the means prescribed. all more or less pantheistic.. The weakness of Brahminism consists [1] In the horrible theory of transmigration. the Kshatryas or warriors (including kings). Maurice. of the Brahmin caste. works. earlier for the at various ages — . and by means of ascetic practices to obtain the power of abstracting his thoughts from all material things. followed when this latter power was obtained.. Institutes of Kshatryas. The attribution of a sacred character to the castes is a mere imposition of the Brahmins to support their power. or Supreme Cause of the Universe. and the means of subduing and quenching all desires for material things. and fixing them only on the deity. and were regarded as being on a very different level from the There is no trace of such a division in fourth. and some others. learned all the religious observances. It remains to sketch briefly the system of caste. gradually monopolized them. and either by abbreviation. wick. [3] in the contending claims of religion and philosophy. into four distinct phases. and knowledge. This system is still followed' among the Brahmins. which leads merchants. and Sumdja. The fourth period. according to legend. Bunsen. Muir. Wilson. and the exclusiveness of the system through contact with the English seems to be dying out. who originally offered the sacrifices and performed the themdevolved these duties upon the Brahmins. identifying the deity and the universe. in some simply knowledge. The original division was simply into four the Brahmins or priests. God in History. These afterwards became the Sudras. especially in the Sankhya system of Kapila. the Vaisyas or cupations. and the isolation it produces among individuals who are thus led to apostatize . or BEAHMO SAMAJ. to escape further existence in the world of sin and evil through absorption into the deity. the Creator. but indications are found of a class below the people for whom the Veda was given. There are six different systems of philosophy. A Hindoo sect of Monotheists originated in recent times by the contact of Brahminism with antiThe name is sacerdotal forms of Christianity. the Kshatryas. &c. and began to attempt a general control of life and Then came a struggle for supremacy habits. in others meditation.

The latter work shewed a careful acquaintance with Christianity.d. see Miss Carpenter's Last Days in England. a talented Brahmin) various tracts. September 4th. 247. with the title of Eajah. and which seemed the connecting link between his teaching and that of the old Hindoo religion. he first gathered a few intelligent Hindoos around him in regular monotheistic worship [a. and being left an orphan had been educated in an English school. He preached a farewell sermon in the Unitarian chapel at Islington. who was born of Brahmin parents in the district of Bordouan [c. During the months which he spent in this country he assigned a place among the ambassadors at the ^ The Vedant is a digest of the still older Vedas drawn up by Vyas two thousand years ago.d. Eamohun Eoy received a good education. at the cost of an open breach with the older members of the sect [c. and an abridged translation of the Vedant. as well as with his Hindoo antagonists. to negotiate an increase of the East India Company's allowance to the King of Delhi. Congregational. and as opposed to the idolatrous teaching of the later Hindoo books . by a miscellaneous collection of ministers and laity of ten various denominations. led him to Stapleton Lodge near Bristol. 1774]. for the purpose of giving young men a regular course of instruction in Brahmic theology and ethics. where he was courteously received. 8aoh a faith is believed by its supporters to con-version of the Brahmoo Somaj coronation of William IV. In the next year [a. &c. He shewed early signs of dislike for the gross forms of religion by which he was surrounded.d. and English. a man of distinction of the Vaida or physician caste. Greek. a. new sect. such tional Its founder In September [a. and to chronicle their proceedings in a monthly magazine entitled the Tattwabodhini Putrika. a. in Sanscrit and Bengalee [a." was Eamohun Eoy (Eama Mohuna Eaya). August 13th. Appendix A. of BamMhun Soy. including Lord Lawrence. and those of warkanauth Tagore. 1870]. and moral passages. and was welcomed at a soiree in Hanover Square 12th. an object which eventually caused a schism in the Brahmoo Somaj. and was entitled Against visit to the Idolatry of all Religions. several persons of distinction being also present. He was at this time twenty-three years of age. September 12th. 82 . 1833] he went to doctrines souls. as nature-worship. and involved him for many years in controversy with members of various Christian bodies.'^ and The Precepts of Jesus. and the numerous enemies arising in his own caste and kinsfolk. transmigration of many grotesque rites and ceremonies. 1864]. In A. 1831 he came to England. on which they professed to base their faith. without much life or propagandist energy. 1859] under Debendro Nath Tagore. at that time president of the Brahmoo Somaj. chiefly Unitarian. The religion of this teen published in England. grandson of Eam Kamal Sen. An Essay on the Vedas. 1860] they made a convert of Keshub (Kesava) Chunder Sen. and in most of the large provincial towns. Leicester. The next aggressive step was the opening of a Sunday school at Calcutta [a. including Bath. and Sanscrit. Glasgow. which enabled them to retain a place of worship called the Brahmoo Somaj of Jorsauko. as prescribed in the Vedas. The early death of his father [a.d. which its founders hope will develope into the national Church of India. five Louis Blanc.d. being 1818] . After landing at Liverpool he proceeded to London. a Guide to peace. and Nottingham. amid much that was true. Enthusiastic in the cause of the reform of religion he issued (with the assistance of Hurro LaU Eoy. four years later. Edinburgh. Bristol. supported by his bequests. and sailed for India from Southampton. with a collection of extracts of pure. D move to Calcutta [a. and free to express those sentiments which regard for paternal authority prevented his previously publishing to the world.. and. be provided by the Brahmoo Somaj. His object was not to found a new rehgion. to which he afterwards added Hebrew. which had been taught by its founder. by invitation of the Committee of the British and Poreign Unitarian Association. more especially the Unitarians.d. 1870. which it The public hostility provoked. was again entertained at a soiree at the Hanover Square Eooms. acquirwith ing while Persian. and spoke at public meetings in London. still young a knowledge of Arabic.d. where. at which house he died rather suddenly of fever. 1804] and of his two brothers left him in the possession of a large property. and was abandoned by the more advanced school.d. may be described as a pure or "pectoral" theism. His first book was written in Persian with an Arabic preface. which is therefore sometimes called "the Eeformed JSTa- Church of India. and happiness. simple. September ^ 17th. rejected the doctrine of the infallibility of the Vedas. who discovered that the Vedas.d. Leeds. About this time he successfully opposed an appeal made by the Hindoos to the King in Council against an enactment of the East India Council abolishing the suttee. and during a Thibet in his fifteenth year excited the animosity of its inhabitants by ridiculing the worship of the Llama. taught.. Liverpool. General character of the Brahmoo Somaj. Brahmoo Somaj whole population to Christianity or [3] the rise of an indigenous and more enlightened faith on the ruins of the dead Hindooism. The Queen granted him a personal interview at Osborne.D. 1814]. p. and finding a welcome among several dissenting bodies. and had graduated in the college at Calcutta. Westminster. the Dean of Eooms on April from which time may be dated the commencement of the Brahmoo Somaj as an organized His next important works were community. For a complete list of the works of Eamohun Eoy which have preached in different dissenting chapels. but to revive the pure monotheism of the primitive Hindoo faith.d. Birmingham. or Baptist. Chunder Sen visited England [a. 1820]. Manchester. The small community which Eamohun Eoy had established at Calcutta continued to exist^for about a quarter of a century after his death.

and mean. "Had not experience too clearly proved that some of the metaphorical expressions. and no books. and will suffer no created thing to usurp His sovereignty. we are to understand the superiority accorded to be one of degree only. I should be a traitor to the universal Church of Theism to which I belong. But while admitting the unity of the divinity. simply because of the social persecution which such a step would involve at the hands of their relations and the members of their caste. or undergo the rite of baptism." says Chunder but has — — and that instead of being debased into petitions for rain." it is decidedly Unitarian in form and " I tell you candidly. "Prayer makes the weak powerful. 254]. between the superstition of Brahmins and the materialism of Buddhists . God manifests Himself to us through external nature. established by Mr. Voysey in London. aU their normal cravings for spiritual aids. failed. 241. brothers and sisters of America. But they would not scruple to embrace. no priest. 135]. . errors. therefore. Visit. . Faith is defined as a direct vision. Though the Brahmoo Somaj is thus not to be described by the epithet " Cliristian. " has tried to realize the kingdom of God. and His birth on the boundary line between Europe and Asia but when He is honoured above others. Ware. Of the three component elements of worship adoration. 145. seem entirely heathenish and absurd. and spiritual Sen. of hostility as of patronizing con"Every Christian sect. and worthy of being classed with Vyasa in the honour and esteem demanded at the hands of humanity. lightened members of Hindostan the ideas of a Triune God. were it inculcated on them in an intelligible manner" [Correspondence with Rev. Brahmoo Somaj entirely evolved out of man's Brahmoo Somaj " Soci^t^ de la Conscience Libre. and the ignorant wise. du Theisme This is and not based on any external support of revelation or tradition. and thoroughly set its face against every form of creature-worship. no rites or ceremonies. of a Man-God. There seems to be much fascination for the Indian mind in the idea of His Asiatic descent. " I never holiness [p.D. Ware. and through moral greatness impersonated in man. and ushers it into the very presence of the All-Holy" {Fraser's Mag. and I never will" [p. H. There are plentiful acknowledg1825. addressing a Unitarian audience. the absolute infinity and unity of the Divine Creator. of the appearance of God in the bodily shape of a dove. the pantheist. Hence the importance attached to the study of mental philosophy and psychology. it is confined to its proper objects. not so much one descension. yet) a great and true benefactor of mankind. et Progressif " in Prance. many persons imagined that its members would not accept the name of Christians. I should : the soul above all that is earthly. spiritual knowledge. 75]. and the beroic enthusiasm of Mahometanism and the It will uphold moral precepts of Christianity. come unto me. provided that its nature is rightly understood. extremely simple. and for outward prosperity. the Unitarian system of Christianity. and prayer the latter is by far the most important.ures and Tracts. after aU. the idolater. the timid heroic. but the genuine aspirations of their nature. Prayer lifts put myself forward as a Christian." &c. and consequently their sincere conversion to Trinitarian Christianity must be morally impossible. but also an objective value as the means of attaining the truths of theology and ethics \Led. English Visit. p. instead of a hundred hostile churches. Here. pp. ments in various places of Jesus Christ. The Christian Scriptures. spiritual power. p. this new religion will resemble the theistic society recently drawn up by Chunder Sen. 1824. but the present leader of the sect makes the unambiguous declaration. 147]. rejecting the dross while extracting what is good out of the profound devotion of Hindooism. pp. find what they severally want. own consciousness. Its attitude towards Christianity. A. Sen. for there will be no teacher. where all mankind win worship with one heart the Supreme Creator This homage wiU be {Lectures. 197]. . gratitude. and without attention to their contexts. and the prophet worshipper wiU Their delusions. or of the blood of God shed for the payment of a debt. if my heart and soul were not capacious enough to take in the whole length and breadth of the Christian Chrach. through the inner spirit. Come unto me." said Chunder tendency. Eamohun Eoy. " To the enhad made a similar assertion. it relies upon no evidence. if we except a very small manual of occasional prayers In short. and for pleasant breezes. and aims will certainly be destroyed . in representing one side only of Christianity. it is to be an eclectic religion. and. as (if not the greatest and truest. Many years before. shadowy. [Eng. London. as the best means of affording intellectual and moral exercise to the mind. Thus purified and spiritualized the Brahmoo Somaj is to form a golden mean between mysticism and scepticism. This charge may have had some foundation in those days. 256]. brothers and sisters of England and France. like the Hindoo Vedas.. C. It will worship Him alone. p. 253. argued out by any appeal to books or to deductions of logic [p. may be made the foundation of doctrines quite at variance with (what I conceive to be) the tenor of the rest of the Scriptures. as the Incarnation of Deity. 322]. and Italy and all Europe. there wiU be upreared in the fulness of time one vast cathedral. it is no dogma of books nor tradition of venerable antiquity. the corrupt righteous. August 1866]. 309]. Germany and Switzerland. nor a narrative of God from history it bows its neck to no logical or historical deity Prayer is not a matter which can be [p. Fox. 236]. will be duly satisfied. or the 83 . contain a superstitious element along with much that is admirable. and has succeeded. or at least to encourage. In the earlier days of the Brahmoo Somaj. the future Church will recognize a trinity of divine manifestations. and -will have no mediation. which have not only a subjective utility. it neither borrows an idea of God from metaphysics. writing to Dr. " that I have felt quite at home in all Unitarian assemblies private and public" [p. when taken singly.

Eraser's Magazine. by the promotion of female education. Deity of deities. and. four other magazines in native tongues. iv. There are seven periodicals regularly maintained by the Indra. as they appear to do on first sight. or amelioration of the condition of the women of India. and one sentative council There are fifty-four in Madras. 167]. two in the Northwestern provinces. Histoire Seetes Religieuses. P. p. or a division of society into trades worship at about sixty. Cobbe. Its present strength as to numbers and position. buoyed up by its past development.amoliun Roy's second appeal to the Christian public in defence of the Precepts of Jesus. and in a promotion of practical reforms. ibid. 1. as the bulwark of Hindoo idolatry. there is the Calcutta College. cap. not unfrequently dies. 1870. and the alteration of the rule by which woman is treated as a menial in the household." and from the later books of the IJpanishads. the latter bearing the name of the Veda Somajum. But they do not involve. 492]. and of the souls of miUions of your countrymen. F. leaving fifty women doomed to perpetual widowhood. and the number of places of law of human brotherhood. Aug. aU distinctions of religion and caste being destroyed. 26. Jan. it desires the reform of the zenana. and ready in their social solitude to become victims to all the mortificar tions which the Brahminical priesthood has invented for persons in their condition. is to accept as wife a low class Sudra. Brahmoo Somaj es in India. report of its position was furnished to its repre- had no hesitation in submitting indiscriminately the whole of the doctrines of the New Testament to my countrymen . a Kshatnya is not to look down on a Vaisya. All these are under the direct management of the members of the local Somajes.d. which were unknown to the earlier Hindoo writings [English Visit. if so inclined. Preserver. it aims at the abolition of idolatry and " Not only. 123]. Secondly. by S. For the future. which has been proved to be physically. The more sanguine adherents of the Brahmoo Somaj. 1867. and Moral Governor. Special reforms aimed at hy the Brahmoo Somaj. Chunder Sen estimated its number of adherents at about six thousand. 1866]. you must acknowledge only one Supreme and true God. D. our Maker. the establishment of girls' schools. established and instituted by the leading members of the Calcutta Somaj. the monthly " Tattwabodhini Putrika" at Calcutta. 1866. " Let us endeavour to know the Ruler of the universe. the Mirror and the National Paper. as I should have felt no apprehension that even the most ignorant of them. as wiU be evident from the following passage in the Vedas " They : A some years ago. Caste. In the course of lectures delivered in Scotland [a. in one of his appeals to young India. it seeks the abolition of caste. by M. almost exclusively men. There are also boys' and girls' schools in connection with ten provincial Somajes. London and nicious. and of the doctrine of the equality of all souls in His sight. Collet." This is in accordance with the teaching of the older Hindoo writings. p.] 84 . which win the sympathy of every civiHzed man. " must you not worship idols yourselves. the oldest of them being in its thirtysixth year. and when. says Chunder Sen. Lord of lords. Thirdly. Varuna. Twenty-five new ones have been added in the last ten years. and Agni. any approximation to Christianity. Mitra. and two others of the same name published in Urdoo and Telegu. the safeguard of the Brahminical priesthood. However far this new Indian sect is thus seen to differ on fundamental points of doctrine from the teaching of the Catholic Church. two newspapers in English. by the alteration of the custom of early marriage. Gregoire. became in later times fortified by religious sanctions. but you must discountenance it in others. 1870]. which was originally a system of social distinctions. a cipher in society. for the sake of your souls. and seeing the scant success which has attended the attempts to introduce for and professions. looking forward to the time when a grand national organization shall have been effected among the one hundred and eighty millions of the population.] des BEETHEEN.Brahmoo Somaj have Brahmoo Somaj pulsory widowhood. torn. one in the Punjaub. at Bareilly and Madras. [Lectures and Tracts hy EesJiuh Chunder Sen. Eight of these churches have established religious schools for instruction in the tenets of Brahminism. who is God of gods. intellectually. who manifests Himself and is worthy of all reverence" [English Visit. it is nevertheless engaged in a crusade against abuses." restoration of a pure monotheism. Its future •prospects. First. London. 494]. by the abolition and morally perof the law of com- Calcutta. and a victim to a life-long seclusion . As there is no initiatory rite or formal admission into the Brahmoo Somaj it is not easy to obtain The following precise information on this head. on wider grounds. so much as a return to the purer system and teaching of the older Hindoo religion and sacred writings. Last Days in Engedited land of Ramohun Roy. and are mostly assisted by Government grants. and hunt it out of the country . among the natives of India. That which is one the wise caU by divers names. Hours of Work and Play. a burden more intolerable on man account of the practice of polygamy. " the Church of Christianity it the one supreme Lord" will be established throughout the length and breadth of the country [English Visit. if left to the guidance of their own unprejudiced views of the matter. Five of the Somajes are in Calcutta. predict the position of the Hindoo Church of the future. as an audacious and sacrilegious violation of God's called him body . p. For secular education. and two more native newspapers in Dacca [Indian Mirror. Carpenter. above all. p. and even a high class Brahmin. 1866. of which fifty are in Bengal. Eeshub Chunder Sen's English Visit. could misconceive the clear and distinct assertions they everywhere contain of the unity of God and subordinate nature of His messenger Jesus Christ" \B. [Tunkbbs.

;

Brethren of the Free Spirit
EEETHREN,
[Friends of God.]

Broad Chtirchmen
critical power of Newman, then FeUow of Oriel, was brought to bear upon the Bampton Lectures on the scholastic theology which the new Professor had delivered four years previously. New-

CHEISTIAN.

[Christian

BEETHEEN OF THE COMMON
later

LIFE.

BEETHEEISr OF THE FEEE SPIEIT. A name for the sect of the Oktlibensbs and Amalrioians. The name was assumed from the
" For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death For as many as are led by the Spirit of God they are the sons of God " [Eom. viii. 2, 1 4] Th e liberty thus claimed was, first, freedom from outward ordinances, and, secondly, freedom from the guilt of sin. They were simply Antinomians of the most extreme form. The teachers of the sect wandered about from place to place in imitation of the Apostles, and that sacred name was given to them by their followers. They brought over to their opinions many of the "Waldenses and most of the Beghards and their fanatical lawlessness led to the revival of the Inquisition in Germany in the fourteenth century. After the end of the thirteenth century they seem to have been identified with the Beghards, and in later times were represented by the Familists.

man's pamphlet, " Elucidations of the Bampton Lectures," stimulated a growing discontent with
the appointment, and the Convocation of the University passed a vote of censure upon their author ; a vote in which Dr. Hampden was, perhaps, condemned by some as a nominee of the Whig party. In 1848 he was appointed to the Bishopric of Hereford. The controversy was revived with great bitterness, and an unsuccessful attempt was made to prevent his consecration. From that time Dr. Hampden was never again heard of in the theological world ; and it is difficult to understand how it was that his lectures which have long been relegated to the usual Bampton Lecture shelf at the top of the library, and contained nothing remarkably unorthodox should ever have raised so great a storm of controversy as they did. work much more expressive of Broad Church principles was published in the year 1853, namely, a volume of Theological Essays, by Mr. Maurice, Professor of Theology in King's CoUege, London, a man of much higher intellectual mark than Dr. Hampden. In these the doctrines of the Holy Trinity, the Incarnation, the Atonement, Inspiration, and Eternal Punishment, among others, were dealt with in language remarkable for its beauty, and for its inconsistency with the opinions of orthodox Churchmen. They were at once accepted by Broad Churchmen as a statement of their opinions, and have continued ever since to influence them. The Coun cU of King's College, on October 28th, 1853, declared the opinions expressed, the doubts indicated in the Essays, with the subsequent correspondence respecting future punishments and the final issue of the day of judgment, to be of dangerous tendency, and likely to unsettle the minds of the theological students ; and further decided that Mr. Maurice's continuance as Professor would be seriously detrimental to the interests of the

words of

St. Paul,

.

A

BEETHEEN, PLYMOUTH.
Brethren.]

[Plymouth

modern school of Latitudinarians, composed of those clergy and laity of the Church of England who dissent from the principles developed during the revival of exact theological learning. The designation " Broad" has been assumed as expressive of the comprehensiveness which the theology of this school offers to men of various opinions ; but it is scarcely a fitting designation, as well defined opinions of a positive kind are not included. The most distinctive characteristic of the Broad Church School is, in reality, its rejection of traditional beliefs, and the substitution in their place of what has been aptly called a " Negative Theology," in which much is doubted and rejected, and very little believed. This school of thought is generally traced back to Dr. Arnold, Master of Eugby School from 1828 untH his death in 1842. But he was only one of a band of intellectual men who floated on the stream of reaction from the High Church movement and he did no more to originate the reaction than was done by Hare, Whately, or Maurice. Its real origin is to be traced to the instinctive opposition raised in the minds of forcible thinkers whose occupations had led them in other directions than that of theological study, to the positive conclusions at which other forcible thinkers were arriving, who made theological Whately study the special object of their lives. and Arnold were obviously representative men of the one class, Newman and Pusey of the other. The sporadic elements of this school were aggregated into a party by the " Hampden Controversy." When Hampden was appointed Eegius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, on the nomination of Lord Melbourne in 1836, the searching
;

BROAD CHUECHMEK A

College. Notwithstanding this dismissal, Mr. Maurice afterwards held office as a Professor at Cambridge, and subsequently became a London incumbent; and no writer did more to mould the opinions of the Broad Church School.

The

greatest literary success of the school

was

—but

however a composite work of

now

historical,

third-rate merit,

entitled

Essays

and

Reviews, which was published in February 1860. It was an octavo volume of 434 pages, containing seven articles on theological questions of the day by as many writers (who were said to

have written quite independently of each other), and edited by Professor Jowett. The book was not at all remarkable for originality, but was strikingly so for the boldness with which it revived old sceptical theories, and the skill with which they were clothed in decent language, such as would alone secure their reception in the present day. Although far below Maurice's Essays in talent, the Essays and Reviews volume

85

Broad Churchmen
obtained an enormous circulation, and affected the opinions of so many superficial thinkers that it will be proper to state shortly what is the nature of its contents.

Broad Churchmen
the height of intellectual subtlety of anything, according to opinions and circumstances, at least in the interpretation of the Holy Bible or the Prayer Book. His own examples of this kind of interpretation are among the most dreadful things in the book. He considers many of the " traits in the Scrip-

and that
to

it is

make anything out

The first Essay is by Dr. Temple, at that time Master of Eugby School, but subsequently Bishop of Exeter. It is entitled " The Education of the "World," and is substantially a plagiarism of Lessing's Essay on the same subject. The object of it may be stated to be to prove that the world has gone through several stages of religious education, and has now reached a higher development of religious knowledge than it has reached before. parallel is drawn between the history of the individual man and that of the world, there being in each the three stages of childhood, youth and manhood. The Old Testament ages were the time

tural

Person of Jesus" to belong to an ideal

rather than an historical person ; e.g., the Temptation did not really happen, but is an imaginary scene put into the Gospels to complete the picture. The Annunciation " may be of ideal
origin " also, the writer says, and much more to the same purpose. The fifth Essay was written by Mr. C. Goodwin, This author deals with what is called a layman. Scripture cosmogony, and the manner in which he does so is sufficiently explained by saying that he considers the Book of Genesis to have been written by some Hebrew man of science, who invented a theoretical account of creation, but living in a time when he had no geological discoveries to guide him, simply wrote down what proves to be full of mistakes. The sixth is by the Eev. Mark Pattison, at the time of writing Fellow, and afterwards Eector, It is on "the of Lincoln College, Oxford. Tendencies of Eehgious Thought in England from 1688 to 1750." Although a very dry and uninteresting history of the subject, it is not nearly so much opposed to Christian interests and Christian principles as the others ; and while many would have differed from the author's views, few would have attached much significance to his Essay if it had not appeared in such objectionable

A

of the world's childhood,
positive laws

when

and

restrictions

it was subject to upon its freedom.

The

Testament age was the world's youth, external discipline was supplanted by example in the Person of Christ. This has been followed by the world's manhood, in which con-

New

when

science

is

supreme, and the only limitation of freeit is

imposes. by Dr. Rowland Williams, Vice-Principal of Lampeter, a Welsh College in which young men are educated for Holy Orders. He tries to prove that the ordinary ways of understanding the Bible are a mistake, and that now we have arrived at such a highly educated stage of the world's history, we ought not to be content with the interpretations to which our foreis

dom

that which

The second Essay

The prophets did not fathers bowed down. predict events, but wrote down past or current history. It was not an angel or supernatural being that slew the first-born, but the " Bedouin The fifty-third chapter of Isaiah describes host." the sufferings of Jeremiah, not those of the Messiah, &c, &c. The third Essay had for its author Mr. Baden Powell, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford, and is written to prove the unreasonableness of believing that God ever worked miracles, or that He created the world. The world made itself somehow or other in the course of millions of years, and miracles are "nature" improperly described by ignorant people. Such being the case, what greater mistake could there be than to suppose that creation is an evidence that there is a Divine Being, or that miracles are evidence of the Divine Being having commissioned those who work them, as, e.g., Moses before Pharaoh, or St. Peter and St. John at Jerusalem % The fourth Essay is by the Eev. H. B. Wilson, Vicar of Great Staughton, and is an evidence of the way in which people sometimes argue against an opponent so vehemently that they end by converting themselves to that opponent's side. The author of this Essay was one of the leaders in a very intemperate attack on the writers in the Tracts for the Times for a supposed claim made by them to interpret the Thirty-nine Articles in a " non-natural sense." Mr. Wilson afterwards came to think that this inestimable privilege is the birthright of every enlightened Churchman,
86

company.

The
of

Scripture,"

Essay is on the "Interpretation of by Mr. Jowett, then Eegius Professor Greek at Oxford, and subsequently Master of
last

BaUiol College. It is a sort of adaptation of the Bible to the theories contained in the previous Essays ; and its chief object appears to be to lower the authority of Holy Scripture by showing that very little of it was inspired in any ordinary
sense of inspiration. The agitation raised

by the

publication of

Essays and Reviews was greater than any that had taken place during the progress of the
theological revival.

Churchmen combined

High Churchmen and Low in censuring the work the
: : :

bishops were all opposed to its teaching 9,000 of the clergy signed a protest against it and the Convocations of Canterbury and York passed a synodical condemnation upon "the pernicious doctrines and heretical tendencies of the book" in July 1864. This synodical judgment was suspended for some time on account of ecclesiastical suits which were being prosecuted against Dr. Williams by Bishop Hamilton of Salisbury, and against Mr. Wilson by Mr. Eendall. These two writers were both condemned by the Court of Arches, each being suspended from his benefice for a year by the sentence of Dr. Lushington on December 15th, 1862. This judgment was reversed on appeal to the Queen in Council, on February 8th, 1864, the Judicial Committee fenc-

:

Broad Chtivchmen
ing their judgment by adding to it this paragraph " desire to repeat that the meagre and disjointed extracts which have heen allowed to remain in the reformed Articles" of the suit " are alone the subject of our judgment. On the design and general tendency of the book called Essays and Reviews, and on the effect or aim of the whole Essay of Dr. Williams, or the whole Essay of Mr. Wilson, we neither can nor do pronounce any opinion. On the short extracts before us, our judgment is that the charges are not proved" [Brodrick and Eremantle, Ecd. Cases, This significant intimation that the p. 289]. book was placed before the court in a way which made its thorough judicial criticism impossible did not, however, damp the satisfaction 'of the Broad Church party, the judgment being considered as a triumphant vindication of the theological laxness which its members advocate and practise. It was probably under the encouragement of this supposed victory that Dr. Colenso, Bishop of Natal in South-eastern Africa, published his speculations on the Pentateuch, by means of which he endeavoured to make the high-road of Biblical interpretation so very broad that the most arrogant sceptic would find no difficulty in walking along it. The purpose of this work was to minimize to the utmost the authority of the Pentateuch, and with it of all Holy Scripture ; the first principle of the author being indicated by the words, " There is not the slightest reason to suppose that the first writer of the story in the Pentateuch ever professed to be recording infallible truth, or even actual hisfoi-ical truth. He wrote certainly a narrative. But what indications are there that he published it at large, even to the people of his own time, as a record of matter of fact, veracious history?" On the appearance of this volume which looked very learned to unlearned people Colenso was at once elevated to the post of choragus by the bulk of On the other hand, aU the Broad Churchmen. the bishops of England, except ThirlwaU, Bishop of St. David's, and all those of Ireland, except the less distinguished Fitzgerald of Killaloe, and Griffin of Limerick, wrote an united letter to the Bishop of Natal requesting him to resign his see.

Broad Churchmen
that time Bishop Colenso was little heard of as a leader of the Broad Church party, but his works are said to be extensively used by the Buddhists as a controversial authority against
Christianity.

From

We

The opinions of a better informed posterity respecting the theological productions of the Broad Church school will probably be in accordance with that expressed by the learned Hengstenberg. " The authors of the Essays," he wrote, " have been trained in a German school. It is only the echo of German infidelity which we hear from the midst of the English Church. They appear to us
as parrots,

among

parrots, that

with only this distinction, common they imitate more or less

— —

On his positive refusal, he was tried before a provincial synod at Cape Town, on charges of denying the Atonement, of believing in the justification of those who have no knowledge of the
Saviour, of denying the inspiration of Holy Scripture, the Divinity of our Lord, and everlast-

ing punishments, and of depraving and impugnHaving been, ing the Book of Common Prayer. found guilty of these charges, he was formally deposed from the see of Natal on November 27th, 1863. This deposition was subsequently declared nuU and void by the Queen in Council on the ground that the Metropolitan of Cape Town had not authority over the Bishop of Natal. But on January 7th, 1866, a solemn sentence of excommunication was published against him by the Bishop of Cape Town in the Cathedral of PieterMaritzburg, and subsequently a new Bishop was consecrated to take charge of the Colony.

The treatise of Temple is in its value about equal to an essay vmtten by the pupils of the middle classes of our colleges. The Essay of Goodwin on the Mosaic cosmogony displays the naive assurance of one who receives the modern critical science from the second or tenth hand. The editor" (Hengstenberg) " asked the now deceased Andreas Wagner, a distinguished professor of natural sciences at the University of Munich, to subject this treatise to an examination from the standpoint of natural science. The offer was accepted, and the book given to him. But after some time it was returned with the remark, that he must take back his promise, as the book was beneath all criticism. . . All these Essays tend toward atheism. Their subordinate value is seen in the inability of their authors to recognise their goal clearly, and in their want of courage to declare this knowledge. Only Baden Powell forms in this respect an exception. He uses several expressions, in which the grinning spectre makes He speaks his appearance almost undisguisedly. not only sneeringly of the idea of a positive external revelation, which has hitherto formed the basis of all systems of the Christian faith; he even raises himself against the ' Architect of the world,' whom the old EngUsh freethinkers and freemasons had not dared to attack" [Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, Vorwort, 1862]. The theological tendency of the Broad Church school in general is to drift through the channel Its Christology is of Unitarianism into Theism. restricted almost entirely to the human aspect of Christ's earthly life and ministrations ; and so little of its Divine aspect, of Christ's Pre-existence, or of His present work, is recognised, that belief in His Deity has no real place in the personal creed of many Broad Churchmen ; and all they have to say about our Lord is " Ecce Homo."
perfectly.
scientific
. . . .

practical religion of the school is based on philosophical views of morals, in which self-control, rather than grace, is considered as the power

The

by which holy living is

to

be accomplished, " man-

liness" rather than "godliness" being set

up

as

the true ideal of Christian

life.

But

successive

controversies have developed

out of the original Broad Church party an extreme school, whose theology is of a much more positive character. This school is of a distinctly rationalist type, carrying Broad Church views about inspira-

87

;

Brugglenians
tioa to the length, of practical disbelief in ScripBroad Church views about our Lord to the ; length of Unitarianism ; Broad Church views about everlasting punishment to Universalism
ture

Buddhists
goods which they contributed to the stock. One of her latest pretended revelations was, that in order to be fit to ascend to Christ a previous fast of forty days and nights was requisite. This was immediately attempted by some, who would soon have died had they not been surreptitiously supported with spirits and water. She died in June 1791, and on her deathbed communicated to the few who remained with her (among whom was still Mr. Whyte) that she was none other than the Blessed Virgin, and the "Woman spoken of in the Eevelation as clothed with the sun; that she had been on the earth ever since the days of our Lord ; that she should not now die, but only sleep for a while, and then awake and lead them to the N'ew Jerusalem. Her infatuated followers in consequence would not bury her, but when compelled by the process of decay to place her body in a coffin, fixed it in a corner of a oarn, until the neighbours procured an order from a justice of the peace for her interment. It is said that Mr. Whyte then went to America. \Scots Magazine, 1784, pp. 589, 590; 1785 ; p. 148, 1786;' pp. 461, 462. Ann. Reg. Train's Buchanites 1791, Chron. pp. 26, 27. from first to last, Edinb. 1846.]
of the

common

and Broad Church views about the priesthood and the Sacraments to an utter denial of their reality. Such is the natural terminus of the original school, and such must be the logical outcome of its opinions when they are taken up by men who are not satisfied to rest in negations and
generalities.

BROWNISTS. [Independents.] BETJGGLENIANS. A small sect

of fanatics

so called from the Swiss canton of Brugglen. In a village within that canton two brothers named

Christian and Jerome Eohler blasphemously pre[a.d. 1746] to be the two witnesses of the Book of Eevelation ; and the former of the two promised his followers that on a certain day he would ascend to Heaven and carry them with him. The Eohlers were both of them executed in the year 1753, and the fanatic'^m soon afterwards died out among their followers.

tended

BEYANITES. [Methodists, Bbtanite.] BUCHANITES. An insignificant sect which
existed in Scotland for a few years at the close of the last century, and which bore, in its later development, some coiTespondence to fthe subsequent sect of Southcotians in England. Its foundress was Mrs. Buchan, the wife of a workman in a delf manufactory at Glasgow, and previously a domestic servant. She was originally an Episcopalian, but on her marriage about 1760 joined the sect to which her husband belonged, that of the Burgher Secession. About 1780 she began, probably under the influence of some religious excitement which deranged her mind, to teach that the millennium was close at hand, that no one of those who became her followers would die, but would be caught up to meet the Lord, and that while all the wicked would be at once struck dead for a thousand years, the believers in this immediate coming would, with their Lord, possess the earth for that period. She soon numbered among her followers a Eelief Minister named Hugh Whyte of Irvine, a writer to the signet, a merchant, and various other persons. These forthwith, regarding the world as close to its end, forsook their worldly occupations, renounced marriage and attention to the duties of married life, and lived together in a society numbering forty-six members, with a common stock and purse, and occupied in the sole work of watching for the Great Appearing. Being assaulted by a mob at Irvine in April 1784, they moved to a farmhouse near Thornhill in Dumfriesshire. Here, in December of the same year, they were again attacked by a mob, for which thirteen of the assailants were fined in the Sheriff-court at Dumfries. In 1786 a number of Mrs. Buchan's followers returned to their homes at Irvine, relating the tricks and impositions which she had practised, and which were supposed to have for their aim the exhausting the patience and fidelity of her disciples so
as to secure for herself the undivided possession

BUDDHISTS.

The

believers In a faith origi-

nated in India about 2500 years ago by Siddhartha, better known as Sakya-mouni, or by the title
of Buddha (the enlightened) which he afterwards assumed, and from which his religion is named. Buddhism, though it has now disappeared^ fi'om India, is professed by 455,000,000, being 31-2 per cent, of the human race, in Cashmere, Nepaul, Thibet, Tartary, Mongolia, China, Japan, Siam, Burmah, and Ceylon [Max-MiiUer, Chips from a

German Worlcshop, i. 214; J. B. Saint-Hilaire, Le Boitddha et sa Religion, introd. ii.]. Buddhism was on one side the result of a protest against the religious

and

social

despotism of

Brahminism, which had wound itself round every act and moment of life. On another side it was an attempt to escape from the terrible theories
involved in the
doctrine of

metempsychosis.

Though many of the metaphysical Buddhism may be found among the

doctrines of philosophers of Brahminism, yet, in practical bearing and social relations, the two religions are entirely at variance with each other.
vastu, the capital of a

The founder of Buddhism was bom at Kapilakingdom of the same name

in Central India, at the foot of the mountains of Nepaul, to the north of the present Oude. The date of his birth is variously given by M. Saint-Hilaire and other writers at b.o. 622 \Le Bouddha, introd. ii.], and by Professor MaxMiiUer about seventy years later [Chips, i. His father, the king of the country, was 205]. of the family of the Sakyas and the clan of the Gautamas ; hence the son was called afterwards Sakya-mouni the solitary of the Sakyas. He is also known as Gautama, from the name of his

but his original name seems to have been Siddhartha [Saint-HUaire, 3], though it is doubtful whether this name, like that of Buddha, was not adopted by him in later life [Chips, L
clan,

;

Buddhists
He was, as the son of a king, of the 218]. Ksliatrya or warrior caste. From boyhood he
was noted
tation
for his talents and beauty, and also for his melancholy temper and love of solitary medi-

Buddhists
sec. 7.] Though many of the dedoubtful, the general outline of his life may be accepted. He left no writings, but his discourses were collected by his disciples from

of Buddhism,

tails are

on the problems of life and death amid the shadows of the forests. He married early, in compliance with his father's wishes, who vainly
desired thus to drive away his melancholy. The sight, on various occasions, of a man overwhelmed by the miseries and infirmities of age, of one dying of fever and overcome by the fear of death,

tradition,

and now form a portion of the Buddhist

sacred writings.
It is necessary to notice a theory concerning

Buddha propounded by the late Professor Wilson, in his Essay on Buddha and Buddhism, and adopted in part by Mr. Maurice [Lectures on the Religions of the World^ Professor "Wilson,
gathering up the different dates assigned to him, the mythical character attaching to several parts of the story, the mass of miraculous legend that had grown up about him, and various geographical difficulties, considers it doubtful whether such a person as Buddha ever existed. But many of the difficulties of the history have now been solved ; and this theory is not accepted by the most recent students of Buddhism. [For a refutation of it, see Max Miiller, Chips, i. 217,
218.]

of a funeral attended by the lamenting relatives of the deceased, set him on thinking how to escape from the miseries and the fear of old age, disease and death. An encounter with a mendicant or devotee one who, renouncing all pleasures and desires, lived a life of austerity, without passion or envy, supported only by alms, and seeking only to obtain self-conquest determined Buddha to retire from the world. He left his father's palace by night in secret, and became the pupil, first of one, then of a second, of the most famous of the Brahmin teachers ; but from them he learned no means of deliverance for man. He then, with five companions, retired for six years into solitude, subjecting himself to the most frightful penances. At the end of this time he became convinced that the austerities availed no more than the doctrines of Brahminism in producing peace of mind, and deliverance from the

The most striking feature in the history of Buddhism is its spirit of proselytism, in which it has been surpassed by no religion except
This spirit arose from the feeling of sympathy and brotherhood between all men, from the prince to the outcast, which it taught. The only means adopted for its propagation was persuasion. It speedily made way in India, and about the end of the fourth century b.o. was established in that country by King Asoka or Piyadasi, many of whose edicts are preserved in rock inscriptions. In this king's reign missionaries were first sent to some of the countries beyond India ; and, at one of the great councils of Buddhism, about B.C. 246, a regular plan of missions was developed by teaching, preaching, and publishing translations of the sacred books. Cashmere was the first country converted; the Himalayan countries and Thibet soon followed while in the south Ceylon became almost wholly Buddhist. From Ceylon it spread to Siam and Burmah. The first mention of a Buddhist mission in China is about b.o. 217, where Buddhism flourished greatly, and in a.d. 65 was admitted as a state religion by the Emperor Ming-ti. It was alternately persecuted and favoured, but a great impulse was given to its extension about the fifth century A.D. Streams of pilgrims came into India from China, and carried back with them sacred pictures, books, and relics ; and at the same time it spread largely in other countries, Mongolia, and Central Asia especially. In the next century, however, it received a formidable blow from the great uprising of Brahminist feeling in India, by which it was utterly expelled from that country, and never recovered the slightest footing there. For this loss it gained compensation by extensive conversions in China and Central and Eastern Asia, and has never had since that time to lament any serious permanent losses, unless indeed it has suffered in any way by the rise of the curious
Christianity.

fears

with which he was troubled.

He

his exercises

and

set himself to elaborate his

gave up own;

After long meditations and ecstatic; he imagined that he had at last arrived at the true knowledge which discloses the cause, and so removes the fear, of all the changes inherent in life. From this time he adopted the! For a while title of Buddha (the enlightened). he hesitated whether he should communicate his! knowledge to the world ; but compassion for thei sufferings of man prevailed. He went to Benares, the sacred city of the Brahmins, where he preached and lectured with great success. He afterwards travelled over many parts of India, making conSeveral of the kings, verts wherever he went. including his father, and all his relations, embraced his doctrines; but he was vehemently opposed and persecuted by the Brahmins, over whom however he was victorious in every dissystem.
visions,
i

\ *

cussion.
years,

At

last,

having reached the age of

seventy, or, according to

some accounts, of eighty

under a tree in a 543 [SaintHiJaire], or 477 [Max Miiller]. His funeral rites were celebrated with great solemnity, amid thousands of his followers. After his body was burned, his remains were divided into eight portions, to be preserved as relics in different parts
sitting

he died while

forest near the city of Kusinagara, b.o.

A

of the country. The story of the life of Buddha was handed down by tradition, and, as we now possess it, was committed to writing about the first century B.C. vast mass of childish legend and fiction had grown up around his history. [For some account of these, see Saint-Hilaire, Le Bouddha, pt. i. chap. ii. pp. 48-78 ; Spence Hardy, Manual

A

creed of the Chinese rebels. The tenets of Buddhism are contained in the canonical sacred writings, which were originally

89

;

Buddhists
composed in
into
Sanscrit,

Buddhists
uncharitablehess,
virtues as

but have been translated

hypocrisy; and enjoins such

the languages of Thibet, Ceylon, China, Mongolia, Japan, and Buimah. These were entirely unknown to Europeans until 1824, when they were discovered in Nepaul, in the original Sanscrit, by Mr. B. H. Hodgson, Political Eesident in that state. They comprised sixty volumes. Shortly after, Alexander Csoma, of Kbrds in Transylvania, having acquired, in spite of great difficulties, a knowledge of Thibetan, gave himself up to the study of the Buddhist literature in that language, which consists of about 330 folio volumes, mostly translations from the Sanscrit works discovered by Mr. Hodgson. M. Csoma published an analysis of this immense About bible in the Asiatic Researches, vol. xx. the same period the existence of a Mongolian version, made from the Thibetan, of the Buddhist

forgiveness of injuries, contentment,

humility, patience. The basis of the morals of Buddha is the Four Great Verities [1] Pain and sorrow exist ; [2J the cause of these is our affections and passions and our sins ; [3] pain and sorrow can cease by Nirvana ; [4] points out the way to Nirvana, the means of deliverance. This way to Nirvana con:

[1] Eight faith, or orthodoxy; judgment, dispersing all uncertainty and doubt ; [3] right language, or the study of perfect and unswerving truthfulness ; [4] right purpose, or the choice of an upright purpose in all words and deeds ; [5] right practice, or the pursuit of a
sists

of eight parts

:

[2] right

canon was made known by M.
St. Petersburg,

J. L.

Schmidt of

who

published some extracts in

1829.

A

further great discovery

was made in

Ceylon by the Hon. G. Tumour of a version of the Buddhist canon, and also some historical works in Pali, the ancient sacred language of Ceylon. China, Japan, Burmah, and Siam also possess Buddhist literatures, the two former derived from the Sanscrit, the two latter, of which little is known, from the Pali. The Buddhist canon was settled at three great councils, held in different parts of India, the last
in B.C. 308. It is called the Tripitaki, or three baskets, being divided into three parts, the Sutras or discourses of Buddha, the Vinaya, containing all that has reference to morality, and the Abhidharma, which treats of metaphysical questions. The first two contain each five separate works, the last seven. Buddhism is not a religion as Judaism, ChrisIt contains tianity, Mahometanism are religions. not a trace of the idea of God from first to last it acknowledges man as the only being in the Keither is it simply a philosophy, in universe. the ordinary sense of the term, a theory of knowing and being. But it contains elements of both. Obstinately refusing to recognise aught else but man, it confounds man with nature, in the midst of which he lives, while it still preaches earnestly the laws of virtue. It is the practical element that has had such a great force with the multitudes. To the people at large Buddhism was a Its metaphysical moral and religious reform. speculations could have been followed by very few among its votaries ; but the sight of a prince throwing away all his splendour, living as a beggar a life of the utmost privation, and withal of the utmost purity and virtue, proclaiming a deliverance from the religious and social despotism of the Brahmins, opening the way of happiness, not to one class or caste but to the veriest outcasts, this it was that caused its rapid spread. Hence it is that the social and moral code of Buddhism is far more important than its metaphysical theories, though in the Buddhist system they are closely connected with each other. That moral code is, taken by itself, one of the purest
in the world.
It forbids even such vices as pride,

religious life ; [6] right obedience, or the following aU the precepts of the Buddhist law; [7] right memory ; [8] right meditation. These Four Verities alone comprise the earliest teaching of Buddha ; he taught them indeed to the last, but with important additions in his latter years. The Four Verities are followed by a body of moral precepts. The first are the Five Great Commandments binding upon all, namely, not to kill, not to steal, not to commit adultery, not to lie, not to get drunk. Next come five precepts, of less importance, binding on professed disciples, namely, to abstain from unseasonable meals, from public spectacles (music, dancing, singing), from expensive dresses and personal ornaments and perfumes, from having a large or soft bed, and from receiving gold or silver. For those who embrace a religious life, twelve observances of the severest character are prescribed [1] To wear only clothes made of rags cast away by others; [2] to wear only three garments, made by their own hands from these rags ; [3] to wear over these rags only a yeUow cloak; [4] to live only on the alms they have collected ; [5] to eat only one meal daily ; [6] to take no food after noon ; [7] to live in forests and solitary places, entering towns only to obtain alms; [8] the only shelter is to be the shadow of trees ; [9] to rest only sitting at the foot of a tree ; [10] to sleep there, without lying down, but resting against the tree; [11] when once settled not to move the sitting-carpet about; [12] to meditate at night among the tombs in the cemeteries on the vanity of aU things. The title given to those who follow these last precepts is Sramana, " victors over self. " On ordinary persons, who could not attain such a height of virtue, were enjoined the Six Ordinary Virtues, almsgiving or charity, purity, patience, courage, contemplation, and knowledge. These virtues are inculcated in their very fullest extent. .An instance of Buddha's charity is given for imitation. He saw one day a tigress starved and unable to feed her cubs, whereon he offered his body to be devoured by them. Among a number of minor precepts are included the government of the tongue, in its widest sense, humility, modesty, love for and dutifulness to parents and relations. One of the most remarkable of Buddha's institutions is that of public confession, before the whole congregation, of faults and sins.
:

90

;

Buddhists
then is the end to be ohtained by a life such self-sacrificing charity and humility? That stated in the third and fourth of the Four Verities, namely, Nirvana. To ascertain what Nirvana is, we must go on to consider the metaof

Buddhists
pleasure.

What

vanish

;

memory

In the fourth stage these last remnants is gone, aU pleasure and pain

have departed, nothing

physical side of Buddhism. The idea of God is utterly banished from Buddhism. Not even is there the notion of a

Universal Spirit common to so many Eastern religions. The universe is a mere fleeting illusion without any reality. The only being that can lay claim to any real existence is the thinking subject, or man, for and to whom the universe seems to exist. Even his own ideas are thus but illusions, the effect of ignorance. Existence then is for man but sorrow, misery and trouble. But existence is not confined to human life nor closed by death. Before this human life man has gone through a multitude of states of existence of aU kinds ; and he may pass through a countless number hereafter, not merely animate, but also inanimate, and in fact through aU forms of every kind. The transformations are regulated by the conduct of beings in their different states ; virtue There is no means is rewarded, vice punished. whatever of escaping the consequences of deeds as long as existence continues; man is ever reappearing, under some form or other, in this The great scene of misery, sorrow, and illusion. end of man then is to escape from existence by This cause of existence is extirpating its cause. "attachment" an inclination towards something,

remains but absolute apathy. This is incomplete Nirvana, as near to that state as this life can attain, and a pledge of the future and perfect Nirvana. In attaining this state the votary acquires also omniscience and magic power. But there is a yet higher state to be attained by passing through the four regions of the formless world the infinity of space, the infinity of intelligence, the region of nothing, and lastly, a region where not even the idea of nothing is left, not even the idea of the absence of ideas ; where there is complete rest, undisturbed by nothing, or what is not nothing. This alone is perfect Nirvana. He who had attained the incomplete Nirvana, the only one possible in this life, was called a Buddha, and was greatly reverenced, especially after his death, that is when he had attained to perfect Nirvana.

He who was

striving after this state, but

had not

yet attained it, was a Bodhisatva, and was also ^^ reverenced, but in a less degree. In consequence of the atheistic character of Buddhism, it admits of no idea of sacrifice, mediais

The worship very simple, consisting simply of prayers and the offering of flowers, perfumes, &c., before the images and relics of Buddha. Eeverence also is paid to his footmarks, and other traces of his
tion, satisfaction, or propitiation.

Desire must be prearises from desire. ceded by perception, perception by contact; and this contact implies the existence of the senses. As the senses can only perceive what has form and name, that is, what is distinct, distinction is the real cause of aU the effects which end in This distinction is existence, birth and pain.

which

itself

ideas are

the result of conceptions or ideas ; these mere illusions, the effects of ignorance. Ignorance therefore is the primary cause of all To know that ignorance as seeming existence. the root of all evU is identical with destroying it, and with it all the effects which flow from it. This can be done only by attaining to Nirvana,
or extinction, that is in fact utter annihilation. As it is misery to be, not to be must be felicity. True wisdom consists in the desire for Nirvana. Nirvana is the reward and the end of the life of

The means of painful virtue described above. entering into that state is by contemplation or ecstasy. This contemplation has four stages. In the first there is no desire but for Nirvana, there is a sense of freedom from sin, a knowledge of the But the devotee stdl has a sense nature of things. of pleasure in his own condition; the subject can
reason, can distinguish, and choose between conduces to the final state and what draws
it.

presence, and especially to any spot where it is recorded that any remarkable occurrence happened to him. The statues of Buddha are very numerous, and generally of great size ; to some of them miraculous powers of motion have been ascribed. Eeverence is also paid to the statues of distinguished Buddhists, the Buddlias and Bodhisatvas. Different sects and individuals select certain of these to whom they pay special regard. The ministers, called Bonzes, are simply confraternities of mendicants, who act as patterns of the sternest self-renunciation, or else simply as teachers and preachers. They usually live in communities often containing thousands of persons, under rules strikingly resembling those of some of the mediaeval monastic bodies. Many of them employ themselves in study of the sacred books, and in making translations of them others in teaching young men and boys, the novices of the convents. In some countries there are also convents of women. Such a system would naturally, in its pure atheistic philosophy, have but little hold upon the mass of unintelligent men. In the dreary blank of Nirvana it held out no hope worth striving for. It gave no comfort from the protection of higher and

what
from

In the second stage the use of these powers ceases, and nothing remains but the desire for Nirvana, and the satisfaction arising from the In the consciousness of growing perfection.
third stage that satisfaction is extinguished, pure indifference succeeds, but there remains stiU some self-consciousness, and some amount of physical

more mighty beings. Hence it suffered corruptions and changes in nearly every country where it was adopted, and in consequence became divided into numerous sects. In Nepaul it lost its
^

There

is

reason to believe that the conception of Nir-

vana as annihilation is the work of later philosophers and theologians, and does not proceed from Buddha, who appears to have regarded Nirvana as the absorption of the soul in itself, involving rest, freedom from pain and de[Miiller, Bvddhisi sire, and from the circle of existences.
Nihilism, 12-14.]

91

Buddhists
atheistio character entirely.

Budnceans
to the
life,

Buddhism there has adopted the belief in one supreme, self-existent intelligence, Adi-Buddha, who projects from his own essence iive Buddhas, intelligences of the first order, who in turn produce five of the second order, called Bodhisatvas. These inferior divinities are regarded as agents in the hands of the

Supreme Deity, and as links which unite him with the lower orders of beings. Probably these features are connected with the previous religion of the country, which was superseded by

numbers of those who adopt the religious they are allowed to work. The supreme, temporal, and spiritual, head of the country is the Grand Lama, who, by a gradual development, has come to be looked on as an incarnation of Buddha, who is ever being born again into the world for the guidance and help of man.^ It has been suggested that, as this sy.stem was not elaborated till the thirteenth century a.d., the ritual correspondences, which are certainly very
striking, are

due
[See app.

to the influence of Christian

Buddhism
religion,

:

for

it

is

one

peculiarity

of

this

and apparently

also a cause of its rapid

it easily allied itself with and adopted parts of those religions with which it came in contact. Thus even in India, its birthplace, it became in some points assimilated with Brahminism.i In China it allows the worship of ancestors, and of good and evU spirits. In Thibet, the poorer classes, with the sanction of the Lamas, make offerings to the genii of the rivers, woods, hills, &c. In China, the only genuine Buddhists are the monks and mendicants. These alone have a common confession of faith, submit to initiatory rites, and form a separate corporation. The great mass of the worshippers of Fo, the Chinese corruption of Buddha, are rather tolerated than approved by the authorities of the sect. They are only expected to acknowledge the general superiority of their religion, to abstain from gross vice, to reverence the sacred writings, relics, statues, &c.,

progress, that

and the various Buddhas and Bodhisatvas, and contribute to the support of the monks, Those who fulfil only ascetics, devotees, &c.
to

these conditions attain a higher sphere of being in the next life, but do not become enlightened. The only worship is paid to the Buddhas, who
are popularly regarded as deified, and hence is really man- worship. Temples are very numerous,

Hardwick, Christ and other Masters, ii. ii. pp. 214-219.] It remains briefly to state the strength and weakness of Buddhism as a religion. One of its most important points is its practical character. Its end is the salvation of mankind, or rather of the universe. As a means of attaining this, it preaches the most exalted virtue, and holds up for imitation ideals the founder and his chief followers of the loftiest character. It propagates itself only by persuasion, it exhibits the most unbounded charity and toleration. On the other hand, the atheistic and nihilistic character of Buddhism takes from it aU the power it might have gained for man's good. There is rjo hope of future life; no means of expiation for sin; no sanction to its precepts to inspire awe ; no beneficent Creator to love ; aU is dark and drear and gloomy. Hence the many corruptions it has undergone, such as the elevation of Buddha to a god, and the lowering Nirvana into a paradise of pleasures. Hence also the weak hold it has over so many of its professors, so that even the professed religious are often utterly selfish, immoral and contemptible. [Maurice, Lect. on the Religions of the World.
missions.

Bunsen, God in Ilistm-y,
wick,
Lect.

Christ

Miiller,

iii. 8 n. K. L. M. Hardand other Masters, ii. iii. Max Chips from a German Worhshop, i.;

with images, among which are always three of colossal size, representing Buddhas, to

and

filled

whom

different spheres are allotted

— one, ruling

the world of intellect; a second, the author of joy and happiness in the family circle, who is also deputed to govern the whole earth ; and the third and most important, the source of grace, mercy and deliverance. Under the charge of this last is a paradise, of which the most glowing descriptions are given, but totally free from the grossness of those in the Koran. Admission to this paradise is obtained solely by faith and trust in the third of this triad of Buddhas. The remarkable features of the Buddhism of Thibet are the hierarchy of Lamas, the doctrine of the incarnations of Buddha, the severity of its discipline, the fervour of its moral tone, and the remarkable correspondence of its ritual and life with that of the mediseval Christian Church. The Lamas are very numerous, one at least of each family being devoted to the priesthood. There are also many large communities of nuns ; and, owing
'

on Buddhist Nihilism. Baring-Gould, Origin and Development of Religious Beliefs, i. E. Spence Hardy, A Manual of Buddhism; Legends and Theories of the Buddhists. J. B. Saint-HUaire, Le Bouddha et sa Religion. Von Koeppen, Die Religion des Buddha und ihre Entstehung.^

BUDNiEANS. One of the parties into which the Antitrinitarians of Poland and Transylvania were divided shortly after their separation from the Eeformed Churches in the year 1565, until Faustus Socinus succeeded in uniting them in
one heresy. The Budnseans denied the miraculous conception of our Lord, and consequently refused that degree of worship which the Socinians held to be due to Him. Simon Budnseus, their leader, was deposed in 1584 from the ministry, and

excommunicated with all his followers. It is said that he afterwards recanted, and was le-admitted into the sect, which had then become Socinian.
2 Besides the Grand Lama, numerous other persons are regarded as incarnations of Buddha, or "living Buddhas" —these are recognised by certain signs, and are treated with great reverence, but are obliged to submit to rigid rules of life and conduct. [Hue, Travels Tartary Schla^ntveit, Bvddhim, im Thibet.]

Buddlia himself looks on the old gods of India as
diTine.
[Miiller,

superhuman heings, though not as Buddhist NihUism, 6.]

m

92

;

Btdgarians
BULGAEIANS.

Burghers
is

A name given to the
It

83val Catharists, or Albigenses.

medifound in the

Chronicon Autissiodorense, written in the year 1211, and also in Matthew Paris; and is else-

where found in the form " Bulgri," " Bogri," and in the French forms "Boulgares," "Boulgres," and " Bougres." The name suggests a migration from Bulgaria, the chief seat of the Bogomiles, and a
great

of Haddington wrote his HisAccount of the Secession, the congregations belonging to the two bodies numbered about 200 they both professed entire agreement with the Presbyterian standards, and were at one on all the articles of faith ; but the Antiburghers still
torical

When Brown

of the Paulicians. In the year 1746 a discussion arose in the Associate Secession Synod in Scotland respecting the lawfulness of the religious clause of the oath administered to the burgesses of Edinburgh, Perth, Stirling, and Glasgow. The clause was as follows " I profess and allow with all my heart the true religion presently professed within this realm, and authorized by the laws thereof J I shall alside at and defend the same to my life's end, renouncing the Eoman religion called Papistry." It was maintaiued by some that for seceders from the Established Kirk to make this declaration was to place themselves at once in a false position ; that the oath must be taken in the sense of its imposers ; that having forsaken the Kirk on account of the abuses of patronage and the license given to teaching held to be contrary to the "Westminster Confession and the other Presbyterian standards, they could not then caU. the form of religion which was authorized by the laws the true religion, nor de-

home

professed that their own religion was different from that of the Establishment, because they regarded the constitution of the latter, as authorized

BUEGHEES.

by the laws of the realm since the Eevolution, as Erastian and founded on the will of the civil magistrate, and consequently still retained their
hostility to the Burghers.
rise

:

would defend it. It was answered on the other hand by some, amongst whom were
clare that they

the Erskines, that the oath itself spoke only of the true religion professed in Scotland, and not of the faulty human manner of professing and settling it ; that it spoke indeed of the religion authorized by the laws, but not of that as authorized, which would have carried a different meaning ; that in their various testimonies they had solemnly approved the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of the Church of Scotland, and had declared their adherence to their former ordination vows, which pledged them to their maintenance; that their quarrel had been only with the corruptions in Church dnd State, and not with the true religion proThe defessed and authorized in the realm. fenders of the clause offered for the sake of peace to consent to an act of synod declaring it inexpedient for Seceders to swear the oath in the present circumstances, yiz. the circumstances of Their controversj' as to its precise meaning. opponents however would consent to nothing which did not declare the oath to be sinful and inconsistent with their testimony and engagement, and in a meeting of synod on April 1746, they carried a decision accordingly. this decision was then made by the victorious party ^now called Antibueghers a term of communion. They rejected, deposed and excommunicated their Burgher brethren (as the maintainers of the oath were now called), and in the following year two distinct bodies were
9th,

In both bodies the of "free thought" tended to modify the earlier views. Among the Burghers the "rights of conscience," the " right of private judgment and private opinion," began to be put forward, and the power assigned in the standard documents to the civU magistrate for the maintenance of true religion was disputed as incompatible with these rights and vrith the duty of toleration. The principle of establishments (hitherto warmly maintained) was impugned, and a change was made which limited the assent given at ordination to the old Act and Testimony of the Seceders, to an approval only of its " scope and design," while subsequently, in 1797, a preamble to the Confession of Faith was adopted which disclaimed approbation of any principle therein supposed to favour compulsory measures in religion, and left the nature and kind of the obligation imposed by the Covenants an entirely open question. On September 5th, 1799, an attempt to remove the Preamble was defeated in synod by 91 to 28, and thereupon the Burgher body immediately split into two parties, caUed respectively (as in the case at the same time of the divided Antiburghers) the Old-Light and the New-Light. On October 2nd the Old-Light minority constituted themselves into a separate Presbytery, and as their number of ministers in settled charges gradually increased to fifteen, they established a Synod in September 1805, under the old name of The Associate Synod. In 1820 the New-Light Burghers united with the New-Light Antiburghers, and took the name of the United Secession, a body which is now represented, since its further union in 1847 with the Eelief Secession, by the United Presbyterian Synod. The Old-Light Burghers retained their separate existence until 1839, when, in consequence of an act which passed the General Assembly on May 25th, by which their ministers

and congregations were admitted

to full

and

Agreement with

equal fellowship, they returned to the Established Kirk. [Vindication of Adherence to the Principles and Constitution of the Church of Scotland, by the Associate Synod, Perth, 1809. J. Brown, Jlist. Account of the Secession, 8th ed. 1802.

Information by A. Campbell for the Managers of the Burgher Seceding Meeting-Home in Aberdeen against Rev. Will. Brunton, designing himAntibubghebs. self the Minister, Edinb. 1800.
Sboessiox.]

constituted,

93

c
CACANGELICI. The word KaKayyeXia as opposed to evayyeXwv, in association with the idea that " the children of the wicked one" [Matt. xiii. 38], and the "angels" of the devil [Matt. XXV. 41 Eev. xii. 9], are heretical and apostate men [Iren. adv. Hcer. iv. 41], appears to have
;

had led away a great number of persons in the locality where he was writing, and who had made
her chief aim to oppose the ministration of baptism. For this reason he wrote his treatise on that sacrament [Tertull. de Bapt. i.], but he gives no further indication of the doctrines professed by the Cainites. The account given of them by Epiphanius does not appear to be founded on any further acquaintance with the heresy than that which might be derived from Irenaeus [Epiph. Hmr. xxxviii.], and Origen declares that the Cainites were not Christians at all, and that Celsus had classed them as such in ignorance [Orig. conir. Cels. iiL 13] ; though it is evident that he himself knew little or nothing about them. But the account of them given by Epiphanius shews that whether they were still existing or not as a separate sect in his time, he believed them to have held some form of those dualistio theories of good and evil which characterized all the Gnostic sects. For, according to him, Cain was regarded by the Cainites as the offspring of Eve by a superior power, and Abel as her offspring by an inferior power. Thus, it is probable, that the philosophy, such as it was, of the sect, set forth the struggle of good and evU under a rationalistic version of the murder of Abel, the two brothers being represented in exactly the opposite light to that in which they are shewn in Holy Scripture [Pseudo-Tertull. adv.
it

suggested this name as that of heretics in general. The designation is not used by Epiphanius or Augustine, as might have been expected, as a play upon the sect of the Angelici, and was probably never used of any particular sect, but merely as a polemical term. Thus it is applied to the Lutherans and Calvinists by Hosius, Prateolns, and in Sianda's Lexicon Polemicum. CADOLAIT.<E. name given to the adherents of the Anti-Pope Honorius III. [a.d. [Baronius, 1061], his name being Cadolaus. Annal. ad ann. 1061.]

A

CAIANITES. CAINITES.

[Gaianim.]

A strange sect of

heretics

men-

tioned by Ireneeus and all later heresiologists of Irenseus speaks of them the patristic ages. rather as a school among the followers of Valentinus than as a distinct sect, but Tertullian incidentally mentions a distinct "Cainite heresy" in his treatise on Baptism [TertuU. de Bapt. i.], and is usually supposed to refer to them when he writes " Sunt et nimc alii Mcolaitse ; Caiana haeresis dicitur," in the authentic work on heresies which bears his name [Tertull. de Prcescript. Hcer. xxxiii.], though the reading is Later writers always class disputed. [Gaiana.]

Hmr.

iiL].

them as a separate sect. The account of the Cainites given by
is

It is observable that

both

St.

John and

St.

Irenaeus

Jude bring the name of Cain into
in a

their epistles

very brief. He says they " declare that Cain derived his being from the Superior Power" of the Valentinian theory, "together with Esau, All such persons Korah, and the Sodomites. they acknowledge as being of their kindred. Eor this reason, they add, that they have been assailed by the Demiurge, yet none of them had suffered injury, for Sophia always carried off from them They say that to herself that which was hers. Judas the traitor had diligently studied the truth, and that it was because his knowledge of it was in advance of that possessed by all others that he brought about the mystery of the betrayal." He also states that the Cainites possessed an apocryphal gospel which they called the " Gospel
of Judas" speaks of
[Iren. adv.

way that is consistent with the idea that they were protesting against some misbelief associated with it. St. John declares that Cain was a murderer as being of " that wicked one," not a spiritual seed of the holy Eve [1 John iiL 1 2] ; while St. Jude expressly pronounces a " woe" against some who had gone in " the way of Cain," associating their error with that of Balaam, with the gainsaying of Korah, and with the wickedness of Sodom and Gomorrah [Jude 11The epistle of St. Jude is expressly written 19]. against certaia persons "who separate themselves,"
and there
is

his denunciation of given of the Cainites

an unmistakeable likeness between them and the description

by

Irenaeus.

Hmr.

xxxi.].

Tertullian

"a

viper of the Cainite heresy"

who

Probably these heretics were one of ^hose many early sects of Asia Minor which were so

94

Calixtines
adulterated, first with, the dualism,

Callistians
and secondly
practices

with the licentious theories and

of

Oriental heathenism, that what Christian elements of belief had been, originally current among them became all bat obliterated in the course of a few years. Such were the Sethitbs, the Ophites, and the Nicolaitanes, with all three of which sects the Cainites are vaguely associated by ancient writers. Their relationship to the Gnostic family of heresies in general is shewn by the statement of Epiphanius respecting their apocry. phal book the "Ascension of St. Paul" ('Ava/SaTLKov navAov). "They find their pretext for this in what the Apostle says of his having ascended to the third heaven, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man These, as they say, to utter [2 Cor. xii. 2, 4]. Like the Gnostic are the unspeakable words." sects in general they evidently professed to have some special revelation respecting their religion which had not been communicated to other Christians, and their practical antichristiarusm is

very evident.

CAJANISTS. [Gaianitjs.] CALIXTINES. A section who resisted the withdrawal of

of the Hussites the cup from the laity of Bohemia in the fifteenth century, and received their name from the " calix," the Latin word for the Eucharistic chalice. They were called also " Utraquists," from the words sub

utraque

specie.

Huss himself had been willing

to

conform to

the custom of administering the Blessed Sacrament in the form of the bread only, as he held the theory of " concomitance," which makes the virtue of the Presence of Christ to be contained But his in its integrity in either element. follower Jacobellus de Misa refused to administer it except in both kinds, and so general had the opposite custom become, that he is spoken of by the Moravian Apologij of 1538 as "Primus omnium communionem utriusque speciei in Bocoepit " [Apolog. verce Dodrin. The in Lydii Waldensia, ii. 292, Dort, 1617]. revival of the ancient practice formed one element in the most bitter and violent contest between the ruling powers in Church and State and the Hussites after the Council of Constance [a.d. 1415] and the execution of Huss and Jerome of

towards the dominant party in the Church. In the year 1421 they made, at Prague, a statement of their wishes which is contained in four articles, as follows [1] that the Word of God should be preached freely and without impediment throughout the kingdom of Bohemia. [2] That the Sacrament of the Divine Eucharist should be freely administered in both kinds, that is, under the species of bread and of wine, to all Christians not disqualified by mortal sin, according to the command and institution of the Saviour. [3] That any clergyman engaged in the pursuit of secular power, or of wealth and temporal goods, contrary to the precept of Christ, to the prejudice of his of&ce, and to the injury of the State, should be forbidden such pursuits and made to live according to the Evangelical rule and Apostolic life which Christ lived with His Apostles. [4] That all mortal gins, and particularly public ones, should be properly punished by those to whom the duty of suppressing them belong, and by reason of the law of God. The war still went on for some years with the Taborites, but when the Council of Basle met [a.d. 1433] these four "Articles of Prague " were made the basis of a compact, which was ratified at Iglau. The principal article, that respecting administration of the Holy Sacrament in both kinds, was so far modified and restricted that the priests in Bohemia and Moravia were to be permitted to administer it in that manner ; but to those only who, being come to years of discretion, devoutly and reverently desired itj and who
:

heartily acknowledged that either species itself " integer et totus Christus."

was by

hemia practicare

This compact was assailed over and over again party, and their attempts were in some degree justified by the violence of the Taborites, with whom the Calixtines had once been so closely allied. Before the time of the Reformation arrived, a large number of them had been gradually reconciled to the Eoman usage, while others had coalesced with the Taborites, and become the ancestors of the Moravian Brethren, or " Unitas Fratrum." [Bohemians. Hussites. Moravians. Brzezyna or Byzynius, Diarium belli Hussit. in Ludwig's Reliq. MSS. vi. 175. yEneas Sylvius, Hist. BoJiem.]

by the Eomanizing

The University of Prague pronounced Prague. in favour of the Communion in both kinds, and the Hussites immediately banded together under Nicolas of Hussinecz and John Zisca for armed Among their number defence of there practice. there was a large party of fanatics, who were chiefly the adherents of Zisca, and these acted with great violence and committed inexcusable cruelties in their attack upon Prague [a.d. 1419]. This violence led to a separation of the more moderate Calixtines from the party of Zisca, the former retaining the original name, and the latter being called Taborites, from Mount Tabor in Bohemia, where they had first gathered their forces together to a Communion in which the cup was administered to a vast multitude. Prom this time the Calixtines began to draw
95

CALIXTUS. [Stncrbtists.] CALLISTIANS. This name is given to the partizaus of Callixtus, bishop of Rome [a.d. 218223], by Hippolytus, who accuses him of compounding a new heresy from the heresies of Noetus andjheodotus. The substance of the opinions attributed to him is that which was afterwards called Patripassianism. But the account given of Callixtus by Plippoly tus (who was bishop of a suburban see, and resided in Eome) is so mingled with personal invective and bitterness, that there can be little doubt it is exagger-

rated [Hippol. Refut. Hcer.

ix.

2-7].

Callixtus

has always been reckoned among the martyrs of the early Eoman Church, and the abuse heaped on his memory by his contemporary has the air of being suggested by rivalry and disappointment.

Calvinists
CALVINISTIC METHODISTS.
dists.]

Calvinists
[Metho-

CALVINISTS.

That

large

body of Pro-

testants in various sects wlio profess to follow the opinions of Calvin, especially as regards the

sacraments, and divine grace. reign of Queen Elizabeth these opinions were also widely diifused in the Church of England, and when, at a later tune, large
ministry,

the

During the

numbers of the Puritans became
still

dissenters, there

was the necessary consequence, and this was stimulated by the visit of an impetuous French Huguenot and doctrinnaire named Farel, whose agitation led to tumult and bloodshed which ended in the withdrawal of the bishop from Geneva to Gex in Savoy [a.d. 1534], in the see being then declared vacant by the municipal council, and in the usurpation of the bishop's authority by Farel. It was during the time of Farel's supremacy that Calvin visited Geneva on
laity

remained many Calvinists among the Low Church party, down even to the present day. The founder of this school of Protestants, John Cauvin, Chauvin, or in a Latinized form, Calvinus, was the son of a notary at Noyon in Picardy [a.d. 1509-1564], and being intended for holy orders received the tonsure at seven years of age from the bishop to whom his father was secretary. Such were the abuses of the times that he was nominated to a chaplaincy in the cathedral of his native town when he was only twelve years of age, to the benefice of Marteville when he was eighteen, and a little later to that of Pont I'Eveque ; the last of which he sold in 1534, when his connection with the Huguenots made it impossible for him to hold the sinecure much longer. While Calvin held these benefices he was receiving his education successively at the High School of ParLs, and the Universities of Orleans and Bourges, and became distinguished

way from Italy to Germany, where he was about to take up his residence. Being introduced by a friend to the then chief man of the city the two proved to be such kindred spirits that Calvin was earnestly entreated to support Farel in his project of reformation, and threatened with the vengeance of God if he refused to do so. These persuasions and threats prevailed with Calvin, and
his

he settled down at Geneva as a coadjutor of Farel, and as one of the chief " pastors" of the city [a.d. The newly-fledged republicans were at 1536]. first highly delighted with a divine whose prinwere decidedly opposed to Episcopacy, therefore to the authority which they had recently rejected. But when Calvin attempted a
ciples

and

and learning. At Orleans he studied civil law with such success that he was occasionally appointed to supply the place of absent professors, and on leaving Orleans for Bourges the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law was conferred upon him. At Bourges Calvin continued his studies under Alciati, the first lawyer of the age, but he also turned his attention to theology under the tuition of Melchior Wolmar, one of the reforming party, Professor of Greek and the tutor of Beza. On the death of his father he returned to Paris, where he shortly published a Commentary on Seneca's de Ghmerdia, being then twenty-three years of At this time Calvin became known as one age. of the Huguenot party, and he escaped danger only through the protection of the Queen of Navarre, sister to Francis I. But in 1534 he left
at each for his industry

crusade against the wickedness by which he was surrounded they at once revolted, banishing both him and Farel from the city [a.d. 1538]. For three years afterwards Calvin acted as Professor of Theology at Strasburg, and was also pastor to the French congregation. But a fresh turn of affairs at Geneva led to his recall, and he returned there on September 13th, 1541. Thenceforward
his death, twenty-three years later, he was the ruler of Geneva in as absolute a sense as its former bishops had been, and often exercised his authority in the most tyrannical manner. At the same time he never slackened in literary industry, and by this means acquired an influence

untU

which extended far beyond Geneva even in his lifetime, and which made him only second, if
second, to Luther, as a leader of thought among Protestants after his death. It was as a leader of thought that Calvin became the founder of a great party, his politicoreligious rule at Geneva being dependent chiefly on his personal influence, and, although copied by his followers in Scotland, for a short time (during the supremacy of the Presbyterians) in England, and in New England, never being definitely associated with his name. [PbbsbtTBRiANS.] Some of his works had become known in England as early as 1542, when there appear in a list of prohibited books, The Lytell Tretyse in Frensche of ye Soperofthe Lorde made by Ocdlwyn, and The WorJcs every one of Calhoyn \Brit. Mag. xxxvi. 395; Burnet's Hist. Reform, iv. 519, Pocock's ed.]. few years later Cranmer projected a general union of foreign Protestants with

his

native

country altogether, settling

first

at

Basle,

and afterwards, when he was twenty-eight

years of age [a.d. 1536], at Geneva. Before leaving France he printed a treatise entitled Psyehopannychia, against the heresy of the soul's unconsciousness between death and the resurrection. But within a few months afterwards [a.d. 1534-5] he published, first in French and then in. Latin, a far more important work, his Institutes of the Christian Religion, which he expanded into a much larger form in a subsequent edition [a.d. 1559], as the exponent of his theological system. At the time when Calvin first came into notice, Geneva was a hotbed of immorality ; and the profligacy of the laity having extended to the bishop and some of the clergy [Euchat, Hist, de la Reform, de Suisse, ii. 277], the Church had lost all influence. Opposition between clergy and

A

the Church of England, and Calvin among others was invited to a conference at Lambeth [Jenkyns' Granmer's Remains, i. 330, 346]. He did not accept the invitation, but wrote many letters to the Protector Somerset, to Edward VT. (by Cranmer's advice),i and to Cranmer himself, con1

Calyin wrote to Farel on June 15th, 1551

:

"Canter-

96

Calvinists
derailing tte Eeformation of the

Calvinists
Church of Engthey were generally to all young scholars in those as the best and perfectest system of Divinity, and the fittest to be laid as the groundwork in the study of this profession." The earlier followers of Calvin were principally bent on the substitution of his Presbyterian system for that of Episcopacy; but in the beginning of the seventeenth century Arminius brought into special prominence certain features of Calvinist theology which he opposed as inconsistent with the love of God and the free-will [Aeminians.] The condemnation of of man. Arminius by the Synod of Dort gave additional
times,

land as incomplele, and urging them to carry it further towards the Presbyterian pattern of Geneva \Stat6 Pap. v. 9, Edward VI.] and it appears to have been in some degree through his influence over Somerset, Bucer, Peter Martyr, and John A'LasGO, that the alterations of 1551 were made in the Book of Common Prayer. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth he sent her his Commentary on Isaiah, but the Queen declined to accept the volume in such Tudor language as brought from its author a remonstrance addressed to Sir William Cecil [Zurich Letters, II. 34]. Calvin's influence in England and Scotland was, however, greatly extended by the return of those who had fled from the Marian persecution, and liad lived during the greater part of Mary's reign at Erankfort, Zurich and Geneva. John Knox (who had lived in -London as Chaplain to Edward VI. from 1549 to 1554) was pastor of a congregation ia Geneva from 1556 until 1559, and returned thoroughly impregnated with the spirit and principles of the Genevese leader. Goodman, Bishop Pilkington, Dean Whittingham, Whitaker, and some others, accompanied Knox, and were thus brought under the direct influence of Calvin ; while many others, such as Fox the Martyrologist, Bishop Jewel, and Bishop Parkhurst, though not in personal intercourse with him, had their opinions very decidedly moulded The by his during their residence abroad.
;

extraordinary extension of Calvin's influence beend of the sixteenth century is thus mentioned by Hooker in 1594: "Of what account the Master of the Sentences was in the Church of Home, the same and more amongst the preachers of Reformed Churches Calvin had purchased; so that the perfectest divines were judged they which were skUfuUest in Calvin's writings. His books were almost the very canon to judge both doctriue and discipline by. Erench churches, both under others abroad and at home in their own country, all cast according to that mould which Calvin made. The Church of
fore the

authority to the doctrines which he had controverted [DoET, Synod op] ; and since that time the Calvinists have maintained the doctrines of election, predestination, and irresistible grace as the distinguishing points of their system ; many of them being as tenacious for Episcopacy as According to others are for Presbyterianism. these doctrines God has decreed from eternity the salvation of some men, who are called the " elect," and the everlasting perdition of others. Both the elect and non-elect come into the world in a state of total depravity and alienation from God, and can, of themselves, do nothing but sin. His grace, however, seizes hold of the elect, and, by an irresistible power works cut their salvation, bringing them into such a condition that their final perseverance in hoHness is certain, and Thus the they cannot finally faU or be lost. elect are saved without any wiU or work of their own. On the other hand, the non-elect or reprobate can by no means whatever attain to salvation, and must be eternally lost, not because they have made themselves worthy of perdition by their sins, but because God has so decreed in excluding them from the number of the elect.

Scotland, in erecting the fabric of their Eeformatook the selfsame pattern" [Hooker's Eccl. "Do we not daily see," he Polit. pref. ii. 8]. elsewhere says, " that men are accused of heresy for holding that which the Eafchers held, and that
tion,

"We assert," says Calvin, "that by an eternal and unchangeable decree God hath determined whom He shall one day permit to have a share in eternal felicity, and whom He shall doom to destruction. In respect of the elect the decree is founded in His unmerited mercy, without any regard to human worthiness ; but those whom He delivers up to damnation are, by a just and
irreprehensible judgment, excluded from all access
to eternal life" [Calvin, Inst. III.
ii.

11].

From

they never are clear if they find not somewhat Archbishop in Calvin to justify themselves?" Whitgift himself was strongly imbued with this deference to the Genevan Eeformer's authority, and in the original draft of the Lambeth Articles (approved by him but repudiated by the Church) certain expressions were said to be " ad mentem
Calvini," though the words were eventually altered
to

the doctrine of " Election" follows that of " Particular Eedemption," i.e. that Christ died only full statefor the elect and not for aU men. ment of these dreadful opinions may be found in the Confession of Faith set forth by the Westminster Assembly of Divines [a.d. 1643], which is stUl the authoritative Confession of the Kirk of Scotland, and is recognised as more or less Great authoritative by all Calvinistic sects.

A

"ad mentem Augustini" [Hardw. on
:

XXXIX.

controversies have arisen

among

Calvinists re-

In the following century Bishop Sanderson wrote " "When I began to set myself
Art. app.].
to the study of Divinity as

my

proper business,
to me, as

Calvin's Institutions were

recommended

bury has assured me that I can do nothing more useful than to write frequently to the King this affords me much greater delight than if I had received a present of a large sum of money" [Gorham's Beform. Gleanings, 267].
;

specting the Divine decrees, and they are divided into two parties, the one holding that those imagined decrees were positively issued, and thus "absolute;" the other that they were only God's Whitfield also separated foresight of the FaU. from Wesley on account of the determined opposition

of the former.

which the latter ofi'ered to the Calvinism In the present day the number

97

Q

Calvino-PapistcB
of Calvinists in the Churcli of England is [Sublapsaeians. not large. Supealapsaeians. Calvinistic Methodists. Westminstee Assembly. Dj&s'b Life of Calvin. Dict. o/Theol. art. Calvinism. Lambeth Aeticles.] CALVINO-PAPIST^. name given lay the Puritans to those Churchmen whose admiration of Calvin prompted them to consider the Church
of others,

Cdmeronians
became their leader. With him a few became associated, particularly Mr. John Hepburn, who had been at first suspended for similar practices, restored in 1699, and finally deposed in 1705.^ The union of the two kingdoms was particularly offensive to the Cameronians from the absence in the Act of any recognition of the Covenant (which absence they reothers
.

A

of England and its formularies as Calvinistic. [Stapleton, Prumptuar. Gathol. i. 285; iii. 116. Sianda, Lexic. Polem. iii. 627, s. v. "Puritani."]

CAMEEOISTIAlSrS,

or Society People.

Names

given to a party formed among the Scotch Covenanters in the reign of Charles II. Upon the publication of the Indulgences in 1669 and 1672, which permitted Nonconforming ministers to return to their parishes upon certain easy conditions, specially that they should not publicly speak against the royal supremacy, a division of opinion ensued amongst those to whom these Indulgences were offered. Some accepted the
proffered toleration
;

others rejected

it

as involv-

ing a sinful compliance with Erastianism and Prelacy. After the battle of BothweU Bridge the latter formed, under the leadership of Eichard Cameron and Donald Cargill, a distinct party, which claimed to represent, with the most un-

compromising rigour and intolerant

bitterness,

the true principles and spirit of the original framers of the Covenant. In a statement of principles (called the " Queensferry Paper " from the place of its discovery), which was intended as the outline of a Declaration, they disowned monarchy, and avowed their intention to set up some other government in accordance with the "Word of God ; and in a declaration publicly read at Sanquhar on 22nd June 1680, they openly declared war against the King and aU who acknowledged his authority. Cameron was killed in a skirmish at Airdsmoss on the 22nd of the following month, and Cargill, after solemnly excommunicating the King, was apprehended and executed at Edinburgh on July 27th, 1681. They were succeeded in the leadership of the party, first by James Eenwick, who was executed at Edinburgh, Eebruary 17th, 1688, for, in his own words, " disowning the usurpation and tyranny of James, Duke of York," and maintaining the lawfulness of defending their meetings by force of arms, &c., and afterwards by Alexander Shields. Upon the Eevolutioni the three ministers who had adhered to the Cameronians, Shields, Thomas Linning,

garded as invalidating the authority of the civil and also because by it Episcopacy was allowed and perpetuated as the established forni of Church government in England, for the religion of which country the rigid Presbyterians wished to legislate as well as for their own. To such an extreme of indignation did the fanaticism of the Cameronians lead them, that, through the agency of Ker of Kersland, they entered into negotiations with the exUed Chevalier, were hardly restrained from at once- taking arms, and, had the abortive expedition from France in 1708 actually landed in Scotland, would havebeenfound united heartily for the time with Episcopalian and Eoman Catholic Jacobites.^ In 1743, Macmillan, together with only one other minister, Mr. Thomas Nairn (who had been expelled from the Secession body for maintaining that none but a covenanted Presbyterian could be the lawful sovereign of these realms), established the Reformed Presbytery, and organized a distinct body, to which small accessions from time to time accrued. Under the name of Reformed Presbyterians the society still exists, claiming to be the representative of the old Covenanters in maintaining the Solemn League and Covenant as one of the standards, and still deploring the constitution of Church and State as established in both kingdoms at the Eevolution of 1688 and at the Union. In accordance with these views it is, by the formal Act of Testimony, forbidden to the members to take the oath of allegiance or to exercise the franchise in elections for Parliament, because the persons so elected have themselves to take that oath. This prohibition had of late been frequently disregarded, though whUe some kirk-sessions had at times suspended or cut off offenders, the presbytery or synod had never upon appeal confirmed the sentence but upon the rise of the Volunteer movement in 1860 the question of the oath assumed fresh prominence. Some sessions attempted to prevent their kirk
magistrates),
;

and William Boyd, were admitted as ministers of the Established Kirk, but because the General Assembly did not at that time expressly renew the Solemn League and Covenant, their people refused to foUow them, and remained for some years without a minister. At length Mr. John Macmillan, who was expelled from the Kirk in 1703, for refusing to take, and preaching against, the oath of allegiance, and for intruding himseK into the parishes
^ The strength of the party was shewn at this time hy their raising in one day the regiment known by the name of Cameronians for the purpose of opposing Yiscount

members from becoming volunteers; the case was thereupon referred to the synod in 1862, which in 1863 enacted by a large majority, in
accordance with previous practice, that, "while

'Among the articles presented against him in the General Assembly, and which he admitted, it was objected that for sixteen years he had neither administered nor received the Holy Communion lest he should be a
fellow-partaker with unworthy recipients story is told by Boston, whose parish Macmillan visited, that one of the followers of the latter understood by the
!

A

Dundee.

Solemn League and Covenant no other than the " Covenant sealed with Christ's blood" fBoston's Memoirs, Edinb. 1776, p. 226]. ' They offered to raise 5000 men from amongst themselves, and promised that Ker should raise 8000 more amongst the other Presbyterians. See Hooke's Carrespondenoe (Eoxburghe Club, 1871), ii. 308-313.

98

He afterwards returned to Montauban. The rack. His Theological Lectures were published immediately after his death. Consequently the two Scottish bodies find themselves supported alike in their later controversy by distinct Irish and American synods.] CAMEEONITES. 1518]. name given to the French Calvinists of the Cevennes who rose to resist the tyranny of Louis XIV. and Cameron returned to Scotland to become for one year Professor of Theology in the University of Glasgow. After the peace of of the Dragonnades. that none are excluded from the possibility of salvation. lie had imprisoned in his house at Pont de Montvert a band of fugitives whom he the name had caught making their way to Geneva. At the census in 1851 the united body had thirty-nine places of worship. name from John Cameron. gations. and not of the elect only. S. supported by large bodies of troops. or camise. 1843. a notorious seditious preacher and one of their pretended prophets. the smaller (being the secession of 1863) has eleven congregations. in the words of the Cevenol 99 . in which the peasantry strove to maintain their religious freedom.. The larger body in Ireland has at present about thirty-three congregations. were sent into the suspected districts. gave the signal for a general insurrection. and opened the mountains by above a hundred new roads. The substance of these opinions was that God wills the salvation of all men.Cameronites recommending the members of the Church to ahstain from the use of the franchise and from taking the oath of allegiance.works in a folio Latin volume. and became a Professor of Theology among the Protestants at Sedan. After this first success Segnier descended from the mountains. and formed another body under the same name. and the hollows of the mountains. by John Brown of Howie's Scots Haddington. with a branch presbytery in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. were attacked and dispersed with much barbarity. His soldiers surprised the assemblies of Anduze and Vigan. which were held by night in woods. and his collected . printed at Geneva in 1658. Note on the Reof Scotland. it was attempted to get rid of the whole Protestant population of Languedoc and Dauphind. The name is said to have been given them because of the camisole or blouse which they commonly wore . withdrew from the synod. after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. and put nearly By the all who were present to the sword. and Du Cheylu was put to death with great From that night for violence and barbarity. on the same general grounds of modification of administrative rules and the application of fundamental principles to the varying circumstances of the times.d. shall cease. From the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. to convert by force all who were not " of the king's religion. formed Presbyterian Secession. Edinburgh. at the age of forty-five. T. and was at last subdued more by policy than by arms. and the smaller has seven congreHist. in 1625. and in both of these branches divisions took place earlier than in Scotland. At Saumur he origi- nated opinions afterwards taken up by Moses Amyraut [Amtealdists]. which has since then somewhat increased in numbers. the wheel. '1863. where he died. mitigated form of Calvinism was condemned by the Ultra-Calvinist Synod of Dort [a. \A. of the Church Worthies. the night by the armed peasants under their leader Pierre Siguier. maintained itself against overwhelming numbers and the most bloody rigour. The Intendant Lamvignon de BavUle held the country with forty thousand troops and militia. It was resolved at a meeting in the Desert to rescue The house was surrounded in these prisoners. Du Cheylu was inspector of the mission for the conversion of the Huguenots. by extermination or deportation. " The secret meetings for worship. Glasgow. Eys wick. and which had for their object the reconciliation of the Calvinist and the Arminian doctrines respecting the Divine decrees. Monks and priests. There are therefore at the present time two distinct bodies in Scotland bearing the same name of " Eeformed Presbyterians. and that those are saved who co-operate with God by using the power of judging between good and evU which He infuses into This their understanding for the choice of good." The larger body numbers forty-five congregations and maintains six missionaries in the New Hebrides. and the stake were unsparingly used to put an end to those " Assemblies of the Desert. The fanatics to whom it was applied never called themselves by any other name than the Children of God (les Enfants de Dieu). discipline to the effect of suspension and expulsion from the Camisards CAMISARDS. in 1 69 7." as they were called. immediately protested against this formal ahandonment. Glasgow. three years. who emigrated to France in Saumur." a road-runner. Hetherington's Hist. 1702 to 1705. Branches of the Reformed Presbytery are found in Ireland and in America. was a man of learning. and others derive the word from "camis. the Minister of War. &c. 1784. A Church elders. It was set on fire. as they regarded it. they were redoubled. by M. and Montauban. others say that it arose from their wearing a white shirt. testants taking their A school of French Pro- These severities are known by a native of He the beginning of the seventeenth century. amounting to near half a million. to disguise themselves in their night attacks. express command of Luvois. Hundreds of Protestants went to the scaffold in Montpelier and Nismes. caves. of fundamental principles. and seemed on the point of succeeding. one of the bitterest of the persecutors. a cruel and systematic persecution had raged against the Protestants of the South of France. of the Church of Scotland. and the supposed instigator of the cruelties of De Baville." Three ministers and eight however. the mountainous district of the Cevennes was the theatre of a revolt which baffled the efforts of the generals of Louis. when the fanatic and cruel vengeance which the Camisards perpetrated against the Abb6 du Cheylu.8 of the General Assembly.d.

ferences and negotiations followed between him and the royalist captains. and refused to listen to any overtures. Cavalier." and executed on the Catholics of the plain of Nismes a wild vengeance. E. and the insurThe bands rection did not long survive him. but without subduing them. Eoland professed the gift of supreme inspiration. that of Martinarques under Cavalier. styling himself "Colonel of the Children of God. The " Children of God " believed themselves to be under the direct influence of the Spirit of prophecy. !N"ext year the Camisards opened the campaign by gaining their two greatest victories. They had a complete system of spiritual gifts and grades innumerable prophets arose among them. distress. Camisards historians. Laporte. and nearly five hundi'ed villages destroyed. I spake with Sr. and in 1703 Marshal Montrevel was sent with a powerful army to the seat of war. and the wildest utterances that could be prompted by misery." He was a man of politic and farreaching mind. ecstasies and trances were frequent. After this further Eoland died in battle. Catinat. which their excited fancy proclaimed to be supernatural. Eastelet. storm out of the cloud. and that they shall speedily have the gift of healing. who adopted a more humane and conciliatory policy. renew the struggle by Castinat. three hundred people were burnt alive in a miU where they had assembled for worship. but they were put down with terrible severity. and the leaders banished. They chose their leaders for their spiritual gifts. superior to the rest of the Cevenol leaders in intelligence. But these successes were instantly counterbalanced by the severe defeat of Cavalier at ISTages. He was however soon defeated. which he called the judgment of God. . yesterday to have spoken with you. and privation. the country was divided into military districts. not for their warlike skill. Nevertheless the indomitable Eoland was preparing to renew the struggle. I called at your Housa who am. Twenty thousand men had fallen in the last year of the war. they will demand an awful Eegard. In the summer of 1705 VUlars returned in triumph to One or two attempts were made to Versailles. and the result was that the terms offered were rejected by the other Cevenol leaders. who solemnly affirms that there is a gift of languages among them. and died in 1740. offering a free pardon to aU who would lay down their arms. they were known as the " French Prophets"). were dispersed. 100 . succeeded him as leader. but Cavalier was detached from the cause. and by his desertion caused its ruin. especially Cavalier. but the wildest superstition . the scene of his first triumph. The cause of the revolt of the Cevennes was barbarous tyranny. became Governor of Jersey. Conprovided that his religion were respected. and of the Bridge of Salindres under Eoland. who would be satisfied with nothing short of absolute religious liberty . who stole back from exile . as in Holland and Germany. and marched forth to conquer or die " for the eternal.— . and the greater part of the country was reclaimed by the generous policy of ViUars. Salomon. On one occasion. Eoland took the title of " General of the Troops of the French Protestants assembled in the Cevennes. and the country was reduced to a desert. and soon shewed himself the most capable leader who had yet appeared. refusing all compromise to the last. and often of the lowest origin. His nephew Eoland was unanimously raised to the chief command. Sir. a veteran soldier. and the country — was completely exhausted. Cavalier entered the English service. Shortly afterwards Laporte was surprised and slain. He defeated the Camisards in two pitched battles at Vagnas and Pompignan. Innumerable skirmishes only added to the strength and boldness of the insurgents. and professing the warmest admiration of the Cevenol leaders. Thirty-two parishes were entirely desolated." At their nocturnal meetings sights and sounds were never wanting. are indicated by the following letter: " Dear Sir. gifts to which these fanatics England (where. were regarded as the teachings of the Spirit. while he was their equal in rehgious enthusiasm. Among these may be named Castinat. Under him the insurrection took the shape of an organized revolt . But Cavalier was won over by his courtly antaand declared himself anxious for peace. day. who afterwards became famous in the annals of the Cevennes. The reprisals of the Camisards doubled these atrocities. Bulkeley yester- originally a baker The supernatural laid claim in Meanwhile Montrevel had been succeeded by Marshal ViUars. and burnt alive at Pont de Montvert. and that specimens will be printed . and magazines of arms were laid up in the caves of the mountains. I would desire you to reftain printing anything against them for a while . But its animating spirit from first to last was not rational resistance. " lilce the Camisards gonist. for if these (truly miraculous) are manifest. Castinat and Salomon were broken alive on the wheel at Montpelier . committing the most horrible cruelties." Around him was gathered a number of chiefs of various character. Cavalier was accompanied in the field by a prophetess of gigantic stature. Something of the mystic was displayed in the character of the most politic of their chiefs. fought with desperate valour at Almanza. His chief associate was the young and brilliant Cavalier. Siguier was moved by a vision to that attack on Du Cheylu which was the outbreak of the insurrection. each under a subordinate chief. and other chieftains. Catinat. who by his military talents nearly ensured the triumph of the revolt. Catinat and Eavenal were burnt alive at Msmes. At the head of sixty thousand men he swept the country. and the victors of an hour before suddenly saw themselves reduced to extremities. resistance was hopeless. taken. and in this it stands apart from all the popular movements in favour of religious freedom which took place in the same age. Eavenal. An indecisive battle was fought at Champ Domergue. Salomon. and of Eoland at Brenoux. between the Camisards and the royalist troops under Captain Paul. and Eavenal.

while exhibiting at the same time a perfect sinless obedience and faith. plus baptism by im- 101 . 1790. Burnet. and not for the elect only . Lond. In the census report of 1851. Kennett. departed frona Brush Eun in 1828 to form a new community at Wellsburg in where they called themselves the " Mahoning Association.) Campbell subsequently established a congregation in Glasgow. ch. from the ministry of the Established Church of Scotland. and admitting persons to a communion in which the only test should be a satisfactory reply to the question "What is the meritorious cause of the sinner's acceptance with God?" The first place of worship built for this new communion was at Brush Eun. Gampbell. 1862." tists The Bap- again opposed CampbeU. of the General Assembly." and established the separate congregations of which it was formed on the Virginia. whose imaginary inspirations " contradicted the law and the testimony. and Virginia. and the younger of the two. 84. in the sense that in believing the Gospel there is necessarily present in the mind of the believer the certainty that he is (according to the views stated in the preceding articles) the object of God's love. Ohio. by sentence of which body Mr." On A Indiana. Mrs. Mr." They originated with an Irish preacher of the Presbyterian Seceders named Thomas Campbell. 39]. and the former separating off in the year 1812 the Campbells and their adherents were all re-baptized by immersion. Alexander. and not in any sense as consisting in a vicarious satisfaction of justice by His death. re-forming his congregations ciples. Illinois. February 27th." and "Eeformers. 1810. ii. of a confession of human sin and of sorrow for sin . In England they sought in vain to join the Methodists. the gift of the Spirit. MS. 1870. but its to represent the At-one-ment as general aim is wrought out in the love exhibited by the whole of our blessed Lord's life. This pattern of dogmatic simplicity and primitive unity was. CAMPBELLITES. the question was remitted by them to the General Assembly. This" \Lansd. Bray's an offering to the Father in Christ's character of man's representative.] American Baptists known also as "Eeformed Baptists. CampbeU. in which the Incarnation being regarded as the principal means of man's redemption and restoration. CampbeU died at Eoseneath. 3rd ed." Dr. July 11. de Bavile. and is very diffuse . that Christ died for all men. 1709. and fourteen Dr. 1831. Argyllshire.] Revolt of the Protestants in the Gevennes. but were repelled. A sect of 15. the humanity and life of our Lord are represented as themselves the Atonement. Pennsylvania. who had been educated at Glasgow. f. Weimar. with the two Campbells for its joint pastors. few are to be found in British North America and in England. Missouri. John M'Leod Campbell. the Eev. and all things pertaining to life and godliness. and they now number many congregations in Kentucky. AMEEICAN. Campbell's work is written in a style far from clear or attractive.Campbellites yr. 1760. 1717. ed. Villefranche. iv. immediately divided into Psedobaptists and Anti-Pffidobaptists. Southey's Wesley. Histoire des Troubles des Gevennes.e. on Independent or Congregational and calling his foUowers "The prin- Dis- assuming this independent position the Campbellite sect began to extend itself largely. J. Wesley pronounced them to be a set of enthusiasts. Proceedings Story's Life of R. Campbell was deposed on May 24th. the Campbells aroused the jealousy of the Baptists. originated a movement for the promotion of unity on the plan of ignoring all creeds. in some to the Calvinistie standards of the Kirk. 1872. 1629. and settled in Washington county. The judgment could hardly have been other than it was. Their present sectarian position is that of the Independents. chiefly on account of the hideous circumstances which attended their pretended inspirations. were plainly contradictory. 8. Hist. or EOWITES. and was opened on September 7th. and (without on his own part ever formally seceding from the Kirk of Scotland) officiated as its minister from 1833 until 1859. Dumbartonshire. that he has the remission of sins. Greenock. and he finaUy separated from them. Campbell. p. of the Gamisards. ou de la Guerre des Gamisards. [3] that personal assurance is of the essence of faith. On an appeal to the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr. 71. Brethren. was condemned by the Presbytery of Dumbarton for teaching : [1] the universality of the Atonement. Campbell's views have in the afternoon. i. i. They desired to join the Moravian 938. CEuvres de Louis XIV. M. and formularies. affectionate Bro'r. and his son Alexander Campbell. in which we share by fellowship with Christ. 94. with about thirty of their adherents. bestowed by the free grace of God. Gountry of the Gamisards. (afterwards Dr. Memoires M. Dr. 1869]. of Ms own Times. CAMPBELLITES. 1831. for the opinions of Mr. Memoires Historiques. Cavalier's Memoirs of the Wars of the Gevennes. Minister of Eow. Campbellites as W. ciples" or "Disciples of Christ. Schuk's GeschSmiles' ichte der Gamisarden. the obedience "even unto death. [The Proceedings hefore the Presbytery of Dumbarton and Synod of Glasgow in the case of J. eleven persons were returned as having attended the place of worship of the " CampbeUites" on the morning of the census Sunday. at the beginning of the present century. [2] that God so far has pardoned all men as to make past sin no longer any barrier to the returning to God's love and favour . To the Eeverend Dr. 1726. Story of Roseneath. however agreeable to Holy Scripture. In the year 1830. who emigrated to America from the North of Ireland. StiU continuing their endeavours to promote union. lately attracted considerable notice in consequence of his work on the Nature of the Atonement [1856. and were received into the local Baptist community as members of that body. Life of Galamy." \Hist. 'The death of Christ is considered respects however. confessions of faith. 1870. original footing of "unsectarianism.

so that no kind of deed is left undone. 636. xxix. He could escape the control of the angels. adv. de Civit. " docebat omnem turpem operationem. fax totius continentise." The idea of a special grant of power. 20. who founded this world . He held there was one principal Virtue from whom proceeded all other virtues and angels. [Epiphanius. CAPHARNAITES. is A sect of heretics of this i. A Ko." but Ittigius considers that " Canistae" is only a misreading for " Caiaistas. De Frcescr. vii. which must go through every experience. one of the very earliest teachers of His name appears thus in Irenseus. the " last farthing" is the migration of the soul. and the whole body of Christians sufi'ered from the bad name acquired by the Carpocratians. Augustine speaks of the Cynics as "illi canini phUosophi" [Aug. Luciferianos. He was endued with a more robust soul. i. but all agree in placing it ia the former half of the second century. Hippol. as it were. TertuUian.v A delivered to a minister. There is nothing evil in nature except as men think it ipyaa-lav. Carpocratiani by Augustine and most The date assigned to the birth of Carothers. in his introduction to St. Cf. i. and elsewhere]. [Karaites. and his eon Epiphanes. and through the agency of this inherent virtue or power discharged the debt of nature. i. Campitce mersion as an essential requirement for admission to their body. and Massuet's Dissertationes Prcevim. and so went to the Metempsychosis and the pre-existence Eather. a few fragments of which are extant in Clemens Alexandrinus \Strom. except it overthrew the yoke of the angels. The resurrection of the body was of course rejected by them. 317. CAPUTIATI. who died young. 48J." says Augustine.] It is manifest that. induced the belief that the career of Jesus might be achieved by any man who had strength to . mentioned by Theodoret \IIcEr. and so became eligible for the liberty of heaven. and was suppressed by troops They led by the bishop of the latter diocese. Dei. 25. It is remarkable how exactly this corresponds to the Platonic view. Carpocrates. Carm. writes " Carpocras.. virtue was given Him by the Great Eirst Cause. whereby He retained the recollection of things seen in a former state of existence. though better than other men in integrity of life. These sectarians called themselves Gnostics. the founders of the world. and writers are divided as to the exact time when his sect took definite form . fanatic sect of the twelfth century which caused much excitement in Burgundy and Auxerre.] coincides with that of Basilides. by Clement of Alexandria [Strom. Mefiit iv. 22] among the heretics who mutilated the Gospels. 430.d. i. Hoeres.] CAELSTADT. omnemque adinventionem peccati. de Hceresibus. The adversary there (whom he named Abolus) is one of the angels who made the world and has the special charge of taking souls to judgment . DansBUS. Memoires Kirchengeseh.] CAEPOCEATIANS. 10]. 1182. Irenaeus. however. "Prison" is the body ." and that the Cainites It may. GANIST^. of the soul was an integral part of the system. under whose patronage they professed to be acting. 59 — — tion in a gross and material form. contra Hmres. " qui Evangelia laniaverunt. 26 was advanced to support this position. Carpocrateni by ISicetas. about a. Thus bad deeds as well as good were necessarily wrought in pursuance of this idea. A controversial designa- from John tion sometimes applied to those who hold the doctrine of Transubstantiavi. but by Epiphanius and Philaster he is called CarThis form is adopted by Baronius. [Abecedarians. JAeyj^o/xevas /t^ Troirjcracrag CAMPITJi. who pocras. Eaith and charity alone were necessary i. 27. Augustine's work on heresies. be are the heretics referred to. name given to the small Donatist congregation at Rome. xiv. but a man truly bom of the seed of Joseph. The of&ce of leading souls to judgment is given by Pythagoras to Mercury [see also Hor. they are and this life becomes consummated to no one until all those blemishes figure it which are held to dis- its conduct. temporary of Basilides in the time of Adrian. They are however named by Jerome \adv. iii. and being thus strengthened with the memory of things divine. Eusebius.aa. without some corrective. but not before he had written a book entitled De Justitid. 2. to proclaim universal They derived their name liberty and equality. Lardner denies that the founders countenanced any of the grosser impurities : have been fully displayed in Some details of his life have been preserved. 48 . sur VHistoire d' Auxerre. and put again into another body to work out their admission to heaven. being there convicted of not having done everything. and the majority of writers . 23. Augustine. virtues : all others were useless.] CARAITES. and hence the earlier writers do not 199] hesitate to speak of the heresy in the bitterest terms. 35. vii. some as early Eusebius says he was a conas the year 120. 25 ." His followers are called Carpocrasii by Epiphanius. he maintained. 52. de Anima. ftex omnium hsBreticorum. name and 549]. In most respects the teaching of their founder [Basilidiaks. suggests that they were so named " a caninis et turpissimis moribus. fab. An extraordinary interpretation of our Lord's parable in Matthew v. heresy. from caps ia which they wore as a badge a leaden image of the Blessed Virgin. It does not appear that they formally renounced any of the New Testament. Carpocratians not born of a Virgin. branch of Gnostics who derived their doctrine from Carpocrates of Alexandria. pocrates has not been given . in allusion to their being driven to the plains outside the city for the purpose of carrying out unmolested their religious rites A and ceremonies. the soul could not attain the height of perfection. His wife was Alexandria of Cephallenia. In a former state. this system appears to encourage sin [Mosheim. remarked that St. that Jesus Christ was 102 which are specifically charged upon their followers.. but that their principles led to them is clear . [Schroeckh's Le Boeuf. 1]. began.

1171]. and distinguished from them only in some one tenet. or assert that his father was a fables trace his descent The duke of Cornwall [Walch. [Ibvingites. 44]. and that of St. : still a youth. suppressing the obvious answer that John Baptist came not in the person but in the spirit and power of Elias. 506].d. Sirom. 57] speaks of Floriani. xvii. who took their name from the place where they held their first assemblies. Jude.d. A local name for the Mani- [Aug. where he was employed in pleading the causes of cities or communities before the higher tribunals [nobilis natu. vol. chees. A name given to or assumed by the Prophets. Alex. CATEOPITES. are thought to have been directed against the first appearance of the unsound views which developed into this heresy. 49. it is thought that Carpocrates must have died before him for a temple is even said to have been erected to him at CephaUene and worship paid Marcellina to him [Clem. he wrote three epistles. A ad aim. xlvi. de Orig. the first of twenty-four councils in connection with the He then Pelagian controversy [a. left Africa. This name was that by which the Albigbnses were earlier days. a deacon of Milan and the biographer of St.]. 1559. Hist. Prsedest. Hmr. Common. 243. ad Led..]. et Celestians CATHAEIST^.] brought to Eome [a. before he had embraced the doctrines CAT^SCHINETANS [ol Kar' AtVxuViyv]. et reli- quas mahgaationes. 30.] CATHAEI. bishop of that city. from a Gaelic chieftain in the wilds of Erin. rejecting the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon. but without great influence.] CATABAPTISTS. [4] that a man priest's orders. It is not known whether he was an Italian by birth or an Irishman .] of these are used in the East than the West. p. composed mainly of mihtary men. saying that he would appeal to Eome. to his parents. as countenancing a migration of the soul. [Pboolianists. Each xviii.d. The notes of Eabricius and Galeardus on this author. named by Baronius [anno 120. A sect of Montanists CAETESIANS. the Saviour Himself. ed. vii. given by Migne [Patrolog. It is said to have been first [CincuMOBLLioNS. p. Eeferences to modern writers are given by Lardner and Mosheim. The second Epistle of St.] early Anabaptists.] who were of Pelagius. that he was of noble birth.d. explanatory of his change from secular to monastic which contained no symptoms of the errors afterwards disclosed. xii. de Hmres. and by the excellorioes of knowledge. Annal.] CATAPHRYGIANS. One more fact relating to his early life is preserved by Gennadius While certain Solomon. Cselestius was studying at Eome when Pelagius arrived there from Britain early in the fifth century.] oniropompos. hut qualified to rival. Paul.]. the latter view is based on an expression of St. 412]." They are said also to have branded their followers with a hot iron " in posterioribus partibus exstantise dextrse auris. Ketz.] CATHARI. Garnier]. CELESTIANS. De Monaster io. philtra quoque et charitesia. They chiefly known in their are also frequently so called by later ecclesiastical historians. Much later variety of this sect. if not to excel. of the size of little books. although dying at the age of seventeen. [2] that the sin of Adam hurt himself only and not mankind. until the sixth century.d. to the example of Elias [Matt. especially the four subjoined [1] that Adam was created mortal. Hence too they arrive at the unknown Father. An alternative name fre- quently met with for the Pelagians [Aug." The spread of the heresy in the East was more rapid than in the "West. From the importance attached to Epiphanes.] which the context permits to he referred to either Pelagius or His contemporary Marius Mercator C^lestius. that the particular point in which they differed from the common blasphemy of the Cataphrygians was that they affirmed Christ to be Himself Son and Fatherin Ittigius one [Tertull. and that whether he sinned or not he would have died .] branch of the Eutychian heretics belonging to the sixth century. adored indiscriminately images of Christ. and the [Ittig. On reaching Africa [a. may he [Montanists. cap. sect survived. nostri temp. possibly followers of Ms- life.Cataschinetans despise the angels. Hceres. toasted themselves not only equal to the Apostles. CAUCAUBAEDITES. Jerome \in Jerem. omn. iv. Hist. 335. Peter. 3]. [Anabaptists. Hcbv. a Some xli. auditorialis scholasticus. Philaster [de Hares. Ambrose. .] latter with Montanus. an empiric of Athens in the second cenThe writer who supplemented TertuUian De Prcescriptione hcereticorum with the work Adversus omnes Hceretieos says. naturae vitio eunuohus. adv. . more commonly and Pythagoras. [Novatians. They followed the party of Severus of Antioch and the Acephali. Ixxxviii. 410-11] after the sack of Eome by the Goths. easily if without sin and keep the commandments ho will. : CELESTIAL PEOPHETS. as well as accumulation of work. by a council 103 . 12].] CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC CHUECH. contain many references to other sources. : CATANI. 412-431]. and was condemned at Carthage [a. 160] by Marcellina. Great weight was attached by this sect. [3] that infants new born are in the same state that Adam was before his fall . Baron. presided over by Aurelius. Irenseus charges them with magical superstitions. Caelestius returned an evasive CATAPROCLIANISTS. but was publicly challenged by Paulinus. 1151. [Nicephor. further adds. [Descartes. et paredros. iv. Ixxxviii. [Cainites. identifying the former with the Person who inspired the Apostles. and accompanied him to Africa [a. also says that they distinguished between the Holy chines. with having taught various false doctrines. tury. but everything which could excite to virtue \de Vin's Ilhistribus. de Hceres. Many sects known by different names are allied to the Carpocratians. " incantationes. 411] he applied for Spirit and the Paraclete. answer to these accusations. and of some weight at the bar. or ZwiOKAff [Hosius.

[LuLLARDs. to whom one lamp appears manifold.d. are told by Irenseus. the existence of evil. the resurrection of the body. and he promised to renounce all things which that see did renounce." But the letters which hereupon Zosimus wrote in his favour. contra Hmr. which had been written by his predecessor of holy memory. principle was known to men as the Creator of the world. have been attributed to him. that Cerdon confessed his errors. one evil . record. maintained that the Saviour was clothed with the appearance of flesh. but sect CEEDONIANS. 4]. was pleased by the deference shewn by When he asked him Caelestius to the papal see. he wandered about in the East without being able anywhere to establish his views. adopted Gnosticism. His first appearance at Eome is assigned to the year 141 . He rejected the whole of the Old Testament of the Gospels. 429]. Trov-qpov. or Cerdo. 2] compares Cerdon and his followers. one. at St. he refused to renounce the articles objected by the deacon. to the blear-eyed. 19] accuses Cerdon of holding three first causes. Paul's Epistles.d. as some have rendered it. strange views. 417]. A and says his disciples added a fourth. SiKatov. x. We The name Cerdonians. The word used by Irenaeue. iJ'Atji/ CELLITES. Alban's [a. at Eome [a. who slightly varied the ordinary teaching of Simon Magus and Saturninus. virginity therefore in his system was highly com- mended.d. Brit. and could give his assent to the letters of the apostolic see. where he succeeded in being ordained priest. probably foreseeing that his cause was hopeless. Cerdon denied also the Incarnation . were ignored by the various African synods. and when their indignant replies reached Rome. No writings he is mentioned by some as early as 125. of course. 431]. and a sentence of banishment from the civil court. . 430]. d<^to-T(£yU6vos.. separated the Creator of the world from the Supreme Being. had He [Babdesanians. when. Tertullian \adv. CERINTHIANS. ayadov. and matrimony despised. although the exact [Pelagianism. that His sufferings were not real. doubtful whether he ever carried out his by a voluntary seces* intention. and assigned Him an intermediate place between the good and bad first cause. The Cerinthians were the the Judseo-Christian Church. Luke. whose difiiculties were similar to those of Cerdon. His position that the world was created by an evil principle necessitated a rejection of pleasure.. and that in part only . but again relapsed into open heresy. and the Apocalypse. The later followers of this heresy. and there at first met with a favourable reception from Zosimus. 104 . held that there were two first causes. that one was not subject or inferior to the other. accepted only that of St. where Attious its bishop would receive principles of neither him nor his doctrine. cap. in spite of a warning letter from Paulinus. did not long survive.] that derived its name from Cerdon. in 'their inability to see one God clearly.] The moral code of the Jews proceeded from the malevolent spirit. He was teacher of Marcion. where his death occurred within a few years. though it was not yet drawn out into a long detail of emanations. and of a Christ or Power of God descending upon a man Jesus to form Jesus Christ. Marcionem. but altogether rejected the Acts of the Apostles. appears in the main to have adopted the Simon Magus and Saturninus. After this he is said to have retired to the monastery at Lerins. where he is said to have broached some very Epiphanius considers him a successor in Of his death there is no heresy to Heracleon. it.d. Cffilestius was formally cited to appear again before the Pope . he acknowledged parts of some of St. whether "he would renounce all those tenets objected to him formerly by the deacon Paulinus. revealed by the law and the prophets.d. Cerdonians but it is Cerinthians as Valesius interprets sion. who had just succeeded Innocent I. their tenets are only disproved in writings against the Marcionites. that of the Christians from the beneficent hesitated to affirm. one good.^ and a little later on at Ephesus. but he did not dare to oppose the letters of the holy Pope Innocent. 416] he went to Constantinople. Secies. Origen \eontra Hcrt. being within the Church. or secret teaching of it. and who. instead of responding to the citation he disappeared from Eome . Antiq. Their Judaism was that which refused obedience to the Jerusalem decree regarding circiimcision their Gnosticism included the essential principles of that system. ix. except the treatise of Epiphanius against them. thence to SicOy. so that after a very short stay he travelled to Eome [a. Cerdon thus varied from those branches of the Gnostic heresy which held that the Saviour descended iu the flesh from Heaven. as Simon Magus earliest Gnostics of in a passage whore a fragment of the original Greek is extant. The evU. He maintained a distinct duality in the Supreme Being. since he was unable to account for such a passion on the supposition that it was allowed by a being infinitely good. and. Thus they held the doctrine of an inferior Demiurge.]. the good principle was the unknown Father of Jesus Christ.] date is unknown. and by others as late as 1 5 5. does not necessarily convey that he was ejected from the Church. and that this happened more than once. as a distinct sect. iii. because he is next found in Sicily. which were condemned at synods in all parts of Europe. and a sentence of excommunication presently followed from the ecclesias-' tical. but to have detached himself from them on the great He question of the day. at the General Council of Ephesus [a. but rather that he anticipated such an expulsion. Marcionites and others. A few years later [a. Cerinthus stands at the head of those who. which Bardesanes. a Syrian Gnostic. and associated with him at Eome in the publication of his special views. so that at last he separated himself from the communion of the faithful [Iren. ^ To be found at the close of the article on Pelagianism [Usslier. His subsequent history is obscure . and the summons to all accusers to substantiate their accusations. He denied.

and Eusebius be understood to speak of a more bold publication of the heresy. Cabbalistic Gnosticism was completed by Basilides and Valentinus. that at that time Cerinthus had begun to propagate his opinions. But there is good reason to believe that Eusebius is speaking of the outburst of heresies which had for some time been burrowing under ground [Hegesippus in Euseb. de Hmres.d. 2 " Fahricatoris.d. in the classification of them with the Ebionites and Mcolaitanes. He may at least have acted then with the AntiPauline party. a. while He was yet nevertheless more righteous. Jerome asserts the same [Procem. According to this heresy the world was not made by the primary God. while Christ remained impassable. ch. the Cerinthians allege that the Creator was one.d. p. Epiphanius \Hair. added to their Gnosticism more or less of Christianity. Epiphanius. porary evidence could set it aside. " usually translated "Creator. names Ebion instead of Cerinthus. a. Paul's writing to the Colossians. John meeting Cerinthus in the bath is too weU attested to be lightly thrown aside. 1. Cerinthus.d. Alex. First Apology.cceed Carpocrates. ites. V. must have been considerably advanced at the time of St. 26]. A. viii. Cerinthus' connection with the Ebionites leads us to infer that it must have been some time before. 1616]. cap. and Augustine [cap. Then follow [cap 26] Cerinthus. 120. prudent. 265. For it is not doubted that the Ebionites learnt their denial of our Lord's divinity and their partial Gnosticism from Cerinthus. but as being the son of Joseph and Mary according to the ordinary course of human generation. and at a distance from that Principality who is supreme over the universe. and then He proclaimed the unknown Father and performed miracles. The We described the schools that sprung from Simon Magus. If so. and Carpocrates. formed before a. 98-117. ed. i. but it is rendered probable. Satuminus with Basilides. Peter at Jerusalem. By Jerome [Ep. ad August. Hist. and was then probably aged. v. 75-85. then [HcBr.d. Moreover. ch. "Sic nova confessi sunt. being without the Church. but the Christ from above another. it is told in the usual terms. where he formed his sect. adv. ii. an early date. and then removed to Asia. note on Augustine. 481. therefore. "ut Vetera non amitterent. Christ descended upon Him in the form of a dove from the Supreme Euler. But there is stronger evidence for an early date. Upon the whole therefore we may adopt a.] The Judaism of the Cerinthians is not related by the older writers. and probably through Ebion. Paul [Clem. requires to be dated earlier. 3]. and appears to have been of Jewish extraction. E. 32]. Ixxxix. But for the earlier date 1823. Strom. that Ittigius allows that St. and led the opposition to Gentile liberty at Antioch. if not implied. p. Further. 60 ^ as the date of Cerinthus' heretical teaching. 26]. Mosheim remarks (and he and Epiphanius is not credulous of legends) that if the disagreement between Irenteus is to make us reject this story. and have afterwards adopted and propagated his Gnosticism. that. deriving from him the succession of Menander. He refers Menander. Bampton Led. Again. for he had heard Theodas. [EbionBut the doctrine of celestial emanations. it is Menander.D.]. i. viii. cannot choose but think sect. But that at last Christ departed from Jesus. Peter [Acts xi." but the translation " carpenter " is necessary for Jesus was said to be the Son of Joseph and Mary. but the Father of the Lord another and that the Son of the carpenter^ was one. H. p. VII. Basilides probably flourished about a. and the Mcolaitanes to the reign of Trajan.eo-Christian Church most direct contem- so strong that only the true. 60. there is no difficulty in believing that there may be some foundation of truth in Epiphanius' statement that Cerinthus in person opposed St. In the same way Cerinthus may be dated earlier. the greatest part of ancient history must be laid aside and accused of falsehood. the Ebionites.d. John's Epiphanius. 11] says expressly that John sought by the proclamation of his gospel to remove Corinthian errors. Paul in is. Again. 60 (the date assigned by WaterIrenasus is in favour of land) for this heresy. ed. Eeel. These reasons lead to the date a. xxviiii. it seems. He represented Jesus as not having been born of a virgin. 58-63.d.]. Against this conclusion appears to be Eusebius' authority. or a more definite formation of a sect at the time of Thebuthis. but by a certain power far separated from Him.. The Cerinthian heresy was probably. 23] he begins his account of the separate sects with Simon Magus. Cerinthians had succeeded Cerinthus su. and ignorant of Him Who is above all. not an jEon from . The Mcolaitanes also must be dated earlier. a disciple of St.' that circumcision and the observance of the other rites of the law were held to be necessary to salvation. He studied a long time in Egypt. 137-141 [Euseb. and then recurred to an earlier period for the beginning of the schools which sprung from For to suppose a chronological order Cerinthus. makes crates.] as opposed to the Catholic doctrine of angels. note 75. who also con' throughout would be inconsistent with Irenseus' own statement regarding the design of St. misunderstood GospeL Irenseus. The story of St." writes Jerome. and Valentinus came to Rome in the pontificate of Hyginus. that Epistle may refer to Cerinthianism [Dis. Cerinthians stands at the head of those who. "Waterland gives the date a.]. [See Danaeus. after His baptism. 184. see « which some assign to CarpoBurton. 106]. iii. Hcer. inasmuch as He was a spiritual being [Iren. torn. Irenseus [Hcer. It is quite clear that Irenseus the Mcolaitanes. iv. and wise than other men. and then Jesus suffered and rose again. Gnostic principles which he taught are given by Irenaeus. ad Matth." Cerinthus was circumcised. the Ebionites. as Carpocrates^ Basilides and Valentinus. 105 .]. for the internal evidence that the Apocalypse is is a work of the Jud. for he first describes the Gnostics generally . 11] . The undeveloped Gnosticism of Cerinthus points to an early date. a disciple of Simon Magus [Justin M. xvii. iii. and forgetting his own statement that Cerinthus opposed St.

things invisible and We have here the the Pleroma. ff. Dionysius. and xxx. but the time of its disappearance as a distinct body is not known. ii.] CHAZmZAEIANS. These statements may very well be true of the later sect. one universal irradiant Spirit. and p. Epiphanius names " angels " as givers of the law and prophets as well as formers of the world [Zfer.] from communion with ineffable \ihid. Millennium." to distinguish themselves from Christians. [Ebignites. Eucharist. [MiLLBNARIANS. or " Christ's brethren. which was generally received by the Jews and passed into the Judseo-Christian Church . Sac. The sect did not last very long. xxviii. except that they have in addition a partial acquaintance with and belief in the theory well-known to theologians. and hence are also called Staurolatrse [Niceph.] Max. which is his great enemy the devil . [EucHiTES. 705. put to death for sin. but this tenet was so closely connected with the notion of an inferior demiurge that perhaps we should not err in ascribing it to Cerinthus. deliverance from death by resurrection. being merged in other Gnostic sects . in celebrating the Holy [Demetr. that the beginning was Monogenes. See also DicT. style their congregations ecclesias to distinguish them from the churches of the apostasy. xii. Demetrius of Cizycus. maintaining a dual Personality in Christ instead of two ISTatures in one Person. see Lardner Credib. 138. Christ and His Apostles. and exalted to the heavens as a Mediator between God and man . He also including several periodicals. 414]. and is given as an illustration of the manner in which they invite persons to join their community: "Christadelphian Synagogue. and. the Eternal Eather. at the setting up of the kingdom of God . raised from the dead for righteousness. [THNEPiopsTCHiTiE. 814. CHAEUEGIT^. of which angels laldabaoth is the chief. descending upon Jesus the Son of the carpenter. Birmingham. and which claims "to be 'the sect everywhere spoken against. [1] of believing the glad tidings of Christ's accomplishment at His first appearing. Ijenseus reporting Cerinthus' own tenets. Regarding the statements of Cains and Dionysius quoted by Eusebius. An Armenian rogant sect of recent origin which owes its rise to a Baptist preacher named Watts. but same idea. and is not so by natural birth. art. and [3] of continuing in weU-doing to the end of this probationary career. Their name is derived from " Chaza. 4] ascribes to Cerinthus the holding the same doctrine of angels as Basilides.] CHEISTADELPHIANS. Cizycens. newly revived. There is little doubt that he did hold the doctrine. A small but ar- Supreme Being existing in clearly the named Bythus. E. and an inferior Demiurge. Caius." Their tenets are much the same as those of the Unitarian or Geneeal Baptists. speaks of the sect as stUl existing. man a creature of the ground. ii. Reliq. CHILIASTS. that the soul becomes immortal by supernatural regeneration. but that Logos was the true son of the OnlyBegotten. ii. [Millenarians. 5. Theodoret \Haer." and [v. which proves (they said) that Jesus was born of Joseph and Mary [xxviii.]. Hist Eccl. writing in the seventh century. CHILIOEETIT^. and of His coming manifestation in the earth as King of Israel and Euler of the whole earth. Burton translates the word " Creator. p. and flying back again into His Pleroma. and says that its adherents were Nestorians in principle. On Tuesday and 106 Thursday evenings . They have also a growing mentioned by Nicephorus. Chasinzarians tinued impassitle. and that the creation of our world was not effected by the Supreme God. It will be remarked that nothing is said of an assertion of the eternity of matter. in Bibl.] CHOEEUTJS. 28. and wine unmixed with water. dwelling in heaven. sect literature. the. Epiphanius relates that the Cerinthians used the Gospel of St. Edinbuigh. ac Chatzitzariorum. Matthew (mutilated indeed) on account of its genealogy. 400. and begotten by the Spirit of the Virgin Mary.] Those who denied the doctrine of a millennium sought to discredit the doctrine by insisting that it had been held by Cerinthus. [2] of beiag immersed in water for His name .. 14]. Swansea. senters. and Eouth. Lugd. 3] names "separate powers. 477]." They adopt the name of Christadelphians. xviii.] Lardner acquits Cerinthus of immorality [viii. not 11].' in the first century. under sentence of death because of sin." but adds a note that Mosheim " thinks this may rather be taken for Joseph the carpenter " [Burton's Bcmnpton it is set forth in the writings of Moses and the Prophets. and bodily glorification at the coming of Christ. There is no mention of other JSons. performs all one Lord Jesus Christ. Monogenes. but that he held it in the sensual form ascribed to him by some is not likely. of Theology. by which the Father fills aU and knows all. whom they coneider as apostates "They from the original religion of Christ. iii. fab. The members of the sect are described as worshippers of the cross. — and Oystermouth. and inheritance of the kingdom of God. but by some power lying far below Him and shut off Christadelphians records that they used fermented bread. de Jacobii. when He wills." The Christadelphians have places of meeting in London. Hoer. Son of God. iii. in light of glory inconceivable . offered to aU men on condition. Controversial misrepresentation is probably at the bottom of the charge. The following is a copy of the notice-board on one of their meeting-houses. art. 54]." the Armenian word for the Cross. in contradiction to the writings and teachings of the Clergy of the Church of Eome and her Harlot Daughters the Church of England and Protestant Dis- Led. On Sunday evenings at six o'clock for proclaiming the Truth — as the Demiurge. They profess to believe in " One God. from whom Logos. The Christadelphians meet within on Sunday mornings at eleven o'clock for worship and breaking of bread.

or An extremely fanatical sec- tion of the Donatists. [ClBODMOBLLIONS. and professed to number about 1000 members. as belonging CHKISTOLYTiE name to the sixth century. whose rise has sometimes been placed as early as a. It claims to be part of the American sect of Campbellites. and United Christians. and carried considerable weight with the infidels of his own and the succeeding generation. from the various hamlets or houses which lay in their way. Life of London. "Wakefield. as the controversy between the Catholics and the Donatists assumed more 107 . [Thomas' Who are the Christadelphians i 1869. One of the leading sceptics of the He was a selflast century [a.d. but was a most voluminous writer of Deistical pamphlets.." in Queen Street. but 160 only is the number given as attending the chapels on the enumeration Sunday. John of Damascus and by Nicetas Choniates. 1870]. At the time of the religious census of 1851 they had three places of meeting in England..] free ' CHEISTIANS. which is called the "Christian Church. there were eight congregations which returned themselves under this designation. Deism.d. Eitchie's Rel. 317. [False Christs. All seats however. and taught that the Second Advent was immediately at hand. of the World.past seven for reading and consideration of Scriptural subjects. half. as well as their name from their predatory and vagrant habits ("ciroum cellas"). fid. viii. of places registered [Xpitrros Xv<m]. The sect has a larger body of adherents in Australia than in England.] CIECUITOEES. it is because they have no light in them' [Isa. 41. New Christians. Methodists. CHEISTS. Christian at A ssociation tralia are. FALSE. In later times. [Sabians. p. and the sect. A sect founded a few years ago at Wakefield by a follower of Joanna Southcote named John "Wroe. as Unitarians \Relig. CIECELLIONS. An insignificant having for its leader an uneducated herb doctor at "Wakefield of the name of Hodgson. every Sunday for adoration of the greatness of God as manifested in His works of creation. but are practically undistinguishable from the great body of IndbPENDEKTS or " CongTegationalists.d. who gained their livehhood. but soon became extinct. p. when God's promises of restoration to Israel would be fulfilled. Protestant Christians. The Christadeljphian. and in the redemption of the world by His Passion. charged with imposture and no orduiary character. the inspiration of Scripture. but more generally about twenty-five years later [TiUe- mont. In the census of 1851 there were returned 96 places of worship belonging to sectarians so designated. Divinely inspired for the work. The sect has one place of meeting onl}"-. [Hickesites. [Nicetas. and every Friday to study the principles of revealed religion. such as it is. If they (the Clergy) speak not according to this "Word. obtaining food by begging. He was a great promoter of infidelity among the middle classes. vi. and that only his Divine Nature ascended into heaven. When a "religious census" of England and "W"ales was taken in the year 1851. They are exactly analogous to the Chbisto Sacrum in theory. Dict. Freethinking Christians. who died while on a visit to Australia in the year 1863. sects in A number of obscure local England and Wales distinguish themspecial of " Christians. To all of which the Public are respectfully invited. iv. Others to the number of 26 were appropriated to selves if by the name Christianity was peculiar CHEISTIAN ASSOCIATION". by violence. Primitive Christians. their aggregate number being given Free-Gospel Christians. It numbered at one time two or three thousand members. CIECUITOEES. which was to take place under the leadership of the Christian Israelites." as to them. that is of the lost tribes. CHEISTIAN CONNEXIOK A sect which A originated in the beginning of this century in the United States by the union of seceders from other sects— chiefly the Baptists.] this by them principles. Some of these sects still appear on the Eegistrar-General's list of licensed chapels. They consisted mainly of the poorer inhabitants of North Africa. He denied the Divinity of our Lord. To this end it was necessary that there should be a great ingathering of Israel. 20]. and leaders who professed to have no earthly and no inspired creed. but to be guided entirely by individual interpretation of Holy Scripture. Nothing is known of their and the name does not now appear on list the Eegistrar-General's for public worship. the future judgment and everlasting punishment. but they are not distinguishable from the sect ordinarUy known. a burgomaster of They met Delft in Holland [a. Tliesaur. Circumcellions profligacy of character. CHEISTIAN ELIASITES. living from hand to mouth. CHEISTIANS OF ST. Mem. CIECUMCELLIONS. Heretics of are mentioned by St.] CHEISTIAN ISEAELITES.] [Sceptics. 96]. or. Wroe pretended to be possessed of a prophetic gift. 291. Wroe's successors in Aus- the Divine Nature of our Lord. S^e. and followed the trade of a tallowchandler. and members of it there pretend to perform miracles. JOHN." It is believed that the Christadelphians are an increasing sect. ed. 1679-1747]. 339. the doctrine of vicarious suffering and intercession. Original Christians. Their name is derived Unitarian Societies in Lancashire and Yorkshire are accustomed to call themselves by this title. which was founded by Jacob Hendriok.] CHUBB. sect of recent origin. orthod. CHEISTIAN BEETHEEK Some from their distinguishing tenet that the Divine Nature of Christ was separated from His Human Nature when the latter descended into hell. o/Thbol. the truth of Scripture miracles. educated man." Presbyterians — CHEISTIAN DISCIPLES.] society for the union of all Christians who professed belief in CHEISTO SACEUM. Declaration of the first principles of the Oracles of the Deity. if that failed. 1797-1801]. at 800. To the La-w and to the Testimony. has assumed a very antichristian and no collections.

li. were permitted to be put in The force with their full severity by Honorius. 1244]. 1210-1250]. and Hermogenes" [Epiph. at the same time that this emperor was excommunicated. 391]. along with the more celebrated Adalbert.D.. 147-165.] Paris ed. Count Gregory [a. Aug. They taught [1] that the Pope was a heretic .d. They are mentioned in TiUemont's Memoir es. for the sake of food. and fine.d. vi. compeUing those whom they met to kill them. he was entirely free from the fanatical seKexaltation imputed to Adalbert. as did Merinthus. surrounding the houses (cellas) of the villagers. According to this. was armed with a of these lawless bands which was called an were condemned by Pope Innocent IV. It was not till the fifth century. a. received into communion [c. and more the character of a SaUying forth under two leaders named Faser and Axid (or Faserus and Maxidus). Their principles were similar to those of the Quakers.d. most cruel in putting others to death. sect of Donatists whom Primian.d. Opera. [3] that no priest in mortal sin could validly administer the sacraments . A art. Macarius. 347]. their contemporary as Bishop of Hippo " They are a class of persons idly abstaining from all useful employments. 405] to put out the eyes of their prisoners with lime and water. he contented himself with ordering it to be rebuilt at his own expense. ranging up and down the country. An obscure sect of the Anabaptists in the sixteenth century. or to expect their own death as the penalty for refusing to comply v/ith the strange request. Their fanaticism was of the most extreme type. and masters. commissioners were sent to Africa. and far less likely to attract the eyes of the multitude." he asserted that he might stUl continue in the state of a Christian bishop. who attempted a reconciliation by a distribution of alms and presents before resorting to harsher measures. 348]. They sought an imaginary martyrdom by suicide. without exacting any penalty from the perpetrators of the mischief. 32 history of the suppression and final extinction of the Circumcellions would be merely a repetition of the account of the Donatist schism. the Fathers who were regarded with the greatest reverence in the Western Church. Donatists. whence they have obtained the name of Circumcellions" [Aug. besides this habitual use of the club. CLAUDIUS. [2] that all bishops were guilty of simony . Circumcellions civil war. at Lyons [a. i. Boniface Winfred. and [4] amid a general abuse of aU. This can . after a decision adverse to Donatism had been pronounced by the imperial legate Mareellinus at the Conference at Carthage [a. vol. and in a. These were always regarded with dislike by Rome. He was accused of denying the authority of the canons of councils. 1694. which contains his accusation. and under the sanction of a religious cause committed every form of outrage so that they became notorious for their law- Clemens Scotus they were sufficiently numerous to be of considerable assistance to Genseric. Hair. at the second Roman Council. other modes of injuring their opponents were by degrees resorted to. iyi.D. and Cleobius. and assuming as their watchword the motto "Deo Laudes" [St. SCOTUS was an Irish bishop accused of heresy by St." in allusion to the staffs which the Jews held in their hands when they ate the Paschal lamb . which everywhere established diocesan Episcopacy. The name of Circumcellions is also given to a religious body which existed in Germany in Politically they were the thirteenth century. and Claudius. the successor of Parmenian in the see of Carthage. 340].d. I. who also called themselves " Fratres hortenses" because they were accustomed to meet in gardens. Augustine.d. king of the Vandals.d. confiscation. or rather the volunteer or militia bands of the latter. 745. Under his successor Constans. Their character is thus summed up by St. and Paulus [a. in a. and yet with a fanatical contempt of their own lives . in his desolating expeditions through Africa. "Hence Cerinthus and Ebion held Him to be a mere man. 429 : . hurling themselves headlong from precipices. It was also laid to his charge that though he had two sons " in adulterio natos. Aug. contra litteras Petiliani. they everywhere took the part of debtors against their creditors. 395-425] was undoubtedly caused by their excesses. and in the asseveration of an inward spirit which superseded them. Donatist.vi.d. The change from the mild policy of Constantine the Great 324-337] to the harsh measures of Honorius EA. Augustine. consisting chiefly in the repudiation of outward means of grace. passim. 6]. : " Israel. Circumcellions did not become totally extinct till the close of the same century. know nothing of the career of Clemens. and that. he says. contr. 411]. Episc. and Demas. When they demolished a church which the first named emperor had erected at Constantina. except from the letter of Boniface to Pope Zacharias. and Conrad ought to be commemorated instead of the Pope. [a. 146].] CLANCULARS. church teachers and officers. and of the writings of St. and. for the forms of violent death which they imposed on others were courted by many of the Circumcellions themselves. He was no doubt one of those dioceseless bishops of the ancient Church of Ireland who passed over in numbers to the Continent.d. [Pasagians. that the severe laws of banishment. But their religious views alone were sufficiently eccentric to have merited the sentence. Ursacius and Leontius [a. CIRCUMCISI. asserted that Frederick II. No other notice of Claudius appears in ecclesiastical writers. Gaudent. Their cruel habits are shewn by the fact that every member club. A. or Cleobulus. [Tillemont'sil/emOTVes. CLEMENS We 108 . it being a common practice with them in later days [c. Jerome. ii. Speaking of those who denied the Divine Nature and the Miracidous Conception of our Lord. A heretic of this name is A mentioned by Epiphanius. and of slaves against their lessness. CLAUDIANISTS. a. rushing into the fire. adherents of Frederick II. of which they formed so important a feature. and Gregory. 61.d. they formed the soldiery.

but that Grotius saw him nowhere . and then became lost in one of the larger Gnostic family of heresies. Theodotus and Cleobulus" [Ignat. 3. who probably retained the name of their founder only for a short time. and joined him with Simon. A severer sentence was passed by the Council upon Clemens than upon his fellow-sufferer Adalbert.T>. which regarded the Old Testament as a mere collection of national history and poetry. and gave no warrant for the imprisonment of Clemens. an apocryphal letter of the Corinthian Church. a contemporary of Simon Magus and Menander. and these CLEMENTINES. or Cocceius. and in the year 747 the mild and just Pope Zacharias vainly interfered to procure a more equitable examination of his case. CODDIANI. . vi. under the leadership of John Koch. that they produced much scandal in the Church.] A we know nothing. Cocceius maintained that there is a strict unity between the Old and the New Testament. a sayiiig which shows how largely the former must have influenced the recoil from that dry literalness of mere scholarship which characterized so many of the Lutheran and Calvinist writers of the seventeenth century. teaching that the prophets were not to be read. But it was a milder one than Boniface had demanded. &c. who says they were one of the seven Jewish sects. and at this time to have simply demanded the Pope's sanction of what he had done. making the Apostles say. in which we read. which signifies a dainty side-dish [iro/jo-^is]. Boniface accuses him still further of bringing in Judaism. i. Hoer. as that of any bishop would have been. a satirical name bestowed later upon the Jews by the Eomans in the days of the Empire. ad Trail. then the Devil wrought in the people to send after us false apostles to the corrupting of the word . 11]. suited to many times and persons. 22]. Of the ultimate fate of Clemens et anathematis vinculo obligatus). It became a common saying that Cocceius saw Christ everywhere in the Old Testament. tions. and that of Adalbert. that is by simony. that God was not omnipotent. As however the Mosaic law only allowed man dying without children. Ecd. local name of the Gnostics.] given to the adherents or followers of Clemens Sootus. iv. Epiphanius thinks that they were so called from the Syriac word Codda. since no evidence was given against the accused. The Apostolical Constitutions go a little more into detail. . He remained in prison nevertheless. 98. Cocceius was strongly opposed to the mode of interpreting the Scriptures which was adopted by Calvin and Grotius. CLEOBIANS. . and Menander and Basilides. disciples to one Dositheus. avoid the impure Nicolaitanes . Paul. whom despisthey deposed from the chief place" \Gonstit.] widow. in which they tell him that Simon and Cleobius had been spreading their dangerous doctrines at Corinth. A name A A CCELICOLjE. the Cleobians. and that it refers to the Gnostic peculiarities respecting food. as there was in the case of Adalbert. . especially their habit of feeding apart from others lest they should be polluted with " unclean " meats. by "absolute ordinations" as they were called. and that they disseminated many errors. Por these heresies Boniface. [AnAiiBERTiNES. Apost. [Euseb. Hist. Concil. v. it follows either that Clemens went far beyond the Mosaic law. " But when we went forth among the Gentiles to preach the word of life. . Beyond these vague notices nothing authentic is known of the Cleobians. and laid under an anathema (ab omni sacerdotal! officio sit nudatus This sentence cannot be termed a just one. viewing with special dislike the rationalistic tone of the latter. The commentaries of Cocceius on Holy Scripture were printed at Amsterdam in A. by maintaining that it was lawful for a Christian man to marry his brother's Church to St. Indeed he seems to have already put him in prison. xxvi. nor was he heard in his own defence. school of theologians which arose in the University of Leyden in the seventeenth century. "Avoid the branches which spring from the Devil. Tacitus mentions with astonishment the fact that they had no images in their cities. and that the fulness of the Divine Word is such that its language must bear many meanings. fab. who had already in the Synod of Soissons. [Epiph. avoid also the children of the Evil One. Sinion his first begotten son. and they sent forth Cleobius. Hair. COCCEIANS. In the year 853 the Council of Pavia passed its 18th and 23rd Canons against them. 8].] term used to deCLEEICI ACEPHALL signate those clergy who were ordained without cure of souls. very early sect of this name is mentioned by Hegesippus. Professor of Theology there. He was stripped of his sacerdotal office. and who generally obtained their orders by paying for them. 1701 in ten folio volumes. and denying the resurrection of the dead. Both these authors also assigned their origin to Cleobius. or else that the accusation against him was very loose and general.Cleobians hardly mean anything but that in the eyes of Boniface the marriage of Clemens was an adulterous connection. Archbishop Ussher further menin his commentary on the Epistles of Ignatius. 1]. from which it appears that they were mostly chaplains to noblemen. It is well known that there was no rule of clerical celibacy in the Irish CmlicolcE became ing. [Noetians. caused Clemens to be condemned and silenced. in the year 744. the Dositheans. CLEOMENES. With their testimony agrees that of the longer Ignatian Epistle to the Trallians. . believers and unbelievers alike. and not even inside their temples. that a proper interpretation of the former makes it full of evangelical revelations. now demanded from the Pope and Council of Eome that he should be imprisoned for life. the Simonians. [Harduin. and that he uttered "many other horrible" opinions concerning Divine prethis in case of a A destination. 109 . Theodoret names them in a similar connection [Theodor. The last thing alleged against him was that he said that Christ in the descent into hell set free all.

ad Eleusium." in imitation probably of the Mor- COGLEES. They recognise the necessity of baptism. An obscure sect of fe- A male heretics who lived towards the close of the fourth century. are ordered to return to the Church within a year under pain of having their conventicles forfeited. named Erancis Couper." Sianda's idea that they rendered idolatrous homage to the moon and the stars. and the widest diversity of opinion is permitted. apTos. Paul in his reference to " the worshipping of angels" [Jerome. leg. Baron. 683. viii. The word does not occur in classical*'Greek. 605. 284. "to_ every one a cake of bread" [2 Sam." man named Sirgood was the first teacher of the sect. and Gisbert van der Kodde. and other sectarians. They are said to have a " Book of Cople. and tit. however.d. This is probably the true meaning of their designation of " Coelicolse. 26. which they administer by immersion. [2." 12. 60. and.] sect of teetotallers having Kirdford in Sussex. leg. xiv.] COLLUCIANISTS. 16]. in Col. near Leyden. and who dare like the Donatists to rebaptize aU converts from without. " coUyridam panis unam. and also known as " Copiers. The ordinary shape and said to have resembled the boss of a shield. similar to those of the Scotch Presbyterians. Fr. 5].] These taunts may have reference to the pure monotheistic worship of the Jews. 43. i. but they shortly established their headquarters at Eheinberg. and were hence called also " Eheinbergers. He was also the publisher of the Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum seu Vnitariorum." They rapidly increased in numbers. and all the laws against heretics put in force against them. Their principle from the beginning has been to admit all persons to their society who are willing to acknowledge their belief in the Bible as inspired Scripture. Dutch sect of an eclectic character founded in a. 19] . appears to have been a round cake. The name is derived from the custom which they had of calling their communities " Colleges. 18].: Coglers [ffist. Donatists." satirist According to another the Jew is one who coeli "Et summas advocat auriculas. Cerem. KoAXvpt'Sa aprov. 5. and twice a year they have sacra- laws in the Theodosian Code [lib. offering little cakes in her honour. "cujus formae cum essent scutorum umbilici . 8. 44. \Ep. on Sundays and Wednesdays. 19] the Vulgate having. At the end of the seventeenth century the opinions of Spinoza had obtained a strong hold upon the Collegiants. Holland and Hanover. early in the fifth century. origin A their at COLLYEIDIANS. the residence of one of the brothers. Hist. vii. p. Annal. as a refuge from the bitterness of the Calvinist and Arminian controversies of the day. 163. The leader of the Spinozist party was John Bredenburg. rejecting the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. who attained some eminence by a work which he wrote against Bredenburg under the title Arcana Atheismi deteeta. ii. a merchant of Eotterdam. [Broad COLLEGIANTS. Bingham. xix. practising circumcision as well as baptism. partially relapsed into Judaism. according to the monotheistic principles of the Jews. V. vi. at Lev. vol. [LUCIANISTS. but it is used in the Septuagint. Antiq. and to worship all the host of heaven. and the name became applied to a fashion of dressing the hair by Eoman ladies. and their name is derived from this feature in their worship. but there is no regular organization of a ministry among them. Their form of worship consists of prayer meetings held Some such tendency is supposed to be condemned by St. its members considering themselves (but not being so considered by their neighbours) to be incapable of committing sin. no evidence that St. Feel. the chief characteristic of which is Antinomianism. Collyridians which they were followed by Spener and the Pietists of Germany. being founded on a misinterpretation. i. but no confession of faith is used. whose doctrines are an mental meetings extending over several days. They idolized the Blessed Virgin Mary as a goddess. and at the present time they still form a considerable body in Juvenal describes them as persons et cceli •who "Nil prater nubes [Sat. p. [Picart's Bel.] unheard of superstition. in which they are ranked with the tit. COLENSO Churchmen. or to a certain image supposed to have fallen from heaven and erected at Carthage. They are specified for condemnation in three distinct xvi. and to the narrative of the cloud in the wUderness and on Mount Sinai [Exod." [Petronius. and he was opposed by a bookseller of Amsterdam. Lucian really countenanced Arian misbelief. li. 1737. and to serve Baal [2 Kings xvii. de Hmret.] numen adorant. are also rendered by coUyrida " in the Vulgate. vi. bishop of Antioch. a fact which is corroborated by St. 1619 by three brothers named John James. and attracted many to their society from other sects during the last century. xiv. The Greek KoWvpa. is . in this passage. et suggestus comarum. Manichaans.] The name is applied to certain heretics who.] CONTEOVEESY. with separate places of meeting. but they may also be justified by a relapse of the Jews into those idolatrous habits which led them in old times to make molten images and a grove. This name was assumed by Arius and by Eusebius of Nicomedia [Theod. Augustine. 97. There is. or KoXXvpk. worshipping only the God of heaven. The two parties were reunited on the death of these two controversialists. ad ann. Hadrian. Lev." in 110 A The Greek cre/^tSaXts. and caused a temporary division of their members into two parties. p. and to take it as the guide for Christian life . The Collegiants' first place of meeting was at the village of Warmand.] . '_' monites. at which any men of the community may pray and expound the Scriptures . 950. p. 5] to signify that they were in doctrinal agreement with the martyred Lucian. ed. They are described as a new and audacious sect of Jews.

is i. vi. having gone thither from Thrace. Antiit DICOMAEIANITES. a Gnostic teacher of the second century. and that there would be no true resurrection of the flesh . ui. 1]. s. The Egyptians also paid an unfit honour (-inrep to Beov rifiija'avTes AiyijTrTiot avrl Qeov) to Thermutis. Hcer. 251-261 or as he . In his book directed specially against the Collyridians. [Mosheim. the daughter of Pharaoh who brought up Moses. which took the form of honour in excess. and Tillemont.]. iv. COor COLOBROSIANS. COLARBASIANS. note. name and not in that of the Trinity. the seven churches mentioned in the Book of Eevelation [3] that Christ was not a true man. 79]. i. whence Christ was called Alpha and Omega . hie quoque nomen id adeptus est " [Hoffman's Lexicon. fab. iv. adv. where the annotator suggests th(p! Mosheim was thinking of that of his personal history beyond the fact that he was the successor of Menander. that they had been attached to some such form of worship which was customary among pagabs . It is shewn that there were indeed orders of deaconesses for certain church work. It is conjectured with great probability that the women who practised these rites were simple persons. Park. 324]. v. Eor the heresies in defect and in excess are equally noxious (wTTj yap or d/xcjiOTcpais Tavrais Tais alpecrecrtv 17 Coluthians Maptav /ir/Seis Trpoa-KWUTUi) \H(Br.a tjjs aenrapOiVov KoXXvpiSa Tiva eTTiTeXetv). The entire absence of reference to this heresy after Epiphanius proves that it was very short-lived. Thus impatiently rushing into schism. Ixvi. with considerable heathenism among them . 78. and spread a linen cloth thereupon. It is an instance. there were some ceremonies in honour of a maiden (eis Svofia nji Koprjs). much less to discharge any sacrificial function. Eccl. and offered it in the name of the Virgin. Hist. The main feature in their thus described. At Sicimi. [4] that there were two contrary supreme principles of good and evil at work . (os els ovoj>. afterwards Neapolis. Antidicomarianitas]. He was . evr]v6)(a(TLV. 40]. Murdock and Soames.iv inrep KarevTeAtfovTcov to Seov So^a^6vT<Dv). 410. assisting in the baptism of females and the like. 50. xi. These derive their named from Colorbasus. [Hippol. ed. She should be honoured. When Hosius of Cordova was commissioned by Constantino to inquire into the Arian controversy in a council at Alexandria [a. and Valentinus. He associated much with Marcus. Coluthus began to ordain priests as if he were himself a bishop [Theod.a/3ij' rSv [ikv rijv aylav TLapOivov. 43. &c. lib. 12. Epiphanius. Erom abundant instances in. and Epiphanius cites in illustration of such a practice two cases in which Avomen had divine rights paid to them instead of honourable commemoration. about a.] COLUTHIANS. 83. offered cakes of some sort to the goddess Venus and to Astarte. and seceded from the communion of the Patriarch Alexander. Historico-Theologic. through discontent at the moderation which that noble champion of the truth shewed in the first instance towards the rising heresy. very remarkable passage in Jer. introduced this new fashion (tovto ye to Kevo^xovrjfia.]. viii. [5] that baptism should be administered in his ovra. called by Gregory of Nyssa. Theodor. condemned by LOBEASIANS.d. . that is. and never TTjoea-ySuTCjocSes . and that these were called Trpecr/JiJTiSes. [2] that life was to be sought in the seven stars.d. The heathen. It is worthy of notice that the Eeformers of the sixteenth century argued from this treatise against the Collyridians that image-worship was abhorrent to the mind of the early Church. Hoeret. 4].. 13. These ceremonies took place once only in the year. with one of whose pupils named Bassus he is identified by Philaster [Hcer. They all in the end partook of the bread thus offered. TrdX. of whom it is said in the sacred narrative that a memorial celebration of her death was instituted by the daughters of Israel [Judg. the Old Testament veurdo). . and a treatise by him against them [ifer. 576. Collyridians matronis Eomanis in usu.] confutation in Epiphanius is directed against two errors of the heresy.] COLOEBASIAN"S. 577. it is known. and on this they placed bread previously prepared. is proved that men alone discharged this duty. Eeferences are also made to Walch. Collyrd\. [Jewel. Historie der Ketzereien. Marcus. Eunom. Soc. Refut. derived from the memory of Jephthah's daughter. he says. bishop of Pergamus. Eorbes' Instruct. that women were not even allowed to speak in the Church. Kal Yios. Bp. t(Sv 6e Collyridians existed. Theodotus.79. Almost our whole information on the subject of this heresy is derived from a notice in Epiphanius \Hmr. and then went on to develope a new heresy in the opinion that God is not the author of those just punishments which providentially afilict men [Aug. and that on embracing Christianity they had adapted the old ritual into the new worship. /ia/cpoTijTes to-oTijTes. but surpassed him in the strangeness of some of his doctrines. i. In the former passage he speaks of the dishonour cast upon the Blessed Virgin by the Antidicomarianites naturally producing a reaction. of extremes meeting. omn. one of the Alexandrian clergy at the time when Arius was first coming into prominence. contr. Little is known y8A. 1 8. Hceres. but God alone worshipped ('Ev rifiy ea-Tb) MapCaing to the Blessed Virgin Q 06 IlaTrjp. 319. which were the following: [1] that the scheme of salvation was contained in some mystical way in the Greek alphabet. fab. Koi aylov Tlvw[ia irpovKV- thus [Greg. 43] but not by other writers [Theodoret. [1] The ojQferis The Mary worship which due only to God. Philaster. and [2] the irregularity of women taking upon themselves the office of the priesthood. sec. iii. 8. Hcer. Some women used to decorate a four-cornered chariot board (8t<l>pov Terpdyiavov). he was also directed to inquire The followers of Coluthus. The rites is as has been said. 4. ed. Some women in Arabia. AcoluNyss. xi. Memoires. Epiphanius repeats what was said before about this heresy being a sort of reaction. chiefly in Arabia. xii.Trjv 7] .

] [Concorezenses. and were more than 500. which Dr. the harmless solitaries of Port-Eoyal. Coluthus and his adherents "were summoned before the council. The opponents of Eome had always possessed [Mceph. the publication of the Papal bull was the signal for the rise of a new and hostile Jansenistic sect. in Bibl. who wished to establish the independence of the American Dutch Calvinists. the war between Jesuit and Jansenist. CONCOEEZENSES. vi. Alex. and expelled from their homes. At length Clement XL. The name by which the mediseval Catharists.] CONONITES. frequently . . and the adherents of the appeal were soon a numerous and powerful minority of the Galilean Church. and actual violence tumults and disgraceful scenes. afterwards more gene- were known in Lombardy in the thirteenth century. who were called Philopponists." and which appears to have been a form of clinic baptism and imposition of hands [Eeiner. Eeiner. Ketz. in Bihle Max. The fanatics who obtained this name appeared in France in the second quarter of the eighteenth century and vanished before the commencement of the nineteenth. was called the " Coetus Party. Mem. [Protestant Confessions. having resumed his place as a parish priest in one of the districts of Alexandria. CONCOEENSES. besides other high dignitaries and learned doctors. Already. which had been appeased by the wisdom of Clement IX. &c. 49. [Concoeezbnses. CONCOEETir.d. 762. an immediate effect of the religious ardour which was awakened by the banishment of Quesnel and the suppression of the Pobt-Eotalists. which claimed on Quesnel's behalf to appeal from the Pope to a general council. i. eontr. Louis XIV. CONFESSIONS.] only to those Catharists who were received among the " Perfects " when in danger of death by means of some rite which was called the " consolamentum. They were a remote product of the posthumous strife which Jansenism [JansbniSTs] had bequeathed to the Eoman Catholic world." and during which there were "scenes of animosity.] COMMUNISTS. Max. G]. the unworthy successor of Pfere la Chaise. at the instigation of Le TeUier. Walch. [Epiph. 320. desirous if possible to quell the scandalous controversy. Brownlee.. speaks of as " a war that waged for fifteen years with unmitigated fury. Concorezenses into the Meletian and Coluthian schisms." &c.] CONVULSIONAEIES. 340. Conon maintaining that the matter only and not the form of bodies is corruptible. by conforming to the customs of the Church of England as set forth in the Book of Common Prayer.1 COMAEISTiE. far from being extirpated by those harsh measures. An opposite section. They counted among their numbers one cardinal (De Noailles). name temporarily given to those Puritan clergy who accepted the conditions required by the Act of Unilbrmity of a. on the question of the resurrection of the body. had both exiled the innocent Quesnel. 1661. Lugd.] [Concorezenses. turies. issued the famous bull " Unigenitus. [Antiburghers. and that hence their matter wiU be revived in the resurrection without being limited by their present form. TiUemont. and on the recantation of their Cowvulsionaries CONSOLATI. Patriarch. in 1699.] some popularity in France. Ixix. who wished to make their community in the Western Continent entirely dependent on that in Holland.000 in number [Eeiner. CONSTITUTIONAL ASSOCIATE PEESBYTEEY.] [Bible Communists. with [PosiTivisTs. It was fondly hoped that an end would thus have been put to the dispute . COMTISTS. Eccl. At this juncture Louis XIV. Eceres. [New Pelagians. died. in advancing years the willing tool of persecution. occurring on the holy Sabbath.d. ministers . The detested opinions. The sect was thus very shortlived and was never large in numbers. 269. bishop of Tarsus. had been rekindled by the publication of Quesnel's Reflexions Morales. They differed from the rest of the Tritheists." in which one hundred and one propositions of This name has been recently used by the sect of Independents to express their principle of making each congregation autocephalous. 269 F]. Hist. says that the Concorezenses spread over the whole of Lombardy. .] CONTOEEZENSES. . in his treatise against the Waldenses. as the revolting A numerous briefs which they elicited from the Holy See abundantly testify. by the stric and thirteenth cenwas probably given 116. Neither the Eegent 112 . viii. CONPOEMISTS. .] [Conoobezenses. the main support of the Jesuitical party. He is not to be confused with a Coluthus who subscribed the synodal condemnation of Arius at Alexandria in a. By this "consolamentum " the recipients were supposed to escape purgatory and pass at once into paradise. JSTeale's Eastern Ch. Waldens. xxv. xxv. section of the sixth century Tritheists.D. rally called Albigenses. It was only in an atmosphere which had been highly charged with elements of political and religious discord that the appearance of such a body as the Convulsionaries was a possible phenomenon . Coluthus died A. But it [Perfbcti. occasionally assaulted in the pulpits. continued to give increased trouble to the Church. A Quesnel were formally condemned. and at least three bishops.. section of the CONFEEENTIE PAETY. 219. but in the France of the Eegent Orleans such an atmosphere was found. A name assumed ter Catharists of the twelfth leader most of them followed his example and were with him received back into the communion of the Church. Hist. divisions. [Independents.] CONCOEDENSES. so called after their leader Conon.] accompaniments of cruelty and indecency. 268 A. but instead of producing the hoped for effect.. their historian. contr." A bitter dispute on this subject raged among these sectarians from 1737 to 1772. Waldens. A Dutch Calvinists or " Dutch Eeformed Church" in America. and the liberality of Innocent XL. however. CONGEEGATIONALISTS. xviii.

fully conscious of their own and remonstrance of the Government . she would remain with her feet and head hanging downwards for a considerable period. As their numbers increased they began to divide them- and had become celebrated for his charities the 1st. had miraculous life-giving powers. But the Pope's friends were not inactive. which they adopted. they permitted the installation of Dubois. woman would fling herself. they inflicted the most frightful tortures upon themselves. desirous that the Appellant cause should benefit by the enthusiasm excited. were soon produced at wiU. 1727. " Marguerite Thibaut." " Louise Coizin. Convulsionaries to them the gifts of prophecy and of universal healing." " Marie Couroneau." On the 3rd of May he was buried in the cemetery of Saint M^dard. that most of them were poor."a child of seven years of age. The Cardinal NoaiUes. "Les grands Secours. By 1730 the delusion had risen as to attract the attention to such a pitch That these intrigues were unsuccessful must in part have been due to the watchfulness and anxiety of the Appellant party. and. " La petite Lepfere." Expelled from the cemetery. while the scourge seems to have served for the principal instrument in " Les petits. and subsequently procured for him a cardinal's hat on condition of the enforcement of the acceptance of the " Unigenitus" by the French episcopacy. on the throne of the Archbishop of Cambray. who were painweakness. and a royal guard stationed at the gates. also. It is worth noting that the famous Convulsionaries in whose persons miracles were worked were nearly all women. her a new and more appalling torture recommenced. and they obtained a singular facility in producing or simulating the symptoms of catalepsy. As soon as this " pose " was accomplished. The miracles. which discredit." and " Marie Sonnet. but it was not until nearly two years later. They intrigued with the government of the Eegent ." afterwards. she used to cry to the brother Convulsionaries who assisted at these horrid mysteries " Sucre d'orge.— Convulsionaries Orleans nor his favourite Dubois cared to interthe contending factions. had taken deacon's orders. "the buche" or beam. and advocates visited the tomb with veneration or worship. aU them ignorant. they developed all the latent powers of human self-delusion. surnamed "La Soeur de feu. Suddenly a rumour arose that a miraculous convulsion had taken place in the body of a sick and defornied person (it was said to have been followed by a miraculous cure of the disease) at the deacon's grave. resting the more surprising phenomena recurring daily. and Under these be noted. Bishops." In these hideous exercises a woman named Marie Sonnet. In an access of devotion he had abandoned his possessions to his younger brother. which had at first been simply involuntary convulsions. and. His well-known character for piety and eloquence attracted a large number of admiring mourners to the funeral. M^dard (a dependency of Saint Genevifeve). upon rising from this bed of torture. thus at once increasing the credibility and the fame of the new miracles. hysteria and convulsion. it was thought to be the grave of a saint. like Elisha's.. however. Their principal performances were divided into two parts. Such being the state of affairs in 1727. On this the wretched selves into groups. It is to who joined meddle with pellants had value. Persons subject to epileptic or other seizures crowded to the cemetery. Sucre d'orge." &c. and after his death the French Government either could not or would not assist them." " Discernans." When she uttered these cries a pointed beam was brought to her." " Louise Hardouin. They prophesied. in the parish of St. He was the son of a man of ample means who was a Parisian." " Figuristes. Gradually the fame of the new shrine was established . though a laic and of infamous character. more and dent. Dubois died. She was in the habit first of undergoing with cheerfulness the scorching infliction of the "chenet. The grave of the eloquent Appellant was thronged by a crowd of excited sympathizers. the deacon Paris died. was eager to take advantage of the accipiety." " Secouristes. named after their respective functions in the performance of miracles or the infliction or endurance of torture. on the southern side of the Seine. a popular preacher of the Appellants named Paris." was the most accomplished performer." are the most celebrated names. and the powers by which the crippled and paralytic had been restored were now vested in persons 113 middle part of her spine on the sharp end of the pole. A few days after this was done an inscription was found upon the doors to the following effect De par le roi defense a Dieu De faire miracle en ce lieu. soon after the last bribe was received. " Les grands Secours " consisted of the torture or exercise of the "chenet" or burning andiron. that the executive interfered. they worked cures. but among the lower classes only do we of find the personal arrogation of miraculous powers. The cemetery was thronged." and " Les petits Secours. Such are the titles " VaiUantistes. after a delay which is simply unaccountable. judges. The cemetery was closed. the "caUlou" or flint rock. and On May He wisely directed all cures to be registered. This specious appearance of fairness did not fail of eifect . singularly favourable circumstances the faction just contrived to hold its own against the Eoman party. both on the day of the interment and during the week which followed. the Convulsionaries : ' ' found shelter in the great houses of the adherents of the Appeal. which she besought the assistants to give her under the designation of " biscuit. and a member of the Parlement of the City. whose bones. there died in that year at Paris. in the privacy of their new life." " Franjoise Duchesne. having only just previous to his decease published an eloquent protest against the injustice of the " Unigenitus. The Apbesides a certain popular political the Government was unwilling to some interest at the Eegent's Court. Again some persons were seized with convulsions. great lords." the great and the little aids to the work of God. " Melangistes. the " broche " or spit." cries for . and placed upright on the ground.

C . and became a bigoted Convulsionary. most interesting account of a Convulsionary crucifixion by an eyewitness and a disbeliever is to be found in Baron H. Despite the incredible nature of these practices. ix. COEPIANI. if any then remained. Literature of the Convulsionaries. An African name for the CircumceUions. [Isidore. 69. and seceded from the Convulsionary faction. and rendered the losses of the community almost irreparable. preferring the safer means offered by a strict law of prohibition. 117. while the necessity of complete secresy from the police made proselytism impossible. They have also twentysix monasteries in Upper and Lower Egypt. tired of their folly. An intimate communion is kept up between the Coptic Jacobites and the Church of Abyssinia. 11]. and his head is supposed to be preserved there. were swept away. The Coptic Church at Alexandria is said to cover the site of St. became cne of his converts. the Patriarch of the former nominating the Abuna or Patriarch of the latter on every vacancy. Honorius.] time described the material character of the phenomenon to the educated world.. [Phthartolatr^. The Society of Jesus and the author of La Religie. for when D'Alembert." which is said to have been found in some MSS. and the Abb6 Duvernel's work entitled VHistoire de la Sorbonne dans laquelle on voit Tinfluence de la Theologie sur Vordre social may also be consulted. a Conseiller de Parlement.] name for the Gnostics. is entitled La verite des miracles operes a I'inter- Aug. i. until the physical fatigue of the assist- ants or the weariness of the spectators compelled the cessation of the torture. A intervals. the continued existence of these fanatics stUl calls forth the scorn and indignation of Diderot.] COPTS. at once declined the suggestion. Priedrich Bulau's Geheime Geschiehten mid Edthselhaften Menschen.use are for once to be found fighting on the same side.. de Hceres. Mark. The Jacobite natives of Egypt. the latter being nominally the Patriarch of Alexandria. — A COEEUPTICOL^. advised a performance of the simpler of them at the theatres. ers of [JSTepos. The most remarkable original book on this subject is the work of one Carr^ de Montgeron. which is copiously illustrated in the manner of the century. By the middle of the eighteenth century the sect was discredited. 53. thus left alone. . Gradually the lower classes. the Government. or Cornarus. xxxi. inflicting a frightful blow upon her. represented by D'Argenson. COPLEES.] COTILIANL [CoLUTHiANs. by Casaubon [Ittig. Paul of the Convulsionaries. attested by the evidence of friends these Colyttian rites.000.] 114 . Pamelius suggests that his treatise " Scorpiacus " was so called because it was written as an antidote to the poison of a heretic named Scorpianus. The utmost period of the life of the A Dutch sect of the follow- Theodore Coornhart. who aspired to be the St. The Cornarists were afterwards absorbed into the sect of Arminians. but residing at Cairo. a sceptic and a debauchee." all the had lent their COEACIOK COENAEISTS. COEOPITLE. their performance (doubtless exaggerated The scandal caused by by ad- miration and hatred) at length became intolerable. and Arminius. de HceresiarcJi. Lanfrey's L'Eglise et les Philosophes du 18m« sihcle. [ClRCUMOELLIONS. he was suddenly converted by the spectacle of a miraculous cure. but this homage did not avail him. man of the world. their authenticity is and and foes alike nor indeed were the tortures that have been detailed by any means the most cruel or objectionable of beyond all question. In 1772. for he was imprisoned for complicity with the sect. Epiphanius compares the many sects of the Gnostics to the articulations of the scorpion [Epiphan. and the blow repeated at short chest.] COTOPITES. Mark's martyrdoia. Basil. or COTHOPITH^. II.1 woman. ridiculed their supernatural pretensions. secretary to the States of Holland at the end of the sixteenth century. Hair. Probably it is a corruption of " Scorpiani. 5. It is probably equivalent to the Latin " Agrestes. fearful of an ^meute. however. OWp'g'. and is thus a representative of the primitive Liturgy 'of St. The Jesuits exerted the whole force of organization to suppress these The philosophers of Jansenism. Cornarus wrote against the Calvinistic doctrine of absolute decrees ." rustics or vagrants. and in that gigantic cataclysm aU traces of its existence. who was set to refute his writings. presented a copy to Louis XV. [Jacobites. Their Liturgy is a Jacobite version of that of St. By a rigorous infliction of penalties and an unsparing use of " lettres de their powerful hated relics more important personages who names to strengthen the Convulsionary cause were quietly removed. savants at the same cachet. Yet the hold which the Convulsionary delusion had on the popular mind was considerable . and died in confinement. Convulsionaries Upon this further demand. The less devoted Convulsionaries meanwhile gradually deserted the failing party . The wiser Appellants saw the danger of these exhibitions. viii. It is stiU used in the ancient Coptic language. I'ArchevSque de Sens. Introd. In his notes on Tertullian. which is now understood neither by the people nor the clergy but the Scripture lections which are said in the services are afterwards translated to the people The number of Coptic Christians is in Arabic. 38]. the year of the publication of the Eneyclopedie. Neale's Eastern Ch. who have almost entirely supplanted the orthodox and once flourishing Church of St. before the era of the Eevolution it had disappeared. They have thirteen Bishops and a Patriarch. an enormaus stone weigliing fifty pounds was dropped from the ceiling of the room upon the convulsed form of the cesssion de Cotopites M.Von Gleichen's Denkwiirdigkeiten. consulted as to the best means of discrediting these miracles. de Paris at autres Appellarts deHe montree centre M. The stone was then withdrawn by means of a cord and pulley. [CoGLERS. supposed to be about 150. A local Convulsionary sect is sixty years. Mark. His book.

which were presented to Charles I. Jesuits." " his three solemn vows with shaveUings of sundry sorts . wilful hearers." The " National Covenant " then closes with a very long oath. his erroneous and bloody decrees made at Trent. This Covenant was presented to the Westminster Assembly on September 1st. All those pre- faithful subjects to our sovereign Lord. shewing (as subsequent events have " a Solemn League and Covenant " to substitute the Presbyterian sect for the Church in the reign of Charles I. trafficking Papists. hy The document originally used for the purpose subscription by those of who were seeking this object was one which had been concocted in Scotland as "a Confession of Faith" in the year 1580. and was a packed assembly of Presbyterians. np their hands to signify their assent and then going up in turn to the chancel. and proposed a civil " League " or treaty between the two nations. ISTS. 1643. to which the double name was given of "a Solemn League and Covenant. and the world " called in the Act of Assembly of August 30th. or that most of those who desire it. you believe the generality of this nation to change of Church government. six articles. This application proving inefiectual at the time. selves Those who bound them- and 1638 to the English people. 1643." but which related entirely to the abolition of the English system of Church government and the establishment of Scottish Presbyterianism in its place. It was first set forth by the Scottish Privy Council and the General Assembly." " the Eoman Antichrist.] COVENANTERS. who shall not give their confession and make their profession of the said true religion. 1 643." "his blasphemous opinion of transubstantiation or real presence of Christ's body in the elements. 1638 and 1640. and so eqiially averse both to Episcopacy and Presbytery." and if they " go to crosses " or observe " the festival days of saints. taken " before God. history is as follows." It then goes on to recite and enforce a number of Acts of the Scottish Parliament. by the Commissioners of the Parliament as he was walking in the Broad Walk of Christ Church. and this was now accompanied by propositions embodying the same requests. or his authority. and general subscription was enforced in the years 1581. and obedience to the Gospel. The " Solemn League and Covenant " was aimed at the Church of England. the maintainers and resetters of the priests. It consisted of a preamble." " his profane sacrifice for sins of the dead and the quick. and are even more outrageously inIts — — tolerant than those of the previous one. and sent a reply. It met on July 1st. 115 . and it was subscribed by Charles II. but are as unwilling to what you call the yoke of Christ. 1 650." their letter accompanying the request for armed assistance which was sent up by the ParHament. as those whom you caU profane and worldly men. and revived under the name of " The National Covenant " in 1638. in which the following sentence is to be found. 1643. with one Confession of Faith.' " It then goes on to order that " none shall be reputed as loyal and ' proved) how much better the Eoyalists had felt the pulse of the English people than had the " Nor are you a little mistaken if Puritans. 23.Covenanters Covenanters [Gomae- COUNTEE EEMONSTRANTS. and one form of Church government. The "National Covenant" in this original form was intended only for Scotland. 1651. 1590. which " ordain all Papists and priests to be punished with manifold civil and ecclesiastical pains. His angels. conjured against the Kirk of God." and " aU sayers. 1643. In the latter year it was ratified by an Act of Parliament. but without any authority from the Crown. but be punishable as rebellers and gainstanders of the same. 1639. and concealers of the mass. The Westminster Assembly immediately wrote to the General Assembly of Scotland." " his blasphemous litany. Oxford. the few Episcopalians and Independents who had been summoned being utterly powerless on a division. the Civil When War began. to urge what they called a thorough reformation. In the end a nominal compromise was effected. in which the astute Scotch easUy got the better of the unstatesmanlike English rulers of the day. The Scottish Government and Divines immediately proposed that the English nation should adopt the Scottish " National Covenant. a petition in similar terms was sent by the Assembly to the King on January 4th." "his absolute necessity of baptism. one Directory of Worship. sess." who are " to be punished without any exception or restriction. the General Assembly writing to the English Parliament on August 3rd. a new Covenant being framed and approved by the General Assembly on August 17th." In the following summer the Westminster Assembly of Divines was convened by the Parliament. 1642-3. and was adopted by the Assembly and the House of Commons with an explanatory parenon Septhesis added after the word " prelacy " tember 25th. under the shadow of Westminster Abbey. one public Catechism." The English Commissioners objected to this. at Spey on June 23rd. " our great oath" covenanting to perform all that is required by the document so sworn to and subscribed." together with the " spreaders and makers of books or libels. in St." are " to be punished for the second fault as idolaters." " his five bastard Sacraments. and the enacting or covenanting clause. under the gen- — — eral name of " prelacy. desire by it to introduce that which you only esteem a reformation. requesting either desire a their assistance to " strengthen them in standing against Antichrist. It begins with a wordy protest against "Papistry. and at Scone on January 1st. Margaret's Church. as adversaries to God's true religion. the Scottish Presbyterians endeavoured to extend their own " National Covenant " of 1580 sent lifted to it . The King and his Council refused to grant what was desired. with all the subscribers or approvers of that cruel and bloody band." as well as at " the It also it Eoman Antichrist. or letters or writs of that nature." the terms of was of Scottish origin.

as the degree of their offences shall require or deserve. in doctrine. controversial name for that school of Divines which maintains the theory that each soul is a separate creation of God infused into the unborn child. worship. in doctrine. in Bibl.] COZAEENSES. endeavour the extirpation of Popery. but it continues to this day (as well as the National Covenant) to be one of the authoriKirk of Scotland. and has thus won for them great sympathy among superficial readers. at the same time that he signed the " National Covenant. and it was only the want of power which (happily for England) made this Scottish aggression comparatively harmless. discipline. the Solemn League and Covenant. W ol- dens. the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Irtiland. been formally renewed by the General Assembly. with aU faithfulness. Eeinerius speaks of it as if. Charles II.. according to the Word of God. near Cambridge to which the names and marks of the parish- assumed by the and thirteenth centuries. concorbzenses. Anselm. profaneness." [Eeiner. This name was used at the end ioners are affixed. Jerome. Copies of it are stUl to be found here and there in the parish registers e. Having attracted some atten- . and may be supposed to be in abeyance. Collect. by hindering the reformation of religion. malignants. St. Leo. and that the Lord may be one. shall judge convenient. and the example of the best reformed Churches . like some modern religionists. and although there are many great names A them for that effect. and His Name one. from the parents. they were deadly foes to the religious liberty of any but those of their own faction . by Eoyal Authority " as the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. educated at Eton and Balliol College. Confessions " IV. were of the Creationist school. St. dividing the King from his people. Confessions of Faith. Deans and Chapters. Lugd. but in reality the spirit of the (llovenanters was that of most bitter and unscrupulous persecutors . the preservation of the reformed religion in the Church of Scotland. He was a clergyman of good family. superstition. at Houghton-le-Spring. 116 adopted the extreme Antinomian opinions of Dr. Eishops. Prayer and Psalms Books." among the Creationist by an Act of the Scottish Parliament on July 15th. 269. and con: The At the Eestoration in 1661. The school of historical romancists has given a turn to their later history in Scotland which has invested Kingdoms No more " II.d. Clarendon's Hist.] CEEATICOL^. which is that the soul is derived. against our common enemies . confession of faith. worship. discipline. Peter Lombard. which are as follows " I. Archdeacons. and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that hierarchy)." It has never." in 1650 and 1651. in the three kingdoms. heresy. and fourth articles. Glasgow. and during the reign of terror which This ratified new Covenant was orthodox. in our several places and callings. Ctistolatr^]. and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midst of stantly. and thereby be in danger to receive of their plagues. form of church government. was altogether set aside in England. or others having power from CEEATIONISTS. us. or the supreme judicatories of both kingdoms respectively. Catechisms. their Chancellors and Commissaries. to designate those dissenters of various sects who ness to the industrious energy of the Presbyterians when endeavouring to carry their Scottish innovations into every corner of England. the view is now generally regarded as [Dict. &c.. and whatever shall be found to be contrary to sound doctrine and the power of godliness. or evil instruments.g. Oxford. 1644. A name the name of " Believers. and Thomas Aquinas. directory for worship and catechizing . That we shall sincerely. like the body. Tobias Crisp. It was sent to the justices of the peace and other influential persons in every parish in England. endeavour the discovery of aU such as have been or shall be incendiaries. Testaments. xxv. near Durham. 1844. them with a false colouring. they generally called themselves by Catharists of the twelfth CEEDENTES. and as King of Scotland. Cbeationism. formed Presbyterians. Church government by Archbishops. St. and government. and which are a standing wit- of the seventeenth and in the eighteenth century. really. lest we partake in other men's sins. [Eushworth's Hist. schism. or making any faction or parties amongst the people. and again in 1649. being as regularly set forth by the " Publishers of Bibles.— Covenanters affixed their — Crispites it names to the parchment on which was nant written. Prelacy (that is. Deans. and bound in one volume with the " Confession of Faith " and the "Larger" and " Shorter Catechism. and Eector of Brinkworth in Wiltshire from 1627 until his death at the early age of forty-two in the year 1642. and shall endeavour to bring the Churches of God in the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion. that we and our posterity after us may as brethren live in faith and love. endeavour. force of the " " Solemn League and Covewas contained in the first.] CEISPITES. that they may be brought to public trial. without respect of persons. signed it in Scotland. however. among whom it is stiU a received dogma that only a " covenanted " sovereign has any right to the throne of the United of England and Scotland. and receive condign punishment. Rehell.. contr. contrary to this League and Covenant. and government. The refusal of the Assembly to renew it at the time of the Eevolution Settlement of a.] — followed multitudes were forced to subscribe to it. 1688 caused the secession of the Cambronians. second. or Retative formularies of the through the grace of God. o/Theol. G. That we shall in like manner. and at Over. &c. intolerant body of religionists ever existed than the Covenanters. This theory is opposed to that of Traducianism. which had long been an object of contempt. or one of the We of Faith. supporters of the opposite theory. Max. shall also. kingdoms from another.

The history of the Culdees has acquired a factitious importance through the controversy in the seventeenth century between the Presbyterians and Episcopalians. of Scotland. and especially were cried out against by many of the Anabaptists and Independents. who came from Ireland . It may be confidently affirmed that there is no extant evidence of the extreme antiquity of the Culdees as a wide-spread and influential religious organization. A name by which Manes. whenever they hundreds of years after. Andrews. nor indeed by any historian for some Nor. although the "Westminster Assembly of Divines proposed to have them publicly burnt. But after the Eevolution in 1690. v. s. Constantine III. the various establishments of the Culdees in Scotland. After his decease three volumes of sermons were publislied from his notes. Daniel Williams. xlviii. but we have no distinct notice of them until long after the time when St. after a vain struggle to preserve their peculiar rights. records that the son of the last king of the Picts gave an island in Lochleven to the Culdee hermits serving God there. is said to have voluntarily abdicated. 4.. 1840]. the latter establishment is mentioned at a still later period If they had been as belonging to Culdees. they could hardly have escaped the notice of Bede or of Nennius. the sermons were republished in a quarto volume by the son of Dr. and to mean the There is nothing dwellers in the celLhouse. the former party asserting them to have been of extreme antiquity.d. in a. These Culdees were under an abbot . Columba and his mission at lona. and a few years later were suppressed and replaced by canons regular The Culdees of St. ch. and published in 1692. Andrews. not only in the country. and generally in some connection with the great see of St. numerous in the eighth or ninth centuries.] the founder of the Manichee heresy. [Chalmers' Encyclop. Crisp. an appellation not uncommon among the regular orders. A name applied to the followers of Melanchthon by the Lutherans. though it is true that when in the ninth century the ecclesiastical supremacy of lona was transferred to Dimkeld. been spent upon the derivation of the name some supposing it to have come from the Gaelic Kill. hundred years after that. A name [Philippists. Such "creature-worshippers" the Aphthaetodocbt^ declared the opponents of their heresy were. and other Puritan Divines. the true origin of which was forgotten. worshippers of God. There is no warrant for connecting them with St. which began to be about a.] CPvYPTO-CALVINTSTS. he -was afterwards (when driven to London by the outbreak of the civil war) involved in controversy with Baxter. in a volume entitled Gospel Truth Stated and Vindicated. King of the Scots. was also known. and to have become abbot In the twelfth of the Culdees of St. " thus recommended and authorized. CTISTOLATE^. Gill in 1745. but they did not at the time obtain much notice. [Severianists.] compounded of a ecclesiastical Greek word which was used in an sense to designate a nature or being that is created (ktio-tos). those of Lochleven . Howe. and are still a great authority among the Antinomian [Nelson's Life of Bishop school of Dissenters. a cell. but infected this great city to that degree that the more sober of the Presbyterian ministers were scarce able to preach a sermon wherein either hope was arrested by conditional promises. were absorbed into the system of by his Aiitinomian preaching. CULDEES. written about 1130. or the fear of sin was pressed by Divine threatenings. " By the means of this book. a house.d. 7]... are they found in any of the old west-lying settlements of the Scots. ii. who derive it from the Celtic Cele-de. by neither of whom they are mentioned . but always in the country of the Picts. The forms Culdei and Colidei. Ixvi. century. the founder of the Dissenters' Library in Eedcross Street. Hcer. An ancient religious order in Much research has Ireland and North Britain. occur in Scotland. and an appeal was made to Bishop Bull. and about the year 1090 they gave up their island to the bishop of St. and by Dr. Andrews had become a diocesan see. under the influence of the royal Saint Margaret and her sons Edgar and Alexander. were again republished by Dr. p. Anleaf in the Eegister of St. Crypto-Calvinists tion Culdees regular strictness of life. the east of Scotland. the poison of Antinomianism soon spread. and it was only by them that the designation was used. vol. [Epiph. 943. at a time when the Socinian controversy was being actively carried on. Peeves. Andrews. the names of twelve Independent ministers being prefixed as approving and recommending the book. whose Harmonia Apostoliea contains a full refuThe sermons of Crisp tation of Antinomianism. The true origin of the name is no doubt that which is pointed out by Braun [De Culdees. and more important than. 850. Servus Dei. and of a word signifying Divine worship (AoTpeta).] CUBEICUS. Further controversy arose between the supporters of Dr. having been to secularise religious offices and endowments rather than to keep up 117 which should entitle their tendency . Flavel. but in the midst of this controversy he died. Williams and the Antinomian party. and addicted to the Presbyterian form of Church government. Andrews itself were probably as ancient as. and Bee." The sermons were answered by Dr. but they were immediately censured and condemned as enemies of Christ and of free grace. drews. and in old Scotch Kyldees. especially with his A theory of the Holy Eucharist." says Nelson. first occur in later writers.']. Bull. however known of the habits of the Culdees A them to such an appellation. such as Giraldus Cambrensis (in the twelfth century). and which was afterwards corrected in the Pope's style into Servus Servorum Dei [see Burton's Hist. In Latin originals they are called Keledei. on account of their supposed secret sympathy with the doctrines of Calvin. the latter denying both these positions. nor are they named by Adamnan in his life of that saint . and seem to have arisen from the desire to suggest a Latin derivation for a word.

p. «." which after the Eeformation was vested in the Crown [Eeeves' Culdees. s. the first attempt to deprive them was made at the election of Turgot. But some of their abbots may have borne the title of bishops. On that occasion it is asserted in the Scotichronicon [lib. and in this were nothing different from other monastic orders. mentions that the vicars choral of Armagh. papal brief of the year 1447 declared. In. who wrote a metrical calendar of Irish saints about the year 800. It is related in the Durham Chronicle [Twysden's Decern Scriptores] that in the year 1108.']. Armagh was plundered by Godfrey. and their provost vainly appealed to Eome [TJssher. The account of their long struggle at headquarters in St. Anthe old foundation of the Culdees. may be held with any other benefice. that time there were two parties in St. not of bishops. but that he spared the oratories with the Culdees and the sick. Andrews. p. . the North of Ireland. de Prim. ii. who was caUed their prior. they opposed the election of Lamberton to St. ments of Culdees in Ireland besides these . but there can scarcely be any doubt that it was the right of confirming the election of all the bishops in Scotland. The same writer affords the solitary notice which remains of Culdees in Wales. they present the aspect of a decayed and corrupt corporation. in 920. portant enough to be turned into bishoprics. It was the object of the kings under papal influence to displace the former party and fill their room by canons regular. and exerted their peculiar elective right. p. p. And in Irish annals of undoubted authority it is recorded that in 919 "a CeUe-De came across the sea westward to establish laws in Ireland. prior of Durham. their ancient corporation being changed into a provostry under the title of " prsepositum ecclesiae beatse Marise civitatis Sancti Andrese. consisting of a prior and twelve brethren. but yet were allowed to continue TJssher in the inferior capacity of vicars choral. who performed diviue service as clerical vicars and the bishop and new representatives of of&ces which under the Culdees had passed into the hands of laymen. like those of St. Turgot. who devoutly served a chapel there [Girald. 659]. of Tipperary." but they were not finally excluded from taking part in the election of bishops before 1332 . Andrews. and this sentence is expressly said to be founded on the chronologies of the holy Fathers and the Year Books of former archbishops (Sanctorum Patrum antiquis chronicis et prsedecessorum Libris Annalibus perscrutatis) \de Primor. and the chief of them. C. who At drews : : A had been chosen by the canons . and their antiquity can only be conjecturally estimated from the firmness with which they resisted change. who speaks of the Ccelicol» or Colidei of an island called Insula Viventium. Andrews and Dunkeld. to the middle of the fourteenth century. 38 . and 118 . served TJssher also as precentor \_de Primord. Andrete" [TJssher. with chapters of secular canons . from which time their name never occurs in records. Cttldees diocesan Episcopacy which was extended by Eome over every part of Europe. de Prim. clinging to its temporalities. son of Ivor the Dane.] that "omne jus deinceps Keldeis abrogatum. this way the Culdees throughout Scotland appear to have been absorbed or transformed during the great Catholic revival of the twelfth Some of their establishments were imcentury. produces a sentence of an archbishop of Armagh in the year 1445. Andrews . Burton's Scotland. as St. TJssher. Of this right. and settling into a secularization which was arrested by the spiritual . that notwithstanding a succession of royal ordinances and papal decrees. which they possessed as dean and chapter of the metropolitan see of St. In England there is no trace of them. Andrews was uniformly repeated. 657]. speaks of the canons of English cathedrals generally as " cultores clerici. and that in his time all the right of the Culdees throughout the kingdom of Scotland passed from them to the bishopric of " totum jus Keledeorum per totum St. except that the canons of St. Andrews regnum Scotias transivit in Episcopatum St. and those of the collegiate Church of Cluanynish [Clones]. they kept their ground. 31]. in 1297. others were replanted with Augustinian canons regular . to the same effect.]. vi. were called Colidei in his day. was made bishop of St. and that a suspected charter of jEthelred. in which the struggle at St. bears in ancient chronicles the name of ^ngus the Ceile-De." a term of doubtful import. p.. It was their extinction which procured them what notice they have in the scanty records of that age . Far from manifesting sectarian rigour and purity.] Authentic records of the Culdees of Ireland An abbot and bishop in are singularly scanty. So tenacious however were the Culdees. others again were gradually resolved into parishes. Andrews is the chief memorial that we have of them.^thelstan in the first half of the tenth century ." The annals of Ulster record that. monks they were under the government of abbots. in the year 1005. It will be seen from the scantiness of these records how little can be concluded concerning the manners and institutions of the Culdees. 1032]. He speaks of the little island of Bardsey in North Wales as inhabited in his own time by a set of very religious monks named Ccslibes or Colidei [ibid. may be found in Chalmers' Encyelopoedia. de Primord. such as that of abbot. 637]. seem to have been the dean and chapter of the Church and were compelled to give place to canons of later institution. 637]. to the effect that the office of prior or of an inferior Culdee not being accounted a cure of souls. p. Thus. Andrews. Peter's at York were called Culdees in the reign of . but no writer mentions any of them before Giraldus Cambrensis. provided that the holder keep his due residence in the Church of Armagh . [A list of the establishments of the Culdees in Scotland. that the priorate of the college of secular priests called Colidei was not a benefice but a simple office without cure There were about seven other establishl^ihid. As troversy. What this right might be has been the subject of much con: Culdees strength of papal Catholicism. These Culdees of Armagh.

that the Culdees were the upholders of the primitive simplicity of Church government. of the Irish Culdees. a which Dempster the Jesuit tries to get slender foundation for the theory of the Presbyterian controversialists. 'Augustine in his 163rd probably another form of Epistle. in Dr. 1652. who wrote in the last half of the To say no more. There is no proof of this. who. and that he was for many years after known as Episcopus Scotorum. The cause of separation was the refusal of the governing body of the Presbyterians to recognise as ministers certain persons who had been admitted to their office without the usual education and preparation. fell into the error of confounding Scotland. This name is used for the CiRCUMCELLiONS by St. de Prim. and is Gotispitae. and that in this they followed the usage of the primitive Church [8cotichron. strictly It is Presbyterian in its character. Princeton. Yet. Enquiry has completely upset this view. and the sect taking its name from this origin is said to number members 1250 places of worship. CUTZUPITiE. contrary law of the Church. 8]. and giving that account of their organization which has been He the foundation of the Presbyterian theory." founded on the "Westminster Confession. p. An American sect which originated in some "revivals " that took place among the Presbyterians of Cumberland County in Kentucky about the of Fordoun. and which constituted itself a separate community by formal separation from the general body of the American Presbyterians on February 4th.000 also established Cumberland College. was the first to assert that the Scots John were originally governed by monks and priests alone. quoted by Ussher. author of the Scotichronicon of obsolete authority. tius [Scot. and they were finally overpowered by the frauds of Rome. Kentucky. but in his preface he owns that the most ancient annalist that he had seen was Veremundus. in which no doubt dioceseless bishops abounded. Hist. The " Cumberland Presbytery " soon extended itself beyond its original locality. ii. rejects the Calvinistic dogmas of election and reprobation. it may be worth while to mention the authorities from which it arose.] 119 . until priests. with the exception that its " Confession of Faith. and who also repudiated the doctrines of election and reprobation. He was followed by John Major the Sorbonnist [^Hist. though it is possible enough. and maintains the doctrine of universal redemption. Scot. over by supposing that the Culdees of Boetius were canons regular [Ussher.Culdees been bishops without dioceses. This is a ]iave thus CutzupitcB story of the Scots Church being governed by to the monks and proved by all priests in the third century is disthe fact that there were no monks at in the Western difficulty Church at that time. iii. by his celebrated preface to Twysden's Historim AnglicancB Decern Sorvptores. : having colleges for the education of its ministers. Eeeve's Dissertation in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. with the In a similar way Hector Boepresent Scotland. London. 6. the whole eleventh century. as it occasioned a violent controversy in the seventeenth century. and several other 900 ministers. CUMBERLAND PEESBYTEEIANS. Selden was the first who brought the Culdees into the Presbyterian controversy. The best account of the Scots Culdees is in Grub's Ecclesiastical Hist. rejectall ing diocesan Episcopacy. 637]. the ancient name of Ireland. that they elected among themselves a chief priest. and it now finds no support among archsaologists. or bishop of the He alleges for this the authority of Scots. a monk of the fourteenth century. 636] had improved his account by making these monks and priests Culdees. says that they were caUed for their piety "cultores Dei. who had power in things belonging to God. that they came in the third century ." under which title they were recognised by all the people. clerical celibacy. year 1800. CYRTIANL [PSATHYRIANS. like the monk of Fordoun himself. of Scotland. since the Culdees may be held to have belonged to the ancient British or Scots' Church. 2]. 1810. de Prim. i. by monks and later abuses. ancient annals . 1860.and 100.

pp. Arkwright) of the Lanark Mills. 570]. The Daleites did not keep aloof from other Christian bodies with the exclusiveness (so distinctive of petty sects) with which the Glassites regarded them.] These were a sect of weak- The points of separation be- tween his followers and the Glassites consisted partly in doctrine. The brotherhood. established a distinct congregation in Glasgow. 753. [New Theological Dictionary. which occurred on 17th March 1805. At an early period he adopted in general the views of Eoherfc Glas. 49. which had more than decimated Northern Europe. and they entertained somewhat different views respecting the office of elders. 239. Perth). They alleged that they were enabled to endure these incredible fatigues by the special grace of the Virgin and the Saints. produced and left behind it a vast amount of intellectual dehUity in the populations attacked by it. the dancing form of fanaticism appeared in the old capital of Charlemagne. while the Glassites generally held that an elder was disqualified for office wife's death. taining these characteristic differences in the way they were maintained by the Damianists. practically identical with that of Sabellius. Ketz. who appeared in the last quarter of the fourteenth century. 1807. Prolsably they have now become merged either among the few remaining Glassites.d. Though each of these. the Monophysite patriarch [a. a crowd of all ages and of both sexes. but the famous black death or pestilence of Froissart was doubtless the remote or predisposing cause. DANCEES. Eecl. Hist. hut was more distinguished hy his munificent charities and the benevolence of his character. who had risen from the rank of a journeyman weaver. was invariably suppressed to the utmost of the sacerdotal and governmental ability of the time and place of its occurrence. Walch. Dale's death small congregations in connection with his Glasgow followers existed at Edinburgh. as it appeared. Dale's son-in-law was the notorious Eobert Owen. half naked and crowned with garlands. Damian fell into the opposite error of Sabellianism. 1374. he is said to have studied the languages of both the Old and K"ew Testaments with some considerable degree of success. for he denied that each of the Divine Persons of the Trinity is in all A brained fanatics. by re-marriage after a first At the time of Mr. to which he ministered up to the period of his death.] section of the AlexDAMIANISTS. This fearful visitation. 1806. sect in Glasgow at the end of the last century. as is attested by the numerous fanatical enterprises which followed its disappearance. (for Jas. the originator of the English socialist theories.d. In order to qualify himself in point of learning for his self-imposed office. In opposing the Tbitheists. hence they were also named Tetratheites. comprising Ehenish Prussia. but differing from him in some few points. or among the Congregationalists. the founder of Scottish Independency . namely. the sufferers being distinguished by this one abiding feature in creed or ritual. and the original proprietor (in conjunction with Sir R. but chiefly in matters of discipline. andrian Monophysites which took its name from Damian.D DALEITES. referred their vigour to Satanic 120 . particularly holding that the apostolic description of an ofiice-bearer. Scots Magazine. [Niceph. 653. the three separate and subordinate Hypostases and the one superior Kvjodeoi." forbade only the having more than one wife at the same time. Edinb. their theory really led to the conclusion that there are four Gods. The origin of the outbreak is difficult to be accurately deciphered. the former laying more stress upon practical holiness than the latter. David Dale (born 6th January 1739) was a wealthy cotton-manufacturer. Holland and Hainault. and disappeared at the commencement of the fifteenth. the substitution of corporeal exertion for spiritual or intellectual worship. The scene of their performances was the western part of the ancient province of Belgica. xiii. Kirkcaldy. whose aid during their performances they incessantly invoked. they sup ported the most laborious dances until they fell fainting into the arms of the bystanders. Morison. began their celebrations with a kind of dervish dance in the public squares of that town. The theory of the Damianists was. and there. Perth. A Himself God. Hist. similar new forms of mental disease were continually bursting forth . which differed little from the Independents. however. as being " the husband of one wife. The founder. Emboldened by impunity they proceeded to the churches. that God is One Person distinguished into three hypotheses by characterBut by mainistic differences of His operations. and several other places. The orthodox. and maintained that the Three have One Divine Personality only. in fact. It was thus that in the month of July a. namely. viii.

after some opposition. therethe length of asserting that the Deity alone has any real existence. 1521]. his teaching spread so rapidly. From the city of Aix-la-Chapelle they spread rapidly through Hainault. 1526. which al. or Vitus. 1527.d. coupled with their numerical and intellectual weakness.Danish Protesianis rather than heavenly interposition. especially the hierarchy. returned Erigena. formed doctrines. DAVID! A. that in the course of eleven years the whole island had changed its religious complexion. entitled Ciui gesta Pontijieum Tongrensium Trajectensium siuni scripserunt a. Duke of Schleswig-HolHis own personal feeling in stein [a. 1523].NS. was elected under Protestant influence to the bishopric of Skalholt in that island [a. and at the present date Lutheranism is the predominant and almost the exclusive form of religion in Norway. whom he caused to be summoned from Wittenberg for that purpose. The Catholic clergy. [The best account of these sectaries is from the pen of the monk Eadulph de Rive.] [David-Georgians. along with his exiled predecessor Christian II.d. who. They were forthwith banished from their sees. 1530]. while travelling in Germany before assuming the crown. and.d. Summa I. spirit We duly exorcised. or was born of parents who had so suffered.] A sect of the thirteenth cen- tury. trained in the pantheistic philosophy of nothing known beyond home to teach them in his native town of Viborg in Jutland [a. Here the Catholic bishops. 1527]. For some years previously the Ee- DAVID OF DINANT. Saner and more merciful counsels prevailed than are sometimes met with in the history of the Church . was on such occasions successfully appealed to. Histon/. ari.d. and its easy. xiv.. the followers of David of Dinant. like his master. formed doctrines had been spreading. were either deposed or conformed. and the triumph of Lutheranism in Denmark proper may be considered complete. It soon extended into Norway. DAVIDISTS. ciple the sect applied to Christianity in such a fore. for whereas Amalric had taught that the Deity is the principium formale of aU things. a new class of " superintendents " was substituted for the ancient order of bishops . and perhaps acquiring some proselytes. Without definitely objectionable tenets. and was. the people appeared to tolerate their foUy. sub anno 1374. [a. which was finally incorporated into Denmark proper a.l Mo- DANISH PEOTESTANTS. and issued orders for convoking a diet at Odensee [a. who. Fortunately their poverty. openly proclaimed his favour towards the Ee- DAVID-GEOEGIANS. the orthodox were content to treat them. Of the personal is [Familists. and the evO. especially owing to the labours of John Tausen. gather that.up and published at a diet held at Copenhagen [a.had been present at the Diet of Worms. 1537. as these sectaries were "too ignorant or imlsecile to confess themselves heretics. who. had supported the pretensions of his younger brother John. like various recognised religious orders. Supported by royal favour. this form of frenzy died away. rapid and complete extinction is a striking and satirical commentary on the prolonged existence of the greater portion of the other mediaeval fanaticisms. were competitors for the vacant throne. and resembles in many points the Confession of Augsburg. being partly based on the Schwaback and Torgau Articles [a. was succeeded on the throne by Frederick I. not as the accomplices. at which full liberty of conscience was allowed for both reforming and non-reforming parties. After a reign of ten years Frederick I.d. et LeodenSee also the Ghronieon Belgicum. 1533]. who. at the age of twenty-five.d. both at Utrecht and Li^ge. after attending the lectures of Melanchthon at Witten- history of this heretic little or the fact that he was a disciple of Amalric of Bema. In taking this significant step the new king was actuated by a political as well as a religious antipathy. preserved them from the persecution which might have given to even such fanatics a factitious importance in the eyes of the world.L'r' form the groundwork of the latter work. to be found in a work by Chapeauville.D. Danish confession was subsequently drawn. by professional mendicancy. to proclaim liberty of worship in his own duchy. and who at once showed his intention of standing fast by his father's policy in religious matters by being crowned by the Lutheran Pomeranian John Bugenhagen. though he was prevented by the antipathy of the 121 . was succeeded by his son Christian III. Weit. In that year King Frederick I. With the generation that had suffered from the debilitating effects of the Great Pestilence. He however went beyond his teacher in heresy. 1 540]. Two years later Christian II. The Eeformed doctrines were first propagated by Gisser Einarsen. and sheim's Ecclesiastical. 1529]. The history of Iceland is similar. the University of Copenhagen was remodelled on a Protestant basis.d. It consists of forty-three articles. cent. making some stir. iii. favour of Lutheran tenets led him immediately to berg. and has remained exclusively Lutheran up to the present day. The pantheism of the latter went. Their modem homologues are to be found in the Convulsionary prophets of the eighteenth century [GoNVULSiONABiBs] and the Jumpers of the present day. but as the victims of diabolical agency. In the fifteenth century there is hardly any trace of the Dancers to be discovered. and that all other This prinbeings and things are part of Him. when the fainting performers were taken possession of by the clergy. Aq.udores prceeipui" &c. 8]. David de Dinanto asserted that He is the materia prima of all things [Thom. It is stated that St. and the bishops were forbidden any longer to receive the pallium from Eome. qu.d.] [Davidists. A they supported their precarious lives. tion first The Eeforma- obtained a formal recognition in Denmark A.. and Davidists bishops from extending the same principle to his new kingdom till a. the marriage of the clergy and religious orders was legalized. they were at least in some cases entirely restored.d.

must be discussed. The chief work of Dinanto was one entitled Quatermarii. and read " Quod terram curiously at the present day sources their statements. and others. . that heaven and hell are simply the present consequences of sin . a.. Een6 Descartes is the father of modern philosophy. 10] classed by Epiphanius with Cerinthus. — HcBres. Alex. 1596 in La Haye of the lourdane. " Demas hath forsaken me. A montes.d. viii. and was present at the Battle of Prague but quitted the army again. Another writer. Its author was degraded from the priesthood.] stellis annumerat. but this work is probably of later date than Epiphanius." He took service under Tilly in the Bavarian army. lunam in terram quandam con- DAVIDISTS. but first the character of evidence must be determined. Descartes established a powerful school. denique tot mills annos solis fuit. ed. as one who denied the Divine Nature and miraculous Conception of our Lord [Epiphan. 1852. Apostol- orum et Discipidorum Domini. they were brought before a synod at Paris in a. 1209. and refusing to recant were burnt as heretics [a. Thes. Hist. He was proscribed by the University of Utrecht. His system was branded as Atheism. but in love alone. such as that God had revealed Himself by the words of heathen poets like Ovid. but : teaching. valles tribuit.d. as much as by Christian Fathers like Augustine . Neander's Ch. but was also explained away by the statement that the species of it was already part of the Deity before it was consecrated. Paul . Natal. been regarded as a tenet of many schools of sceptics rather than as the distinguishing tenet of The reader is therefore referred to the one. article Sceptics in this volume. for historical and philosophical information on the subject. iv. and even with that of Grotius that he is used by Paul is the same as the Demetrius of whom St. Evidence must lie at the bottom of truth. He was born a. settled down in Holland [a. iv. general name applied in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to those who professed a belief in the existence of God (as distinguished from Atheists).J All. in his fifty-fifth year. because it was part of the Divine existence. that all other theological works in the French language were also ordered to be burned. To accept a creed because it was ancient. Ps-. not because it was true. Anecdot. His astronomical heresies were a serious gravamen. 1650]. 1675]. li. was to give up the prerogative of thought rather than to think. Ebion. 1621. Thus. 24. 73. 1629-1649] for the purpose of working out the philosophical problems that had engaged his attention by flood and field. Deists manner as to explain it away. [Martene." and that he himself bore record to the same effect [3 John On the other hand. in a work entitled Synopsis de vita et morte Prophetarum. To this pantheism they added many other anticipations of later unbelief. but opposition only attracted to him a greater following and having accepted an invitation from Christine. but went Httle or not at all further towards belief in the truths In more recent times Deism has of Christianity. independently of good life and works. A priest named Bernard shewed the full force of the principles he had learned by declaring that the fire could have no power to destroy his being. But William of Aria. Epiphanius and the 12]. and of the truth itself. though attributed to Dorotheus. terram vero stellis erraticis. a goldsmith. vertit. 1210]. in terram transfert" [Maestricht. ei dum motum. John many years afterwards wrote that he had " good report of all men. 14] — of whom he says towards the close of his ministry. DESCAETES. Queen of Sweden. Hist Ecd. and so great was the odium into which they had brought the use of the vernacular for theological fact as Descartes [Philem. having loved this present world. 6].] DAVISTS. he accepted it.d. solem qui hactenus inter planetas fuit stellis fixis accenset. alleges that Demas became a priest in a heathen temple at Thessalonica .in which the first principles of modern rationalism were developed. 163. qui per DEMAS. and with a smattering of so many branches of learning as to have earned for himself the name of " Le petit philosophe. of an old Frencli family. and to that of Deism in the Dictionaey of Theology.d. 122 The " fellow-labourer " of St. after travelling for some years in Europe. 129. which he left well grounded in the mathematics of the day. that religion does not consist in what a man does. iv. including the Metaphysics oi Aristotle. and is is departed unto Thessalonica " [2 Tim. [David-Geoegians. 303. all must be . and condemned as profoundly heretical. who St. and so far as he had any being he was God himself. and. viii.d. which had been especially used in support of the heresy. Novitatum Cartesianarum Gangrcsna.d. ed. but had fled from Paris. The expression consistent with the opinion of Baronius. having been lately recovered from oblivion through the prevalence of Moorish literature in Europe. Col. flourished a. and others. and that the act of consecration was merely such an annunciation of the brought it home to the consciousness of those who heard and saw the priest at the altar. Hammond. and educated from his fourteenth to his eighteenth year in the Jesuit College at La Fleche. [David-Geoegians. The principles of the sect were at first propagated with great secresy among the French laity by means of books written in the vernacular.] DEISTS. instead of our Lord becoming the One Incarnation of God.d. each human being was represented as a separate and individual incarnation of Deity. therefore. 1762. but died the same year at Stockholm [a. that Demas did not forsake the faith when he forsook St. to become her preceptor in philosophy. On the condemnation of his heresy it and all his vernacular writings were destroyed. while several of his clerical and lay adherents were apprehended. other writer named may have had authentic of information from which they drew which are now lost to us.. In a similar manner the received doctrine of a Divine Presence in the Blessed Sacrament was admitted. making them known by public preaching.

building up a newer philosophy. Descartes corporeal existence or matter. the latter is its " Hsec cognitio.. Certainty only extends so far as thought reaches . Descartes weighed. even in mathematical demonstration there might be elements of doubt. that we do not think. that he as- The attribute of matter is abstractedly opposed to the attribute of spirit. Being and thought are reciprocal terms. . and.]. To know the objective is to resolve the antagonism between subject and object. because these forms reciprocally exclude each other ." latter the sumed this as the surest basis of operations in former. They are as the two hemispheres. i. for knowledge of the objective is only then possible when the two interpenetrate each other. " De omnibus dubitandum" was the negative germ of his system. Doubt with respect to all that is external to my own being is the certitude of that being . it is selfexistent. Philosophical consciousness replaces faith with doubt . that spirit is " thinking substance. either may be " Cogito ergo sum unica est taken as subject. they are antagonistic and exist in mutual independence of being. but on The phrase is not a syllogism but Thought =: existence. that we have no real bodily substance. Thought is only self-certain in its doubt. i. Thought." The next step opens out the solution of this un- needs no other being for its existence.]. the attribute of matter is evolutional extension. I see an object. and tested . and spirit ing substance. and is surrounded with an atmosphere of light. the one light and the other dark . the first is the negative origin of philosophic reasoning. is true existence. Matter is extended subsubstance. the essential property without which substance cannot become the object of thought is attribute. subjective existence is co-ordinate with thought. " de rebus omnibus praasertim corporeis dubitandum. therefore. therefore. upon reasoning. Objective existence in the external world is wrapt in darkness and doubt. the one is the predicate of the other. it may or not be. Its physics are based upon ' res extensa. Infinite Substance means that which is self-existent and requires no other substance to bring it into being. Thought. Some " tertium quid" is required. which is involutional thought . In the former reigns the lorn and lonely "I. but the only sure thing is eorum conscientia my own Ego sum [Med. which is and ought to be a subject of doubt . matter has no relation with spirit it has its own independent being. and is equally Everything for the future was to be determined by reason. while thought is thus occupied. but the very act of thought assures me of my own individual being. its metaphysics on the Thought. and may serve as a connecting link between the two. Finite substance is wholly dependent and must be referred back to the infinite hence it is not substance according to the preceding definition. Therefore with reference to the Divine Substance. As its abstract antagonism. sifted. Ego cogito ergo positive source. and this negative certainty is as the positive self-certainty of thought. Princ. the only sure truth in the intellectual world. not self-intuition." ' The one is " res cogitans. definition. It is a cogitans asquivalet" subjective inconsequential certainty founded. after an elimination of every false or doubtful element. It was the death-knell of Scholasticism. in Cartesian terminology means "consciousness. From doubting he proceeded to deny every fact and every conceivable opinion ." Ordinary consciousness has faith in the reality of its objects. and giving power of abstraction from all external phenomena. These two substances are mutually exclusive of each 123 ." Thought assures me of existence even though the objects of thought be illusory .]. quae nobis consciis in nobis fiunt. but we can never imagine. and this at once gives inconsistency to an important part of his scheme. sum. and the seK-consciousness of thought is the self-consciousness of being . an equation." which is mated with no "Thou. Descartes could not deny the sensation caused by external objects." and that matter is " extended substance. Descartes taught that those very facts in the first instance should be subjected to the " experimentum crucis" of doubt. Everything but thought is open to doubt . external relations is doubt esoterically it is self-evidence of its own real existence.. it does not believe. Bacon had shewed that a wide induction of facts must precede all attempt at scientific generalization . finite substance is not substance but create being. quae huic. itself the only doubt in which there is no doubt. Spirit is the antagonism of bodily nature. we may imagine that there is neither God nor matter. But that being which needs nothing else for its existence is substance . subject and object." the other is It is the foundation of the Cartesian philosophy. thinking and extended substance. it should be observed. est omnium prima et certissima quae cuihbet ordine phUosophanti occurrat" [Cartesius." " Cogitationis nomine intelligo alia omnia. There was so much in all antecedent systems of philosophy that was selfcontradictory and positively wrong. Thus thought the attribute of spirit. that alone must be retained which shews the raoiness of truth. Hence the axiom " Cogito ergo sum" involves the two definitions. quatenus in nobis est. Descartes manifestly speaks of substance in a double sense. not by prescription. only there is no penumbra at their point of contact. Uncertainty is the negative certainty of doubt . it thinks. Doubt was the certainty of uncertainty. All truth he said must be sure. propositio. hence the famous Cartesian maxim "Cogito ergo sum. The antagonism of is is thinkis spirit promising problem. hence termed "methodical doubt" \Med. ii. it was the proof to him of his being." The negative certainty of doubt is the positive certainty of existence . it leaves a residuum of pure thought which is the certitude of my being. "Hsec enim est natura substantiarum quod sese mutuo excludant. stance. but with reference to its various individual forms it is substance. a synthetic principle that is wholly independent of either." It in its that I exist. It is its own cause.

The of art. sed aliquam aliam rem. existat " \Frmc. and not by dialectical reasoning. quse istius ideae est causa. and as modes of mental existence they are real. and carried out the Cartesian theory in a thoroughgoing Pantheistic sense. omnes ejus perfectiones re ipsa continens. The perfect cannot have its rise in the imperfect. It is from this point that Spinoza took up the reasoning. effect either formally or tranThis objective real cause is the and every real idea has its arche" Neque etiam in type in or without ourselves. the only one that cannot possibly be devoid of cause without me. " Deus cogitatur ergo est. Descartes There is a " Thou " and an solitary existence. " It " in addition to the " I " of individual being is an obj ective as weU as a subj ecti ve reality.limit. is an existent being without me. In the first case the effect is contained formally in the cause. By the light of this sun every following school of philosophy has pursued its course. These ideas may represent substance. have confounded the light with the illumined substance. The certainty to objective certainty. the objective reality of substance exceeding that of artist's range. This notion of the immanence of the Deity in the mind occupies a very infinite substance But every effect must have its and an idea is the effect of an occult cause also if the idea be an objective reality. the idea of which presents itself as a clear and manifest entity. for it is the proof of that very existence. the " tertium quid " or synthetic principle must have no . the subjective with the objective. the mind could form no idea of such perfection if it did not really exist. or the accidents of substance. " lUud omne est verum." immediate representation to ence as a reality. therefore. a mere mathematical point. but the idea of an infinite substance is beyond my grasp. for I am substance. or the greater " Hinc necessario sequitur me in the less. i. nobis idea sive imago uUius rei esse potest. both of which are finite. The Absolute or Infinite. that can throw the light of knowledge upon the world lying in the shades of doubt. but the idea does not give reality to such a being. The idea of God and the Being of God are one.]. Descartes argues that the innate idea of the Deity shows His immanence in the soul. To have by intuition an idea of God is to have an intuitive knowledge of His Being. Anselm professed to demonstrate the subjective Being of God. whether imaginative or intellectual. and the idea of Perfect Being comprehends within itself that of necessary existence. The idea of an external infinite substance thus impressed upon the soul as an innate idea. " archetype. as Spinoza. The Schools had always kept philosophy in subordination to theology. there me of objective exist- As truly. The same axiom here also applies. the idea of God involves the necessity of His being. is the existence of God within the soul. so also will its cause be an objective reality. but it also has risen and cleared away the darkness.]. iii. in the latter transcendentally (eminenter)." It is a certitude gained by immediate intuition. iii. Light dawning on the darker hemisphere. I am sure that God exists in the universe because He exists in my thought. and be neutralized. The idea of " objective sun of reality " is gained. though some. etiam existere" \_Med. They are the "objective reality" of Descartes.]. and the mind has learned to acknowledge everything to be as really existent as itself. : . indelibly in the soul. quodclareetdistincte percipio" \Medit. in infinite substance there is no antagonism.]. and are reciprocally antagonistic . Every other idea presented to the mind suggests the possibility of existence. or it would be implicated in one or other of these two substances. According to Descartes. non solum esse in mundo. for I am only finite substance. But the objective reality of an idea in its full dimensions may transcend the individual mind which conceives it. Ideas present themselves to the mind. The infinite substance of philosophy is the God But it is not by the above process of theology. therefore. the cause must be external to it. they are not identical. Cause and eifect are connected as truly as thought and existence: Cause must always be at least coextensive with effect . and be its accidents. it is the artist's symbol engraved upon his work. external to and independent of thinking and extended substance. in infinite substance the essential idea and real existence are co-ordinate terms (essentia et existentia). as I exist. but it extended itself concentrically on every side. Everything must have its cause. is a third substance. by the same certitude that I exist because I am a thinking being. This idea. and in Spinoza's scheme it comprised the universe. Infinite Substance is the synthetic principle that alone can solve the antithesis of self-certainty on the one hand. and which for this reason is an its comprised in scendentally. 124 I am no It is as subordinate part in the Cartesian system. and it is certainty because my perception of it is clear and distinct and everything is to us truth of which we have a sum" doubt clear and distinct perception. both . cause. The ideal accident of substance may be conceived in my mind transcendentally. The idea of God is at once the proof of His existence. sive extra nos archetypns aliquis. The idea of the infinite is exactly co-ordinate with infinite existence . Descartes and for this cause they are limited . therefore. "Cogito ergo sum" is not clearer as an axiom than this relation of cause and effect. and add abstract selfother. the mind then cannot be its origin. iii. The propositions are of a cognate character. often it is of far wider idea is the cause of his work reaches far beyond it. It is by this infinite Substance that from the axiom " Cogito ergo is raised into objective knowledge. absolute doubt on the other . that the human mind has reasoned out for itself God Himself has implanted it the idea of God. I may form the idea of a griffin in my mind.. cujus non alicubi sive in nobis. is the only one that convinces me that there is an existence above and beyond my own. The idea of substance can be conceived " formally " for the same reason . " Tamquam nota Artificis operi suo impressa" yifed. This axiom is absolute certainty .

speaks of Diotrephes.] Eussian sect of Dissenters which separated from thePoPOFTSCHiNS intheyear 1706. art." such as Calvin originated at Geneva. de Antichristo. d. from whom it takes its name. and to find in nature its own immanent causation. and the words of St. It also aimed at great A persons from the Holy Communion. Dorner. DIOTEEPHES. canons. M^anuel de la Pliil. & Mar. is as the phenomenon of Docetce arian "platform. [ILesitantes. 10] Other writers proud and insolent heresiarch. and Hammond inclines to the opinion that he became a Gnostic [Dissert. created indeed. Their present numbers in England and Wales are estimated as follows bury. but the idea included in the Deity is not a Divine Being that works everything according to His own good pleasure and with a benevolent design. 275. . We are on the threshold of pure naturalism. St. especially in answer to the writings of their leader Thomas Cartwright. At one time the Disciplinarians had so much expectation of carrying out their plans as openly to express their conviction that Parker would be the last Archbishop of Canterrepelling movement in inert and passive matter. not noticed by Epiphanius. The Disciplin. Fischer.Mnesldhne. de Descartes. Wissenscli." knowledge in the mind. who is the cause of objective sive natura. DISSENTEES. deans.<E. 125 . AU nature The Divine Prinis a huge unvarying machine. Precurseurs et Disc. There is however no early evidence p. DIACONOFTSCHINS. whose object was to substitute the Presbyterian system established by Calvin at Geneva under the name of " the Discipline " for the Episcopal system of the Church It was against this party. Gesch. that Hooker wrote his work on Ecclesiastical Polity. DISCIPLES OF ST. " Deus supra naturam " then became " Deus God. its god was necessity. in some unexplained way withstood the as " a authority of the Apostle [3 John 9. 261. John point to his having assumed a — schismatical rather than an heretical position at He is the time when his name is mentioned. Phil. to distinguish them from members of the Church of England. The term came into use soon after the Eevolution of a. DEVIL WOESHIPPEES. and of England. The " primum movens " that sets all in movement is the Deity . but exercises no further " Semel control over the work of his hands. 18]. strictness in . or that of '' presbyteries " and " kirk-sessions " which has been established in Scotland. in his who . but a principle of mere causation irrespective of any moral quality . under the leadership of Alexander the Deacon. and its origin is indicated by words used in the title and body of an Act passed in that year. John. and applied to philosophy a new ontological nomenclature. Oesch. Essais. whatever on the subject of his heresy. in which those formerly called "Nonconformists" are styled " Their Majesties' Protestant subjects dissenting from the Church of England" [1 Will. Ritter.] general name used in England and Wales for those who belong to any sect. [Eemusat. easy step led Spinoza to discard the supra. 43].] DISCIPLINAEIANS. arch- however being treated : deacons. 1688. cap. substituting in their place the far more tyrannical system of " consistories. in Deutschland.] The Venerable Bede. n. at Veska. JOHN.] [Agapet^.] [Admonitionists. comprised the abolition of bishops. . [Sabjeans.— Diaconoftschins as parts of an entire unity." ciple Descartes. Ambeican. Saisset. Descartes disjoined them. The Ultra-Calvinists of the Elizabethan age.] [Campbbllites. Commentary on [Tegpim.d. A DIACEINOMENI. nor by any of the other early heresiologists." as they were accustomed to call it. Gesch. Phil." have also included him among the early heretics. Spinoza advanced further.] DIMCEEIT^. a mechanical Deity that is only so far supranatural as that Infinite Substance must always very stand in antagonism with the finite. [Yezebdebs. DISCIPLES OF CHEIST. DILECT. and devised a system with which theology could have nothing further to do it was practical atheism . d. jussit semper paret. PhilosopMe reUgieuse . xiii. and aU other ecclesiastical officers except "presbyters." It would also have abolished all existing courts as tyrannical and oppressive. A : Sects. d.

1. John [1 Ep. then.D. born of human parents. But. is to be interpreted the statement of Clement of Alexandria. by Hernias. but renewed the heresy.'] pel Serapion says he learnt what the heresy of Marcianus was. iii. however. and by Epiphanius \Hoe. in cap. of Valentinus. Vincent of Lerins writes. The tenet had been held before. or Docetic ojpinicn. Ittigius shews that Cassianus did not originate. except that his exegetical works are referred to by Clement of Alexandria [Btrom. vi.d. V. and xvi. : words. Hear. xi. Saturninus. but it is very improbable that Serapion was not before acquainted with the If. All the Docetae denied the resurrection of the body. i.]. we have a connection with Marcion. aiunt fiUum Dei Deum. Cassianus was a disciple of Valentinus. 1. x. His book. with whom he was contemporary.i sed actu putativo quodani ct conversatione simulasse " [con*. Panar. 12] were Docetse whose existence somewhat later is proved by St.] Dncetse. and describes the system of held. See Ittigius.^ In short. 173-4. Hcei: xli. i. Docetce the . tom. a divine nature. that Julius Cassianus was the author of the sect of Docetse \Strom. xxiii. ad It appears strange that Clement and Galat. It was opposed by Ignatius. the tenets of Gnosticism include the Docetic heresy. and so gives up the body itself X. when in reality He was not a man. but appearing to the Jews to do so " \Refut. Lucif. John's [Past. xv. 14]. 135-150. by Philaster expressly \_H(x. It appears. as to the Secundians. et personam hominia nou substantive extitisse. Bardesanes. unless. Tatian was Assyrian. as to that form which separates the Son of God from the body in death. in our Lord . that the words of St. and that the Divine Intelligence united itself with Him at His The later followers of Eitter]. ii. so as to give to a division of By this. Mare.] . The congruity of Docetic and HyperasTatian's an being his disciple. testimony is hardly required. who are new impulse to Docetism. with more or less departure from Catholic truth. The first. He brought Docetism into notice in connection with Encratite austerity. therefore. they agreed with the Valentinians and to the Marcosians by Praedestinatus [cap. and Hippolytus' ascription of it to Simon Magus is supported by the general voice of antiquity. Jerome said that the Lord's body was declared to be a phantom while the Apostles were still in the world and the blood of Christ stUl fresh in Judaea [adv. 193. with vi. Indie. They placed by Cave in a. but asserted that our Lord was no more than man. and very nearly identical with the system Of this See deny that the "Word was made Elesh. Leucius. Serapion.DocetcB Hippolytus ascribes this heresy to Simon " And so it was. and it is perhaps correct to infer that those of whom St. Hippolytus [viii.]. Marcion. 6 Christ. 12]. Basilides received into their system the views of the [Basiiidians. xl. baptism [Neander and ^ Of Valentinus' opinion Irenseus says.^Eons which they system it is sufficient to say that it is much more developed than the system of Simon. Docetism thus appeared along with Gnosticism. regarding Christ'. xiv. found the error in the Gospel of Peter. or that the body assumed by Christ was of celestial substance. Basilides (but see foregoing note). one of two opinions be adopted.^ but Cassianus insisted more upon it. Leucius were the author of the Gospel of Peter. quently. V. Jesus appeared as man. From this Gos[Hist. Saturninus [Epiph. each of several branches. H. " that Magus. JDis.'\. Thus in the early Church there were two principal heresies. which He obtained from the successors of some heretics called DocetiB [Euseb. Lardner assumes that Marcianus was Marcion. On the Person of 132]. This is a necessary consequence of their denial of the reality of Christ's body . 21]. ' Basilides held the proper manhood of Jesus. E. ' ' I have proved already that it is the saihe thing to say that He appeared merely to outward seeming. The Jewish sects avoided the error of an inferior creator. Ivi. vi. 3] were directed against a sect of Docetse then existing. that this Gospel was forged by Leucius. consecrated Bishop of Antiooh in A. 2]. xi. was On Continence. of Heretics. xxxii. the Gnostic and the Jewish. The Gnostics were in general Docetse. alike 1-8] treats the Docetse as a separate sect. adv. Of the former nothing more is known than has been mentioned.zEon Christ descended. Irenaeus. they allowed. cxx. III. where works are also referred to. adv. Of this Encratite phase of Docetism Jerome speaks. was held both earlier and more widely than the other opinions. We gave a return then to Cassian and Tatian. Sacr. So were Cerdo. Epist. but they denied His humanity. 190 or 191. Hmr. not as actually undergoing suffering.].r. conseGnostics a distinctive name. 2. To the minor subdivisions of the Valeutinian School Docetism is attributed . II. that this point of Gnostic teaching was brought more prominently forward. ii. xxiii. tenets of so notorious a heretic. . " Valentinus. Leucius : ad Syinrn. Eutyches. more or less clearly defined. . Grabe and Beausobre suppose.r. and Clement states that in this matter he agreed with Tatian. Marcion undoubtedly was a Docetic [TertuU. opinion of Valentinus^ [Epiph. much probability. Erring with regard to the nature of God. which lasted till after the fourth century. iv. and was generally held by the Gnostics.]. iii. 9]. But of these minor sects. 3.]. A. There can be little doubt." he writes.d. in the general assertion that. Cerdo et Manichaus phantasira prffidicatores. quoted by Clement. 13]. for there is no doubt that it existed in apostolic times. III. 1. either that ^ upon Jesus. v.